ENGLAND 1400 - 1700 The Stuart Family The Tudor Dynasty (1458-1603) ruled by divine right, but recognized the need for Parliament needs Parliament’s approval to levy taxes both Henry VIII and Elizabeth maintained control over Parliament The Stuarts Take Over 1603 after Elizabeth I’s death, the Stuarts inherit the throne James I (1603-1625) James I (1603-1625) constant struggle with Parliament on policy James I dissolved Parliament when they wouldn’t support him by raising taxes to pay for foreign affair religious conflicts with the Puritans that wanted to change the Church of England Charles I (1625-1649) James I son ruled similar to his father imprisoned people without trial asked Parliament to raise taxes Petition of Right Charles can’t tax without approval of Parliament Signed but then dissolved for 11 years, ignoring the act. Religious Conflict tried to force strict Anglican doctrine Trying to return Catholic Ritual Scottish Puritans Revolt Charles call upon Parliament to pay for rebellion Charles call upon Parliament to pay for rebellion 1640-1653 executed Charles I chief ministers Parliament couldn’t be dissolved without their approval dismissal of bishops Charles I led troops into House of Commons The English Civil War 1642-1649 Cavaliers and Roundheads Cavaliers supported Charles I Roundheads were supporters of Parliament Oliver Cromwell Leader of the Roundheads Lead the defeat of the Cavaliers Charles I executed sent a sign that in England no ruler was truly absolute Established England as a Republic The Republic was run by Oliver Cromwell. Uprisings and Challenges Supporters of Charles II, heir to the throne, attacked England Cromwell crushed it and punished the Catholic Majority Levelers Poor men should have a role in govt. too Cromwell suppressed it Life in the Republic Sunday set aside for religion Cromwell followed strict Puritan guidelines for Puritan morality Religious toleration for other Protestant groups Welcomed Jews back Continued Education All people should be able to read the Bible Commonwealth ends with Cromwell’s death 1660: Charles II invited to rule the government. Charles II Religious tolerance of the Protestans (secretly Catholic) Accepted the Petition of Right James II Catholic Suspended laws Appointed Catholics to high offices Parliament invites James’ Protestant daughter to rule in his place. The Glorious Revolution Mary and William of Orange Bloodless overthrow of the government (James flees to France) Had to accept the English Bill of Rights Parliament superior over the monarchy Parliament must meet frequently House of Commons has Power of the Purse (control of the money) Limited Monarchy Limits on monarchs power by a constitution or legislature. Habeas Corpus A person can’t be held in prison without being charged with a crime.
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