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AP United States History Day 5 Bill of Rights to War of 1812 Reading--Nash Today’s lecture: Chapters 7-9 Next week: Chapters 10-12 (mainly the age of Jackson, with more time the following week for the cultural/slavery notes) Note: We can not cover everything in the book due to time constraints. However, it is very important that you read ahead of the class, and in particular, notice the sections with documents and charts. This will help you prepare for the SAT/AP test! Bill of Rights Many people were concerned that the Constitution did not have a list of guaranteed rights. They were afraid of abuse if the rights were not stated. Proposed by James Madison due to conflicts between Federalists (wanted it passed) and Anti-Federalists (who thought it had too much power for the Federal Government) in 1787 Many leaders argued that the Constitution should not be passed due to not having these in them Massachusetts Compromise of 1788 said that if they passed the Constitution, these must be included (New Hampshire, Virginia and New York had the same language) and suggested amendments Adopted as a group in 1791 Influences: 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason), 1689 English Bill of Rights, natural rights in the Age of Enlightenment, 1215 Magna Carta 12 proposed—only 10 passed (the representation of House members never passed, and the 27th amendment passed 200 years later covered the other (which did not let Congress increase their own salaries until after the next election) 1st Amendment Free exercise of religion/no state religion Freedom of Speech Freedom of the Press Freedom of Asssembly Right to Petition 2nd-5th Amendments 2nd: Right to keep and bear arms (weapons) 3rd: Protection from quartering of troops 4th: Protection from unreasonable search and seizure 5th: Right of due process (a Grand Jury must indict them and they must have a hearing), no double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime) allowed, no self-incrimination, and eniment domain protection (government can not take your land without paying you a fair value) 6th-8th Amendments 6th: All criminal trials can be by jury Rights of the accused (speedy trial, right to counsel) 7th: All civil trials over $20 must have a jury 8th: Prohibits excessive bail (money required to get out of jail before trial), cruel and unusual punishment 9th-10th Amendments 9th: protection of rights not listed directly 10th: All powers not delegated to the federal government or the states belong to the people A New Nation: Trends and Themes The U.S. government began to build and define itself under George Washington’s leadership. The debates over ratification of the Constitution spawned the development of two separate political parties. New England Federalists supported a loose interpretation of the Constitution and a strong central government. Southern Republicans supported a strict interpretation of the Constitution and a more limited central government. Enmity between the two parties deepened, until the events of the War of 1812 finally eliminated the Federalists as a significant political party. The U.S. made a concerted effort to stay out of European entanglements and maintain neutrality during its effort to build its national infrastructure. Often, though, the U.S. was caught in a tug- of-war between Britain and France. Eventually, British aggression and America’s desire to increase its territory and prove itself as an international force led to the War of 1812. Trends and Themes 2 After the war, the U.S. enjoyed a period of optimism and general cooperation under a single political party: the Republicans. In this period, the U.S. asserted its dominance in the Western Hemisphere through the Monroe Doctrine. Westward expansion began in earnest after the Louisiana Purchase. The sectional tensions created by expansion, made apparent in the Missouri Compromise, illustrated the increasing role slavery and regionalism would play in the politics of the nineteenth century. Through various rulings, the Supreme Court established itself as a body able to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional and supportive of Federalist policies. The First President George Washington elected first president, with John Adams being the Vice President Congress first met in New York City, March 1789 (moved to Washington, D.C. in 1800) Goals of Congress: establish a judicial branch, develop executive branch, Bill of Rights Congress worked on the bureaucracy and domestic policy, and Washington focused on finance, diplomacy and the military. (much less interaction than later presidents) Unlike later presidents, he didn’t speak much about policies, didn’t suggest many laws, only vetoed two bills Cabinet The cabinet wasn’t in the Constitution Washington started off by making offices under him: Secretary of State, Secretary of War, Secretary of the Treasury, Attorney General (later 15+ positions) Splits between Federalists and Anti-Federalists In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed having the federal government pay war debts of the states Southern states were against this because they paid off theirs early, while the Northern States did not In order to sign off on this, they insisted on a southern capital city (Washington, D.C.) National Bank—Hamilton wanted a bank to store federal money, issue currency, make loans, regulate banks, and extend credit. Anti-federalists such as Thomas Jefferson thought this gave too much power to the government Strict and Loose Constructionalists Strict: Believed that only what was explicitly mentioned was in the Constitution (i.e. the Charter isn’t in the Constitution, so it can’t happen) Loose: Believed that due to the elastic clause (Article 1, Section 8) that Congress had the power “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper…” Bank was chartered in 1791 Tariff Issues Hamilton wanted high tariffs to get money and to help industries develop Jefferson/Madison opposed this, because industries would become too dependent on government aid (tariff did not pass in the end) Political Parties--Republican Republican Party started in 1793, when Jefferson resigned due to his opposition to Federalist decisions (Hamilton) First opposition paper: The National Gazette Republicans won slight majority in 1794 Leaders: Jefferson, Madison Backed by the Western frontier, rural and farming South Political Parties: Federalists Leaders: Washington, Hamilton Argued for a strong central government Backed by Industry/Manufacturing in the Northeast Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 July 1794, Western Pennsylvania farmers had a violent rebellion over Hamilton’s large excise tax on domestic whiskey The putting down of this rebellion proved the central government’s power and authority Proclamation of American Neutrality, 1793 War between Britain/Spain and France America refused to get involved Offered some minor support to the French against Spanish in Florida and the Mississippi Valley British army seized 250 vessels in response, 1794 Jay’s Treaty (1795) with Britain removed troops from the U.S., opened trade with British West Indies Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795)—negotiated by Thomas Pinckney with Spain, provided the U.S. Unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and removed Spanish troops from American land. Washington’s Farewell In 1796, set the two-term precedent (later made law with the 22nd amendment, 1951) Farewell address: Washington warned against parties, getting involved with wars with other countries, and concentrate on “efficient government” at home He feared that special interest groups and foreign nations would dominate the two sides. Essay Questions 1. 1980 Exam (Question 4): "Between 1783 and 1800 the new government of the United States faced the same political, economic, and constitutional issues that troubled the British government's relations with the colonies prior to the Revolution." Assess the validity of this generalization. 2. 1982 Exam (Question 2): "The American Revolution should really be called 'The British Revolution' because marked changes in British colonial policy were more responsible for the final political division than were American actions." Assess the validity of this statement for the period 1763-1776. Essay Questions 2 3. 1985 Exam (DBQ minus documents): "From 1781 to 1789 the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective government" Using your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement 4. 1989 Exam (Question 2): "In the two decades before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, a profound shift occurred in the way many Americans thought and felt about the British government and their colonial governments." Assess the validity of this statement in view of the political and constitutional debates of these decades. 5. 1991 Exam (Question 2): The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government. Assess the validity of this statement. Essay 3 6. 1996 Exam (Question 2): Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective form of government with respect to any TWO of the following. Foreign relations Economic conditions Western lands 7. 2004 Exam (Question 2): Analyze the impact of the American Revolution on both slavery and the status of women in the period from 1775-1800. 8. 2006 Exam B (Question 2): "The United States Constitution of 1787 represented an economic and ideological victory for the traditional American political elite." Assess the validity of that statement for the period 1781 to 1789. Essay 4 9. 2008 Exam B (Question 2): Analyze the reasons for the Anti-Federalists' opposition to ratifying the Constitution. 10. 2009 Exam (Question 2): Analyze the ways in which British imperial policies between 1763 and 1776 intensified colonials’ resistance to British rule and their commitment to republican values. 11. 2009 Exam B (Question 2): Analyze how the ideas and experiences of the revolutionary era influenced the principles embodied in the Articles of Confederation. Western Expansion 1 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set forth rules and the process for expansion New States: Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796) Spain and Great Britain were against this, as they a) had land here, and b) wanted more land Native Americans didn’t like it either, and fought until 1794. They got massacred at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, which led to the Treaty of Greenville, which gave all of the Ohio territory to settlers (no Indians allowed) Map Links for Study http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/maps/maps.cfm has a very large collection of U.S. Historical Maps http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/histus.html is good for maps, particularly of Texas, and for its links http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/map s/ specializes in the period before 1812. Slaves as percentage of population, by state, 1790 1796 Election, Divided Government This was the first question of confidence in the Constitution Candidates: John Adams (Federalist, dominated New England), Thomas Jefferson (Republican, South) Adams won by three electoral college votes, but under the rules of the time— Jefferson (as 2nd highest vote getter) was named the Vice-President! Federalism, Take 2 French saw Jay’s Treaty as a pro- XYZ Affair Britain, anti-France position Began to seize/attack more than 300 American ships, threatened to Adams sent a peace delegation to hang all Americans found on Paris British navel vessels French foreign minister, Charles de Talleyrand, refused to meet with them unless he got bribed ($250,000 for himself, $12,000,000 loan to France) Adams called the three agents who went to Paris to try to meet with de Talleyrand X,Y,Z Response: America tripled its Army, and had a “Quasi-War” with France—no war was ever declared, but armed ships protected American ships Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) Background: Federalists won Alien Enemies Act (allowed big in 1798 mid-term elections deportation of foreigners who on anti-French beliefs were thought to be a threat) Key point: These four acts Alien Friends Acts (allowed basically made the President to deport any foreign government much stronger, citizen for any reason) and gave the government a Naturalization Act (changed large amount of power to residency requirement from 5 attack civil liberties to 14 years) Sedition Act (forbade any individual or group to speak, write, or publish ANYTHING of a false, scandalous and malicious nature that hurt Congress and/or the President Sedition Act Analysis This was a direct attack on the First Amendment In late 1800, almost all major Republican newspapers charged under this act Where does the line of control pass the line of censorship? Was this just a way to hurt the enemies of the Federalist party? Opposition to the Acts Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798) (written by Jefferson (VA) and Madison (KY) They argued that state legislatures could claim that acts of Congress were unconstitutional (states over federal rights) Federal government is just a compact of states, and should not overriding them States must have final say 1799: Kentucky passed a resolution saying they had the rights to nullify federal laws What if a law breaks the Constitution? The states argued that they had the right to not follow it. The Supreme Court addressed this in Marbury v. Madison, 1803, saying that they had the right to declare a law unconstitutional and invalid (this has stood up ever since) 1800 Election The easy part: The hard part: Who is Republicans won President, Jefferson easily, due to anger or Burr? Jefferson wanted Burr to be over the Alien and Vice-President, so all of the Sedition Acts ballots had BOTH of them, so they were tied! Those acts destroyed the After 7 days and 36 ballots in Federalist party the House, Jefferson won. Jefferson considered this 12th amendment (1804) fixed this issue so that candidates the “Revolution of 1800” must run for either President or Vice-President, and this also ended the problem in 1796 of opposite parties in power Jefferson’s Platform Limited central government (in contract to Washington/Hamilton/Adams More States rights and Personal Freedom Wanted more farmers and fewer cities Cut a lot of Federal spending/bureaucracy Almost all taxes cut (country used land sales and customs to fund the country) Much lower military spending If you know your enemy is taking charge, what do you do? If you’re John Adams, you try to appoint tons of Federalists to judgeships in the final few hours of your term (Midnight appointments) Judges, as you remember, are appointed for life Problem: One was delivered late—William Marbury as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia He asked the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus to force James Madison (Sec of State) to appoint him In February 1803, the court said no, and said that the court didn’t have the power to do so (so the law was unconstitutional) Louisiana Purchase In 1800, France regained the territory due to their war with Spain Jefferson was afraid that France would try to start an empire in America He sent people to France to try to buy the territory They found out that Napoleon had no interest in America anymore, due to a massive slave revolt in Haiti Napoleon sold it in April 1803 for $15,000,000 to fund the war in Europe This purchase doubled the size of the United States (the $15,000,000 in yuan: 2.50 yuan Legal Issues of the Purchase Jefferson was afraid that buying it was unconstitutional, and in fact, drafted an amendment allowing it Fellow Republicans convinced him it was unnecessary, and just give the purchase treaty to the Senate, and they quickly passed it Irony: While Jefferson wanted to limit Federal power, this purchase expanded it. The United States, 1803 More Exploration of the West Jefferson sent teams of Explorers to map out what they bought from France A famous team was Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark (Lewis and Clark) They left St. Louis in 1804 with 45 soldiers They travelled 5,000km in 2 years to the Pacific Ocean and back, due to the help of Sacajawea (Indian guide) Lewis and Clark Map Burr-Hamilton Duel, 1804 Vice-President Aaron Burr and former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton The men had radically different visions of the US They had personal tensions for many years Burr found out that he would on the ballot for Vice President in 2004, so he ran for the governor of New York instead Hamilton campaigned heavily against Burr, which caused Burr to lose the election This wasn’t the first duel for either one—Hamilton had ten duels (but no shots) July 11, 1804—both men went to Weehawken, New Jersey (duels were recently made illegal in New York) to fight this out Duel Part 2 Hamilton also was the reason that Burr was Vice-President and not President A letter about the campaign made Burr so angry that he offered a dual, Hamilton accepted July 11, 1804 was set as the date The Art of the Duel They choose sides and whose second (assistant) should start the duel. Two shots were fired. Usually, if both people shot into the ground, they showed courage, and the duel was over. Hamilton shot first, into a tree above Burr. The “throwing away his fire” violated the do not waste fire pre-duel pledge. Burr, however, thought the bullet was an attempt to kill him. Burr then hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen, and he died the next day. More Art of the Duel Hamilton was against the idea of dueling, in spite of his previous shot-less duels. The eyewitnesses claim that Hamilton was trying to provoke Burr, including aiming his pistol. Did Hamilton have manic depression? Was he delusional? Who knows? Burr wasn’t a good shooter, but he clearly wanted to kill Hamilton far more than Hamilton wanted to kill Burr. Burr did regret it later, but not for many years. Burr was charged with murder, but acquitted (found not guilty) He went west for a while after his Vice-President position ended in 1805, and ultimately died in 1836 in Staten Island, New York. Never apologized for the shooting or to Hamilton’s family. France and England: worse than brother and sister! The U.S. tried to stay neutral in yet another war between the two Both sides started seizing or blocking trade Chesapeake-Leopard affair, 1807, when the British ship (HMS Leopard) opened fire on the USS Chesapeake, after they were refused the right to board Jefferson made a “penny-wise, pound-foolish” decision by getting the Embargo Act of 1807 passed, which basically cut off all trade anywhere (no ships could leave the US) He wanted to damage the French and British economies, but the one he really damaged was the U.S. one. USS Chesapeake Madison and Declining Foreign Relations Secretary of State for Jefferson, James Madison, won the election of 1808 Madison replaced the Embargo Act with the Non- Intercourse Act (only blocked off trade with England and France) Since the two biggest traders in the world were England and France, this didn’t help much Macon’s Bill No. 2, 1810, was another attempt to open trade. This worked off of playing both sides against each other. At first, we will trade with everyone. If you repeal restrictions on neutral shipments, we will embargo the other one! Napoleon did this, in order to hurt Britain. However, these peaceful attempts aren’t working, so the War Hawks are starting to get angry. War Hawks! Leaders: John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (KY) They wanted war, since the economic issues had hurt their region the most Also, if we get into this war and win, we can get more western land and Canada! They were afraid that Britain would use Native Americans in the North to fight the US—this in fact happened with Tecumseh, “the prophet” (his brother) and Ohio/Indiana Battle of Tippecanoe (William Henry Harrison) crushed the Indians (although he lost a lot of people too) Even after this, the remains of the Indians allied with Britain in the War of 1812 War of 1812 Remember that we aren’t concerned about the battles of the war; just causes and effects June 1812, Madison sent a message to Congress about the British issues Problem: The US had cut military spending so much that they weren’t prepared Reality; England really didn’t care, as it had bigger wars Ended with Treaty of Ghent, December 1814 Andrew Jackson, two weeks AFTER the treaty, killed 2,000 troops In reality, the war ended with exactly the same, but the War of 1812 was good for national morale… And the world’s worst national anthem… Oh, say! can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming; Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there: Oh, say! does that star- spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? In case you want to see… Jackson at New Orleans The Hartford Convention (1814) Just before the end of the The goal: give this to war, Federalists met in Madison in the middle of Hartford to see if they can a deadlocked war when regain power for New people hated war England/economy Reality: They got there Drafted 7 amendments, just after the Treaty of including eliminating the Ghent and the New 3/5 clause, and maximum Orleans victory time limits for trade The people who went to embargos Hartford were viewed as traitors The final straw of the death of the Federalist Party Essays It is up to you how many you do, but you need to at least do an outline on most of them. This is not a graded course, however, you owe it to yourself to do as much as you can, particularly during February. I will be glad to read/comment on all outlines and essays. New Essay Questions 1. 1977 Exam (DBQ): The debate over the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 revealed bitter controversies on a number of issues. Discuss the issues involved and explain why these controversies developed (documents from this exam are not available) . 2. 1983 Exam (Question 3): "Early United States foreign policy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or actual threats from Europe." Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to United States foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period from 1789 to 1825. Essays 2 3. 1994 Exam (Question 3): Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American politics in the 1790's. 4. 2002 Exam (Question 3): Analyze the contributions of TWO of the following in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution. John Adams Thomas Jefferson George Washington Essays 3 5. 2003 Exam B (Question 3): Although the power of the national government increase during the early republic, this development often faced serious opposition. Compare the motives and effectiveness of those opposed to the growing power of the national government in TWO of the following: Whiskey Rebellion (1794) Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799) Hartford Convention (1814-1815) Nullification Crisis (1832-1833) 6. 2004 Exam B (Question 2): To what extent was the election of 1800 aptly named the "Revolution of 1800"? Respond with references to TWO of the following areas: Economics Foreign policy Judiciary Politics Homework DBQ (for AP students) 7. 2002 Exam B (DBQ): Historians have traditionally labeled the period after the War of 1812 the "Era of Good Feelings." Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1815-1825 to construct your answer. The documents are located at this website: http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/b_u shist_frq_02_10360.pdf This pdf file will also be available on the wikispace under the name 2002b dbq. Also, please note that page 7 is the free-response section. This is what your real test will look like. Coming next class: Politics post-War of 1812 and the Age of Jackson Pre-Civil War Society Slavery
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