The University of Western Ontario Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering MME 9500 – Master of Engineering (MEng) Projects Available projects for 2009-2010 NOTE: M.Eng. students who are interested in doing a project must contact the instructor directly, before the term starts. Prof. R. Khayat firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Modulated thermal convection as applied to heat exchangers 2. Film coating 3. Jet flow and film extrusion 4. Stability of rotating flow and mixing 5. Multi-layer film flow All these projects are of theoretical nature, comprising modelling and numerical components. Once the problem is formulated, it is solved using numerical methods. Prof. G.K. Knopf email@example.com The following MEng projects involve a detailed study of underlying principles and some experimental work to demonstrate key concepts. The scope of the individual project will depend on the academic background, interests and demonstrated laboratory skills of the candidate. Proposed topics* include: 1. Tunable variable-focus liquid microlens (Applications: adaptive optical imaging, lab-on-a- chip, medical diagnosis) 2. Fiber optic sensors and actuators (Applications: environmental monitoring, distributed pressure variations, microrobotics) 3. Electro-active polymer gels (Applications: gel robotics, microactuators, lab-on-a-chip) 4. Virtual reconstruction of fragmented artefacts using CAD and haptic tools (Applications: digital archaeology, paleontology, forensic science, customized prosthesis) * Other complementary topics may be considered. Prof. DM Shinozaki firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Scale dependent properties in nanocomposite materials 2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of polymer multilayers 5. Measurement of interfacial strengths in multi-phase materials. 6. Surface properties of molded polymers 7. Computer controlled micro-indentation of polymers 8. Fabrication and testing of ultra-thin polymer films 9. Measurement of adhesive strengths of coatings Prof. B. Tryggvason email@example.com Project 1 Design of a Communications and Instrumentation Systems for a Moon Rover Two projects conducted successfully in the 2007-08 year developed the structure for a Moon rover and the suspension and drive system for the rover. In 2008-09 academic year two additional projects succeeded in the design of a telescoping support for a vision system and to the support structure for solar panels. The prototype lunar rover has been build and manufacture of the telescoping support for the vision system will be done this fall. The next phase of the rover design is to add the following: A communicate system for the rover Instrumentation for control of the rover Hardware to support several scientific tasks supported by the rover There is sufficient scope and potential for several coordinated projects. Communication system: This would include the antennas required for communication between the rover and the landing craft and between the rover and Earth based stations. The antennas have to be designed to be stowed from launch from Earth until the rover is on the surface of the Moon at which time they must be deployed into their working configuration. Control instrumentation: This would be comprised of an inertial system including accelerometers and rate gyros for determining the orientation of the rover following landing and throughout its operation on the Moon. The output of these sensors would be used by the rover control system to control the rover as it travels across the lunar surface. Additional sensors can be added to determine the distance and bearing of the rover from the landing craft. Science instruments: working with investigators from physics and the planetary science group select and develop science instruments to be supported and operated on the rover. The lunar exploration group at Western has already developed a priority list for lunar science. The objective is to have the designs if these mechanisms completed, built and added to the existing prototype rover. PROJECT 2: Design of a Low Earth Orbit Satellite The great debate about global warming remains confused because some would claim that there is insufficient evidence to establish that global warming is real and/or that human activity is a significant contributor. Part of the difficulty is that gathering data in the spatial and temporal detail required is essentially impossible with ground based sensors and quite expensive with space based sensors developed in traditional ways. The objective of this project is to develop a satellite bus (structure and support systems) design that would be capable of supporting one of several different sensors for monitoring the Earth from space. There have already been several student designed satellites flown in space. The essential objective of this project is to develop a fully feasible design and to build the mechanical portion of the satellite bus. Several coordinated projects are possible here. PROJECT 3: Lunar Descent Stage Simulator Over the past two years several coordinated projects have been completed towards the design of a Moon rover and towards the design of the spacecraft required to transport it to the Moon and to deliver it to the lunar surface. The prototype lunar rover has been manufactured and some of the instrumentation for it has been designed. The spacecraft design is also well developed. The next phase of the spacecraft design is to develop the mechanical system required to control the descent of the spacecraft housing the rover to the surface of the Moon. This involves several coordinated projects: - The mechanical steering mechanism for controlling the descent stage thrust vector throughout the descent phase; - Sensors for sensing the height above the lunar surface; - A system for deploying air bags for cushioning the landing; - The control algorithms for controlling the descent. There is sufficient scope and potential for several coordinated projects. The lunar gravitational field is approximately 1/6 of that near the Earth’s surface. The descent phase to the Moon’s surface would last several minutes. These two physical constraints make it difficult to fully test a descent strategy. However, segments of the descent can be simulated using a balloon support system to reduce the gravitational acceleration to allow segments of the descent to be physically simulated. Descent Steering Mechanism: A steering mechanism with approximately 5 degrees of steering freedom in two axis to control the thrust vector to always act through the cg of the spacecraft. The steering response would have to be quite fast to ensure control. Attitude Control Thrusters: During the descent it may be necessary to use a set of attitude control thrusters to maintain the required orientation of the spacecraft. Not that the orientation changes as the descent progresses. The thrust required to maintain the required orientation profile would have to be determined as would the total fuel required for descent. Altitude Sensor: In the Earth’s atmosphere pressure sensors are used to determine altitude of aircraft. This works because the atmospheric pressure decreases according to a reasonably well know profile with altitude. This approach will not work on the Moon since there is essentially no atmosphere on the Moon. And alternative approach is to use a laser rangefinder to estimate the altitude above the lunar surface. Such rangefinders already exist. The design project will focus on developing a configuration and control to allow altitude determination irrespective of the spacecraft orientation. An option is to use limb sensors and inertial sensors in conjunction with a laser rangefinder. Air Bag Deployment System: The final stage of the descent, from approximately 50m altitude, is to be done using a system of airbags to reduce the landing loads on contact with the Moon’s surface. The configuration of these air bag and the deployment system for of the airbags needs to be designed. The system has to be designed to limit the maximum acceleration loads to approximately 200g. The objective is to have the designs if these mechanisms completed, built and added to the existing prototype rover. PROJECT 4: Mission Specific UAV UAVs are playing an increasing role in many tasks that have historically been done with manned aircraft. This objective of this project would be to design a UAV to meet a very specific performance objective. The objective will be discussed with the team. The UAV will have to be capable of fully automatic flight control and navigation. The sensors and electronics required for this will be provided; however, the control algorithms will have to be developed as part of the project. The controller will have available data in digital format for the following: 3-axis linear acceleration, 3-axis rotation rates, 3 magnetometers, GPS, indicated airspeed, altitude, control surface angular deflections and throttle setting. These will be based on MEMS sensors and a compact GPS receiver. The controller will output commands to the throttle, and the control surfaces. Several coordinated projects are possible. Prof. R. Tutunea-Fatan and Prof. E. Bordatchev firstname.lastname@example.org and Evgueni.email@example.com Design analysis and integration of a desktop 8-axis CNC micromilling system Micromilling is a novel advanced manufacturing process that utilized micromills with a diameter as small as 25 micrometers (quarter of a human hair diameter) to efficiently fabricate precision micro-components for biomedical, opto-communication, automotive and other industries. Proposed project will be focused on design analysis and integration of a desktop 8-axis micromilling system as a combination of 8-axis motion platform, Galil motion controller and motion control software. The project will include the following tasks: - design analysis of 8-axis micromilling system - integration of Galil motion control software and system performance evaluation - integration of CamSoft motion control software and system performance evaluation - micromachining of micro moulds and dies and evaluation of their accuracy, precision and surface quality The project requires previous background and preferably some degree of hands-on experience with machining, computer-numerically controlled (CNC) equipment and Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Successful completion of this project will allow graduate students to familiarize themselves with fundamentals of high- precision micromachining systems used in fabrication of micro moulds and dies as well as with microfabrication technologies in general used for numerous other applications. Prof. Jun Yang firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Integrated Microspectrometer This project is to develop a microspectrometer to analyze liquid samples of several micro liters in volume. There are numbers of different spectrometers on the market. But their sizes are big and their prices are expensive, which are not suitable to be integrated into lab-on-a-chip systems. This project aims at a miniaturized spectrometer for detecting chemical and/or biological samples in lab-on-a-chip systems. 2. Design, simulation and optimization of CMOS imaging sensors for MEMS applications Solid-state image system technology has broad applications in consumer, commercial, industrial, medical, and scientific markets. There are two major types of image detectors: the charge coupled devices (CCD) and CMOS image sensors. Recently CMOS imaging sensors have become very popular, since CMOS–based image sensors can be integrated with other microelectronics, particularly, MEMS and Lab-on-a-chip systems. This work is based on the commercial simulation tool to provide good reference data for design of CMOS imaging sensors. 3. Design, simulation and testing of UV based water treatment systems This project is a collaborative work with Canada’s water treatment companies in design and fabrication of UV based water treatment systems. 4. DSSC solar cells In this project, M. Eng. students will synthesize new nanomaterials to make DSSC solar cells. 5. SPM based nanofabrication In this project, M.Eng. students will develop new nanofabrication techniques using SPM. 6. Lab-on-a-chip devices for biological studies We have numbers of projects in making Lab-on-a-chip devices for biological studies. Prof. Chao Zhang email@example.com CFD Modeling of Gas-Solid Two-Phase Flows in Circulating Fluidized Beds Because of the advantages of good particle mixing, heat transfer characteristics and continuous powder handling ability, Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFBs) have found applications in a wide range of chemical processes, including fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), combustion of low grade coal, fluid hydroforming, and so on. The hydrodynamics of gas-solids two-phase flow in the riser, which often dominates mass transfer, heat transfer and overall chemical reaction, has in general played a decisive role in practical design. Experimentally lacking of a thorough quantitative understanding of the fluidization hydrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is thus considered a relatively more powerful, less expensive and more convenient tool for predicting the hydrodynamic behavior in CFBs. The objective of this work is to conduct comparative analysis of fluid flow and solids distributions in CFBs under different operating conditions.