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The Age of Jackson - PowerPoint

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					Honors US History
     Unit 4
Essential Question:




   Champion of         “King”
      the        OR   Andrew?
 “Common Man”?
  Jackson’s First
Hermitage Residence
First Known Painting
  of Jackson, 1815
       Ol’ Hickory
During the Seminole Wars
         • Had become hero to
           many “common men”
         • Many were drawn to
           Jackson after his win in
           the Battle of New
           Orleans and in the
           “Indian Wars
    What Increased Voting Patterns?
3   White male suffrage increased
       3Land   requirement deleted
3   Popular campaigning
       3Parades,   rallies, floats, etc…
3   Political promises
       3Patronage…AKA the        “spoils system”
3   A return to the two-party system in 1828
       3National   Republicans
       3Jacksonian   Democrats
Changes in Voting Requirements
Evolution of Parties
  3Democratic   Republicans 
  3National   Republicans
  3Whigs   (1832) 
  3Republicans   (1854)
Voter Turnout: 1824 - 1828
Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
 Jackson’s Opponents in 1824




Henry Clay   John Quincy Adams     John C. Calhoun
   [KY]            [MA]                 [SC]


             William H. Crawford
                     [GA]
Jackson Campaign Poster in 1824
Results of the 1824 Election
   No Clear Winner in 1824
• Jackson won the most popular votes.
• But he did not receive a majority of the
  electoral votes.
• According to the Constitution, if no person
  wins a majority of electoral votes, then the
  House of Representatives must choose the
  president.
• The selection was made from the top 3 vote
  getters.
    “A Corrupt Bargain”??
• John Quincy Adams won after the election
  was thrown into Congress.
• Jackson’s supporters claimed that Adams
  gained the presidency by making a deal
  with Henry Clay (who became Secretary of
  State).
• Charges of a “corrupt bargain” followed
  Adams through his term.
• Adams had many plans for the country but
  they were always defeated by Congress
  (who was led by Jackson supporters).
Scandals Rock DC and the Election




  Rachel Jackson

                   Final Divorce Decree
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
Jackson’s Opponent in 1828




        President John
        Quincy Adams
The New “Jackson Coalition”
3   The Planter Elite in the South
3   People on the Frontier
3   State Politicians
3   Immigrants in the cities.
           Jackson’s Faith
       in the “Common Man”
3   Intense distrust of Eastern
    “establishment,” monopolies, & special
    privilege.
3   His heart & soul was with the
    “plain folk.”
3   Belief that the common man was
    capable of uncommon achievements.
The Center of Population in the
    Country Moves WEST
1828 Election Results
The Reign of “King Mob”
       The Spoils System
• After election, Jackson immediately
  removes 10% of all officeholders and
  appoints his friends and supporters
• Known as “The Spoils System” or
  patronage
• This system continued until the
  passage of the Pendleton Act in the
  1870’s
Andrew Jackson as President
     The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
• Peggy Eaton was the daughter of a tavern
  keeper and the wife of Jackson's secretary
  of war.
• Both Andrew and Rachel Jackson had liked
  Peggy Eaton, and when her private love
  affairs became public knowledge,
  enveloping her in scandal, the President lent
  her his visible support.
   – It was not enough to save her social
     standing.
Don’t Mess with Jackson’s Friends
• Although she was a cabinet member's wife
  and entitled to the civility such a position
  conveyed, the wives of other cabinet
  officials and much of Washington society --
  including Jackson's own hostess -- refused
  to accept her.
   – Jackson was furious.
• He demanded that his cabinet members
  make their wives accept Peggy Eaton.
   – When this proved unsuccessful, he asked
     for the resignations of all his cabinet
     members except one.
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
    An Economic Downturn
• By the beginning of 1820’s the
  American economy was faced with
  downward spiral as a result of several
  events such as the Panic of 1819 and
  the failure of the Second Bank of the
  United States
• The Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were
  passed in order to promote stimulation
  of northern states’ economy
       1828 Tariff Conflict
• However the southern states could
  buy manufactured goods cheaper
  from foreign countries than northern
  states.
  – Had trading partners in Europe who
    sold them finished products
  – Europe also bought cotton from the
    southern states
• The South called the tariffs the
  “Abomination Tariffs” and plotted
  revenge
1832 Election Results


                        Main
                        Issue
An 1832
Cartoon:
 “King
Andrew”
    1832 Tariff- More Conflict
• In 1832 a new tariff was passed
  increasing the rates from the Tariff
  of 1828.
• Immediately after Jackson signed the
  bill, Calhoun resigned from his Vice-
  President post and left for South
  Carolina
                                    Sen. Robert
                                      Hayne
                                       [SC]

              The Debate
              over Tariffs
Sen. Daniel
 Webster
   [MA]




                       VP John C.
                        Calhoun
                          [SC]
  The Nullification Proclamation
• Led by former Vice President John C.
  Calhoun, the south nullified the Tariffs
• The Southern states claimed that sovereign
  states made up the federal government, and
  those states have the last word to declare
  tariffs null and void.
• The Nullification Proclamation declared that
  the Tariff Acts…
• "are unauthorized by the constitution of the
  United States, and violate the true meaning
  and intent thereof and are null, void, and no
  law, nor binding upon this State."
                  Jackson Responds
• Jackson, although an advocate for the common
  man, knew that such blatant disregard of
  authority would tear the Union apart if allowed
  to continue.
   – He would not back down before S. Carolina.
• On December 10, 1832, President Andrew
  Jackson issued a proclamation that disputed a
  states' right to nullify a federal law.
• The confrontation never took place because
  Henry Clay intervened with a compromise
  tariff, which promised to reduce the rates for
  the next few years
•   http://www.ignitelearning.com/media.shtml
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
             Indian Removal
3   A gold rush in Northern Georgia brought in
    white settlers anxious for land and riches
    3 Centered    around Dahlonega
3   Jackson’s Goal
    3 Removing   Native Americans from the
       Eastern United States
       3 Indian   Removal Act
    3 This included Cherokees, Choctaws, and
       Chickasaws
      The Cherokees go to Court
3   Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831)
      Marshall Court ruled that the Cherokees were a
    “domestic dependent nation”
3   Worcester v. GA (1832)
    3   The Marshall Court ruled that Native Americans
        were entitled to federal protection from the
        actions of state governments
3   Jackson to Marshall:
      “John Marshall has made his decision, now let
    him enforce it!”
    3   Created a constitutional crisis
        The Trail of Tears
• Bluntly disregarding the Court’s
  decision Jackson passed the Indian
  Removal Act in 1830 and over the
  winter twelve thousand Cherokees
  were marched from Georgia to
  Oklahoma.
• On the way more than half died from
  hunger, hypothermia and disease.
Indian Removal
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
           The Bank War
• The National Bank maintained US
  currency and maintained much of the
  economic wealth of the United States.
• Jackson felt the Bank was a
  “privileged institution” that served
  only the interests of the wealthy and
  did nothing for the common man…
  “too much power, too few hands.”
                Nicholas Biddle
• The Bank served as the repository for Federal
  funds until 1836, when its charter expired.
   – It thrived from the tax revenue that the federal
     government regularly deposited
• President Jackson refused to recharter it after
  a dispute with the Bank's president, Nicholas
  Biddle
• Biddle, desperate to save his bank, called in
  (demanded payment on) all of his loans and
  closed the bank to new loans.
           The Bank War
• Jackson vetoed the bank’s charter and
  asked the Secretary of the Treasury to
  stop putting government money in the
  bank.
• When he refused, Jackson fired him
  and selected someone who would put
  money in state Banks
  – AKA…Jackson’s “Pet banks”
    The National Bank Debate




Nicholas                President
 Biddle                  Jackson
       Explanation
• A satire on Andrew Jackson's campaign to destroy
the Bank of the United States and its support among state
banks.
• Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Jack Downing
struggle against a snake with heads representing the states.
• The largest of the heads is president of the Bank Nicholas Biddle's, which
    wears a top hat labeled "Penn" (i.e. Pennsylvania) and
    "{dollar}35,000,000."
      – This refers to the rechartering of the Bank by the Pennsylvania
        legislature in defiance of the adminstration's efforts to destroy it.
• Jackson (on the left) raises a cane marked "Veto" and says, "Biddle thou
    Monster Avaunt!! avaount I say! or by the Great Eternal I'll cleave thee to
    the earth, aye thee and thy four and twenty satellites. Matty if thou art
    true...come on. if thou art false, may the venomous monster turn his dire
    fang upon thee..."
• Van Buren: "Well done General, Major Jack Downing, Adams, Clay, well
    done all. I dislike dissentions beyond every thing, for it often compels a
    man to play a double part, were it only for his own safety. Policy, policy is
    my motto, but intrigues I cannot countenance."
• Downing (dropping his axe): "Now now you nasty varmint, be you
    imperishable? I swan Gineral that are beats all I reckon, that's the horrible
    wiper wot wommits wenemous heads I guess..."
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
      Results of the Bank War
1. Jackson ignored “Checks and
   Balances” and created Constitutional
   problems
  •   Should one branch be able to refuse to
      be controlled by another branch??
2. New political party (“Whigs”)
   created to oppose Jackson
3. Economic problems
  •   Nation goes into a Panic and then a
      Depression
    The Specie Circular (1936)
3   July 1836, President Andrew Jackson issued the
    Specie Circular.
3   Under this act, the government would only accept
    gold or silver in payment for federal land
     3 This resulted in “wildcat banks” with little or
        no reserves
     3 Not stable
3   The principal reason for Jackson's implementation
    of the Specie Circular was high inflation.
     3 Did not help with the problem
 Results of the Specie Circular
$ Banknotes loose their value.
$ Land sales plummeted.
$ Credit not available.
$ Businesses began to fail.
$ Unemployment rose.


   The Panic of 1837!
                1836 Election
• The 1836 election was a contest between the
  Democrats--as Jackson's followers were now called--
  and the Whigs, who opposed the former president's
  policies.
• VP Martin Van Buren, the Democratic candidate,
  gained an overwhelming victory over his main Whig
  opponent, General William Henry Harrison.
   – Van Buren received 170 electoral votes to
     Harrison's 73.
   – He won nearly 58 percent of the popular vote,
     compared to about 25 percent for Harrison.
• Three other Whig candidates split the remaining
  votes.
   – Richard M. Johnson, a congressman from Kentucky,
     became Van Buren's vice president.
The 1836 Election Results




Martin Van Buren

“Old Kinderhook”
     [O. K.]
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844
    (one year before his death)




          1767 - 1845
     Thanks Again to:


Ms. Susan M. Pojer

    Horace Greeley HS
     Chappaqua, NY

				
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