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History of Anti-Semitism - Anti-Semitism

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					    Anti-Semitism
It Didn’t Just Start With Hitler
A Timeline of the Persecution
         of the Jews
        Hebrews: Slaves of the
             Pharaohs
• 1800 B.C. drought & famine
  drove the Hebrews to Egypt
• They were enslaved by the
  Egyptian Pharaohs.
  – Were seen as “different”
    • 1st known monotheistic
      peoples of the ancient world
           The Diaspora: 70 AD
• Diaspora is used to
  refer to any people
  forced to leave their
  traditional
  homelands
   – Used to refer
     specifically to the
     populations of Jews
     exiled from Judea in
     586 BC by the
     Babylonians, and
     from Jerusalem in
     later years by the
     Roman Empire.
      Jews Under Roman Rule
• Romans tried to force
  Jews to worship the
  polytheistic gods of
  the Roman Empire
  – Jews that refused were
    seen as stubborn &
    difficult
       Eleventh Century
• By now Jews were a small
  minority in Western Europe
  –Mistreated here as well
   • During Crusades of the Middle Ages
     the Christian crusaders made sport
     of attacking Jewish settlements
     –Raped, burnt, killed, pillaged
               “Blood Libel” Myth
• Originated in Norwich, England, in about 1140.
  – A superstitious priest and a monk charged a local
    Jewish man with killing a Christian child in order to get
    Christian blood for a Jewish holiday.
• "blood libel" found a wide audience among the
  well-educated as well as among the ignorant
  and superstitious masses who looked for any
  excuse to attack Jews
  – Christian mothers instructed their children about the
    dangers of straying too far from home, "Be good, or
    the Jews will get you."
“Blood-letting”
 Blood Libel Myth




   Political cartoon
 Published by the Nazis
    13th   Century Germany
• In some areas forced to
  wear cone shaped hats
  and distinguished
  clothing
• Jews in some Latin
  American countries had
  to sew a badge on their
  clothing to show that
  they were Jews
Why are Jews stereotyped as being
      interested in money?
• For most of ancient & early Christian
  history it was seen as a “sinful” job to
  be a banker.
  – Loaning $$$ was seen as taking
    advantage of someone since they would
    have to pay interest on that $$$
    • Jews, because of racism, saw this as a
      chance to make $$$
       –Stereotypes began that depicted Jews as
        the “greedy money lender”
Medieval Image of Jewish Banker
French Caricature of the “Jews Running
       After Money” Stereotype
              Age of Nationalism
• people of Europe began to view themselves as
  belonging to separate nations
  –  since ancient times Jews had never had a homeland
  – They were expelled from England in 1290
  – from France in 1306 and again in 1394,
  – From parts of Germany in the fourteenth and fifteenth
    centuries.
  – Jews were not allowed to live legally in England until the
    sixteenth century.
  – In Russia, Jews were forced in to ghettos and pogroms
    terrorized them under many Czars
  – Jews were not allowed to live legally in France until the
    French Revolution.
“The Wandering Jew”

            Jews did not fit
            into the visions
            of nationalism
              •They had no
              homeland
              •They were not
              part of the
              Christian
              majority
           Jews Blamed for
          Everything It Seems
• Middle Ages
 – Blamed for causing
   the Plague,
   droughts, diseases
 – Often depicted to be
   devil-like
   • “Jews stole Christian
     babies & drank their
     blood”-bloodletting
     myth
Getting Rid of the Jews-1493
                16th Century
• Simon of Trent, a boy
  from Trento, Italy was
  found dead at the age
  of two
• He was kidnapped,
  mutilated, and drained
  of blood. His
  disappearance was
  blamed on the leaders
  of the city's Jewish
  community
• Fueled Anti-Semitism
  Industrial Revolution

• Many changes taking
  place, some
  Europeans suffered,
  some Jews took
  advantage of new
  business
  opportunities.
• Sometimes blamed
  for the ills of the
  Industrial Revolution
               Late 1800s
• Austria - 1752 introduced the law limiting
  each Jewish family to one son
• 1772 Catherine II forced the Jews of the
  Pale of Settlement to stay in their homes
  and forbade them from returning to the
  towns in Poland.
  – Pale of Settlement – western border,
    permanent residence of Jews, and they can’t
    leave!
         Anti-Semitism in France
Late 1800s   the Dreyfus Affair, 1894

• French officer Alfred Dreyfus
  (Jewish) accused of selling secrets
  to the Germans
    – Convicted of treason with no real evidence
    – Repeatedly referred to as a Jew in Fr. News
    – When it was finally proven that he was
      innocent the French govt. ignored this & he
      was exiled to Africa
        • Eventually he was pardoned, but he spent time
          in jail
 Alfred Dreyfus
Assimilating was no
 protection against
   Anti-Semitism
  Dreyfus
depicted as
the “satanic
  Jew” in
  French
  society
Jewish Conspiracy Theory
“Protocols of Elder of Zion”
                               • A fabricated/fake
                                 book that was
                                 supposedly
                                 written by Jews
                                 – Told of plot of
                                   Jews to take
                                   over the world
              Notice the
       stereotypical “Jewish
            face” on this
              caricature
                    World War 1




• Jews were discriminated against in employment, access to
  residential and resort areas, membership in clubs and
  organizations, and in tightened quotas on Jewish
  enrollment and teaching positions in colleges and
  universities.
Hitler’s Encounters With Jews in Austria
• Vienna was a bad area of anti-Semitism in the late
  1800’s
   – heavily populated with Jews
   – Jews Doing very well in Austria despite being a minority
      • At the University of Austria
          – 28% students were Jewish
          – 29% of the medical students were Jewish
          – -20% of the law students were Jewish
   – 1887 Austrian govt. passed a law prohibiting the
     migration or settlement of foreign Jews in Austria.
      • It was based on the Chinese Exclusion Act of the United States, with
        the word "Jew" substituted for "Chinese."
• Hitler spent his years after WWI in Vienna, Austria
   – Competed with Jews for jobs
   – Blamed his own difficulties on Jews