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					AP United States
History
Day 5
    Bill of Rights to
    War of 1812
Reading--Nash
   Today’s lecture: Chapters 7-9
   Next week: Chapters 10-12 (mainly the age of
    Jackson, with more time the following week for
    the cultural/slavery notes)
   Note: We can not cover everything in the book
    due to time constraints. However, it is very
    important that you read ahead of the class, and
    in particular, notice the sections with documents
    and charts. This will help you prepare for the
    SAT/AP test!
Bill of Rights
   Many people were concerned that the Constitution did not have a list
    of guaranteed rights.
   They were afraid of abuse if the rights were not stated.
   Proposed by James Madison due to conflicts between Federalists
    (wanted it passed) and Anti-Federalists (who thought it had too
    much power for the Federal Government) in 1787
   Many leaders argued that the Constitution should not be passed due
    to not having these in them
   Massachusetts Compromise of 1788 said that if they passed the
    Constitution, these must be included (New Hampshire, Virginia and
    New York had the same language) and suggested amendments
   Adopted as a group in 1791
   Influences: 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason),
    1689 English Bill of Rights, natural rights in the Age of
    Enlightenment, 1215 Magna Carta
   12 proposed—only 10 passed (the representation of House
    members never passed, and the 27th amendment passed 200 years
    later covered the other (which did not let Congress increase their
    own salaries until after the next election)
1st Amendment
 Free exercise of religion/no state religion
 Freedom of Speech
 Freedom of the Press
 Freedom of Asssembly
 Right to Petition
2nd-5th Amendments
   2nd: Right to keep and bear arms (weapons)
   3rd: Protection from quartering of troops
   4th: Protection from unreasonable search and
    seizure
   5th: Right of due process (a Grand Jury must
    indict them and they must have a hearing), no
    double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime)
    allowed, no self-incrimination, and eniment
    domain protection (government can not take
    your land without paying you a fair value)
6th-8th Amendments
 6th: All criminal trials can be by jury
 Rights of the accused (speedy trial, right to
  counsel)
 7th: All civil trials over $20 must have a
  jury
 8th: Prohibits excessive bail (money
  required to get out of jail before trial), cruel
  and unusual punishment
9th-10th Amendments
 9th: protection of rights not listed directly
 10th: All powers not delegated to the
  federal government or the states belong to
  the people
A New Nation: Trends and Themes
   The U.S. government began to build and define itself under George
    Washington’s leadership.
   The debates over ratification of the Constitution spawned the
    development of two separate political parties. New England
    Federalists supported a loose interpretation of the Constitution and a
    strong central government. Southern Republicans supported a strict
    interpretation of the Constitution and a more limited central
    government. Enmity between the two parties deepened, until the
    events of the War of 1812 finally eliminated the Federalists as a
    significant political party.
   The U.S. made a concerted effort to stay out of European
    entanglements and maintain neutrality during its effort to build its
    national infrastructure. Often, though, the U.S. was caught in a tug-
    of-war between Britain and France. Eventually, British aggression
    and America’s desire to increase its territory and prove itself as an
    international force led to the War of 1812.
Trends and Themes 2
   After the war, the U.S. enjoyed a period of optimism and
    general cooperation under a single political party: the
    Republicans. In this period, the U.S. asserted its
    dominance in the Western Hemisphere through the
    Monroe Doctrine.
   Westward expansion began in earnest after the
    Louisiana Purchase. The sectional tensions created by
    expansion, made apparent in the Missouri Compromise,
    illustrated the increasing role slavery and regionalism
    would play in the politics of the nineteenth century.
   Through various rulings, the Supreme Court established
    itself as a body able to declare acts of Congress
    unconstitutional and supportive of Federalist policies.
The First President
   George Washington elected first president, with John
    Adams being the Vice President
   Congress first met in New York City, March 1789 (moved
    to Washington, D.C. in 1800)
   Goals of Congress: establish a judicial branch, develop
    executive branch, Bill of Rights
   Congress worked on the bureaucracy and domestic
    policy, and Washington focused on finance, diplomacy
    and the military. (much less interaction than later
    presidents)
   Unlike later presidents, he didn’t speak much about
    policies, didn’t suggest many laws, only vetoed two bills
Cabinet
 The cabinet wasn’t in the Constitution
 Washington started off by making offices
  under him: Secretary of State, Secretary of
  War, Secretary of the Treasury, Attorney
  General (later 15+ positions)
Splits between Federalists and
Anti-Federalists
   In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed having the
    federal government pay war debts of the states
   Southern states were against this because they paid off
    theirs early, while the Northern States did not
   In order to sign off on this, they insisted on a southern
    capital city (Washington, D.C.)
   National Bank—Hamilton wanted a bank to store federal
    money, issue currency, make loans, regulate banks, and
    extend credit. Anti-federalists such as Thomas Jefferson
    thought this gave too much power to the government
Strict and Loose Constructionalists

 Strict: Believed that only what was
  explicitly mentioned was in the
  Constitution (i.e. the Charter isn’t in the
  Constitution, so it can’t happen)
 Loose: Believed that due to the elastic
  clause (Article 1, Section 8) that Congress
  had the power “to make all laws which
  shall be necessary and proper…”
 Bank was chartered in 1791
Tariff Issues
 Hamilton wanted high tariffs to get money
  and to help industries develop
 Jefferson/Madison opposed this, because
  industries would become too dependent
  on government aid (tariff did not pass in
  the end)
Political Parties--Republican
 Republican Party started in 1793, when
  Jefferson resigned due to his opposition to
  Federalist decisions (Hamilton)
 First opposition paper: The National
  Gazette
 Republicans won slight majority in 1794
 Leaders: Jefferson, Madison
 Backed by the Western frontier, rural and
  farming South
Political Parties: Federalists
 Leaders: Washington, Hamilton
 Argued for a strong central government
 Backed by Industry/Manufacturing in the
  Northeast
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
 July 1794, Western Pennsylvania farmers
  had a violent rebellion over Hamilton’s
  large excise tax on domestic whiskey
 The putting down of this rebellion proved
  the central government’s power and
  authority
Proclamation of American
Neutrality, 1793
   War between Britain/Spain and France
   America refused to get involved
   Offered some minor support to the French against
    Spanish in Florida and the Mississippi Valley
   British army seized 250 vessels in response, 1794
   Jay’s Treaty (1795) with Britain removed troops from the
    U.S., opened trade with British West Indies
   Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795)—negotiated by Thomas
    Pinckney with Spain, provided the U.S. Unrestricted
    access to the Mississippi River and removed Spanish
    troops from American land.
Washington’s Farewell
 In 1796, set the two-term precedent (later
  made law with the 22nd amendment, 1951)
 Farewell address: Washington warned
  against parties, getting involved with wars
  with other countries, and concentrate on
  “efficient government” at home
 He feared that special interest groups and
  foreign nations would dominate the two
  sides.
Essay Questions
   1. 1980 Exam (Question 4): "Between 1783 and 1800
    the new government of the United States faced the same
    political, economic, and constitutional issues that
    troubled the British government's relations with the
    colonies prior to the Revolution."
       Assess the validity of this generalization.
   2. 1982 Exam (Question 2): "The American Revolution
    should really be called 'The British Revolution' because
    marked changes in British colonial policy were more
    responsible for the final political division than were
    American actions."
       Assess the validity of this statement for the period 1763-1776.
Essay Questions 2
   3. 1985 Exam (DBQ minus documents): "From 1781 to 1789 the
    Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an
    effective government"

        Using your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement

   4. 1989 Exam (Question 2): "In the two decades before the
    outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, a profound shift
    occurred in the way many Americans thought and felt about the
    British government and their colonial governments."

        Assess the validity of this statement in view of the political and
         constitutional debates of these decades.

   5. 1991 Exam (Question 2): The Bill of Rights did not come from a
    desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but
    rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government.

        Assess the validity of this statement.
    Essay 3
   6. 1996 Exam (Question 2): Analyze the degree to
    which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective
    form of government with respect to any TWO of the
    following.
       Foreign relations
       Economic conditions
       Western lands

   7. 2004 Exam (Question 2): Analyze the impact of the
    American Revolution on both slavery and the status of
    women in the period from 1775-1800.
   8. 2006 Exam B (Question 2): "The United States
    Constitution of 1787 represented an economic and
    ideological victory for the traditional American political
    elite."
    Assess the validity of that statement for the period 1781
    to 1789.
Essay 4
   9. 2008 Exam B (Question 2): Analyze the
    reasons for the Anti-Federalists' opposition to
    ratifying the Constitution.
   10. 2009 Exam (Question 2): Analyze the ways
    in which British imperial policies between 1763
    and 1776 intensified colonials’ resistance to
    British rule and their commitment to republican
    values.
   11. 2009 Exam B (Question 2): Analyze how
    the ideas and experiences of the revolutionary
    era influenced the principles embodied in the
    Articles of Confederation.
Western Expansion 1
   Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set forth rules and
    the process for expansion
   New States: Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792),
    Tennessee (1796)
   Spain and Great Britain were against this, as
    they a) had land here, and b) wanted more land
   Native Americans didn’t like it either, and fought
    until 1794. They got massacred at the Battle of
    Fallen Timbers, which led to the Treaty of
    Greenville, which gave all of the Ohio territory to
    settlers (no Indians allowed)
    Map Links for Study
 http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/maps/maps.cfm
  has a very large collection of U.S. Historical
  Maps
 http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/histus.html is good
  for maps, particularly of Texas, and for its links
 http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/map
  s/ specializes in the period before 1812.
Slaves as percentage of population,
by state, 1790
1796 Election, Divided Government

 This was the first question of confidence in
  the Constitution
 Candidates: John Adams (Federalist,
  dominated New England), Thomas
  Jefferson (Republican, South)
 Adams won by three electoral college
  votes, but under the rules of the time—
  Jefferson (as 2nd highest vote getter) was
  named the Vice-President!
Federalism, Take 2
   French saw Jay’s Treaty as a pro-      XYZ Affair
    Britain, anti-France position
   Began to seize/attack more than
    300 American ships, threatened to   Adams sent a peace delegation to
    hang all Americans found on            Paris
    British navel vessels
                                        French foreign minister, Charles de
                                           Talleyrand, refused to meet with
                                           them unless he got bribed
                                           ($250,000 for himself,
                                           $12,000,000 loan to France)
                                        Adams called the three agents who
                                           went to Paris to try to meet with de
                                           Talleyrand X,Y,Z
                                        Response: America tripled its Army,
                                           and had a “Quasi-War” with
                                           France—no war was ever
                                           declared, but armed ships
                                           protected American ships
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
   Background: Federalists won         Alien Enemies Act (allowed
    big in 1798 mid-term elections       deportation of foreigners who
    on anti-French beliefs               were thought to be a threat)
   Key point: These four acts          Alien Friends Acts (allowed
    basically made the                   President to deport any foreign
    government much stronger,            citizen for any reason)
    and gave the government a           Naturalization Act (changed
    large amount of power to             residency requirement from 5
    attack civil liberties               to 14 years)
                                        Sedition Act (forbade any
                                         individual or group to speak,
                                         write, or publish ANYTHING of
                                         a false, scandalous and
                                         malicious nature that hurt
                                         Congress and/or the President
Sedition Act Analysis
 This was a direct attack on the First
  Amendment
 In late 1800, almost all major Republican
  newspapers charged under this act
 Where does the line of control pass the
  line of censorship?
 Was this just a way to hurt the enemies of
  the Federalist party?
Opposition to the Acts
   Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798)
    (written by Jefferson (VA) and Madison (KY)
   They argued that state legislatures could claim
    that acts of Congress were unconstitutional
    (states over federal rights)
   Federal government is just a compact of states,
    and should not overriding them
   States must have final say
   1799: Kentucky passed a resolution saying they
    had the rights to nullify federal laws
What if a law breaks the
Constitution?
 The states argued that they had the right
  to not follow it.
 The Supreme Court addressed this in
  Marbury v. Madison, 1803, saying that
  they had the right to declare a law
  unconstitutional and invalid (this has stood
  up ever since)
1800 Election
   The easy part:                 The hard part: Who is
    Republicans won                 President, Jefferson
    easily, due to anger            or Burr?
                                   Jefferson wanted Burr to be
    over the Alien and              Vice-President, so all of the
    Sedition Acts                   ballots had BOTH of them, so
                                    they were tied!
   Those acts destroyed the       After 7 days and 36 ballots in
    Federalist party                the House, Jefferson won.
   Jefferson considered this      12th amendment (1804) fixed
                                    this issue so that candidates
    the “Revolution of 1800”        must run for either President or
                                    Vice-President, and this also
                                    ended the problem in 1796 of
                                    opposite parties in power
Jefferson’s Platform
 Limited central government (in contract to
  Washington/Hamilton/Adams
 More States rights and Personal Freedom
 Wanted more farmers and fewer cities
 Cut a lot of Federal spending/bureaucracy
 Almost all taxes cut (country used land
  sales and customs to fund the country)
 Much lower military spending
If you know your enemy is taking
charge, what do you do?
   If you’re John Adams, you try to appoint tons of
    Federalists to judgeships in the final few hours of your
    term (Midnight appointments)
   Judges, as you remember, are appointed for life
   Problem: One was delivered late—William Marbury as
    Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia
   He asked the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus to
    force James Madison (Sec of State) to appoint him
   In February 1803, the court said no, and said that the
    court didn’t have the power to do so (so the law was
    unconstitutional)
Louisiana Purchase
   In 1800, France regained the territory due to their war
    with Spain
   Jefferson was afraid that France would try to start an
    empire in America
   He sent people to France to try to buy the territory
   They found out that Napoleon had no interest in America
    anymore, due to a massive slave revolt in Haiti
   Napoleon sold it in April 1803 for $15,000,000 to fund
    the war in Europe
   This purchase doubled the size of the United States (the
    $15,000,000 in yuan: 2.50 yuan
Legal Issues of the Purchase
 Jefferson was afraid that buying it was
  unconstitutional, and in fact, drafted an
  amendment allowing it
 Fellow Republicans convinced him it was
  unnecessary, and just give the purchase
  treaty to the Senate, and they quickly
  passed it
 Irony: While Jefferson wanted to limit
  Federal power, this purchase expanded it.
The United States, 1803
More Exploration of the West
 Jefferson sent teams of Explorers to map
  out what they bought from France
 A famous team was Captain Meriwether
  Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark (Lewis
  and Clark)
 They left St. Louis in 1804 with 45 soldiers
 They travelled 5,000km in 2 years to the
  Pacific Ocean and back, due to the help of
  Sacajawea (Indian guide)
Lewis and Clark Map
Burr-Hamilton Duel, 1804
   Vice-President Aaron Burr and former Secretary of the
    Treasury Alexander Hamilton
   The men had radically different visions of the US
   They had personal tensions for many years
   Burr found out that he would on the ballot for Vice President
    in 2004, so he ran for the governor of New York instead
   Hamilton campaigned heavily against Burr, which caused
    Burr to lose the election
   This wasn’t the first duel for either one—Hamilton had ten
    duels (but no shots)
   July 11, 1804—both men went to Weehawken, New Jersey
    (duels were recently made illegal in New York) to fight this
    out
Duel Part 2
   Hamilton also was the
    reason that Burr was
    Vice-President and
    not President
   A letter about the
    campaign made Burr
    so angry that he
    offered a dual,
    Hamilton accepted
   July 11, 1804 was set
    as the date
The Art of the Duel
   They choose sides and whose second (assistant)
    should start the duel.
   Two shots were fired.
   Usually, if both people shot into the ground, they
    showed courage, and the duel was over.
   Hamilton shot first, into a tree above Burr. The
    “throwing away his fire” violated the do not waste
    fire pre-duel pledge. Burr, however, thought the
    bullet was an attempt to kill him.
   Burr then hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen,
    and he died the next day.
More Art of the Duel
   Hamilton was against the idea of dueling, in spite of his
    previous shot-less duels.
   The eyewitnesses claim that Hamilton was trying to provoke
    Burr, including aiming his pistol.
   Did Hamilton have manic depression? Was he delusional?
    Who knows?
   Burr wasn’t a good shooter, but he clearly wanted to kill
    Hamilton far more than Hamilton wanted to kill Burr.
   Burr did regret it later, but not for many years.
   Burr was charged with murder, but acquitted (found not
    guilty)
   He went west for a while after his Vice-President position
    ended in 1805, and ultimately died in 1836 in Staten Island,
    New York.
   Never apologized for the shooting or to Hamilton’s family.
France and England: worse than
brother and sister!
   The U.S. tried to stay neutral in yet another war between
    the two
   Both sides started seizing or blocking trade
   Chesapeake-Leopard affair, 1807, when the British ship
    (HMS Leopard) opened fire on the USS Chesapeake,
    after they were refused the right to board
   Jefferson made a “penny-wise, pound-foolish” decision
    by getting the Embargo Act of 1807 passed, which
    basically cut off all trade anywhere (no ships could leave
    the US)
   He wanted to damage the French and British economies,
    but the one he really damaged was the U.S. one.
USS Chesapeake
Madison and Declining Foreign
Relations
   Secretary of State for Jefferson, James Madison, won
    the election of 1808
   Madison replaced the Embargo Act with the Non-
    Intercourse Act (only blocked off trade with England and
    France)
   Since the two biggest traders in the world were England
    and France, this didn’t help much
   Macon’s Bill No. 2, 1810, was another attempt to open
    trade. This worked off of playing both sides against each
    other. At first, we will trade with everyone. If you repeal
    restrictions on neutral shipments, we will embargo the
    other one!
   Napoleon did this, in order to hurt Britain.
   However, these peaceful attempts aren’t working, so the
    War Hawks are starting to get angry.
War Hawks!
   Leaders: John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (KY)
   They wanted war, since the economic issues had hurt
    their region the most
   Also, if we get into this war and win, we can get more
    western land and Canada!
   They were afraid that Britain would use Native
    Americans in the North to fight the US—this in fact
    happened with Tecumseh, “the prophet” (his brother)
    and Ohio/Indiana
   Battle of Tippecanoe (William Henry Harrison) crushed
    the Indians (although he lost a lot of people too)
   Even after this, the remains of the Indians allied with
    Britain in the War of 1812
War of 1812
   Remember that we aren’t concerned about the
    battles of the war; just causes and effects
   June 1812, Madison sent a message to
    Congress about the British issues
   Problem: The US had cut military spending so
    much that they weren’t prepared
   Reality; England really didn’t care, as it had
    bigger wars
   Ended with Treaty of Ghent, December 1814
   Andrew Jackson, two weeks AFTER the treaty,
    killed 2,000 troops
   In reality, the war ended with exactly the same,
    but the War of 1812 was good for national
    morale…
And the world’s worst national
anthem…
   Oh, say! can you see by the
    dawn's early light
    What so proudly we hailed at
    the twilight's last gleaming;
    Whose broad stripes and
    bright stars, through the
    perilous fight,
    O'er the ramparts we watched
    were so gallantly streaming?
    And the rocket's red glare, the
    bombs bursting in air,
    Gave proof through the night
    that our flag was still there:
    Oh, say! does that star-
    spangled banner yet wave
    O'er the land of the free and
    the home of the brave?
In case you want to see…
Jackson at New Orleans
The Hartford Convention (1814)
   Just before the end of the       The goal: give this to
    war, Federalists met in           Madison in the middle of
    Hartford to see if they can       a deadlocked war when
    regain power for New              people hated war
    England/economy                  Reality: They got there
   Drafted 7 amendments,             just after the Treaty of
    including eliminating the         Ghent and the New
    3/5 clause, and maximum           Orleans victory
    time limits for trade            The people who went to
    embargos                          Hartford were viewed as
                                      traitors
                                     The final straw of the
                                      death of the Federalist
                                      Party
Essays
 It is up to you how many you do, but you
  need to at least do an outline on most of
  them.
 This is not a graded course, however, you
  owe it to yourself to do as much as you
  can, particularly during February.
 I will be glad to read/comment on all
  outlines and essays.
New Essay Questions
   1. 1977 Exam (DBQ): The debate over the Alien and
    Sedition Acts of 1798 revealed bitter controversies on a
    number of issues.
       Discuss the issues involved and explain why these controversies
        developed (documents from this exam are not available)
    .
   2. 1983 Exam (Question 3): "Early United States foreign
    policy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or
    actual threats from Europe."
       Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to United
        States foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period
        from 1789 to 1825.
Essays 2
   3. 1994 Exam (Question 3): Evaluate the relative
    importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping
    American politics in the 1790's.

   4. 2002 Exam (Question 3): Analyze the contributions
    of TWO of the following in helping establish a stable
    government after the adoption of the Constitution.

       John Adams
       Thomas Jefferson
       George Washington
Essays 3
   5. 2003 Exam B (Question 3): Although the power of the national
    government increase during the early republic, this development often faced
    serious opposition. Compare the motives and effectiveness of those
    opposed to the growing power of the national government in TWO of the
    following:

        Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
        Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-1799)
        Hartford Convention (1814-1815)
        Nullification Crisis (1832-1833)

   6. 2004 Exam B (Question 2): To what extent was the election of 1800
    aptly named the "Revolution of 1800"? Respond with references to TWO of
    the following areas:

        Economics
        Foreign policy
        Judiciary
        Politics
Homework DBQ (for AP students)
   7. 2002 Exam B (DBQ): Historians have traditionally
    labeled the period after the War of 1812 the "Era of
    Good Feelings." Evaluate the accuracy of this label,
    considering the emergence of nationalism and
    sectionalism.

       Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1815-1825
        to construct your answer.
  The documents are located at this website:
http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/b_u
   shist_frq_02_10360.pdf

This pdf file will also be available on the wikispace under the name
   2002b dbq. Also, please note that page 7 is the free-response
   section. This is what your real test will look like.
Coming next class:
 Politics post-War of 1812 and the Age of
  Jackson
 Pre-Civil War Society
 Slavery

				
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