Drifting Towards Disunion_ 1854-1861 by suchenfz


									Drifting Towards Disunion,
       Ch. 19 - AP US
  Literary Incendiaries - Abolitionists
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s
   Cabin in 1851. It sold over 300,copies
   within a year. IT focuses on the
   breakup of families from slavery. The
   book was banned in most of the South
   yet it was also printed in different
   languages and sold around the world.
   Southerners quickly published books
   refuting Stowe’s themes but they had
   little impact. The book helped shape the
   North’s view of slavery. Lincoln later
   referred to her as the “little woman that
   made this great war.” Her book may
   have helped delay/deny recognition by
   Britain and France of the Confederacy
   due to the slave issue.
More Literary Incendiaries - Abolitionists

Hinton Rowan Helper, from North Carolina, wrote The
    Impending Crisis in the South. He wrote “slavery lies
    at the root all the shame, poverty, ignorance, tyranny
    and imbecility in the South.” Slavery took the best land
    and degraded all labor- hurting the non-slaveholders
    the most. His book was banned in the South. Mere
    possession of it was a criminal offense in part of the
    South. Republicans saw it as a confirmation of the
    evils of slavery. Between 1857 and 1861 nearly
    150,000 copies of the book were circulated, and in
    1860 the Republican party distributed it as a campaign
In December 1859 Democrats returning to Congress
    reacted with indignation because 68 Republicans had
    endorsed the book and planned to use it as campaign
    literature in the presidential election of 1860. The
    opponents blocked the election of Republican John
Literary Incendiaries – Pro-Slavery
    Pro-slavery forces moved from defending slavery as a
    necessary evil to expounding it as a positive good. Some
    insisted that African Americans were child-like people in need
    of protection, and that slavery provided a civilizing influence.
    Others argued that black people were biologically inferior to
    white people and were incapable of assimilating in free society.
    Still others claimed that slaves were necessary to maintain the
    progress of white society.
    The South promoted slavery. Their slaves had a higher standard
    of living than the blacks in the North. They never faced
    unemployment or wage cuts. They had free medical care and
    were taken care of in their old age. The system guaranteed the
    protection of the workers.
    George Fitzhugh wrote Cannibals All or Slaves without
    Masters. “... the Negro race is inferior to the white race, and
    living in their midst, they would be far outstripped or outwitted
    in the chaos of free competition."
    Fitzhugh compares the welfare of the southern slaves with that
    of northern factory workers. He claims that slavery is a
    necessary condition that provides shelter, and guardianship, not
    to be had in the north. He compares the concerns of the slave
    master with chose of the capitalist, finding the latter to be much
    more cruel and exploitative.
    More Literary Incendiaries – Pro-Slavery
“The world at large looks on negro slavery as much the worst
form of slavery; because it is only acquainted with West India
slavery. But our Southern slavery has become a benign and
protective institution, and our negroes are confessedly better
off than any free laboring population in the world. How can
we contend that white slavery is wrong, whilst all the great
body of free laborers is starving; and slaves, white or black,
throughout the world, are enjoying comfort? . . The aversion
to negroes, the antipathy of race, is much greater at the North
than at the South; and it is very probable that this antipathy to
the person of the negro, is confounded with or generates
hatred of the institution with which he is usually connected.
Hatred to slavery is very generally little more than hatred of

When George Fitzhugh was invited to the North to debate
abolitionist Wendell Phillips, Fitzhugh expressed surprise at
his courteous reception. “A free society could tolerate free
speech and a free press, while a slave society could not.”
U.S. in 1854
Senator Douglas, the Democratic
Senator from Illinois and
Chairman of the Committee on
Territories, introduced a bill in
early 1854 to reorganize the
Douglas’s motives have been
called into question as he had
invested heavily in western lands
and had a stake in getting the
terminus of the planned
transcontinental railroad located
in Chicago Illinois. He was also
interested in running for
president and thought the
publicity generated from this bill
would help him achieve his goal.
His Kansas Nebraska Act was one
of the great blunders in all U.S.
political history and started a
chain of events that ended in the
Civil War.

 North & South Contest Kansas
Kansas became the new battleground
over slavery. (Yet, by 1860, only two
slaves were listed in the census.)
A.Jayhawkers & “Nebrascals”
 Abolitionist forces were sending people to Kansas. Some of them were armed
 with “Beecher’s Bibles”- Rifles named after abolitionist preacher Henry
 Ward Beecher. He (Henry W. Beecher) believed that the Sharps Rifle was a
 truly moral agency, and that there was more moral power in one of those
 instruments, so far as the slaveholders of Kansas were concerned, than in a
 hundred Bibles. You might just as well. . . read the Bible to Buffaloes as to
 those fellows who follow Atchison and Stringfellow; but they have a supreme
 respect for the logic that is embodied in Sharp's rifle.
 This article appeared in the New York Tribune on February 8, 1856
B.Border Ruffians flood in from MO
C.Territorial Election of 1854
 1.Fraudulent results elects pro-slavery legislature
 2.Pro-slavery constitution is written by “Lecompton” government
 3.Free-soilers counter with a convention in Lawrence to elect new legislature and
 write “free” constitution
Bleeding Kansas, 1856-1860
         The issue of slavery replaced the political battles over schools,
temperance and immigration. Kansas became the focal point of the nation.
Would Kansas enter as a free or slave state? Who would decide? When? These
were the questions begging to be answered. People were coming to Kansas not
so much to settle there but to decide the issue over slavery.
         The South saw this as a point of honor. A number of southerners voted
illegally for a territorial government that legalized slavery. The “free state”
party adopted their own legislature and constitution. Two governments were
now established.
         Tensions climbed when proslavery forces burned the free soil town of
Lawrence Kansas- mostly to burn a newspaper press.
    Brooks Bludgeons Sumner
The US Congress argued over the issue of Kansas. Senator Charles
 Sumner of MA delivers blistering “The Crime Against Kansas” speech
 in May of 1856. In the speech, Sumner accused Sen. Butler (SC) of
 having taken "a mistress who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to
 him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I
 mean, the harlot, Slavery."
On 5/22/5, Congressman Preston Brooks
of South Carolina used his cane to attack
Sumner for his comments on the Senate
floor. Sumner was sent to the hospital.
Due to censure, Brooks resigned but was
reelected. He received gifts of new canes
from all over the South. His “barbaric”
actions brought more people to the
Republican Party. Some feared the South
would start to beat the North as they beat
their slaves.
How does this event, Brooks caning Sumner,
and its aftermath reveal that there is little
hope for reconciliation?

Well, if that was not bad enough ……
Violent abolitionist response to Lawrence
                    Massacre at Night - Pottawatomie
A few days after the attack on Lawrence, abolitionist John Brown
exacted his revenge by brutally murdering five pro-slavery sympathizers
in the area near Lawrence. Accompanied by four of his sons and two
others, Brown went from house to house on the evening of May 24
calling out suspected pro-slavery men and interrogating them about their
sympathies. Unfortunately, five men were accused of pro-slavery
sympathies and were immediately hacked to death with a broadsword.

President Pierce sent federal troops to
“Bleeding Kansas” to help quell the violence.

Three years after the massacre, John Brown was
executed by the state of Virginia for leading an
unsuccessful raid on an army arsenal at Harper's
Ferry, Virginia in an attempt to capture arms for a
slave uprising.
An artist's depiction of John Brown   capitol.jpg

and "Bleeding Kansas".
            The Election of 1856
A. Dems nominate “Kansas-less” James Buchanan
B. Reps also go “Kansas-less” with John C. Fremont
   1.  Reps expected boost from unhappy northern Dems and
       former Whigs
   2. Surprised by support for the American Party
      a. Know-Nothings do well with nativists in Northern cities
      b. Nominate Millard Fillmore
C. Threats of secession, Fremont’s competence and
   Know-Nothingism leads to “Old Buck’s” victory
D. Could the Reps declare this a “victorious defeat?”
   The Republican Party                  The Republicans
                                         opposed the extension
                                         of slavery and the
                                         Mormon practice of
                                         bigamy (having more
                                         than one wife). The
                                         slogan of the Republican
                                         party in the candidate
                                         was "Free Speech, Free
                                         Press, Free soil, Free
                                         Men, Fremont and

Campaign poster from the 1856 election. This
scene was intended to remind voters of
Fremont's famous exploring expeditions to the
Rocky Mountains in 1842 and 1843.
Fremont and his abolitionist supporters are made fun of. In particular, the artist condemns the
Republican candidate's alliance with New York "Tribune" editor Horace Greeley and Henry Ward
Beecher along with his role in the Kansas-Nebraska conflict. Fremont (center) rides a scrawny
"Abolition nag" with the head of Greeley. The horse is led toward the left and "Salt River" (i.e., political
doom) by prominent New York politician William Seward. Fremont muses hopefully, "This is pretty hard
riding but if he only carries me to the White house in safety I will forgive my friends for putting me
astride of such a crazy Old Hack." …
On the right stands radical abolitionist minister Henry Ward Beecher, laden with rifles. He preaches in
"Be heavenly minded my brethren all
But if you fall out at trifles;
Settle the matter with powder and ball
And I will furnish the rifles. A frontiersman (far right), a figure from Fremont's exploring past, leans on
his rifle and comments, "Ah! Colonel!--you've got into a bad crowd--you'll find that dead Horse on the
prairie, is better for the Constitution, than Abolition Soup or Wooly head stew in the White House."
 Fremont is portrayed as
 the champion of a motley
 array of radicals and
 reformers. As he stands
 patiently at far right he is
 "called upon" by (left to
 right): a temperance
 advocate, a cigar-smoking,
 trousered suffragette, a
 ragged socialist holding a
 liquor bottle, a spinsterish
 libertarian, a Catholic
 priest holding a cross, and
 a free black dandy.
 Temperance man: "The
 first thing we want, is a
 law making the use of
 Tobacco, Animal food, and
 Lager-bier a Capital
 Suffragette: "We demand,
 first of all; the recognition
 of Woman as the equal of
 man with a right to Vote
 and hold Office."

Socialist: "An equal division of Property that is what I go in for."
Elderly libertarian: "Col. I wish to invite you to the next meeting of our Free Love association, where
the shackles of marriage are not tolerated & perfect freedom exist in love matters and you will be sure
to Enjoy yourself, for we are all Freemounters."
Priest: "We look to you Sir to place the power of the Pope on a firm footing in this Country."
Freedman: "De Poppylation ob Color comes in first. arter dat, you may do wot you pleases."
Fremont: "You shall all have what you desire. and be sure that the glorious Principles of Popery,
Fourierism, Free Love, Woman's Rights, the Maine Law, & above all the Equality of our Colored
brethren, shall be maintained; If I get into the Presidential Chair."
                          The Democratic
                          supported the
                          compromise of
                          1850, opposed
                          interference in
                          slavery and
                          supported the
                          building of the

Democratic Presidential candidate James Buchanan (left) is depicted as a poor bachelor
in his squalid quarters. A needle and thread in his hand, Buchanan examines a ragged
coat on which he has just sewn a patch marked "Cuba." This is probably a reference to
his authorship of the Ostend Manifesto of 1854, which proposed that the United States
annex or seize Cuba. Buchanan says, "My Old coat was a very fashionable Federal coat
when it was new, but by patching and turning I have made it quite a Democratic
Garment. That Cuba patch to be sure is rather unsightly but it suits Southern fashions
at this season, and then.” Buchanan's words here suggest that the desire to extend
American slave territory motivated his Ostend designs on Cuba. His mention of
converting a "Federal coat" to a Democratic one refers to his 1828 conversion from
Federal party man to Jacksonian Democrat.
                     An attack on the 1856
                     Democratic platform as
                     pro-South and pro-
                     slavery. In the center of
                     the picture is a flagstaff
                     bearing an American flag
                     inscribed "Buchanan &
                     Breckenridge. Modern
                     Democracy." To its base
                     are chained two slaves
                     (right)--a man and a
                     woman. The woman
                     kneels before an overseer
                     with a whip and pistol in
                     his pocket, and asks, "Is
                     this Democracy?" The
                     overseer declares, "We
                     will subdue you.” In the
                     back is a ship firing on
                     Cuba to reinforce the fact
                     that the Democrats
                     wanted to expand slave
                     territory to that island. A
                     critique of Democrats
                     Kansas policy is shown at
                     the back left.
Beating of Senator
Sumner in Congress
Anti-slavery cartoon of the violence in Kansas during the 1856
Presidential election. In the center are pro-slavery “border
ruffians” harassing Liberty after killing her husband. On the right
is Senator Douglas and on the left is Democratic candidate James
Buchanan .
SUMMARY: The artist blames Democrats for the violence directed against anti-slavery settlers
in Kansas after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Here a bearded "freesoiler" has been
bound to the "Democratic Platform" and is restrained by two Lilliputian figures, presidential
nominee James Buchanan and Democratic senator Lewis Cass. Democratic senator Stephen A.
Douglas and president Franklin Pierce, also shown as tiny figures, force a black man into the
giant's gaping mouth. The freesoiler's head rests on a platform marked "Kansas," "Cuba," and
"Central America," probably referring to Democratic ambitions for the extension of slavery. In the
background left is a scene of burning and pillage; on the right a dead man hangs from a tree.
A nativist (Know Nothing Party) perspective on the campaign of 1856. In a race scene, American party candidate Millard
Fillmore leads in the bid for the White House. Fillmore says, "Founded by Washington the only sure Line to Washington is
the American Express," while his driver remarks, "We've got a sure thing on this race." He is trailed by Democratic
candidate James Buchanan (center) carried on the shoulders of incumbent Franklin Pierce, and a cross-bearing John C.
Fremont, in a carriage pulled by the woolly nag symbolic of abolitionism. Fremont is once again characterized as a pawn of
antislavery interests. (The cross here alludes to rumors of his Catholicism.) His carriage is led by New York "Tribune" editor
Horace Greeley, and it carries Fremont's wife Jessie and a large sack. It is at present mired in an "Abolition Cess Pool."
Abolitionist preacher Henry Ward Beecher tries to force the back wheel using a rifle as a lever. Beecher: "Brother Horace
jerk his [i.e., the nag's] head up once more and Shriek for Kansas, and I'll give the wheel a pry with my rifle." The reference
is to Republican attempts to exploit the Kansas violence as an election issue, and to Beecher's arming of antislavery settlers
in Kansas. Greeley: "It's no use crying Kansas any more it dont Prick his Ears a bit--I guess we're about used up." Fremont:
"Oh that I had kept the road & not tried to wade through this dirty ditch, but these fellows persuaded me, it was a shorter
Way--and so I've gone it blind.'" Buchanan (to Pierce): "Frank, I am afraid we aint got legs enough to beat Fillmore, but its
some comfort to see old Greelys team stuck in the mud." Pierce: "I don't see how my party expect me to carry this old
platform in, a winner, when they thought I had'nt legs enough to run for myself." Below the image entries in the race are
described: "Young America. --- Enters, Fillmore' by Honesty out of Experience (trained on the Union track). "Democrat.--
Enters, 2ld Buck' (alias Platform') by Fillibuster out of Federalist' 8xercised on the Ostend Course.' "Greeley, Weed, Beecher
& Co.--Enters, Ca-nuck Pony, Freemont,' by Wooly Head' out of Wooly Horse' from the Mariposa stable.)"
A pro Fillmore satire, whose campaign slogan was "the right man in the right place." Fillmore was nominated
at the American party's February 22 convention in Philadelphia. Here he is the embodiment of equanimity, in
stark contrast to the combative hostility of Republican John C. Fremont (left) and Democrat James Buchanan.
Fillmore mediates between the two men, who are armed here with a musket and dagger respectively.
Fremont: "He's a border ruffian! and I'll shoot the Slave-holding Villain!" He associates Buchanan with recent
violence against antislavery settlers in Kansas, and with the slaveholding interests. Buchanan, raising his
dagger but restrained by Fillmore: "Let go! Let me at him! I'll make Mince meat of the rascally abolitionist!"
Fillmore: "Stop! Stop! My friends, I cant allow any fighting, there must be peace between you as long as I
stand here."
Letter to Joshua F. Speed
from A. Lincoln
August 24, 1855

I am not a Know-Nothing. That is certain. How could I be? How can any one who abhors the oppression
of negroes, be in favor of degrading classes of white people? Our progress in degeneracy appears to me
to be pretty rapid. As a nation, we begin by declaring that "all men are created equal." We now
practically read it "all men are created equal, except negroes." When the Know-Nothings get control, it
will read "all men are created equal, except negroes, and foreigners, and catholics." When it comes to
this I should prefer emigrating to some country where they make no pretence of loving liberty-to Russia,
for instance, where despotism can be taken pure, and without the base alloy of hypocracy.

http://haysvillelibrary.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/james-buchanan.jpg                                    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Millard_Fillmore.jpg

                                                               Election of 1856
1856 Election results. Notice which
 states voted for the anti-slavery
         Republican Party.
 The Dred Scott Decision (1857)
A.    Background of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
B.    Background of Dred Scott
C.    High Court’s Motives (strict interpretation)
D.    High Court’s Ruling
     1. Slaves are not citizens and cannot sue
     2. Slaves are property protected by the 5th
        a. Territorial restrictions on slavery are unconstitutional
        b. MO Compromise was therefore unconstitutional
E. Elation in the South & woe in the North
F. Anger on both sides. Reasons?
                 Dred Scott Decision
1. Dred Scott, born a slave, had been taken by his master, an army surgeon, into
the free portion of the Louisiana territory.
2. Upon his master's death, Scott sued in Missouri for his freedom, on the
grounds that since slavery was outlawed in the free territory, he had become a
free man there, and "once free always free."
3. The argument was rejected by a Missouri court.
4. Scott and his white supporters managed to get the case into federal court,
where the issue was simply whether a slave had standing -- that is, the legal
right to sue in a federal court. The first question the Supreme Court had to
decide was whether it had jurisdiction. If Scott had standing, then the Court had
jurisdiction, and the justices could go on to decide the merits of his claim. But if,
as a slave, Scott did not have standing, then the Court could dismiss the suit for
lack of jurisdiction.
5. The Court ruled Scott, as a slave, could not exercise the prerogative of a free
citizen to sue in federal court and that should have been the end of the case.
6. Chief Justice Taney and the other Southern sympathizers on the Court hoped
that a definitive ruling would settle the issue of slavery in the territories once
and for all. So they went on to rule the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was
unconstitutional since Congress could not forbid citizens from taking their
property, i.e., slaves, into any territory owned by the United States. A slave,
Taney ruled, was property, nothing more, and could never be a citizen.
7. The South applauded the ruling, but in the North it raised a storm of protest
and scorn. It helped create the Republican Party, and disgust at the decision
may have played a role in the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860.
       Dred Scott                              Chief Justice of the Supreme
                                               Court Roger B. Taney

“Upon these considerations it is the opinion of the Court that the act of Congress which
prohibited a citizen from holding and owning property of this kind in the territory of
the United States north of the line therein mentioned is not warranted by the
Constitution and is therefore void; and that neither Dred Scott himself, nor any of his
family, were made free by being carried into this territory; even if they had been
carried there by the owner with the intention of becoming a permanent resident.”
        Dred Scott Decision

On March 6, 1857, Chief Justice Roger
B. Taney read the majority opinion of
the Court, which stated Black people
were not citizens of the United States
and, therefore, could not expect any
protection from the federal
government or the courts; the opinion
also stated that Congress had no
authority to ban slavery from a
federal territory. The decision of Scott
v. Sandford was considered by legal
scholars to be the worst ever
rendered by the Supreme Court. The
Republican Party decided their only
course of action would be to win
control of the government and
appoint new judges to overturn the

Judgment in the U.S. Supreme Court
Case Dred Scott v. John F. A. Sandford,
March 6, 1857
Lincoln Douglas Debates: Illinois 1858
                                         The Lincoln-Douglas debates
                                         were a series of formal political
                                         debates between Abraham
                                         Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas
                                         in a campaign for one of
                                         Illinois' two United States
                                         Senate seats. Although Lincoln
                                         lost the election, these debates
                                         launched him into national
                                         prominence which eventually
                                         led to his election as President
                                         of the United States.

                         “In my speeches I confined myself closely to those three positions
                         which he had taken, controverting his proposition that this Union
                         could not exist as our fathers made it, divided into free and slave
                         States, controverting his proposition of a crusade against the
                         Supreme Court because of the Dred Scott decision, and controverting
                         his proposition that the Declaration of Independence included and
The debates were         meant the negroes as well as the white men, when it declared all men
held in seven Illinois   to be created equal. “ Stephen Douglas
cities.                  Fifth Debate at Galesburg, Illinois, October 7, 1858
Lincoln and Douglas debated the expansion of slavery, the
authority of states to control slavery within their own
borders, and whether the Dred Scott decision had been
correct. Lincoln's and Douglas's opinions on the expansion of
slavery were different. Lincoln opposed slavery expansion,
while Douglas believed in popular sovereignty, or the ability
of each state government to determine its own laws and
The Lecompton Constitution was the second of four proposed constitutions for the
state of Kansas. The document was written in response to the anti-slavery position of
the 1855 Topeka Constitution. The territorial legislature, consisting mostly of slave-
owners, met at the designated capital of Lecompton in September 1857 to produce a
rival document. Free-state supporters, who comprised a large majority of actual
settlers, boycotted the vote. Buchanan's appointee as territorial governor of Kansas,
Robert J. Walker, although a strong defender of slavery, opposed the blatant injustice
of the Constitution and resigned rather than implement it.[2] This new constitution
enshrined slavery in the proposed state and protected the rights of slaveholders. In
addition, the constitution provided for a referendum that allowed voters the choice of
allowing more slaves to enter the territory.
Both the Topeka and Lecompton constitutions were placed before the people of the
Kansas Territory for a vote, and both votes were boycotted by supporters of the
opposing faction. In the case of Lecompton, however, the vote was boiled down to a
single issue, expressed on the ballot as "Constitution with Slavery" v. "Constitution
with no Slavery." But the "Constitution with no Slavery" clause would have not made
Kansas a free state; it merely would have banned future importation of slaves into
Kansas (something deemed by many as unenforceable). Boycotted by free-soilers, the
referendum suffered from serious voting irregularities, with over half the 6,000 votes
deemed fraudulent.[3] Nevertheless, both it and the Topeka Constitution were sent to
Washington for approval by Congress.
        The Lecompton Constitution
A. Rigged constitutional vote results in two
   constitutions being sent to Congress in 1857
   1.   President Buchanan sides with pro-slavery Lecompton
B. Stephen Douglas refuses to support such a mockery
   of popular sovereignty
   1.   Impact on Douglas?
C. Democrats now hopelessly divided along sectional
D. Constitution sent back to Kansas for popular
   1.   Overwhelmingly rejected by free soil majority
   2.   Kansas remains a territory until 1861
 The Crash of 1857 & the Triumph of “King Cotton”
A. Reasons for the Panic & Impact on the North
  1. Immediate cause - failure of the New York branch of
     the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co.
  2. Loss of S.S. Central America
  3. British investors removed funds from American banks
  4. The fall of grain prices
  5. Surplus of manufactured goods = massive layoffs
  6. Widespread railroad failures
  7. Land speculation programs collapsed with the railroads
  8. Spreads to Europe and lasts for 3 years
B. Demands on the government?
C. Impact on the South (Who’s da King?)
  1. Read pp. 378-379 (red book)
       The Rise of Abe Lincoln
A. Lincoln’s family background
  1.   Move from KY to IN to IL
  2.   Marriage to Mary Todd
  3.   Self-educated
  4.   Successful law practice
B. Lincoln’s political background
  1. Whig (IL and US Congress)
       a. “spot resolutions” of Mexican War period
  2. Free Soiler
  3. Republican
  Abraham Lincoln

 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
A. The true purpose of the debates
B. The Freeport Debate
  1. Lincoln challenges Douglas to defend pop. sov. in
     light of Dred Scott decision
  2. What was Douglas’ response?
     a. It matters not what way the Supreme Court may
        hereafter decide as to the abstract question whether
        slavery may or may not go into a Territory under the
        Constitution, the people have the lawful means to
        introduce it or exclude it as they please, for the reason
        that slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere,
        unless it is supported by local police regulations.
     b. Known as the “Freeport Doctrine”
  3. Why did this doctrine prompt one Southern to
     describe Douglas as a “dead cock in the pit”?
John Brown’s Raid and Martyrdom
A. Supported by prominent abolitionists, John
   Brown attacks the federal arsenal at Harpers
   Ferry, VA in October of 1859
  1. Purpose?
  2. Result?
  3. Northern reaction to Brown’s execution
     a. Some viewed Brown as a martyr
  4. Southern reaction to the Northern reaction
     a. Militia system re-vitalized
“I, John Brown, am now quite certain that
the crimes of this guilty land will never be
      purged away, but with blood….”
Sectional strife was growing ever
more acute. On the night of October
16, 1859, John Brown, a dedicated
abolitionist who captured and killed
five proslavery settlers in Kansas
three years before, led a band of
followers in an attack on the federal
arsenal at Harper's Ferry in what is
now the state of West Virginia.
Brown's goal was to use the
weapons seized to lead a slave
uprising. After two days of fighting,
Brown and his surviving men were
taken prisoner by a force of U.S.
marines commanded by Colonel
Robert E. Lee.
Alarm ran through the nation. For
many Southerners, Brown's attempt
confirmed their worst fears. Many
white Southerners wrongly believed
most Northerners were abolitionists
like Brown. Abolitionists hailed
Brown as a martyr to a great cause.
Most Northerners repudiated his
deed, seeing in it an assault on law
and order. Brown was tried for
conspiracy, treason and murder,         Southerners who had been undecided on secession
and on December 2, 1859, he was         were won over to the pro secession side in fear their
hanged. To the end, he believed he      lives and property were no longer safe from northern
had been an instrument in the hand      intrusion. The Harper's Ferry raid by itself may not have
of God.                                 been significant, but coming as it did at the end of a
                                        long line of divisive incidents, it may well have been the
                                        catalyst for America's Civil War.
John Brown 1859

                  Photos and
                  a painting
                  of John
                  Brown, his
                  wife and
1859 drawings of John
Brown’s the attack on
Harper’s Ferry
John Brown's Sharps Carbine rifle he used in the raid on
                   Harper’s Ferry

 "I believe that to have interfered as I have done . . .
 in behalf of His despised poor, I did not wrong but right. Now, if it is deemed
 necessary that I should forfeit my life . . . and mingle my blood . . . with the
 blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by
 wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I say let it be done." John Brown
  John Brown and four       “…It [the Bible] teaches me
  other survivors were      further to "remember them that
 taken to Charlestown,      are in bonds, as bound with
  Virginia for trial. His   them." I endeavored to act up to
 statements during the      that instruction. I say, I am too
  trial were published      young to understand that God is
     and widely read        any respecter of persons. I
inspiring many with his     believe that to have interfered as
 righteous indignation      I have done -- as I have always
   toward slavery. The      freely admitted I have done -- in
 hanging made Brown         behalf of His despised poor, was
 an abolitionist martyr.    not wrong, but right. Now if it is
                            deemed necessary that I should
                            forfeit my life for the furtherance
                            of the ends of justice, and mingle
                            my blood further with the blood
                            of my children and with the
                            blood of millions in this slave
                            country whose rights are
                            disregarded by wicked, cruel,
                            and unjust enactments. -- I
                            submit; so let it be done!”
Two views of John Brown
leaving the courthouse after
being condemned to death
John Brown's body lies a-moldering in the grave,
John Brown's body lies a-moldering in the grave,      In the Civil War, which
John Brown's body lies a-moldering in the grave,      soon followed his Death
His soul is marching on.
                                                      Union soldiers often
Glory, Glory! Hallelujah!                             sang versions of this
Glory, Glory! Hallelujah!
Glory, Glory! Hallelujah!
                                                      song honoring John
His soul is marching on.                              Brown.
He captured Harper's Ferry with his nineteen men so true,
He frightened old Virginia till she trembled through and through;
They hung him for a traitor, themselves the traitor crew,
His soul is marching on.

John Brown died that the slave might be free,
John Brown died that the slave might be free,
John Brown died that the slave might be free,
But his soul is marching on!

The stars above in Heaven are looking kindly down,
The stars above in Heaven are looking kindly down,
The stars above in Heaven are looking kindly down,
On the grave of old John Brown.

                                                      John Brown’s grave
Four parties ran candidates in the 1860 election

                            Northern Democrats


                                          Stephen Douglas
Abraham Lincoln

              Southern          Constitutional
              Democrats         Union

 John Breckinridge                               John Bell
                                                                           Lincoln won the
                                                                           1860 Republican
                                                                           nomination from
                                                                           the front runner
                                                                           William H. Seward
                                                                           who was too
                                                                           closely identified
                                                                           with abolition
                                                                           anti-slavery forces
                                                                           to win.

A cartoon on the temporary split within the Republican party resulting from the nomination of
Abraham Lincoln for the presidency in 1860. Here New York senator and would-be nominee William
H. Seward watches as the radical antislavery senator from Massachusetts Charles Sumner releases a
snarling cat, the "Spirit of Discord," from a "Republican Bag." The cat bolts toward New York
"Tribune" editor Horace Greeley and Lincoln, who wields a rail in his defense. Greeley exclaims,
"What are you doing Sumner! you'll spoil all! she ain’t to be let out until after Lincoln is elected,--"
Lincoln, also alarmed, rejoins, "Oh Sumner! this is too bad!--I thought we had her safely bagged at
Chicago [i.e., the Republican national convention at Chicago], now there will be the old scratch to
pay, unless I can drive her back again with my rail!" Sumner replies, "It's no use talking Gentlemen,
I wasn’t mentioned at Chicago, and now I'm going to do something desperate, I can't afford to have
my head broken and be kept corked up four years for nothing!" The mention of his broken head
refers to the widely publicized 1856 beating inflicted on Sumner by South Carolina congressman
Preston S. Brooks..) Seward warns, "Gentlemen be cautious you don't know how to manage that
animal as well as I did, and I’m afraid that some of you will get "scratched."
   The Republicans gained the electoral advantage when the
   Democratic vote split between the Northern and Southern

Northern Democrats                     Southern Democrats
A non-partisan satire, making fun of all four candidates in the 1860
presidential election. A map of the United States hung on a wall is being torn
apart by three of the candidates. Lincoln (far left) and Douglas tear at the
western part of the country, as Breckinridge (center) attacks the South. The
fourth, John Bell (right), stands on a stool trying to repair the northeastern
section with a jar of glue.
Lincoln would not assume the presidency until March
of 1861. By then seven southern states had seceded
and a lame duck President Buchanan and Congress
could do little to stop the dissolution of the Union.
160                                         Lincoln
140                                         scored a
                            Lincoln         decisive
                                            victory in
                            Bell            electoral
          electorial vote


                                           he received
1200000                     Lincoln
                                           less than
 600000                     Bell           40% of the
 200000                                    popular vote
             popular vote
            The Two Democratic Parties
A. Democrats convention of 1860 in Charleston, SC
   ends in “fire-eaters” walking out. Why?
  1.    demanded the adoption of a platform which explicitly
        protected slavery
B. Dems reconvene in Baltimore, MD
  1.    Southerners walk out again
  2.    Northerners nominate Stephen Douglas. Platform?
       a.    support of the Constitution and the Supreme Court
C. Southern Dems reconvene in Baltimore and
   nominate VP John C. Breckenridge of KY
  1.    Platform?
D. Mixed bag of old Unionists (some Dems., and left
   over Whigs and Know-Nothings) form
   Constitutional Union Party and nominate John Bell
   of TN
  1.    Platform?



    Lincoln & the Republicans
A. Why was Lincoln nominated over
   Seward, Chase and Bates?
B. Platform planks
  1. Prevent expansion of slavery into territories
  2. Protective tariffs
  3. Homestead law
C. Southern charges against Lincoln
D. The campaign
  1. Douglas conducts first nationwide tour
  2. Lincoln not on 9 southern state ballots
     a. Only wins 2 of 996 southern counties
Southern slave states-1860
% of slave ownership in the South-1860

80%                               75%
          1%      3%

      50 or    20-49    1-19     No
      more     slaves   slaves   slaves
Southern Society            % of Population            Attributes
Large slave plantation      Less than 1% of white      50 or more slaves, over
owners                      families                   1,000 acres in property
Mid-size slave plantation   3% of white families       20-49 slaves, over 100
owners                                                 acres, most powerful
                                                       group in the South
Small slave holders         20% of white families      1-19 slaves, mostly
                                                       farmers and a smaller
                                                       urban middle class
Non slave owing whites      75% of white families      Yeomen farmers and
                                                       tenant farmers. Some
                                                       urban workers
Free Blacks                 6% of Blacks               Legal and social
                                                       restrictions limited their
Slaves                      By 1860 1/3rd of South’s   Majority worked on
                            population                 plantations
The Election of 1860 Splits the Nation
A. Lincoln was a true sectional, minority president
   1.   What does this mean?
B. Could the Democrats have won if they had
   reunited under Douglas?
C. Why did the results not herald immediate
D. Why was the election of Lincoln not that
   damaging to the South?
A. SC secedes in December of 1860
  1. Followed by AL, MS, FL, GA, LA, & TX
B. Meeting in Montgomery, AL they create
   the Confederate States of America
  1. Elect Jefferson Davis as President
  2. Adopt variation of US Constitution
C. Why was “old Buck” helpless to stop this
   chain of events?
The Election of Abraham Lincoln was the trigger which set off
   the first wave of secession in the southern slave states.
A view of the public meeting in Johnson Square, Savannah, prompted by news of
Lincoln's election, where a resolution was adopted for a state secession convention. In
the nocturnal scene, the square is crowded with animated spectators surrounding an
obelisk, where a banner emblazoned with the image of a coiled rattlesnake and the
words "Our Motto Southern Rights, Equality of the States, Don't Tread on Me" is
Attempt to prevent a war between the states

    The Crittenden Compromise

  It was one of several schemes to prevent open
 warfare and reunite the nation. In an attempt to
stop states from seceding, a Senate plan authored
mainly by John J. Crittenden of Kentucky proposed
   a compromise plan. It consisted of a series of
    proposed constitutional amendments, which
  protected slavery in all territories south of the
Missouri Compromise line of 36° 30' "now held, or
 hereafter acquired," while prohibiting it north of
   the line; prohibited Congress from abolishing
 slavery in the District of Columbia, or in national
 jurisdictions within slave states; forbade federal
   interference with interstate slave trade; and
      indemnified owners prevented by "local
opposition" from recovering fugitive slaves. These
     amendments would have been perpetually
binding, non amendable and could not be repealed
  “for all time”. Other provisions added on to the
 Crittenden Compromise would have modified the
fugitive slave law and requested that states repeal
              laws that conflicted with it.
Republicans in Congress opposed the Compromise,
                                                       Senator John J. Crittenden
seeing it as an utter repudiation of their platform.
They were able to kill it in committee on December
28, 1860, and on the Senate floor on January 16,
Secession Map
An attack on the new Confederate Government showing it as a government in league with Satan. From left to right are:
"Mr. Mob Law Chief Justice," a well-armed ruffian carrying a pot of tar; Secretary of State Robert Toombs raising a staff
with a "Letter of Marque" (a governmental authorization to seize subjects or property of foreign state, here a reference
to Georgia's January seizure of federal Fort Pulaski and the Augusta arsenal); CSA President Jefferson Davis, wearing
saber and spurs. Vice President Alexander Stephens holds forward a list of "The Fundamental Principles of our
Government," including treason, rebellion, murder, robbery, incendiarism, and theft. Behind the group, on horseback, is
Confederate general Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, commander of forces at the bombardment of Fort Sumter. The
delegation is received by Satan and two demonic attendants, who sit in a large cave at right. One attendant has over his
shoulder a gallows from which hangs a corpse; the other holds a pitchfork. Satan holds a crown and scepter for Davis in
his right hand, while in his left hand he hides a noose behind his back. He greets the Confederates, "Truly! Fit
representatives of our Realm." Over his head flies a banner with the palmetto of South Carolina and six stars. A large
snake curls round its staff.
          The Failure of Compromise
A. Provisions of the Crittenden Compromise
  1. New Amendments
     a.   Missouri Compromise (1820–21) extended to CA
     b.   continuation of slavery where it already existed.
     c.   advocated slavery in the District of Columbia,
     d.   Protect interstate slave trade
     e.   No future amendments can repeal these or impact slavery in
          the South
  2. Uphold the fugitive slave law (1850)
B. Lincoln orders Republicans in Congress to
   oppose it at all costs. Why?
     The Logic (?) of Secession
A.   The “despotic majority of numbers”
B.   Free soilism
C.   Abolitionism
D.   Northern interference
E.   Yankee dependency on cotton
F.   Throw off yoke of Northern colonialism
G.   Nationalism
H.   Precedence of the American Revolution
Was this Civil War Unavoidable?
                        AP US History             Name:                                   Period:

Ch. 19 Key Themes & Terms
Main Terms: Harriet Beecher Stowe, Hinton R. Helper, “Bleeding” Kansas, John Brown, Lecompton Constitution,
        James Buchanan, American (Know Nothing) Party, Election of 1856, Dred Scott, Roger Taney, Crash of ’57,
        Tariff of 1857, Abraham Lincoln, Stephen Douglas, Freeport Doctrine, Harpers Ferry, Election of 1860,
        James Henry Crittenden, Jefferson Davis

Secondary Terms: Pottawatomie Creek, Lawrence, Kansas, “Beecher’s Bibles”, Preston Brooks, Charles Sumner, John
        C. Fremont, secession, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Impending Crisis in the South, George Fitzhugh, Cannibals All!,

1. What was the sequence of events (crises) that led from the Kansas-Act to secession?

2. How did the political developments of the period work to fragment the Democratic Party and benefit the Republican

3. How did the Dred Scott decision and Harpers Ferry deepen sectional antagonism?

4. What was the result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates? Why did the nation focus on a series of Illinois debates?

5. How did the election of 1860 reflect the sectional crisis facing the nation? How did events unfold as a result of the

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