Information Technologies and Decision Support Systems in Civil

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					        Project part-financed by the European Union
           (European Regional Development Fund)
         within the BSR INTERREG III B Programme




INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND DECISION
  SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN CIVIL PROTECTION




                  Timo Hellenberg

                    January 2006
      s
Author’ contact:
Aleksanteri Institute
Töölönkatu 3 A (PO Box 42)
00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Tel. +358 9 191 28 606
Fax. +358 9 191 28 616
www.helsinki.fi/aleksanteri




Eurobaltic

This report is a part of a series of reports on the Eurobaltic Civil Protection Project. It has been
drafted by Dr Timo Hellenberg of the Aleksanteri Institute at the University of Helsinki in
cooperation with Profectum Consulting. The author has received valuable contributions from
the Eurobaltic partners listed at the end of this report.

The Eurobaltic Project is a part of the wider Eurobaltic Programme for Civil Protection in the
Baltic Sea Region (BSR). While the project is financed in part by the European Regional
Development Fund INTERREG III B, it is also a part of the activities of the civil security working
body of the Council of the Baltic Sear States (CBSS). The Swedish Rescue Services Agency
(SRSA) leads the project, which is comprised of a network of over twenty partners from all the
BSR countries. Partners include civil protection authorities, regions and municipalities, scientific
institutions and non-governmental organisations. Within the project, Nordregio (Nordic Centre
for Special Development, Stockholm) and the Aleksanteri Institute (Finnish Centre for Russian
and East European Studies at the University of Helsinki) are responsible for research and
reports. The reports cover the whole spectrum of contemporary challenges to civil protection
from the points of view of EU and, in particular, BSR.




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Contents


1.      Foreword … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 4


2.      Introduction: What is Civil Protection? … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. 5


3.      Information Technologies and Decision Support Systems in Civil Protection
        in the Baltic Sea Region … .… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …     6


 3.1       Denmark… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. 6
 3.2       Estonia… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 8
 3.3       Finland… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 9
 3.4       Germany… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. 10
 3.5       Latvia… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 12
 3.6       Lithuania… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 12
 3.7       Norway… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 13
 3.8       Poland… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. 13
 3.9       The Russian Federation… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. 14
 3.10      Sweden… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 16


4.      Conclusions… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. 18


5.      List of Partners in the EUROBALTIC Programme for Civil Protection in the
        Baltic Sea Region INTERREG III B … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 20


6.      References and Resources… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 21




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1. Foreword


This report provides an overview of information technologies and different support systems
used in civil protection management in the Baltic Sea Region countries. The aim is also to
provide updated information on the current national and local systems, as well as on the future
plans that are underway.

The main sources of information for this report are the presentations made by the
representatives of civil protection agencies during two seminars held in 2004: “   Information
Technologies and Decision Support Systems in Civil Protection and Emergency Management”
held in Tampere, Finland, on 31 August – 2 September 2004, and “ Towards 112 Cross-Border
Cooperation”held in Saariselkä, Finland, on 26-28 May 2004. In addition, this information has
been updated through interviews with civil protection agencies and research completed in
November 2005.

Several common factors and issues rise from the current status of civil protection systems and
information technology in the Baltic Sea Region. Especially, the importance of information
sharing capabilities in case of cross-border or other larger disasters highlights the significance
of cross-border cooperation and technical support. The differences in the levels of technology
and the supporting infrastructure in terms of logistics and administrative responsibility in the
different countries make the EUROBALTIC Programme for Civil Protection a challenge.
However, the different systems, pilot projects and technological skills provide a unique
opportunity for mutual understanding, information sharing and best practice models. Although
the use of the 112-emergency number is now in place in all BSR countries including major
cities in Russia, the technology behind the administrative support functions varies in great detail
in each country. For example, the highly decentralised 112-single emergency number systems
in Germany and Sweden use all available resources of the local non-governmental
organisations in order to avoid the duplication of systems and to ensure the high quality of
service. Finland and Denmark use flexible TETRA-networks, of which the Finnish VIRVE is the
       s
world’ first nationwide authority network based on TErrestrial Trunked RAdio technology.
Sweden has developed its own system, RIB, an integrated decision support system, which in
addition to promoting its emergency prevention and response policies at the national level, is a
part of a number of international cooperation projects on risk management and humanitarian
relief missions. In comparison, the civil protection systems of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and
Russia are highly centralized and currently under development.

We hope that this report, in conjunction with the so-called ”   state of the art”reports on civil
protection, will provide the necessary information for further cooperation activities in the Baltic
                                                                                        A
Sea Region as well as other regions of the world. As an ancient Roman sage put it: “ measure
                                                     .
of a civilization is its ability to handle a disaster”




January 6th, 2006, Helsinki




Timo Hellenberg
Aleksanteri Institute
University of Helsinki




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2. Introduction: What is Civil Protection?

There is no unambiguous definition of the concept and the substance of “                       .
                                                                              civil protection” While
it is usually understood to be a part of larger concepts such as “                    ,
                                                                      civil security” traditional civil
protection refers to rescue activity in exceptional situations such as emergencies, disasters,
crises or catastrophes. However, also here the dividing lines are obscure. On one hand,
sometimes crises do not happen suddenly and accidentally but are rather “            creeping crises” ,
such as serious epidemics, which may require the attention of civil protection authorities. On
the other hand, all emergencies require also some preventive and preparative measures as
well as post-disaster reconstruction. Thus, the range of activities and actors included in civil
                                                              s
protection can be rather wide. Moreover, civil protection’ relation to military security is not
always clear, because in many countries civil protection has traditionally been a part of “       total
defence” or “  civil defence” structures, and originally connected to wartime emergencies. In
other countries, by contrast, civil protection authorities consciously avoid the very connection to
“security” and prefer using more positive and less threat-related terms, such as “          safety” or
“sustainable development” Furthermore, after the 11th of September 2001, terrorism has
                            .
become a separate subject, bringing some new emphases if compared to traditional civil
protection planning.

In EU documents, the concept of civil protection is used in various ways, sometimes with a
more restricted and sometimes with a more wide meaning. Most often it refers to the
“protection for people, the environment and property in the event of natural and technological
disasters”i Sometimes the concept “
          .                            man-made”is used in addition to “                  ,
                                                                             technological” and
occasionally other subjects of protection are accompanied with “                       .
                                                                critical infrastructure”

A rather wide definition of civil protection items was presented in the First Civil Protection
Forumii agenda in November 2002 in Brussels, organised by the EU. Civil protection referred
to “risks linked with terrorist attacks (such as nuclear, radiological, chemical and biological
                                 , natural risks (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, forest fires)”
attacks in public spaces, etc.)” “                                                                 ,
“technological risks (such as Sevesoiii, maritime disasters, transport accidents) as well as
                                  .
other risks (e.g. pandemics)” These risks were discussed from the points of view of
prevention, preparedness and response, covering also risk assessment, information, training,
communication, post-disaster analysis and restoration.

To summarise, a four-dimensional matrix of factors is put forward in Table 1, illustrating the
main dimensions of the concept of civil protection in the EU.

Table 1: What is civil protection?
Subjects             of Risk source                 Subjects
                                            Risk type            of     civil
protection                                          protection planning and
                                                    training
People                    Man-made      Crises      Pre-emption
Environment               Technological Emergencies Preparedness
Critical                  Natural       Disasters   Response
infrastructure            Complexiv     Accidents   Restoration
Property

One might suggest that the above matrix represents a collection of items, which is a generally
acceptable starting point in discussing civil protection. However, it is not easy to compare the
use of the concept in the different countries and organisations in Europe. The relative openness
and wideness of civil protection is reflected both in the differences in the internal relevance of
the multiple dimensions of civil protection and in organisational arrangements. In many
countries, there simply does not exist such a concept as civil protection in the native language,
but other more limited concepts, such as “                    ,
                                             rescue services” are used instead. These concepts
                         civil protection”in EU connections.
are then translated into “


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3. Information Technologies and Decision Support Systems in Civil Protection in
    the Baltic Sea Region

The following information is a selective summary of the information technologies and decision
support systems in civil protection in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). For more comprehensive
information on the political framework in each of the BSR countries and on the role of
                                                                            Civil Protection Systems
international actors in the civil protection of the region, please refer to “
                                                                               ,
in the Baltic Sea Region: Towards Integration in Civil Protection Training” a report by Christer
Pursiainen, Sigrid Hedin and Timo Hellenberg published in October 2005.



   3.1.    Denmark

The Danish civil security system is based on the distinction between Civil Preparedness and
Rescue Preparedness. Since 1993, the same central level authority, the Danish Emergency
Management Agency (DEMA), has coordinated both systems.




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In 2002, the number of Emergency Rescue Centres (ERCs) was reduced from 40 to the current
9 regional ERCs. These nine regional Emergency Rescue Centres are responsible for handling
all incoming 112-emergency calls in the country. Depending on the nature of the emergency,
the ERC operator sends an alarm to the responsible fire department, also copying the alarm to
the police. One of the 112-dispatchers’primary screen functions is a map showing the exact
address of the caller. Therefore, the ERC operator always knows exactly which ambulance and
fire department is responsible for providing emergency assistance to the caller. All incoming
phone calls are also recorded. While logged in to the 112-emergency information system, fire
department and police emergency officials can receive real-time emergency messages, details
of the current caller, as well as manage call queues.

The Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) and the National Telecom Agency lay
down the general minimum requirements for the Danish TETRA (TErrestrial Trunked RAdio)
emergency network. In addition, the National Telecom Agency is responsible for setting the
criteria for the commercial TETRA network. The National IT and Telecom Agency determines
the regulations for the use of the frequency band 410-430 MHz. In its spectrum planning, the
National IT and Telecom Agency must take into account both TETRA and the traditional
handheld radio equipment LMR, "Land Mobile Radio". This implies that radio frequencies for
TETRA should not be designated to a greater extent than justified by the actual demand. All
TETRA tenders must fulfil the following requirements:

         Certain formal requirements, e.g. documentation, declaration
         Requirements regarding solvency
         Coverage
         Technical requirements
         Additional requirements laid down by DEMA

The coverage requirements for the emergency network are divided into two different levels:

           Level 1: Densely populated areas (5% of Denmark)
           Level 2: The rest of the country, including areas of high risk (e.g. oil refineries,
           airports, traffic junctions, bridges, tunnels)

TETRA has also been embraced by public transportation organisations, which require secure
and reliable voice and data communications. In Denmark, the Copenhagen Metro was the first
organisation to choose TETRA, followed by Hovedstadens Udviklingsrråd (HUR) operating
more than 1,200 buses, and later also the commuter train services. In October 2005, the
Danish State Railways’  (DSB) S-train gave Motorola and TetraNet a contract to provide a new
TETRA network. The new network will deliver seamless communications to the Danish State
Railways’ service personnel, including train inspectors and drivers. The contract covers a voice
and data network and the provision of Motorola MTH800 portable radios. In addition, equipment
                s
for DSB S-train’ command and control centres will be provided, as well as airtime service and
maintenance. As a result of this agreement, all public transportation organisations in the capital,
Copenhagen, will now be relying on TETRA technology and services to meet their
communication needs.

In case of a national or regional emergency, the inhabitants of Denmark are warned through an
electronic warning system. Altogether 1,077 electronic warning sirens have been installed in
Denmark. In all areas with more than 1,000 inhabitants, there is a stationary siren placed on top
of a high local building or on a mast. In areas without stationary sirens, there are mobile sirens
                                                           s
mounted on police cars. In total, about 80 % of Denmark’ population can be warned by means
of stationary sirens, whereas the remaining 20 % of the population will be warned by mobile
sirens. Radio Denmark (DR) is connected to the same data network with the sirens. This
ensures that the population will receive the necessary information and instructions via radio


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simultaneously with the sirens sounding the alarm. The sirens have their own power supply and
can work even during a power failure.



   3.2.    Estonia

The Estonian Rescue Board operates as an autonomous governmental institution within the
Ministry of Internal Affairs. It is responsible for the national rescue services and inland fires. In
practice, all rescue operations are organised at county level for the 15 counties and the nation’   s
capital. All counties have their own rescue service that is in charge of emergency
preparedness, operational fire fighting and other rescue services.


                                     Ministry of Internal Affairs


                                               Estonian Rescue
               County Governments                   Board


                 Fire & Rescue         North Estonian emergency Centre
                   Service of           South Estonian emergency Centre
                     County 112
                                          West Estonian emergency Centre
                           centre
                                              East Estonian emergency Centre




In addition to the county system, there are four regional Emergency Centres, the North, South,
West and East, which coordinate the 112-emergency phone calls. The emergency centres
receive, process and alert the relevant rescue service of the corresponding county of needed
ambulance or rescue services. These centres are structured units of rescue authorities, which
also coordinate the everyday activities of the services and collect information for statistical
purposes. In March - April 2006, the model with the four regional units will replace the county
system and will become the sole rescue system.

The dispatch software supporting the rescue services is based on Apache web technology.
This technology has many features that add functionality to the dispatchers’work. For instance,
reduced skills are needed to use it, which makes it a user-friendly system.

Changes in the technical side of rescue service management are expected and it is envisioned
that in the future a so-called WebSOS system will be in place, in which all software used by
dispatchers must interface. This will ensure a backup system in case any single software
breaks down.

At the moment, IP calls (VoIP – Voice over internet protocol) between the four regional
emergency centres are being tested. The purpose is to have one virtual emergency centre
functioning as a cluster for all emergency centres.


                                                WebSOS




          Alarm & Dial              MPS/GIS                Outgoing &             Connections to
                                                       Incoming messages       different databases


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   3.3.    Finland

New Activities

Seminar “Information Technologies and Decision Support Systems in Civil Protection and
                        ,
Emergency Management” 31 August – 2 September 2004, Tampere

Seminar “                                     ,
         Towards 112 Cross-Border Cooperation” 27-28 May 2004, Saariselkä


New Integrated System

                                                       VIRVE” The primary users of the VIRVE
Finland has in place a fully integrated network called “       .
network are national and municipal authorities responsible for public safety, such as fire and
rescue services, police, border guards, customs, defence forces and social and health services.
        s                                                                                s
Finland’ VIRVE is a pioneer in the world of Professional Mobile Radio, being the world’ first
nationwide authority network based on TETRA technology. Nokia has and continues to develop
the TETRA solution in Finland in order to meet the different communication needs of authorities
in charge of public safety.

Offering both voice and data connectivity, VIRVE is secure and fast, bringing significant
improvements to authority communications. For users, the VIRVE network offers services that
are very similar to those on a mobile phone, making it extremely easy to use. In addition, it is
an efficient tool for implementing command systems, enabling different operational models to
be coordinated effectively. It also improves personnel safety significantly, forms a nationwide
platform for communications, and above all, offers a highly cost-effective, complete solution.
Practicalities of VIRVE-network:

       IP based
       15 exchanges (centres); two of which are exchange nodes
       More than 1,200 support stations have been installed in the network
       Shared services for all user organizations
       Ensures effective cooperation between different authorities
       Provides endless communication possibilities
       Suomen Erillisverkot Oy, a 100% Finnish government owned company,
       owns the VIRVE-network

Between 2004 and 2005, the following VIRVE update operations have taken place
   Backup centre, which will be used in case of emergencies, has been installed
   Approximately 60 support stations have been moved to ensure radio connection at all times
   Centralized access in the VIRVE IP-network
   Power generators have been repaired as needed
   Mobile backup generators have been acquired
   Backup access to electricity has been secured at important service stations
   Authentication Key Management Server (AKES) and Authentication Customer Key Server
   (ACKS) are tested




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Cost per User in European Public Safety Networks (Suomen Erillisverkot Oy)




FICORA (Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority) ensures privacy protection.


Information Technology and Crisis Management (ITCM) and the Finnish Defence Forces

Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) initiated the Information Technology and Crisis
Management (ITCM) project in 2001 to address the identified need to improve information
sharing practises and communication systems in humanitarian response and crisis
management operations. Instrumentointi Oy and IBM Finland are developing the first
commercial version of ITCM, which provides decision-making support and knowledge
management in close cooperation with crisis management organisations. The open standard
system, which provides global support, was tested by the Finnish national authorities during the
Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration 2006 (CWID) 2005 exercise. CWID is the
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff annual event that enables U.S. Combatant Commands
and the international community to investigate new and emerging technologies that can be
moved into operational use within 6-12 months following the execution period. The
demonstration builds a temporary global network, over which cutting edge communications
technologies interact to support scripted scenarios. Technologies are evaluated for utility,
interoperability with existing and new systems, and security.


   3.4.    Germany

New Activities

“Critical Infrastructure Protection and Civil Emergency Planning: Dependable Structures,
                                          ,
Cyber Security and Common Standards” organised by the Governments of Switzerland and
Germany, Zurich, 9-11 September 2004

Rescue, emergency preparedness and civil protection in Germany is a combined effort of the
federal government, the state governments, local authorities such as fire brigades, and NGOs.
The protection of the civilian population during war or an international political crisis, as well as



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national defence in general, are the responsibility of the federal government, while the states
are in charge of disaster preparedness.

The new types of threat that have emerged as a result of changes in global politics combined
with the danger of international terrorism, as well as major accidents and natural disasters,
have prompted reforms in security policies. Germany has not been immune to such
phenomena and, as a result, adopted a new strategy for civil defence in 2002.

To further improve the deployment capability and command in civil defence in a cross-
departmental and cross-field cooperation and coordination setting, new developments and
major changes have been taking place in order to close the gaps in the information technology
systems used. A comprehensive warning system comprising of different technologies and
agencies has been put into place. In 2003, the federal government set up a Joint Report and
Location Office of the Federal Government and the Lands (GMLZ), which allows the
                                                         )
information systems of the federal and state (Lands’ governments to be networked to deNIS.
Developed by the Ministry of the Interior, the German Emergency Planning Information System
(deNIS) is aimed to assist the different authorities in the decision-making process when dealing
with relief, rescue and disaster management. It can only be accessed by an authorised user
group, which mainly are the operation centres in charge of evaluating, taking the proper
measures and making the best use of the resources needed in any particular operation.

deNIS II, an enhanced version of deNIS I, integrates all relevant data into one central server in
order to provide the necessary spatial information on an interactive situation map that uses as
its core element the Geographic Information System (GIS).




Source: Stefan Wilbert. Presentation at the seminar on Critical Infrastructure Protection and Civil Emergency
Planning: Dependable Structures, Cyber security and Common Standards, Zurich, 9-11 September 2004.




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   3.5.    Latvia

The State Fire and Rescue Service, placed under the
Ministry of the Interior, runs the 112 Call Centre. The
112-centre currently coordinates all civil protection
services, and the 112-service forwards calls to the
other civil protection services. Technology between
different service providers is not integrated.

The future coordination and IT structure of the
national civil protection service is currently under
discussion in order to ensure the following:

   Clear responsibilities
   A unified telephone number
   A unified IT and Decision Support System




   3.6.    Lithuania

New Activities
3rd Meeting of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, Civil Protection Directors-General, 15-17
September 2004, Vilnius

The State Fire and Rescue Service is made up of: the Fire and Rescue Department of the
Republic of Lithuania under the Ministry of the Interior (the FRD) and 57 subordinate services;
51 city and district fire and rescue services; 3 fire and rescue services for the protection of
strategic establishments; the Specialized Fire and Rescue Service; the Fire-fighters Training
School; and the Fire Research Centre.
The FRD is in command of the civil protection exercises at national level, as well as of the
preparedness of the state institutions and the communities for taking practical actions in the
event of emergencies. In addition, the FRD is in charge of responding to major accidents and
rescuing people and property. The FRD runs the Population Warning and Information System
P–160, which serves to warn the population in the event of emergencies.
In October 2003, an emergency response centre was established at the Ministry of Internal
Affairs. Its duties include the coordination of issues relating to the possible future adoption of a
unified 112-emergency phone call system. Currently, the incoming 112-emergency phone calls


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are connected to separate numbers to the police (02), the fire department (01), and ambulance
services (03).



    3.7.    Norway

The current radio communication systems in Norway are rather fragmented and based on old
analogue technology. In 2005, in an effort to renew and strengthen national security and
preparedness and the safety of its citizens, the government issued tender calls for the
development of a new common digital radio communication network for the police, fire and
health services at national level through the Ministry of Justice.

Lessons learned from the TETRA Trondheim Pilot Project run between 2000 and 2003 only
reiterated the need to change from the old analogue system. The project took place at 28
TETRA base stations in operational use. The police, the fire and health organisations, as well
as other rescue and service agencies used the RBA pilot network and were able to test the
different features of the programme during the project.


Private system, based on traditional analogue            One shared TETRA network
technology
                                                                      s
                                                              Today’ TETRA technology enables organisations
      Until the advent of TETRA, the most professional        to share
      mobile radio                                            The same wide area network without
      Users all had their own, closed radio systems           compromising their
      Difficult co-operation with other organizations         Privacy or security
      Uneconomic, overlapping investments and                 Efficient co-operation and communication in a
      Maintenance personnel costs                             shared network
      Channel oriented operations and communications          Sharing means better economy in all areas -
      Insecure, exposed to eavesdropping                      CAPEX, IMPEX, OPEX
                                                              User and group oriented operations and
                                                              communications
                                                              Secure, no eavesdropping

Nokia Tetra Touch 2 – 2003

The new digital radio communication network is scheduled to cover the whole country by 2009.
A team of operation experts from the emergency agencies is now in charge of reviewing the
tenders submitted during the second part of a two-stage selection process that began in March
2005. Once all tenders have been reviewed, candidates for the public safety network and
control rooms’  part of the project chosen and negotiations concluded, work will begin in 2006 in
the first development region located in eastern Norway.

The network will also be available to other agencies involved in preparedness, such as
voluntary rescue and relief organisations. The government has already allocated and
substantially increased the budget for 2006 as the overall cost of the new network is NOK 3.6
billion (ca. EUR 457 million).


    3.8.    Poland

                 s
Due to Poland’ recent accession to EU, there have been several regional and sectoral pilot
projects in order to improve the civil protection communication systems. Since 1st September
2005, the 112-emergency number has been in use in Poland but previous numbers have also
remained active. For cellular phones the number is the standard 112, but for fixed phones there
are three different numbers: ambulance (999), fire fighters (998), and police (997). Currently,
civil protection officials are being trained to use different civil protection communication systems,
and the work to improve technical solutions and organisational preparedness continues.


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In the past few years, Poland has signed several TETRA-agreements, and the expected
demand of TETRA implementation in Poland has been estimated at about 150,000 users.
Polish orders for the TETRA system are chiefly for the police in Warsaw, Szczecin, Katowice
and the Police Academy in Szczytno.

A new TETRA Command & Control System for the Police Academy in Szczytno was officially
opened in January 2003 and is now operating at full capacity. Nokia and ComputerLand, a
Polish software integrator and developer, built the system, which is based on Nokia TETRA
digital wireless communications and CoLombo 2 application. The equipment and software was
donated by ComputerLand and Nokia. As well as being used for training students at the Police
Academy and other public safety professionals, the Command & Control System is used to
control operations at the District Police Headquarters at Szczytno. There are also plans to use
the system in future regional emergency response centres.

In 2003, the Polish government of Czluchow
commissioned a pilot project to set up a new radio system
to improve internal security and cooperation among rescue
teams. R&S BICK Mobilfunk, a subsidiary of Rohde &
Schwarz, supplied and installed a TETRA ACCESSNET ®-
T radio system in the new control centre in Czluchow. The
system is used for direct radio communications between
police, fire fighters, rescue services and the control centre.
The new control centre is supplied with cameras and
emergency telephones. The cameras monitor sensitive
locations, such as busy crossings or public places. The
emergency telephones enable direct and immediate contact with the control centre where the
rescue teams and emergency services are instantly coordinated via TETRA. For TETRA radio
communications, a TETRA base station with an integrated exchange (DSS-500) was set up in
Czluchow. This includes a gateway to the in-house PBAX system, permitting radio conversation
to and from the in-house or public telephone network. In addition, the TETRA terminals in the
vehicles are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) receivers. The TETRA dispatcher
can thus coordinate action simply by knowing the relevant position data.


 3.9.      The Russian Federation

New Activities

“Business Programme of the 4th International Specialized Exhibition, Fire Safety of XXI
        ,
Century” 27-30 September 2005, Moscow

The Russian Federation's Ministry of Civil Defence, Emergencies and the Elimination of the
Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM) is responsible for civil protection issues in the
                                       s
country. USEPE (Russian Federation’ Unified State System for Emergency, Prevention and
Elimination) deals with questions of emergency management, policies and civil security.
USEPE and EMERCOM together are in charge of civil protection. EMERCOM acts as a
coordinator in handling technological hazards and accidents at the federal and macro-regional
level. Regional and local level civil defence and emergency management have their own
commissions in charge.

Currently, Russia lacks a functioning single duty-dispatching service (SDDS). Despite the
December 2004 resolution of the Russian Government to replace the old practice and to
establish a unified emergency number 112 as the national emergency short code throughout
Russia, there is still no functioning nation-wide emergency number in Russia. Each authority
has its own emergency number for the different types of emergency situations, as well as



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  different regional emergency numbers and practices. The numbers still in use are: 01 for fires
  and general emergencies, 02 for police (militia), 03 for medical emergencies, 04 for gas leaks.

  In addition to the problem of how to identify the responsible authority in case of emergency, one
  problem has been an increasing number of 112-emergency phone calls in Russia, especially
  from mobile phone callers. Today, some municipalities such as the City of St. Petersburg have
  replaced the old emergency phone system with 112. However, in most parts of Russia the old
  multi-emergency number system is still in place.

  The prospects of developing SDDS requires it to be part of a municipal united operative
  dispatching system (UODS), which acts as a tool in a decision support system of an integrated
  communications and data transmission system.



  Basic Requirements and Prospects of Development of the Software of Single-Duty-
  Dispatching-Service (SDDS) of Cities in the Russian Federation




                 MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES ON CIVIL DEFENCE AND EMERGENCIES

     District                                                                              Cooperating
    operating                                      SDDS                                     operative
     centre                                                                                dispatching
                                                On-duty officer                               centre



                                                    Dispatchers shift
  UODS                                                                             UODS


                                      Joint dispatching service




Municipal duty                                                             Local dispatching
 dispatching                          Inhabitants and                    services of dangerous
   services                            organisations                       industrial objects




  (Graph by Dr. Alexey Popov, EMERCOM Russia)




                                                                                            15 (22)
   3.10. Sweden


New Activities

Meeting Place for Crisis Preparedness Seminar (Mötesplats krisberedskap seminar)
Seminar on “        s                                                            s
            Society’ crisis preparedness in politics and practise – Why Sweden’ crisis
                            ,
preparedness is not good?” 15-16 November 2005

Seminar on “Procedures for First Responders dealing with CBRN (Chemical, Biological,
                                    ,
Radiological and Nuclear) Incidents” 1-3 June 2005, Karlstad

The integrated decision support system (RIB), which was developed by the Swedish Rescue
Services Agency (SRSA), is still in place today. This computer programme began to function as a
resource information bank for fire and rescue services in 1987. In addition, the programme was
also available to other agencies such as the coast guard, the police, companies and government
entities.

SRSA acts as the central supervisory government authority for the rescue services and ensures
that coordination between the different national rescue services runs smoothly. The agency also
collects lessons learned and implements any necessary changes.

When RIB was first introduced, information was collected by telephone. Those subscribed to the
system called the headquarters of SRSA to provide information, which was then entered into the
mainframe computer and relayed back through the telephone. Although in the beginning the
system was “  old-fashioned”and extremely expensive, it is nowadays a rather inexpensive and
user-friendly system. So much so that end-users get the system delivered in CD-ROMs to be
used in any type of personal computer.

SRSA is in charge of the updating and continued development of RIB. The system now comprises
of several databases and modules, which provide different information to its users. These are:

    1. Hazardous substances (database of chemicals in several languages)
    2. Library (manuals, reports, articles)
    3. Resources (experts and equipment)
    4. Tools (calculation programmes, risk management planning, etc.)
    5. Transport and supervision (legislation for the transportation of hazardous goods)
    6. Statistics (accidents database and other contexts)
    7. Training literature (training material for the specific fields of fire fighting,
       environment/chemistry, emergency response, medical treatment, prevention/risk, and
       the transportation of dangerous goods)
    8. Training programmes (fire scenarios, oil emissions, etc.)
    9. OP-RIB or Operational RIB (mobile use during emergency response operations).




                                                                                     16 (22)
      s
SRSA’ RIB programme includes a vast database of over 3,800 digital documents, 16,000
records, all SRSA publications, symbols and clip art. SRSA has also incorporated and uses a
RIB-based “  Safe Community”programme, an injury prevention model that the World Health
Organisation uses as well.

As well as promoting its emergency prevention and response policies at national level, SRSA is
a part of a number of international cooperation projects on risk management. The Swedish
                                                                                  s
approach to risk management incorporates risk inventory and analysis. RIB’ tools for risk
management include the RiskERA programme, which is a GIS-based programme that allows
the user to identify a risk source, analyse it, classify it, and predict the outcomes of events
(common and worse-case scenarios).




There are plans to develop a less comprehensive, but equally useful version of RIB in English,
as well as access to RIB via the Internet.




                                                                                        17 (22)
4.           Conclusions

This report has provided an overview of information technologies and the different support
systems used in civil protection management in the Baltic Sea Region countries. The aim was
to provide updated information on the current national and local systems as well as the future
plans that are underway.

       While there is no shared understanding in Europe or in the BSR on what are the
       limits of cooperation or integration in the field of civil protection, most actors
       presumably agree upon the desirability of further integration or, at least, of closer
       regional cooperation.


National differences in the levels of information technologies, decision support systems, logistic
services and administrative responsibilities make cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region
particularly challenging. However, similar training programmes, pilot projects and political
cohesion make this area a potential object for the European-scale pilot project in the field of
112-cross-border cooperation. Moreover, the 112-emergency number is now in use in all BSR
countries, including major cities in Russia, although the technology and trained manpower
behind the administrative support functions vary in great deal in each country.

       The Baltic Sea Region should be seen as a potential area for the European-scale
       pilot project on efficient 112-cross-border cooperation. The pilot project should
       include a feasibility study on the benefits of establishing a single 112-control
       centre to clarify the 112-calls from various countries, and to optimise the national
       emergency response capacities to each particular accident and emergency in an
       appropriate manner. The aim of the project would be to serve the BSR citizens in
       their own language regardless of their location.




                                                                                           18 (22)
19 (22)
5.   Partners in the EUROBALTIC Programme for Civil Protection in the Baltic Sea
     Region INTERREG III B


Denmark
Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA)

Estonia
Estonian Rescue Board

Finland
Regional Council of Itä-Uusimaa
City of Kouvola
Emergency Response Centre Administration
Aleksanteri Institute, University of Helsinki
                            s
The Ministry of the Interior’ Department for Rescue Services
SPEK - Central Organisation for Rescue Services in Finland

Latvia
State Fire and Rescue Service of Latvia

Lithuania
Lithuanian Fire and Rescue Department

Norway
SINTEF - Industrial Management, Safety and Reliability

Poland
Main Headquarters of the State Fire Service of Poland

The Russian Federation
EMERCOM of Russia, North Western Regional Centre
EMERCOM of Russia, Oblast Kaliningrad

Sweden
Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA) - Lead Partner
Nordregio - Nordic Centre for Spatial Development
County Administrative Board of Värmland
Karlstad University
City of Karlstad
City of Karlskoga
National Centre for Statistics and Lessons Learned from Accidents, Karlskoga
Karolinska Institutet
Töreboda Municipality
Västmanland Association of Local Authorities in coop. with Arboga Municipality
Skövde Municipality
Mariestad Municipality
East Blekinge Rescue Services




                                                                                 20 (22)
6.   References and Resources

1. The Danish Emergency Management Agency – DEMA:
   http://www.beredskabsstyrelsen.dk/demaint/UK/page1.htm

2. The Estonian Rescue Board and the Estonian Emergency Centre:
   http://www.rescue.ee/index.php?page=117

                               s
3. The Ministry of the Interior’ Department for Rescue Services:
   http://www.intermin.fi/intermin/home.nsf/pages/9759E6C1057312B6C2256FB00032D32B?Op
                           s
   enDocument, Finland’ Public Authority Network (VIRVE):
   www.virve.com/englanti/englanti_etusivu.htm and TETRA - TErrestrial Trunked Radio:
   http://www.tetramou.com/

4. The Minister of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany:
   http://www.bmi.bund.de/cln_012/nn_122730/Internet/Navigation/EN/Homepage/Home.html__n
   nn=true and the Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Response:
   http://www.bbk.bund.de/nn_395496/__Vorlagen/Home/homepage__node.html__nnn=true (In
   German only).

         s
5. Latvia’ State Firefighting and Rescue Service: http://www.vugd.gov.lv/eng/

            s
6. Lithuania’ Fire and Rescue Department (under the Ministry of the Interior):
   http://www.vpgt.lt/index.php?-180533224

7. The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning (DSB):
   http://www.dsb.no/forside.asp and NØDNETT, the new digital radio communication system to
   be used by the Norwegian public safety authorities:
   http://www.nodnett.no/default.asp?labb=uk

          s
8. Poland’ State Fire Service HQ: http://www.kgpsp.gov.pl/portal/kgpsp/pl/home/ (In Polish
   only).

9. EMERCOM (Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and the
   Elimination of the Consequences of Natural Disasters: http://www.mchs.gov.ru (In Russian
   only).

10. The Swedish Rescue Services Agency - SRSA:
    http://www.raddningsverket.se/templates/SRV_AreaPage____350.aspx and the Swedish
    Emergency Management Agency – SEMA:
    http://www.krisberedskapsmyndigheten.se/defaultEN____224.aspx

11. Council of the Baltic Sea States: http://www.cbss.st/

12. International Civil Defence Organisation (ICDO): http://www.icdo.org

13. Ingo Bäumer, Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Response (BBK). German
    Emergency Planning Information System (deNIS). Seminar on Critical Infrastructure Protection
    and Civil Emergency Planning: Dependable Structures, Cyber Security and Common
    Standards, Zurich, 9 – 11 September 2004
    http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/foreign/secpe/intsec/wrkshp/cybsec/b_umler.html

14. Address by Mr. W. Feja, Mecklenburg-Vorpomern, Ministry of the Interior: New challenges for
    emergency defence management in Germany. 3rd Meeting of CBSS Civil Protection
    Directors-General, 15-17 Sept. 04, Lithuania
    http://www.cbss.st/documents/cbsspresidencies/13polish/directorsgeneral/



                                                                                       21 (22)
15. Stefan Wilbert, Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Response (BBK). A new
    Strategy for Protection of the Population: Instruments of Civil Protection in Germany. Seminar
    on Critical Infrastructure Protection and Civil Emergency Planning: Dependable Structures,
    Cyber Security and Common Standards, Zurich, 9 – 11 September 2004
    http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/foreign/secpe/intsec/wrkshp/cybsec/stein.html


Notes
i
  http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/civil/prote/cp01_en.htm
ii
    http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/civil/whywhatcpf.htm#why
iii
    SEVESO refers to the EU SEVESO II Directive aiming at the prevention of major accident hazards involving
dangerous substances, such as chemical industry disasters.
iv
    “Complex”refers here to a combination of different types of disasters. For instance, a natural disaster may
contribute to a technological disaster, thus making the original threath much bigger.




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