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The NSA and Shadow Government

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A large collection of referenced articles about the National Security Agency and its operations, and the Shadow Government-Secret Government section of the US Federal Government.

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									                                       by John St Clair Akwei
                               From an article in Nexus Magazine April/May 96
                                     from MindControlForums Website

        A lawsuit filed against the U.S. National Security Agency reveals a frightening array of
                    technologies and programs designed to keep tabs on individuals.
                                            John St Clair Akwei
                                         National Security Agency
                                      Ft George G. Meade, MD, USA
                                          (Civil Action 92-0449)
       The following document comprises evidence for a lawsuit filed at the U.S. Courthouse in
       Washington, DC, by John St Clair Akwei against the National Security Agency, Ft George
          G. Meade, Maryland (Civil Action 92-0449), constitutes his knowledge of the NSA's
        structure, national security activities proprietary technologies and covert operations to
                                      monitor individual citizens Ed.


     Communications Intelligence (COMINT)
      Blanket coverage of all electronic communications in the US and the world to ensure
      national security. The NSA at Ft Meade, Maryland has had the most advanced computers in
      the world since the early 1960s.

      NSA technology is developed and implemented in secret from private corporations,
      academia and the general public.

     Signals Intelligence (SICINT)
      The Signals Intelligence mission of the NSA has evolved into a program of decoding EMF
      waves in the environment for wirelessly tapping into computers and track persons with the
      electrical currents in their bodies. Signals Intelligence is based on fact that everything in the
      environment with an electric current in it has a magnetic flux around it which gives off EMF

      The NSA/DoD [Department of Defense] developed proprietary advanced digital equipment
    which can remotely analyze all objects whether manmade or organic, that have electrical

   Domestic Intelligence (DOMINT)
    The NSA has records on all US citizens. The NSA gathers information on US citizen who
    might be of interest to any of the over 50,000 NSA agents (HUMINT). These agents are
    authorized by executive order to spy on anyone. The NSA has a permanent national
    security anti-terrorist surveillance network in place. This surveillance network is completely
    disguised and hidden from the public.

    Tracking individuals in the US is easily and cost-effectively implemented with NSA's
    electronic surveillance network. This network (DOMINT) covers the entire US, involves tens
    of thousands of NSA personnel, and tracks millions of persons simultaneously . Cost-
    effective implementation of operations is assured by NSA computer technology designed to
    minimize operations costs. NSA personnel serve in quasi-public positions in their
    communities and run cover businesses and legitimate businesses that can inform the
    intelligence community of persons they would want to track.

    NSA personnel in the community usually have cover identities such as social workers,
    lawyers and business owners.

   Individual Citizens Occasionally Targeted for Surveillance by Independently
     Operating NSA Personnel
    NSA personnel can control the lives of hundreds of thousands of individuals in the US by
    using the NSA's domestic intelligence network and cover businesses.

    The operations independently run by them can sometimes go beyond the bounds of law.
    Long-term control and sabotage of tens of thousands of unwitting citizens by NSA
    operatives is likely to happen.

    NSA DOMINT has the ability to assassinate US citizens covertly or run covert psychological
    control operations to cause subjects to be diagnosed with ill mental health.
                         The above symptoms highlight a fraction of the vast array of
                   Neuro-Electromagnetic Frequency Assaults perpetuated by the Police and
                                    Military Intelligence Agencies toward
                    Remote Mind Control Experiments, Behavioral Manipulation and Murder.

As of the early 1960s, the most advanced computers in the world were at the NSA, Ft Meade.
Research breakthroughs with these computers were kept for the NSA.

At the present time the NSA has nanotechnology computers that are 15 years ahead of present
computer technology. The NSA obtains blanket coverage of information in the US by using
advanced computers that use artificial intelligence to screen all communications, regardless of
medium, for key words that should be brought to the attention of NSA agents/cryptologists.

These computers monitor all communications at the transmitting and receiving ends.

This blanket coverage of the US is a result of the NSA's Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) mission. The
NSA's electronic surveillance network is based on a cellular arrangement of devices that can
monitor the entire EMF (electromagnetic frequency) spectrum.

This equipment was developed, implemented and kept secret in the same manner as other
electronic warfare programs.

       Signals Intelligence Remote Computer Tampering
        The NSA keeps track of all PCs and other computers sold in the US.

        This is an integral part of the Domestic Intelligence network. The NSA's EMF equipment can
        tune in RF (remote frequency) emissions from personal computer circuit boards (while
        filtering out emissions from monitors and power sup- plies).

        The RF emission from PC circuit boards contains digital information in the PC. Coded RF
        waves from the NSA's equipment can resonate PC circuits and change data in the PCs.
        Thus the NSA can gain wireless modem-style entry into any computer in the country for
        surveillance or anti-terrorist electronic warfare.

       Detecting EMF Fields in Humans for Surveillance
        A subject's bioelectric field can be remotely detected, so subjects can be monitored
        anywhere they are.

        With special EMF equipment NSA cryptologists can remotely read evoked potentials (from
        EEGs). These can be decoded into a person's brain-states and thoughts. The subject is
        then perfectly monitored from a distance. NSA personnel can dial up any individual in the
        country on the Signals Intelligence EMF scanning network and the NSA's computers will
        then pinpoint and track that person 24 hours a day.

        The NSA can pick out and track anyone in the US.
NSA Signals Intelligence uses EMF Brain Stimulation for Remote Neural Monitoring (RNM) and
Electronic Brain Link (EBL).

EMF Brain Stimulation has been in development since the MKULTRA program of the early 1950s,
which included neurological research into radiation (non-ionizing EMF) and bioelectric research and

The resulting secret technology is categorized at the National Security Archives as "Radiation
Intelligence", defined as,
         "information from unintentionally emanated electromagnetic waves in the
         environment, not including radioactivity or nuclear detonation".
Signals Intelligence implemented and kept this technology secret in the same manner as other
electronic warfare programs of the US Government.

The NSA monitors available information about this technology and withholds scientific research from
the public. There are also international intelligence agreements to keep this technology secret.

The NSA has proprietary electronic equipment that analyze electrical activity in humans from a
distance. NSA computer generated brain mapping can continuously monitor all of the electrical
activity in the brain continuously. The NSA records and decode individual brain maps (of hundreds
of thousands of persons) for national security purposes. EMF Brain Stimulation is also secretly used
by the military for brain-to-computer link (in military fighter aircraft, for example).

For electronic surveillance purposes, electrical activity in the speech center of the brain can be
translated into the subject's verbal thoughts. RNM can send encoded signals to the brain's auditory
cortex, thus allowing audio communications direct to the brain (bypassing the ears). NSA operatives
can use this covertly to debilitate subjects by simulating auditory hallucinations characteristic of
paranoid schizophrenia.

Without any contact with the subject, Remote Neural Monitoring can map out electrical activity from
the visual cortex of a subject's brain and show images from the subject's brain on a video monitor.
NSA operatives see what the surveillance subject's eyes are seeing. Visual memory can also be
seen. RNM can send images direct to the visual cortex, bypassing the eyes and optic nerves.

NSA operatives can use this surreptitiously to put images into a surveillance subject's brain while
they are in REM sleep for brain-programming purposes.

       Capabilities of NSA Operatives Using RNM
        There has been a Signals Intelligence network in the US since the 1940s.

        The NSA, Ft Meade has in place a vast two-way wireless RNM system which is used to
        track subjects and non-invasively monitor audio-visual information in their brains. This is all
        done with no physical contact with the subject. RNM is the ultimate method of surveillance
        and domestic intelligence. Speech, 3D sound and subliminal audio can be sent to the
        auditory cortex of the subject's brain (bypassing the ears), and images can be sent into the
        visual cortex. RNM can alter a subject's perceptions, moods and motor control.

        Speech cortex/auditory cortex link has become the ultimate communications system for the
        intelligence community. RNM allows for a complete audio-visual brain-to-brain link or brain-
        to-computer link.

                   The above is a simple flowchart of Nuero-Electromagnetic Frequency Assaults
              showing methods that can be perpetuated by the Police and Military Intelligence Agencies
                 toward Remote Mind Control Experiments, Behavioural Manipulation and Murder.

NSA SIGINT can remotely detect, identify and monitor a person's bioelectric fields.
The NSA's Signals Intelligence has the proprietary ability to monitor remotely and non-invasively
information in the human brain by digitally decoding the evoked potentials in the 30-50 Hz, 5
milliwatt electromagnetic emissions from the brain.

Neuronal activity in the brain creates a shifting electrical pattern that has a shifting magnetic flux.
This magnetic flux puts out a constant 30-50 Hz, 5 milliwatt electromagnetic (EMF) wave.

Contained in the electromagnetic emission from the brain are spikes and patterns called "evoked
potentials". Every thought, reaction, motor command, auditory event and visual image in the brain
has a corresponding "evoked potential" or set of "evoked potentials". The EMF emission from the
brain can be decoded into the current thoughts, images and sounds in the subject's brain.

NSA SIGINT uses EMF-transmitted Brain Stimulation as a communications system to transmit
information (as well as nervous system messages) to intelligence agents and also to transmit to the
brains of covert operations subjects (on a non-perceptible level).

EMF Brain Stimulation works by sending a complexly coded and pulsed electromagnetic signal to
trigger evoked potentials (events) in the brain, thereby forming sound and visual images in the
brain's neural circuits. EMF Brain Stimulation can also change a person's brain-states and affect
motor control.

Two-way electronic Brain Link is done by remotely monitoring neural audio-visual information while
transmitting sound to the auditory cortex (bypassing the ears) and transmitting faint images to the
visual cortex (bypassing the optic nerves and eyes). The images appear as floating 2D screens in
the brain.

Two-way electronic Brain Link has become the ultimate communications system for CIA/NSA
personnel. Remote neural monitoring (RNM, remotely monitoring bioelectric information in the
human brain) has become the ultimate surveillance system.

It is used by a limited number of agents in the US Intelligence Community.
                   The above is a simple flowchart of Nuero-Electromagnetic Frequency Assaults
           showing methods that can be perpetuated by the Police and Military Intelligence Agencies toward
                     Remote Mind Control Experiments, Behavioral Manipulation and Murder.

RNM requires decoding the resonance frequency of each specific brain area.

That frequency is then modulated in order to impose information in that specific brain area. The
frequency to which the various brain areas respond varies from 3 Hz to 50 Hz. Only NSA Signals
Intelligence modulates signals in this frequency band. (See Table 1 below)

This modulated information can be put into the brain at varying intensities from subliminal to
perceptible. Each person's brain has a unique set of bioelectric resonance/entrainment frequencies.
Sending audio information to a person's brain at the frequency of another person's auditory cortex
would result in that audio information not being perceived.

The Plaintiff learned of RNM by being in two-way RNM contact with the Kinnecome group at the
NSA, Ft Meade.

They used RNM 3D sound direct to the brain to harass the Plaintiff from October 1990 to May 1991.

As of 5/91 they have had two-way RNM communications with the Plaintiff and have used RNM to
attempt to incapacitate the Plaintiff and hinder the Plaintiff from going to the authorities about their
activities against the Plaintiff in the last 12 years. The Kinnecome group has about 100 persons
working 24 hours a day at Ft Meade.

They have also brain-tapped persons the Plaintiff is in contact with to keep the Plaintiff isolated.
This is the first time ever that a private citizen has been harassed with RNM and has been able to
bring a lawsuit against NSA personnel misusing this intelligence operations method.

                                            click above image

Remote monitoring/tracking of individuals in any location, inside any building, continuously,
anywhere in the country.

A system for inexpensive implementation of these operations allows for thousands of persons in
every community to be spied on constantly by the NSA.

       Remote RNM Devices
        NSA's RNM equipment remotely reads the evoked potentials (EEGs) of the human brain for
        tracking individuals, and can send messages through the nervous systems to affect their
        performance. RNM can electronically identify individuals and track them anywhere in the

        This equipment is on a network and is used for domestic intelligence operations,
        government security and military base security, and in case of bioelectric warfare.

       Spotters and Walk-Bys in Metropolitan Areas
        Tens of thousands of persons in each area working as spotters and
        neighbourhood/business place spies (sometimes unwittingly) following and checking on
        subjects who have been identified for covert control by NSA personnel.
        Agents working out of offices can be in constant communication with spotters who are
        keeping track of the NSA's thousands of subjects in public. NSA agents in remote offices
        can instantly identify (using~ RNM) any individual spotted in public who is in contact with
        surveillance subject.

       Chemicals and Drugs into Residential Buildings with Hidden NSA Installed
         and Maintained Plastic Plumbing lines.
        The NSA has kits for running lines into residential tap water and air ducts of subjects for the
        delivery of drugs (such as sleeping gas or brainwashing-aiding drugs).

        This is an outgrowth of CIA pharmapsychology (psychopharmacology).

       Brief Overview of Proprietary US Intelligence/Anti-Terrorist Equipment
        Fixed network of special EMF equipment that can read EEGs in human brains and
        identify/track individuals by using digital computers. ESB (Electrical Stimulation to the Brain)
        via EMF signal from the NSA Signals Intelligence is used to control subjects.

        EMF equipment that gathers information from PC circuit boards by deciphering RF
        emissions, thereby gaining wireless modem-style entry into any personal computer in the
        country. All equipment hidden, all technology secret, all scientific research unreported (as in
        electronic warfare research).

        Not known to the public at all, yet complete and thorough implementation of this method of
        domestic intelligence has been in place since the early 1980s.

Editor's Note:
I tried ringing Mr Akwei to find out what was the out-come, if any, of his court case. He firmly but kindly
told me that he could not speak about anything to do with the case over the phone and hung up. A
subsequent conversation of similar length resulted in the information that he did not wish his address or
phone number published with this article.

So, if we hear of any developments, we'll let you know.

Its totally obvious from the above article that the US National Security Agency is none other than
                                 a covertly run terrorist organization.

Their highly sophisticated technology that is used to monitor and manipulate the minds of millions of
  innocent people daily, is a blatant expression of the dominating and authoritarian mentality that
                    exists behind the facade of our so called democratic society.

            George Orwell's "THOUGHT POLICE" is an absolute reality in today's world.

    Whether we realize it or not, every individual within our society is negatively effected by this
                                         dictatorship attitude.

                           It has to change - It will change - It starts with you!

                                            George Farquhar
                                               Project Freedom
                        An example of EMF Brain Stimulation
                                            Table 1

                         Bioelectric Resonance              Information Induced Through
    Brain Area
                               Frequency                             Modulation
Motor Control Cortex              10 Hz                Motor Impulse co-ordination
Auditory Cortex                   15 Hz                Sound which bypasses the ears
Visual Cortex                     25 Hz                Images in the brain bypassing the eyes
Somatosensory                      9 Hz                Phantom touch sense
Thought Center                    20 Hz                Imposed subconscious thoughts

These publications have only been discovered since December 1991, after Plaintiff had already
notified authorities (Dept of Justice, etc.) of Public Corruption by named NSA employees.

When no action was taken against the NSA employees, I researched the Intelligence Community
electronic surveillance technology involved and discovered the following publications.
              The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, by Robert
                 Becker, M.D. Monitoring neuroelectric information in the brain ESB. (p.
              Cross currents, by Robert Becker. Simulating auditory hallucinations.
                 Remote computer tampering using RF emissions from the logic board. (p.
              Currents of Death, by Paul Brodeur. Driving brain electrical activity with
                 external EM; magnetophosphenes; Delgado. (p. 27,93)
              The Zapping of America, by Paul Brodeur. DoD EM ESB research;
                 simulating auditory hallucinations.
              Of Mice, Men and Molecules, by John H. Heller 1963 Bioelectricity; probing
                 the brain with EM waves. (p, 110)
              The Three-Pound Universe, by Judith Hooper. CIA EEG research; EEGs for
                 surveillance. (p.29,132,137)
              In the Palaces of Memory, by George Johnson. EM emissions from the brain;
                 the brain as an open electromagnetic circuit.
              The Puzzle Palace, by James Bamford. Signals Intelligence; most advanced
                 computers in the early 'sixties.
              The US Intelligence Community. Glossary terms at National Security
                 Archives; Radiation Intelligence (information from unintentionally emanated
                 electromagnetic energy, excluding radioactive sources).
              The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate", by John Marks. Electrical or
                 radio stimulation to the brain; CIA R&D in bioelectrics. (p.227)
              Secret Agenda, by Jim Hougan. National security cult groups.
              Crimes of the Intelligence Community, by Morton Halperin. Surreptitious
                 entries; intelligence agents running operations against government workers.
              War in the Age of Intelligent Machines, NSA computer supremacy, complete
                 control of information.
 Alternate Computers, by Time-Life Books. Molecule computers.
 The Mind, by Richard Restak, M.D. EEG Systems inc.; decoding brain EM
   emanations, tracking thoughts on a computer. (p. 258)
 MedTech, by Lawrence Galton. Triggering events in the brain, direct to
   auditory cortex signals.
 Cyborg, by D.S. Halacy, Jr, 1965. Brain-to-computer link research contracts
   given out by the US government.
 Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control, by Harvey M. Weinstein
   M.D. Dr. Cameron; psychic driving; ultraconceptual communications.
 Journey Into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and
   Medical Abuse, by Gordon Thomas, Intelligence R&D; Delgado; psychic
   driving with radio telemetry. (p. 127,276,116,168,169)
 Mind Manipulators, by Alan Scheflin and Edward M. Opton. MKULTRA brain
   research for information-gathering.
 The Brain Changers, by Maya Pines. Listening to brain EM emissions. (p.19)
 Modern Bioelectricity. Inducing audio in the brain with EM waves; DoD cover-
   up; EM wave ESB; remote EEGs
 Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Neurophysiology, by Sudhansu Chokroverty.
   Magnetophosphenes; images direct to the visual cortex.
 The Mind of Man, by Nigel Calder. US intelligence brain research.
 Neuroelectric Society Conference, 1971. Audio direct to the brain with EM
   waves; 2-way remote EEGs.
 Brain Control, by Elliot S. Valenstein. ESB., control of individuals.
 Towards Century 21, by C.S. Wallia. Brain Stimulation for direct-to-brain
   communications (p21)
 Mind Wars, by Ron McRae (associate of Jack Anderson). Research into
   brain-to-brain electronic communications., remote neural EM detection (PP.
   62 106, 136).
 Mind Tools, by Rudy Rucker. Brain tapping; communications with varying
   biomagnetic fields (p82).
 US News and World report, January 2nd 1984. EM wave brain stimulation;
   intelligence community hi-tech (p38).
 Ear Magazine. Article on extremely low frequencies radio emissions in the
   natural environment; radio emissions from the human body.
 City Paper, Washington DC January 17, 1992. Article FCC and NSA
   "complete radio spectrum" listening posts.
 Frontiers in Science, by Edward Hutchings Jr 1958 (p48).
 Beyond Bio Feedback, by Elmer and Alyce Green, 1977 (p118)
 The Body Quantum, by Fred Alan Wolf
 Cloning; A Biologist Reports, by Robert Gillmore McKinnell. Ethical review of
   cloning humans.
 Hoovers' FBI, by Former agent William Turner. Routines of electronic
   surveillance work. (p280).
 July 20th 2019, by Arthur C. Clarke LIDA; Neurophonics; Brain-computer
 MegaBrain, by Michael Hutchison. Brain stimulation with EM waves; CIA
   research and information control. (pp.107,108,117,120,123).
 The Cult of Information, by Theodore Rosnak, 1986. NSA Directive #145;
   personal files in computers; computer automated telephone tapping.
 The Body Shop, 1986 implantation of an electrode array on the visual cortex
   for video direct to the brain; other 1960's research into electronically
   triggering Phosphenes in the brain, thus bypassing the eyes.
 Evoked Potentials, by David Regan. Decoding neuroelectric information in
          the brain.
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                        Return to The NSA - The Super Secret
                              National Security Agency

  Trying to Stay One Step Ahead of a
   Sophisticated, and Often Unseen,
Foiling Computer Hackers Top Priority With FBI, CIA, Pentagon, NSA

Source: PRNewswire

February 13, 2000

NEW YORK - CIA Director George Tenet tells Newsweek that foiling computer hackers is a top
law-enforcement priority, with the Pentagon, FBI, CIA and the National Security Agency (NSA)
all searching for ways to stay one step ahead of a sophisticated, and often unseen, enemy.

Washington Correspondent Greg Vistica reports that in recent years, officials have also secretly
observed attempts by foreign countries to penetrate U.S. government computers. According to
one study, at least 13 countries have "information warfare" programs directed against the
United States. "It‘s the Chinese, the French, Israelis, attacking American targets and doing it
quite successfully," says one NSA official. The NSA‘s computers crunch information from
America‘s spy satellites and global eavesdropping network. Last year, Russian hackers
successfully penetrated gaps in Pentagon computer security, and made off with at least some
classified material. According to one intelligence report reviewed by Newsweek, the methods
the hackers used are "impossible . . . to detect."

U.S. officials acknowledge that they catch only about 10 percent of those who probe or
penetrate government computers. But they‘re working to increase the numbers by beefing up
surveillance, installing intruder-detection programs and limiting the number of people with
computer access to sensitive information, Vistica reports in the February 21 issue of Newsweek
(on newsstands Monday, February 14). They‘ve also begun to use their own hackers to test the
system and find weaknesses. In 1997, a team of NSA hackers managed to shut down the
Pentagon‘s top-secret National Military Command Center. They left just one fax machine

A little after 7 p.m. Eastern standard time on Jan. 24, nearly half the computing power in the
world went dead. The top secret National Security Agency‘s massive array of supercomputers -
- which crunch information from America‘s spy satellites and global eavesdropping network --
mysteriously shut down for three days. Panicked, NSA brass at first feared the shutdown might
have been caused by hackers. For a year the agency had been engaged in a cat-and-mouse
war with a persistent group of cyber warriors attempting to gain access to the computer network.
NSA analysts had traced their footprints back to the University of California, Berkeley, but
hadn‘t caught them -- and still haven‘t.

NSA officials now suspect human error and a computer glitch may have caused that meltdown.
But it wasn‘t farfetched to believe hackers were to blame. In recent years, cyber attacks on
sensitive government computer systems have become a serious problem. CIA Director George
Tenet told Newsweek that foiling hackers is a top law-enforcement priority, with the Pentagon,
FBI, CIA and NSA all scrambling to find ways to stay one step ahead of a sophisticated, and
often unseen, enemy.

Federal officials are especially concerned about attacks on the country‘s increasingly computer-
controlled infrastructure. A 1996 presidential commission found that the nation‘s power grids,
airports, rail systems, hospitals and even space program are all vulnerable to attack. These
systems, which are considered less protected than military or law-enforcement computers, are
attractive targets for thrill-seeking hackers trying to see how much havoc they can cause from
their laptops. In 1997 a hacker temporarily severed one of NASA‘s uplinks to the Atlantis shuttle.
Several times in the ‘90s emergency 911 service in Eastern states was knocked out when
hackers flooded the phone lines with automatic-dialing software.

The sheer volume of attacks is alarming. The Pentagon alone estimates its computer networks
are hacked about 250,000 times a year. Most of the intruders are relatively harmless thrill
seekers. But at least 500 are considered serious attempts at breaking into classified systems.
In 1998 three teenage hackers broke into heavily protected Air Force and Navy computers,
leaving "trapdoors" that allowed them to return undetected.

In recent years officials have also secretly observed attempts by foreign countries to penetrate
U.S. government computers. According to one study, at least 13 countries have "information
warfare" programs directed against the United States. "It‘s the Chinese, the French, Israelis,
attacking American targets and doing it quite successfully," says one NSA official. Last year
Russian hackers successfully penetrated gaps in Pentagon computer security, and made off
with at least some classified material. The Russians may still have access to top-secret
computers. According to one intelligence report reviewed by Newsweek, the methods the
hackers used are "impossible . . . to detect."

U.S. officials acknowledge that they catch about 10 percent of those who probe or penetrate
government computers. But they‘re working to increase the numbers by beefing up surveillance,
installing intruder-detection programs and limiting the number of people with computer access
to sensitive information. They‘ve also begun to use their own hackers to find weaknesses. In
1997 a team of NSA hackers managed to shut down the Pentagon‘s top-secret National Military
Command Center. They left just one fax machine working -- enough to send the brass a note to
let them know they‘d been hacked.

2000 PRNewswire
                                           Back To Contents

                  Back to The NSA - The Super Secret National Security Agency

                                       by Ellen Nakashima
                                           February 4, 2010
                                     from WashingtonPost Website

The world's largest Internet search company and the world's most powerful electronic
surveillance organization are teaming up in the name of cybersecurity.

Under an agreement that is still being finalized, the National Security Agency would help Google
analyze a major corporate espionage attack that the firm said originated in China and targeted
its computer networks, according to cybersecurity experts familiar with the matter. The objective
is to better defend Google - and its users - from future attack.

Google and the NSA declined to comment on the partnership.

But sources with knowledge of the arrangement, speaking on the condition of anonymity, said
the alliance is being designed to allow the two organizations to share critical information without
violating Google's policies or laws that protect the privacy of Americans' online communications.
The sources said the deal does not mean the NSA will be viewing users' searches or e-mail
accounts or that Google will be sharing proprietary data.

The partnership strikes at the core of one of the most sensitive issues for the government and
private industry in the evolving world of cybersecurity: how to balance privacy and national
security interests.

On Tuesday, Director of National Intelligence Dennis C. Blair called the Google attacks, which
the company acknowledged in January, a "wake-up call."

Cyberspace cannot be protected, he said, without a,
       "collaborative effort that incorporates both the U.S. private sector and our
       international partners."
But achieving collaboration is not easy, in part because private companies do not trust the
government to keep their secrets and in part because of concerns that collaboration can lead to
continuous government monitoring of private communications.

Privacy advocates, concerned about a repeat of the NSA's warrantless interception of
Americans' phone calls and e-mails after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, say information-
sharing must be limited and closely overseen.
        "The critical question is: At what level will the American public be comfortable
        with Google sharing information with NSA?" said Ellen McCarthy, president of
        the Intelligence and National Security Alliance, an organization of current and
        former intelligence and national security officials that seeks ways to foster
        greater sharing of information between government and industry.
On Jan. 12, Google took the rare step of announcing publicly that its systems had been hacked
in a series of intrusions beginning in December.

The intrusions, industry experts said, targeted Google source code - the programming language
underlying Google applications - and extended to more than 30 other large tech, defense,
energy, financial and media companies. The Gmail accounts of human rights activists in Europe,
China and the United States were also compromised.

So significant was the attack that Google threatened to shutter its business operation in China if
the government did not agree to let the firm operate an uncensored search engine there. That
issue is still unresolved.

Google approached the NSA shortly after the attacks, sources said, but the deal is taking weeks
to hammer out, reflecting the sensitivity of the partnership. Any agreement would mark the first
time that Google has entered a formal information-sharing relationship with the NSA, sources
said. In 2008, the firm stated that it had not cooperated with the NSA in its Terrorist Surveillance

Sources familiar with the new initiative said the focus is not figuring out who was behind the
recent cyberattacks - doing so is a nearly impossible task after the fact - but building a better
defense of Google's networks, or what its technicians call "information assurance."

One senior defense official, while not confirming or denying any agreement the NSA might have
with any firm, said:
        "If a company came to the table and asked for help, I would ask them... 'What
        do you know about what transpired in your system? What deficiencies do you
        think they took advantage of? Tell me a little bit about what it was they did.'"
Sources said the NSA is reaching out to other government agencies that play key roles in the
U.S. effort to defend cyberspace and might be able to help in the Google investigation.

These agencies include the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security.

Over the past decade, other Silicon Valley companies have quietly turned to the NSA for
guidance in protecting their networks.
        "As a general matter," NSA spokeswoman Judi Emmel said, "as part of its
        information-assurance mission, NSA works with a broad range of commercial
        partners and research associates to ensure the availability of secure tailored
        solutions for Department of Defense and national security systems customers."
Despite such precedent, Matthew Aid, an expert on the NSA, said Google's global reach makes
it unique.
         "When you rise to the level of Google... you're looking at a company that has
         taken great pride in its independence," said Aid, author of "The Secret Sentry," a
         history of the NSA.

        "I'm a little uncomfortable with Google cooperating this closely with the nation's
        largest intelligence agency, even if it's strictly for defensive purposes."
The pact would be aimed at allowing the NSA help Google understand whether it is putting in
place the right defenses by evaluating vulnerabilities in hardware and software and to calibrate
how sophisticated the adversary is.

The agency's expertise is based in part on its analysis of cyber-"signatures" that have been
documented in previous attacks and can be used to block future intrusions.

The NSA would also be able to help the firm understand what methods are being used to
penetrate its system, the sources said. Google, for its part, may share information on the types
of malicious code seen in the attacks - without disclosing proprietary data about what was taken,
which would concern shareholders, sources said.

Greg Nojeim, senior counsel for the Center for Democracy & Technology, a privacy advocacy
group, said,
        'companies have statutory authority to share information with the government to
        protect their rights and property.'
                                Return to Google and The
                           Return to The NSA - The Super Secret
                                 National Security Agency

                                         by Gregg Keizer
                                           November 18, 2009
                                      from ComputerWorld Website

The National Security Agency (NSA) worked with Microsoft on the development of Windows 7,
an agency official acknowledged yesterday during testimony before Congress.
       "Working in partnership with Microsoft and elements of the Department of
       Defense, NSA leveraged our unique expertise and operational knowledge of
       system threats and vulnerabilities to enhance Microsoft's operating system
       security guide without constraining the user to perform their everyday tasks,
       whether those tasks are being performed in the public or private sector,"
       Richard Schaeffer, the NSA's information assurance director, told the Senate's
       Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security yesterday as part of a
       prepared statement.

        "All this was done in coordination with the product release, not months or years
        later during the product lifecycle," Schaeffer added. "This will improve the
        adoption of security advice, as it can be implemented during installation and
        then later managed through the emerging SCAP standards."
Security Content Automation Protocol, or SCAP, is a set of standards for automating chores
such as managing vulnerabilities and measuring security compliance. The National Institute of
Standards and Technologies (NIST) oversees the SCAP standards.

This is not the first time that the NSA has partnered with Microsoft during Windows development.

In 2007, the agency confirmed that it had a hand in Windows Vista as part of an initiative to
ensure that the operating system was secure from attack and would work with other government
software. Before that, the NSA provided guidance on how best to secure Windows XP and
Windows 2000.

According to Marc Rotenberg, the executive director of the Electronics Privacy Information
Center (EPIC), the NSA's involvement with operating system development goes back even
         "This battle goes back to at least the crypto wars of the early '90s," said
         Rotenberg, who remembered testifying about the agency's role in private sector
         computer security standards in 1989.
But when the NSA puts hands on Windows, that raises a red flag for Rotenberg, who heads the
Washington, D.C.-based public interest research center.
       "When NSA offers to help the private sector on computer security, the obvious
       concern is that it will also build in backdoors that enables tracking users and
       intercepting user communications," Rotenberg said in an e-mail.

        "And private sector firms are reluctant to oppose these 'suggestions' since the
        US government is also their biggest customer and opposition to the NSA could
        mean to loss of sales."
Rotenberg's worries stem from the NSA's reputation as the intelligence agency best known for
its eavesdropping of electronic messaging, including cell phone calls and e-mail.

Andrew Storms, the director of security operations at nCircle Security, didn't put much
credence in the idea that Microsoft would allow the NSA to build a hidden entrance to Windows
       "Would it be surprising to most people that there was a backdoor? No, not with
       the political agenda of prior administrations," said Storms. "My gut, though, tells
       me that Microsoft, as a business, would not want to do that, at least not in a
       secretive way."
Roger Thompson, chief research officer at AVG Technologies, agreed.
       "I can't imagine NSA and Microsoft would do anything deliberate because the
       repercussions would be enormous if they got caught," he said in an interview via
       instant messaging.

        "Having said that, I think we should understand that there is every likelihood that
        certain foreign governments are constantly looking for vulnerabilities that they
        can use for targeted attacks," Thompson continued.

        "So if they're poking at us, I think it's reasonable to assume that we're doing
        something similar. But I seriously doubt an official NSA-Microsoft alliance."
The NSA's Schaeffer added that his agency is also working on engaging other major software
makers, including Apple, Sun and Red Hat, on security standards for their products.
       "More and more, we find that protecting national security systems demands
       teaming with public and private institutions to raise the information assurance
       level of products and services more broadly," Schaeffer said.
Microsoft was not immediately available for comment on the NSA's participation in Windows 7's
                              Return to Windows-Microsoft-
                                        Bill Gates
                      Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                     Security Agency

                                      by Kevin Whitelaw
                                         November 17, 2009
                                         from NPR Website

                        Kevin Whitelaw is a reporter for

                                A little help on security from the NSA.

The National Security Agency (NSA) has been working with Microsoft Corp. to help improve
security measures for its new Windows 7 operating system, a senior NSA official said on

The confirmation of the NSA's role, which began during the development of the software, is a
sign of the agency's deepening involvement with the private sector when it comes to building
defenses against cyber-attacks.
        "Working in partnership with Microsoft and (the Department of Defense), NSA
        leveraged our unique expertise and operational knowledge of system threats
        and vulnerabilities to enhance Microsoft's operating system security guide
        without constraining the user's ability to perform their everyday tasks," Richard
        Schaeffer, the NSA's Information Assurance Director, told the Senate Judiciary
        Committee in a statement prepared for a hearing held this morning in

        "All this was done in coordination with the product release, not months or years
        later in the product cycle."
The partnership between the NSA and Microsoft is not new.

In 2007, NSA officials acknowledged working with Microsoft during the development of Windows
Vista to 'help' boost its defenses against computer viruses, worms and other attacks. In fact, the
cooperation dates back to at least 2005, when the NSA and other government agencies worked
with Microsoft on its Windows XP system and other programs.

The NSA, which is best known for its electronic eavesdropping operations, is charged with
protecting the nation's national security computing infrastructure from online assaults.

As these systems become increasingly dependent on private-sector computing products, the
NSA has reached out to a growing number of software companies.
        "More and more, we find that protecting national security systems demands
        teaming with public and private institutions to raise the information assurance
        level of products and services more broadly," Schaeffer said.
Schaeffer said that the NSA is also working to engage other companies, including Apple, Sun,
and RedHat, on security standards for their products. The agency also works with computer
security firms such as Symantec, McAfee, and Intel.

A growing array of law enforcement authorities, intelligence officials, and private computer
experts has been warning about the rising threat of cyberattacks.
        "The FBI considers the cyber threat against our nation to be one of the greatest
        concerns of the 21 century," Steven Chabinksy, the deputy assistant director of
        the FBI's cyber division, told the same congressional committee.
The Obama administration has been under pressure to name a cybersecurity chief to
reinvigorate the government's efforts to protect its most sensitive computer networks. Some
press reports suggest that appointment could come as early as next week.

Update at 5:30 p.m. ET
The text of Schaeffer's testimony, as prepared for delivery, is now online here.

Update at 2 p.m. ET
The NSA and other cybersecurity experts say that simple precautions (such as installing system
updates regularly and running anti-virus software and firewalls) should protect against about
80% of the attacks out there.

This means that if users took these steps, the NSA and others could focus on the more
dangerous 20%, or so the theory goes. Put another way, of course, that means about 20% of
attacks are sophisticated enough to theoretically defeat standard security measures.

                                Return to Windows-Microsoft-
                                           Bill Gates
                         Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                        Security Agency

                                            by Lewis Page
                                            12 February 2009
                                        from TheRegister Website

Counter Terror Expo News of a possible viable business model for P2P VoIP network Skype
emerged today, at the Counter Terror Expo in London.

An industry source disclosed that America's super-secret National Security Agency (NSA) is
offering "billions" to any firm which can offer reliable eavesdropping on Skype IM and voice traffic.

The spybiz exec, who preferred to remain anonymous, confirmed that Skype continues to be a
major problem for government listening agencies, spooks and police. This was already thought to
be the case, following requests from German authorities for special intercept/bugging powers to
help them deal with Skype-loving malefactors.

Britain's GCHQ has also stated that it has severe problems intercepting VoIP and internet
communication in general.

Skype in particular is a serious problem for spooks and cops. Being P2P (Peer-to-peer), the
network can't be accessed by the company providing it and the authorities can't gain access by
that route. The company won't disclose details of its encryption, either, and isn't required to as it is
Europe based.

This lack of openness prompts many security pros to rubbish Skype on "security through
obscurity" grounds: but nonetheless it remains a popular choice with those who think they might
find themselves under surveillance. Rumor suggests that America's NSA may be able to break
Skype encryption - assuming they have access to a given call or message - but nobody else.

The NSA may be able to do that: but it seems that if so, this uses up too much of the agency's
resources at present.
       "They are saying to the industry, you get us into Skype and we will make you a
       very rich company," said the industry source, adding that the obscure encryption
       used by the P2Pware is believed to change frequently as part of software
The spyware kingpin suggested that Skype is deliberately seeking to frustrate national listening
agencies, which seems an odd thing to do - Skype has difficulties enough getting revenues out of
its vast user base at any time, and a paid secure-voice system for subversives doesn't seem like
a money-spinner.

But corporate parent eBay, having had to write down $1.4bn already following its $2.6bn purchase
of Skype back in the bubble-2.0 days of 2005, might see an opportunity here. A billion or two from
the NSA for a backdoor into Skype might make the acquisition seem like a sensible idea.

We asked the NSA for comment, particularly on the idea of simply buying a way into Skype, but
hadn't yet received a response as of publication.

Taliban Using Skype Phones to Dodge MI6
by Glen Owen
13 September 2008
from DailyMail Website

Taliban fighters targeting British troops in Afghanistan are using the latest ‗internet phones‘ to
evade detection by MI6, security sources said last night.

Skype, a popular piece of consumer software that allows free calls to be made over the web, has
been adopted by insurgents to communicate with cells strung out across the country.

Unlike traditional mobile calls, which can be monitored by RAF Nimrod spy planes, Skype calls –
the commercial application of a technology called Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) – are
heavily encrypted.

Voice calls are broken into millions of pieces of data before being sent down the line and
reassembled by the other caller‘s computer.

The British and American governments are investing considerable resources to crack the codes,
and in the UK the Government is introducing legislation to force internet service providers to log
all web activity by subscribers, which could then be turned over to the security services on

The disclosure comes as the 8,000 British troops in Afghanistan are facing attacks almost daily
from an increasingly well co-ordinated Taliban.
        ‗The trouble with this technology is that it is easily available but devilishly hard to
        crack,‘ the source said. ‗The technology can now be accessed on mobile internet
        devices and the country‘s mobile phone network is expanding rapidly.‘
Skype was created in 2003 and three years ago was bought by eBay for £1.4billion. It has
300million accounts and at any one time, more than 12million people are using the service.

Sir David Pepper, the head of GCHQ, the British Government‘s top-secret listening post, has told
MPs that internet calls are ‗seriously undermining‘ his organization's ability to intercept

Skype said last night it did not want to comment.

                                         Return to La Red
                                  Return to The End of The
                            Return to The NSA - The Super Secret
                                  National Security Agency

                                        by Wayne Madsen
                                   Online Journal Contributing Writer
                                              July 7, 2009
                                     from OnLineJournal Website

WMR has learned that the National Security “Q” Group, responsible for security, has grown to
an immense security and counter-intelligence force, with an estimated one thousand
government employees, contractors, and paid informants.

NSA‘s Security force is reportedly primarily tasked with plugging any leaks of classified or other
information that points to U.S. government‘s involvement with the terrorist attacks on September
11, 2001.

NSA Security has doggedly pursued a number of NSA employees, some in ―sting‖ operations,
others in frequent polygraphs and repeated security interviews where threats are made by
thuggish NSA security agents with and without the presence of FBI agents, and others in
constant surveillance operations at their homes, churches, and other locations away from the
Fort Meade, Maryland, headquarters of the agency.

The most egregious NSA Security operation against an NSA employee was the 2004 arrest of
NSA analyst Ken Ford, Jr.

Ford became a target of opportunity for NSA Security and the FBI after Vice President Dick
Cheney noted his name on an NSA signals intelligence report on Saddam Hussein‘s
government that stated that there was no proof from interceptions of Iraqi communications that
Saddam Hussein possessed “weapons of mass destruction.”

Cheney and other neocons in the Bush White House arranged for a ―sting‖ operation to be
mounted as retribution against Ford. Ford was charged with taking classified papers home from
NSA headquarters, something that is quite impossible considering the stringent security in place
at one of the most-secured complexes in the world.

Ford was convicted by a tainted jury and sentenced to seven years in federal prison. Ford, who
is African-American, originally had an African-American federal trial judge. However, the judge
was replaced,
             by a pro-Iraq war Jewish U.S. judge, Peter Messitte, who set out to
               ensure a guilty conviction of Ford in cahoots with
             Jewish U.S. Attorney for Maryland Rod Rosenstein, and
             Jewish Assistant U.S. Attorney for Southern Maryland David Salem, both
               Bush appointees.
Nothing was done by the judge or prosecutors to dismiss from the jury a contractor whose
company had major contracts with NSA.

The trio of Messitte, Rosenstein, and Salem have also ―rocket-docketed‖ a number of cases,
resulting in slam-dunk convictions, against Arab- and Iranian-Americans in the southern district
of Maryland.

NSA‟s Security chief is Kemp Ensor III.

Ensor has built up what amounts to a massive law enforcement and intelligence agency in
Maryland that operates as a virtual independent operation that answers to no one. Maryland‘s
congressional delegation has shown little interest in oversight over the security operation.

In fact, WMR has learned that many NSA employees, aware of the political and other misuse of
their agency by the Bush-Cheney administration, avidly backed Barack Obama for president
hoping that the past era when NSA complied with the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
(FISA) and the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution would be restored.

However, many NSA employees are bitterly disappointed that Obama has done nothing to
curtail not only the widespread surveillance of the communications of law-abiding Americans but
the constant ―Stasi-like‖ harassment and surveillance conducted by Ensor‘s team of agents and
confidential informants.

WMR has also learned that NSA Security has been authorized to work directly with Washington
area local police department intelligence divisions to carry out its surveillance of not only NSA
employees and contractors, but journalists who report on the activities of NSA. Two police
departments mentioned in this respect are the Alexandria, Virginia, and Anne Arundel County,
Maryland, sheriff departments.

One senior level NSA official recently found himself sitting in front of NSA Security questioners
asking why he gave his NSA business cards to some students at a university. It turns out the
official was trying to recruit students for NSA employment. When the official asked why there
was a problem in his handing out his business cards, the answer by NSA Security was that
some of them, all American citizens, had ―Russian last names.‖

Even former NSA employees and contractors are being subjected to continual NSA Security
surveillance and harassment at their work places and other locations, according to WMR‘s
sources. Some have lost their jobs as a result of pressure from NSA Security.

WMR has in the past reported on NSA surveillance of journalists.

On December 28, 2005, we reported:
      ―WMR has learned that the National Security Agency (NSA), on the orders of
      the Bush administration, eavesdropped on the private conversations and e-mail
      of its own employees, employees of other U.S. intelligence agencies - including
      the CIA and DIA - and their contacts in the media, Congress, and oversight
      agencies and offices.

        The journalist surveillance program, code named ‗FIRSTFRUITS,‘ was part of a
        Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) program that was maintained at least until
        October 2004 and was authorized by then-DCI Porter Goss. FIRSTFRUITS was
        authorized as part of a DCI ‗Countering Denial and Deception‘ program
        responsible to an entity known as the Foreign Denial and Deception Committee

        Since the intelligence community‘s reorganization, the DCI has been replaced
        by the Director of National Intelligence headed by John Negroponte and his
        deputy, former NSA director Gen. Michael Hayden.‖
Since the revelation of the NSA journalist monitoring database, which later added
communications intercepts of journalists‘ phone calls, emails, and faxes to its database, NSA
Security has, according to information received by WMR, conducted physical surveillance of
journalists it deems to be threats to the operations of the agency.

The top targeted journalists, who make up a virtual ―rogues‘ gallery‖ at NSA Security, complete
with photographs and other personal information, are:
             former Baltimore Sun and current Wall Street Journal reporter Siobhan
             Washington Times reporter Bill Gertz
             former Baltimore Sun and current New York Times reporter Scott Shane
             Baltimore Sun reporter Phil McGowan
             author James Bamford
             New York Times reporters James Risen and Eric Lichtblau, and this
                editor, Wayne Madsen
In addition to the aforementioned, FIRSTFRUITS also contained the names of:
              former Washington Post reporter Vernon Loeb
              New Yorker journalist Seymour Hersh
              UPI‘s John C. K. Daly
Ironically, NSA Security allegedly has its own connections in the news media.

A Washington Times source revealed that the paper‘s writer of the ―Inside the Beltway‖ column,
John McCaslin, has a relative inside NSA Security - Robert McCaslin, the chief of NSA Security
counter-intelligence and the chief “sting” agent against Ford.

Robert McCaslin, according to the Times source, is the brother of the paper‘s columnist.

NSA Security is also able to utilize the agency‘s most sophisticated electronic surveillance
systems to monitor the activities of journalists. The cell phones of journalists are routinely used
as listening devices, even when turned off. And what was considered a sure-fire method of
avoiding having a cell phone used as a transmitter, removing the batteries in what has become
known as ―batteries out‖ conversations, is no longer safe.

Even when the batteries are removed, the global positioning system (GPS) chip in cell phones
continues to have enough residual power that two to three pings from satellites can give away a
person‘s location and what other uniquely identifiable cell phones are at the same location.

The bottom line is that a number of NSA personnel who were on duty in the months leading up
to 9/11, the day of the attacks, and subsequent weeks and months, are aware of undeniable
facts that point to a massive cover-up by the Bush-Cheney administration of the circumstances
surrounding 9/11, including what actually befell United Airlines flight 93 and who was issuing
direct military orders from the White House.

The Obama administration, rather than lessen the pressure on the NSA personnel, has turned
up the heat and is resorting to even more draconian methods to ensure silence.
  The word from inside NSA is that a state of fear exists and the mission of the agency, to conduct
  surveillance of foreign communications to provide threat indications and warnings to U.S. troops
  and policy makers and protect sensitive U.S. government communications from unauthorized
  eavesdropping is suffering as a result.


                  NSA Security Running Amok to Plug Leaks About 9/11
                                            by YouDeserveToKnow
                                                    July 10, 2009
                                                from YouTube Website

                            The US government has allegedly set up a special security wing
            with the sole task of distancing Washington from any involvement in the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

                                     Return to Zion and The 9-11
                                      Return to Obama - A "New"
                                          Sociopolitical Era?
                                 Return to The Bushes and The New
                                             World Order
                            Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                           Security Agency

                                                  25 November 2009
                                               from VoltaireNet Website

The National Security Agency (NSA) acknowledged having worked with Microsoft on the development
of Windows 7, as testified on 17 November 2009 by Richard Schaeffer, the NSA‘s information
assurance director, before the U.S. Senate‟s Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security.
The cooperation between the NSA and Microsoft has been an open secret since a the judiciary
agreement was reached between the U.S. Government and the computer giant.

It is however the first time that official mention of this has been made.

In terms of cyber security, over and above the issue of protection from external intrusions, the crux of
the matter lies in who is the doorkeeper. In other words, while it is NSA‘s prerogative to have sole
security access control over the most-widely used software equipment inside the United States, the
fact remains that Windows 7 is marketed globally. Undoubtedly, this opens up considerable
opportunities for U.S. cyber espionage beyond its borders.

As for Microsoft, while it has denied that the NSA has the possibility to access Windows 7, it is not in a
position to guarantee it.

To date, no state is known to have barred Windows 7 software in order to protect its citizens from U.S.

                                              by Dan Brown
                                            from DanBrown Website

Digital Fortress
Phillips Exeter Academy, and the true story behind Dan Brown‘s bestseller...
                             o   A prestigious prep school
                             o   A powerful intelligence agency
                             o   A minor indiscretion
                             o   A major thriller
In the Spring of 1995, on the campus of Phillips Exeter Academy, the U.S. Secret Service made a
      THE TARGET : A teenage student flagged by a government computer as being a threat to
        national security.
      THE CRIME : Sending E-mail to a friend in which he said he thought President Clinton should be
      THE MISTAKE : The same mistake many Americans make every day...believing that what they
        say in E-mail is private.
In the wake of the incident, Dan Brown, an English teacher at the school, surprised by the government‘s
apparent ability to "listen in", began researching the intelligence community‘s access to civilian
communication. What he stumbled across stunned him... an ultra-secret, $12 billion a year intelligence
agency that only 3% of Americans know exists.

This clandestine organization, known as the NSA (jokingly referred to as No Such Agency), employs
over 20,000 code-breakers, analysts, technicians, and spies and has a 86-acre compound hidden in
Maryland. Founded over half a century ago by President Truman, the NSA‘s technology is unrivaled.
They have the ability to monitor all of our digital communications--cellular phone, FAX, and E-mail. They
are bound by presidential directive to do whatever it takes to protect our national security... including
"snoop" our most private conversations if necessary.

Brown coaxed two ex-NSA cryptographers to speak to him via anonymous remailers (an E-mail
protocol that ensures both parties privacy), and the cryptographers, each unaware of the other, told
identical stories... incredible accounts of NSA submarines that listened in on underwater phone cables,
of a terrorist attack on the New York Stock Exchange that never went public, and also of a chilling new
NSA technology--a multi-billion dollar supercomputer capable of deciphering even the most secure
communications. Nonetheless, the cryptographers sang the praises of the NSA and insisted that
ensuring our nation‘s security can only be done at the expense of civilian privacy.
         "The battle between privacy and security," says Brown, "has no clear-cut answers. The
         stakes are enormous. All I know is that when I learned the truth about the NSA, I had to
         write about it."
If he disappears... we‘ll know who to blame.

Did You Know?
Some surprising facts about your lack of privacy.
            In large cities, Americans are photographed on the average of 20 times a day.
            Everything you charge is in a database that police, among others, can look at.
            Supermarkets track what you purchase and sell the information to direct-mail
               marketing firms.
            Your employer is allowed to read your E-Mail, and if you use your company‘s
               health insurance to purchase drugs, your employer has access to that
            Government computers scan your E-Mail for subversive language.
            Your cell phone calls can be intercepted, and your access numbers can be
               cribbed by eavesdroppers with police scanners.
            You register your whereabouts every time you use an ATM, credit card, or use
               EZ PASS at a toll booth.
            You are often being watched when you visit web sites. Servers know what you‘re
               looking at, what you download, and how long you stay on a page.
            A political candidate found his career destroyed by a newspaper that published a
               list of all the videos he had ever rented.
            Most "baby monitors" can be intercepted 100 feet outside the home.
            Intelligence agencies now have "micro-bots" -- tiny, remote control, electronic
               "bugs" that literally can fly into your home and look around without your noticing.
            Anyone with $100 can tap your phone.
            A new technology called TEMPEST can intercept what you are typing on your
              keypad (from 100 feet away through a cement wall.)
            The National Security Agency has a submarine that can intercept and decipher
              digital communications from the RF emissions of underwater phone cables.

Author FAQ
NSA secrets, anecdotes, privacy info, and a surprising look into the future
DIGITAL FORTRESS, the controversial thriller about the ultra-secret U.S. National Security Agency,
spent 15 weeks as the #1 national bestselling E-book and was inspired by a true event.

       "I couldn’t figure out how the Secret Service knew what these kids were saying in
       their E-mail."

       Q: A rather startling event inspired you to write Digital Fortress. Can you elaborate on
       what happened?

       A: A few years ago, I was teaching on the campus of Phillips Exeter Academy in New
       Hampshire. One Spring day, unannounced, the U.S. Secret Service showed up and
       detained one of our students claiming he was a threat to national security. As it turned
       out, the kid had sent private E-mail to a friend saying how much he hated President
       Clinton and how he thought the president should be shot. The Secret Service came to
       campus to make sure the kid wasn‘t serious. After some interrogation the agents
       decided the student was harmless, and not much came of it. Nonetheless, the incident
       really stuck with me. I couldn‘t figure out how the secret service knew what these kids
       were saying in their E-mail.

       I began doing some research into where organizations like the Secret Service get their
       intelligence data, and what I found out absolutely floored me. I discovered there is an
       intelligence agency as large as the CIA... that only about 3% of Americans knows

       It is called the National Security Agency (NSA), and it is home to the country‘s
       eavesdroppers. The agency functions like an enormous vacuum cleaner sucking in
       intelligence data from around the globe and processing it for subversive material. The
       NSA‘s super-computers scan E-mail and other digital communiqués looking for
       dangerous word combinations like "kill" and "Clinton" in the same sentence.

       The more I learned about this ultra-secret agency and the fascinating moral issues
       surrounding national security and civilian privacy, the more I realized it was a great
       backdrop for a novel. That‘s when I started writing Digital Fortress.

       "The NSA is in charge of waging the information war-- stealing other people’s
       secrets while protecting our own."

       Q: The NSA sounds fascinating, can you tell me more about it?
       A: The NSA was founded at 12:01 on the morning of November 4 , 1952 by President
       Truman. No note of this event was made in the Congressional Record. The NSA‘s
charge was simple--to intercept and decipher intelligence information from hostile
governments around the globe. Secondly, it was to create the means to enable secure
communications among U.S. military and officials.

Put another way, the NSA is in charge of waging the information war--stealing other
people‘s secrets while protecting our own; they are not only the nation‘s code-breakers,
but also our code-writers. Today the agency has a $12 billion annual budget, about
25,000 employees, and an 86-acre heavily armed compound in Fort Meade, Maryland.
It is home to the world‘s most potent computers as well as some of the most brilliant
cryptographers, mathematicians, technicians, and analysts. Digital Fortress is about a
brilliant female cryptographer who works inside these sacred walls.

"Intelligence analysts joke that the acronym ’NSA’ really stands for ’No Such

Q: Why have so few people heard of the NSA?

A: In the novel the intelligence analysts joke that the acronym "NSA" really stands for
"No Such Agency" or "Never Say Anything." Seriously though, the NSA is clandestine
because it has to be. It is responsible for protecting this nation from some very powerful
and hostile forces; often times this involves practices that civilians might find intrusive or

The NSA is far more effective if it is immune to the public scrutiny that most of the other
agencies have to endure. Although not many people have heard of the NSA, that fact is
quickly changing. Certainly those people familiar with the intelligence community are
aware of the NSA‘s existence and general code of conduct. Computer users who are
savvy about issues of privacy in the digital age are also more and more aware of the
NSA‘s existence and practices.

The battle for privacy rights in a digital world is starting to take center stage, and I
suspect it will be THE major issue of the next decade. We can all expect to hear a lot
more about the NSA as the battle surrounding national security and civilian privacy

"We communicated via anonymous remailers such that our identities remained

Q: How did you get so much information on such a clandestine agency?

A: Much of the data on the NSA is public domain if you know where to dig. James
Bamford wrote a superb exposé of the agency, and there are a number of former
intelligence sources who have written extensive white-papers on the subject. I was also
fortunate to befriend two former NSA cryptographers while researching the book. We
communicated via anonymous remailers such that our identities remained secret.

At first, I was surprised with the information they were sharing, and I suspected, despite
their obvious knowledge, that they were probably not who they said they were. But the
more we spoke, the more I was convinced they were authentic. Neither one knew about
the other, and yet they told almost identical stories. When I asked why they were
sharing intelligence data with me, the response startled me. One cryptographer put it
this way,
           "I am a mathematician, not a politician. The NSA‘s technologies and
        practices are necessary, believe me, but their level of secrecy is
        dangerous. It breeds distrust. I believe it is good for everyone that the
        agency is gradually coming to the public eye. I am not sharing classified
        information; the information I am sharing is already out there, but it is
        skillfully buried. I‘m only bringing it to the surface."

"There used to be barriers around information. Technology has changed that."

Q: Ten years ago we never read about privacy rights, now it is an enormous issue.

A: Barriers. There used to be barriers around information. Technology has changed
that. It used to be we sent our messages in sealed envelopes with the U.S. postal
service; now we E-mail.

Global corporations used to gather for closed-door meetings; now they teleconference.
Once we sent important documents with bonded couriers; now we FAX. All of these
transfers take place through a vast network of cables and satellites that is impossible to
keep entirely secure. Technology has made global communication more efficient, but
the down side is that there is a lot more of each of us floating around out there waiting
to be intercepted.

"ITT and Western Union were under enormous political pressure to cooperate
silently... and they did so."

Q: Does the government really read our E-mail?

A: Government monitoring of civilian communication is something that has been going
on for decades. Even though the public is widely unaware, government officials and
specialists in privacy-related fields are certainly aware of the practice. The debate over
its ethics is complex because a precedent exists that intercepting certain E-mail, cellular
phone, and FAX communications can help law-enforcement officials catch dangerous
criminals. The question turns into one of civilian privacy vs. national security. In the
1950‘s the NSA‘s then top-secret Project Shamrock intercepted and scanned all
telegrams sent in or out of the country; ITT and Western Union were under enormous
political pressure to cooperate silently... and they did so.

Project Shamrock stayed in effect until 1975. Nixon‘s Huston Plan and later Project
Minaret further relaxed regulations on monitoring civilian communications and even
activated enormous watch-lists of U.S. civilians whose communiqués were regularly
tapped. Just recently, of course, the FBI caught the infamous hacker Jose Ardita by
secretly monitoring computer activity at Harvard University. As you can see, this sort of
activity is nothing new.

"The loopholes are obvious..."

Q: But aren‘t there laws against intercepting E-mail?

A: Current laws are shaky at best. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)
provides that personal E-mail cannot be intercepted while it is in transit. However, once
the E-mail is digitally "stored" it is fair game and officials can legally gain access. The
irony in the law is that E-mail travels by copying itself from server to server; the moment
it is "in transit" it is also stored on servers across the country.
The loopholes are obvious. It‘s hard to prove that unwarranted monitoring takes place,
but most privacy specialists agree that monitoring is rampant, a point well-taken when
you consider the following: Government Incentive -- Terrorist activity against the U.S. is
on the rise (some from domestic sources), and the incentive certainly exists to protect
national security in anyway possible. It‘s Easy - The technology now exists for the
government to secretly scan enormous quantities of data very cost effectively. It‘s Legal
- The current laws are written such that they do not hinder the intelligence agencies in
any real way from scanning civilian communications for subversive activity. Historical
Precedent - The intelligence community has a long history of protecting national security
through domestic intelligence gathering.

Operation Shamrock and Minaret are two examples. Daily Proof - Almost every day
there are stories in the news of civilians arrested for child pornography, embezzlement,
drug trade, etc. These arrests usually hold up in court based on evidence from
intercepted private communications. Officials often have court-orders when they tap E-
mail and phones, but it is not difficult to imagine time-sensitive crises where court-orders
are not feasible and laws are bent in the name of protecting the common good.

"If I send E-mail that reads, ’Tonight I’m taking out my wife,’ how would you
interpret that?"

Q: Most individuals are law-abiding citizens, why should they care if a government
agency might be listening in to their personal communications?

A: First, there is the obvious moral issue of whether or not we want to live in an
Orwellian society where big brother is peering in from all sides. But more immediate
concerns are those of abuse and misinterpretation of data. For example, if I send E-mail
that reads, "Tonight I‘m taking out my wife," how would you interpret that? Am I treating
my wife to a date, or am I killing her? Because language is sometimes ambiguous, it
runs the risk of misunderstanding. The results can be disastrous.

"The priest made a single typo that changed his life forever."

Q: Can you give us any "real life" horror stories of instances of abuse or

A: Absolutely. There is one I heard recently that has become somewhat of an urban
legend. Although I can‘t vouch for the accuracy of the story, it‘s a perfect example of the
sorts of things that we now hear happening all the time. Apparently, last year a priest
from Utah sent E-mail to his sister in Boston. In his message he mentioned that some
local teenagers had stopped by his church that day and baked him brownies. Hoping to
impress his sister with his technological wizardry, he borrowed the church‘s new digital
camera and took a photo of the brownies. Then he attached the photo to his E-mail and
sent it off. Of course everything should have been fine.

Alas, it was not. In a cruel twist of fate, while typing his E-mail the priest made a single
typo that changed his life forever. While writing the phrase "teenagers baked brownies",
instead of typing "B" for baked, he missed and hit the letter "N" (the letter directly next to
the "B"), resulting in the phrase "teenagers naked brownies."

Because he had unknowingly typed the words "naked" and "teenagers" next to each
other in his E-mail, his message was flagged by a secret government computer
scanning for child pornographers on the Internet. To make matters worse (much worse)
the priest had attached a photo to his E-mail, so his transmission was flagged top-
priority for immediate analysis.

When the task force went to examine the photo, however, they found that the file was
corrupt and could not be opened. All they knew was that the photo was entitled
"Brownies", and it was sent by a priest who was writing about naked teenagers. They
tracked the priest‘s identity through his Internet service provider and secretly began
investigating his church. They found to their horror that both the Cub Scouts and the
Brownies met at there on a regular basis. They concluded that this priest had been
sending pictures of naked Brownies... a felony. They arrested him.

"The government is far less intrusive than most forces."

Q: Is the government the only force that pries into our lives?

A: Absolutely not. In fact, the government is far less intrusive than most forces. With the
evolution of the personal computer, small companies and even individuals can now
keep track of enormous databanks. Can you imagine ten years ago your neighborhood
grocer making a note of every single item you as a customer purchased? Now it
happens automatically at the check-out scanners. If you buy groceries with a credit or
debit card, a detailed record of your personal purchasing preferences is instantly
cataloged. Marketing agencies pay top dollar for these lists.

"Even our simplest daily actions are recorded and can come back to haunt us."

Q: Can you give us other examples of how we are spied on?

A: The list is endless. Aside from the cameras that are trained on us at all ATM‘s, toll-
booths, and large department stores, there is plenty of subtle spying. Sweepstakes are
a good example. If you enter $100,000 dollar sweepstakes, you should be aware that
the company sponsoring the sweepstakes will make ten times that much selling your
personal information to direct-mail marketing firms. Another example is the ubiquitous
"free blood pressure clinic." Many of these clinics are set up NOT to check your blood
pressure but rather to gather prospecting lists for pharmaceutical companies.

The world-wide-web is anything but private. Many computer users still don‘t realize that
the web sites they visit will, in many cases, track their progress through the site--how
long a user stays, what he lingers over, what files he downloads. If you‘re visiting sites
on the web that you don‘t want anyone to know you‘re visiting, you better think again.

Even our simplest daily actions are recorded and can come back to haunt us. One of
my favorite stories is of a political race in California in which a candidate was running on
a platform of conservative family values. His challenger simply went to the man‘s local
Blockbuster Video and tipped the clerk $100 to print out a list of every movie the
candidate‘s family had ever rented. The list contained some titles that were by no
means Disneyesque. He leaked the list to the papers, and the election was over before
it began.

"Ultimately, the price we pay for national security will be an almost total loss of
Q: What‘s in store for us in the future, more or less privacy?

A: Less. Every day, civilians have fewer and fewer secrets, and it‘s only going to get
worse. The world has become a dangerous place, and our security is harder to protect.
Criminals have access to the same technology we do. If we want the government to
catch terrorists who use E-mail or cellular phones, we have to provide a means for them
to monitor these types of communication.

There are plenty of very sharp folks who are working hard to find some happy medium--
key escrow systems that would enable officials to monitor communications only with a
court order--but despite all the efforts to leave the public some semblance of secrecy,
ultimately the price we pay for national security will be an almost total loss of privacy.

"Currently, criminals can obtain the necessary level of anonymity to commit their
crimes. That is changing."

Q: Is this death of privacy all bad news?

A: Not entirely. Many people will want my head for saying that, but if you think about it,
most of the bad things that occur in society happen because people have privacy -- that
is to say, criminals can obtain the necessary level of anonymity to commit their crimes.

One needs privacy to break the law and get away with it. Child molesters, terrorists,
organized criminals--- they all work in private. If their communications and daily
activities are less clandestine, they will not last long. Of course, there is the obvious
question of whether or not we trust the law-enforcement officials who are listening in.

Whether or not we trust those people we‘ve elected to watch over us is a question
asked by the antagonist in Digital Fortress--"Quis custodiet ipsos custodes," he quotes -
- "Who will guard the guards?"

"Ultimately, privacy will not survive the digital revolution."

Q: Isn‘t there any way to protect ourselves from prying eyes?

A: Ultimately, privacy will not survive the digital revolution. We live in a society
experiencing exponential technological growth. Within the decade, most of our daily
activities will be conducted through our home computers-- paying taxes, voting,
shopping, all of our entertainment, movie-downloads will replace videos, music
downloads will replace CD‘s... all of this personal information will be zipping around
between satellites and through would be naive to believe that we will develop
some foolproof method of keeping all this information secure.

"The important thing for us to do is to ensure that the death of privacy is

Q: How should we prepare ourselves for the end of privacy?

A: The important thing for us to do is to ensure that the death of privacy is bilateral--that
is, that while snoopers know more about us, we know more about them. If a
supermarket or clinic is selling our personal information, we should know to whom. If a
web site plans to watch our every move, we should be warned before we enter the site.
    "The death of privacy may have some wonderful side effects we don’t yet
    imagine--it may just make us a more moral society..."

    Q: The scenario sounds grim. Can you leave us with any words of hope?

    A: Sure. The death of privacy may have some wonderful side effects we don‘t yet
    imagine--it may just make us a more moral society. If we are more visible to our peers,
    our behavior as a society will undoubtedly improve. Think about it... if your whole town
    knows when you are on the Internet sneaking a peek at Lois Lane in her underwear,
    you might just decide to do something else... maybe even curl up with a good book.

                     Links to the NSA‘s official site as well as other intelligence
                     resources (courtesy of FAS)
                     N.287 dated 9 May 1996
                     page 2
                     The Best U.S. Intelligence Web Site

                      The best Internet site on the American intelligence community is
                      undoubtedly one run by the Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
                      which has been fighting a long battle to declassify secrets that no
                      longer need to be kept in the Cold War‘s aftermath (Project on
                      Government Secrecy-PGS) and to encourage an overhaul of
    intelligence services (Intelligence Reform Project-IRP).

    The site offers a lot of striking documents and pictures. In their pages, Steven Aftergood
    and John Pike, leading figures in PGS and IRP, show satellite images (with resolutions
    from 10 to 1 meter) of the main buildings housing American intelligence agencies as
    well as pictures of the same premises and maps indicating their exact location.

    When the Brown commission published its report on reforms in American intelligence on
    March 1 it recommended that the community‘s budget not be disclosed.

    By cross-checking several documents and using reverse engineering methods, FAS
    published a relatively precise estimate of what is effectively the community‘s budget of
    around $28 billion (a detailed analysis with maps and tables is available on President Bill Clinton indirectly paid
    tribute to that effort on April 23 by suggesting that Congress adopt a bill to make the
    budget public.

    Drawing on open sources, Pike also drew up a first directory of 160 companies that
    work for American intelligence (

    The directory is constantly updated on the web. Recently, FAS persuaded John Deutch
    to make the Director of Central Intelligence‘s report for 1994 public and published it in
    March on its site (
       In addition, Aftergood publishes a newsletter entitled Secrecy & Government Bulletin
       (SG&B) every month.

       Now in its fifth year, the publication has produced a number of major scoops ever since
       it revealed the existence of an on-going Special Access Program for the first time in
       1991. Named Timber Wind, the project to build a nuclear-powered engine for a rocket
       was finally scrapped.

       SG&B is currently financed by the Rockefeller Family Fund, the CS Fund and several
       other donors. But it is seeking fresh funding in order to continue its work.

Someone Is Listening
An overview of the battle...
Excerpt from the L.A. TIMES

       By Robert Lee Hotz

       Someone Is Listening...

       When Charles and Diana discovered millions of people were reveling in their most
       intimate telephone calls, the world‘s most public couple had to face the facts of private
       life in the electronic age.

       In a world of cellular phones, computer networks, electronic mail and interactive TV, the
       walls might as well have ears.

       With the explosion of such devices, more people and companies -- from banks to
department stores -- seem to have more access to more information that someone
wants to keep private. In response, computer users are devising their own electronic
codes to protect such secrets as corporate records, personal mail or automated teller

Historically, the biggest ears have belonged to the federal government, which has used
surveillance techniques designed to track down criminals and security risks to keep
electronic tabs on subjects ranging from civil rights leaders to citizens making overseas

But, today, federal officials are afraid that advanced technology, which for almost 50
years has allowed them to conduct surveillance on a global scale, is about to make
such monitoring impossible.

Now, federal intelligence and law enforcement agencies are insisting on their right to

The government is proposing a standardized coding, or encryption, system that would
eliminate eavesdropping by anyone except the one holder of the code‘s key -- the
government itself.

To ensure that federal agents and police can continue to wiretap communications, the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is introducing a national
electronic code. It will cover all telephone systems and computer transmissions, with a
built-in back door that police can unlock with a court order and an electronic key.

White House and FBI officials insist they have no way to force any company to adopt
the new technology. They will not outlaw other forms of coding, they said.

But experts say a series of regulatory actions involving Congress, the State
Department, the U.S. attorney general, export licensing restrictions and the purchasing
power of the federal government will effectively force people to use the code.

The government‘s plan has triggered an outcry among computer users, civil rights
groups and others. The American Civil Liberties Union and groups of computer
professionals say the plan raises major constitutional questions.

Federal laws are designed to limit the government‘s ability to wiretap, not guarantee it,
they say.
        "Where does the U.S. government get the right to understand
        everything that is transmitted?" asked Michel Kabay, director of
        education for the National Computer Security Assn. in Carlisle, Pa.
Not so many years ago, powerful encryption techniques were the monopoly of military
and intelligence agencies.

Over time, computer experts and corporate cryptographers created codes to protect
their private communications. Some of these scramble electronic signals so thoroughly
that even the supercomputers of the National Security Agency cannot decipher them.
One of the best codes, called Pretty Good Privacy, is free and can be downloaded from
computer network libraries around the world -- yet it still contains safeguards that
protect its secrets from prying eyes.

Combined with advances in fiber optics and digital communications, these codes enable
people to send electronic mail, computer files and faxes the government cannot read,
and to make phone calls even the most sophisticated wiretapper cannot understand.
As new technologies converge to form the roadbed of a national information
superhighway, the government faces the prospect of millions of people around the world
communicating in the absolute privacy of the most secure codes science can devise.

At the same time, hundreds of phone companies channel calls through new digital
switches into long-distance fiber-optic cables where, translated into light-speed laser
pulses, they may elude interception more easily. Dozens of other companies are
organizing global wireless digital networks to send phone calls, faxes and computer files
over the airwaves to people no matter where they are or how often they move.

Given all this, NIST officials say the new code, called Skipjack, is the government‘s
attempt to strike a balance between personal privacy and public safety.

They say it will protect people from illicit eavesdropping, while allowing an authorized
government agent to unlock any scrambled call or encrypted computer message. It
could be incorporated into virtually every computer modem, cellular phone and
telecommunications system manufactured in the United States.

Designed by the National Security Agency, which conducts most of the country‘s
communications surveillance, the code is one facet of an ambitious government
blueprint for the new information age.

But critics say the code is just one of several steps by federal law enforcement groups
and intelligence agencies to vastly expand their ability to monitor all telecommunications
and to access computer databases.

Federal officials acknowledge that they are even considering the idea that foreign
governments should be given the keys to unlock long-distance calls, faxes and
computer transmissions from the United States. An international agency, supervised by
the United Nations or Interpol, might be asked to hold in trust the keys to electronic
codes, said Clint Brooks, a senior NSA technical adviser.

The Skipjack furor pits the White House, the FBI and some of the government‘s most
secret agencies against privacy advocates, cipher experts, business executives and
ragtag computer-zoids who say codes the government cannot break are the only way to
protect the public from the expanding reach of electronic surveillance.

On the computer networks that link millions of users and self-styled Cypherpunks -- a
group of encryption specialists -- the federal proposal has stirred fears of an electronic
Big Brother and the potential abuse of power.
        "It really is Orwellian when a scheme for surveillance is described as a
        proposal for privacy," said Marc Rotenberg, Washington director of
        Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.
Encryption is the art of concealing information in the open by hiding it in a code. It is
older than the alphabet, which is itself a code that almost everyone knows how to read.

Today, electronic codes conceal trade secrets, protect sensitive business calls and
shelter personal computer mail. They also scramble pay-per-view cable television
programs and protect electronic credit card transactions.

Everyone who uses an automated teller machine is entrusting financial secrets to an
electronic code that scrambles transmissions between the automated teller and the
bank‘s main computer miles away. One inter-bank network moves $1 trillion and 1
million messages around the world every day, swaddled in the protective cocoon of its

Nowhere has the demand for privacy grown so urgent as on the international
confederation of computer systems known as the Internet. There, in a proving ground
for the etiquette of electronic communication, millions of people in dozens of countries
are adopting codes to protect their official business, swap gossip and exchange
personal notes elbow-to-elbow in the same crowded electronic bazaar.
         "People have been defending their own privacy for centuries with
         whispers, darkness, envelopes, closed doors, secret handshakes and
         couriers," said Eric Hughes, moderator of the Cypherpunks, an Internet
         group that specializes in encryption.

        "We are defending privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail-
        forwarding systems, with digital signatures and with electronic money."
And it‘s working. The technology is leaving law enforcement behind.

Federal officials who defend the Skipjack plan say they are worried about too much
privacy in the wrong hands.
         "Are we going to let technology repeal this country‘s wiretap laws?"
         asked James K. Kallstrom, FBI chief of investigative technology. Under
         U.S. law, any wiretap not sanctioned by a court order is a felony.
Federal law enforcement agencies and intelligence groups were galvanized last fall
when AT&T introduced the first inexpensive mass-market device to scramble phone
calls. The scrambler contains a computer chip that generates an electronic code unique
to each conversation.

FBI officials paled at what they said was the prospect of racketeers, drug dealers or
terrorists being able to find sophisticated phone scramblers to code and decode calls at
the nearest phone store.

National security analysts and Defense Department officials say U.S. intelligence
agencies find the new generation of computer encryption techniques especially
unsettling. It promises to make obsolete a multibillion-dollar investment in secret
surveillance facilities and spy satellites.
         "We would have the same concerns internationally that law
         enforcement would have domestically about uncontrolled encryption,"
         said Stewart A. Baker, NSA general counsel.
NSA officials are reluctant to discuss their surveillance operations, but they said they
would not want terrorists or anyone else "targeting the United States" to be able to
communicate in the secrecy provided by unbreakable modern codes.

The Clinton Administration is expected to advise telecommunications and computer
companies this fall to adopt the Skipjack code as a new national encryption standard
used by the government, the world‘s largest computer user, and anyone who does
business with it.

The government also will be spending billions in the next 10 years to promote a public
network of telecommunications systems and computer networks called the National
Information Infrastructure. Any firm that wants to join will have to adopt the Skipjack

Skipjack is being offered to the public embedded in a tamper-proof, $26 computer circuit
called the Clipper Chip. It is produced by Mykotronx Inc., a computer company in
Torrance. To make it easier for agents to single out the proper conversation in a stream
of signals, every Clipper Chip has its own electronic identity and broadcasts it in every
message it scrambles.

Federal agents conducting a court-authorized wiretap can identify the code
electronically and then formally request the special keys that allow an outsider to
decipher what the chip has scrambled.

Federal officials say they expect companies to incorporate the chip into consumer
phone scramblers, cellular phones and "secure" computer modems. Within a few years,
FBI officials say, they expect the Skipjack code to be part of almost every encryption
device available to the average consumer.

Many companies say they are leery of adopting the sophisticated electronic code, even
though it could protect them from foreign intelligence agencies and competitors seeking
their trade secrets. But AT&T, which has a long history of cooperating with the
government on communications surveillance, has already agreed to recall the
company‘s consumer scramblers and refit them this fall with the new chip.

Even without Skipjack and the Clipper Chip, advanced computers and electronic
databases already have expanded government‘s ability to track and monitor citizens.

Searches of phone records, computer credit files and other databases are at an all-time
high, and court-authorized wiretaps -- which listened in on 1.7 million phone
conversations last year -- monitor twice as many conversations as a decade ago,
federal records show.

The General Accounting Office says that federal agencies maintain more than 900
databanks containing billions of personal records about U.S. citizens.

This type of easy access to electronic information is addictive, critics contend.

Since the FBI set up its computerized National Criminal Information Center in 1967, for
example, information requests have grown from 2 million a year to about 438 million last
year, and the criminal justice database itself now encompasses 24 million files.

The FBI records system, like computer files at the Internal Revenue Service, is
"routinely" used for unauthorized purposes by some federal, state and local law
enforcement agencies, the General Accounting Office (GAO) said.

GAO auditors found that some police agencies have used the FBI system to investigate
political opponents. Others have sold FBI information to companies and private
investigators. In Arizona, a former law enforcement official used it to track down his
estranged girlfriend and kill her, the auditors reported.

What the government can‘t find in its own files, it can obtain from any one of hundreds
of marketing firms that specialize in compiling electronic dossiers on citizens. The FBI is
seeking authority from Congress to obtain those records without consulting a judge or
notifying the individual involved, which is required now.

Information America, for example, offers data on the location and profiles of more than
111 million Americans, 80 million households and 61 million telephone numbers.
Another firm specializes in gay men and lesbians.

A third, a service for doctors called Patient Select, singles out millions of people with
nervous stomachs.
        Computer experts say encryption can draw a curtain across such electronic windows
        into private life.

        In fact, the FBI is planning to encrypt its criminal justice computer files.
                  "Recent years have seen technological developments that diminish the
                  privacy available to the individual," said Whitfield Diffie, a pioneering
                  computer scientist who helped invent modern cryptography.

                "Cameras watch us in the stores, X-ray machines search us at the
                airport, magnetometers look to see that we are not stealing from the
                merchants, and databases record our actions and transactions.

                "Cryptography," he said, "is perhaps alone in its promise to give us
                more privacy rather than less."

Inside the company that makes the secret chip
         Scrambling for Privacy
         As more people and companies adopt codes to protect their telephone calls, faxes and
         computer files, the federal government has proposed a national encryption standard
         that will allow people to protect their privacy while ensuring that law enforcement agents
         can still wiretap telecommunications.

        Here is how it would work:
            When someone using a Skipjack-equipped secure phone calls another secure
                phone, chips inside the phone generate a unique electronic code to scramble
                the conservation.
            The chip also broadcasts a unique identifying serial number.
            If a law enforcement agent wants to listen in, he first must obtain a court order
                and the get the chip‘s serial number from the signal.
            The agent obtains takes that number to the Treasury Department and the
                National Institute of Standards and Technology, which keep the government‘s
                digital keys to the chip.
            The keys are combined to unscramble the conversation. When legal
                authorization for the wiretap expires, the keys are destroyed.
                     o Two 80-digit random strings of zeros and ones are selected.
                     o They are factored together to form the chip‘s unique key the key is then
                         split in half.
                     o Each half is paired with the serial number of the chip to form two keys.
                     o One is kept by the Treasury Department and the other by the National
                         Institute of Standards and Technology.
            Sources: U.S. National Security Agency, Mykotronx Inc.

Someone Is Listening
        To eavesdrop on a telephone conversation, law enforcement agents must obtain a court
        order, but they can use other devices, such as so-called pen registers, that record
        incoming or outgoing telephone numbers without actually listening to the calls.


        From 1985 through 1991, court-ordered wiretaps resulted in 7,324 convictions and
        nearly $300 million in fines. A single court order can involve many telephones. This data
         includes federal and state orders, but does not include many national security wiretaps.
                                          1985: 784
                                          1986: 754
                                          1987: 673
                                          1988: 738
                                          1989: 763
                                          1990: 872
                                          1991: 856
                                          1992: 919 *

         Pen registers are devices that record only the outgoing numbers dialed on a telephone
         under surveillance. Below are the number of pen registers in use, by year.
                                          1987: 1,682
                                          1988: 1,978
                                          1989: 2,384
                                          1990: 2,353
                                          1991: 2,445
                                          1992: 3,145
         Sources: Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, U.S. Justice Department, House
         Judiciary Committee

Turning Cell Phones Into Ankle Bracelets
Report on how cellular phones will soon be used by government officials to track your

‘E911‘ Turns Cell Phones into Tracking Devices
by Chris Oakes
3:10pm 6.Jan.98.PST
         Cell phones will be taking on a new role in 1998, beginning a slow transition to
         becoming user tracking devices. The outcome of this shift reassures some, but has
         others calling for restrictions on how cell-locating information can be used.

         The impending first phase of the FCC‘s rules is aimed at enabling emergency services
         personnel to quickly get information on the location of a cell phone user in the event of a
         911 call. By April, all cellular and personal communications services providers will have
         to transmit to 911 operators and other "public safety answering points" the telephone
         number and cell site location of any cell phone making a 911 call.

         The aim of the law is to bring to cell phone users the same automatic-locating capability
         that now exists with wireline phones. But while the FCC‘s aim is simple on the surface -
         to make it easier for medical, fire, and police teams to locate and respond to callers in
         distress - the technology is also giving rise to concerns over the ease with which the
         digital age and its wireless accouterments are bringing to tracking individuals.
                  "The technology is pretty much developing to create a more and more
                  precise location information. The key question for us is ‘what is the legal
                  standard for government access?‘" says James Dempsey, senior staff
                  counsel at the Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT)
         Those seeking restrictions on the use of cell phone tracking information emphasize that,
         unlike the stationary wireline phones, a cell phone is more specifically associated with
         an individual and their minute-by-minute location.
In December, the FCC began requiring wireless providers to automatically patch
through any emergency calls made through their networks. Subscriber or not, bills paid
or unpaid, anyone with a cell phone and a mobile identification number was thus
guaranteed to see their 911 calls completed.

1998 brings new rules into place that take that initial action much further. By April,
emergency service personnel will receive more than just the call - they‘ll also get the
originating cell phone‘s telephone number and, more significantly, the location of the cell
site that handled the call.

The FCC‘s "Enhanced 911 services" requirements that wireless providers make this
information available is the beginning of a tracking system that by 2001 will be able to
locate a phone within a 125-meter radius.

To provide this precise location information, Jeffrey Nelson of the Cellular
Telecommunications Industry Association says different carriers will choose different
methods of gathering location information, but all of them involve detecting the radio
frequencies sent from the phone to service antennas. Because a phone sends
additional signals to other antennas in addition to the primary one, "triangulation" lets
them calculate the caller‘s whereabouts within that multi-antenna region. All this
happens automatically when a cell phone is turned on.

The upshot, Nelson says, is that cellular callers will "be able to make a call to 911 or the
appropriate emergency number without having to explain where they are." He cites a
case in which a woman stranded in a blizzard, unable to tell where she was, was
located by use of her cell phone. Various systems are being tested by most providers,
he reports, but many are already working with methods to provide such location
information today.

But this tracking issue has privacy advocates seeking preventive legislation to see that
the instant accessibility of the information to emergency units doesn‘t just as easily
deliver the same tracking information to law enforcement agencies - from local police on
up to the FBI.
         "The FCC has been in the picture from the 911 perspective," says
         Dempsey of the Center for Democracy and Technology.
But to him, this obvious emergency benefit of E911 necessitates legal action to draw
boundaries around its use by other organizations, namely law enforcement.

That‘s where the issue runs into the same waters as the controversy surrounding the
expansion of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). That
1994 law was meant to keep communications companies from letting the advancement
of digital and wireless technology become an obstacle to the surveillance needs of law
enforcement agencies. But the CDT and the Electronic Frontier Foundation, among
others, have argued that as CALEA undergoes actual implementation (a process that is
still ongoing), the FBI is seeking to expand its surveillance capabilities by seeking unjust
specifications for phone systems‘ compliance with the law.

Dempsey wants to see both CALEA and the new E911 requirements be implemented
with clear restrictions on the ability of law enforcement to tap into personal information
on users, especially their whereabouts at any one time.

With the implementation of E911, Dempsey says that in effect,
        "your phone has become an ankle bracelet. Therefore we are urging
        the standard for government access be increased to a full probable
              cause standard. [Law enforcement agencies] have to have suspicion to
              believe that the person they are targeting is engaged in criminal
     Currently, he says, to get a court order allowing the surveillance of cell phone use, law
     enforcement only has to prove that the information sought - not the individual - is
     relevant to an ongoing investigation.
             "It says to law enforcement you‘ve got to have a link between the
             person you‘re targeting and the crime at issue," Dempsey says. "It
             cannot be a mere fishing expedition."
     While the CDT and others seek beefed-up constitutional restrictions on the ability for
     law enforcement to obtain court orders in such cases, the FBI says the process for
     obtaining such court orders is already adequate.
             "We work under the strict provisions of the law with regard to our ability
             to obtain a court order," said Barry Smith, supervisory special agent in
             the FBI‘s office of public affairs.

              "Law enforcement‘s access to [cell phone data] falls very much within
              the parameters of the Fourth Amendment."
     He also says that under CALEA, the call data the FBI seeks does not provide the
     specific location of a wireless phone.

     The FCC and its E911 requirements are distinct from CALEA, but because they offer
     the ultimate form of tracking information - far more instantly and explicitly than the FBI is
     seeking in the implementation of CALEA, E911 may be ripe for access by law
     enforcement for non-emergency needs.

     As for the distinction between the dispute over CALEA and the FCC‘s E911 services,
     Smith says the latter has nothing to do with the FBI. "There‘s not any crossover
     between the two."

     But, says Dempsey, when law enforcement serves a court order, they could get location
     information through the requirements established by E911.

Spying in Europe

The Echelon System
     ECHELON article From Eurobytes
     From London Daily Telegraph


     Rumors have abounded for several years of a massive system designed to intercept
     virtually all email and fax traffic in the world and subject it to automated analysis, despite
     laws in many nations (including this one) barring such activity. The laws were
     circumvented by a mutual pact among five nations. It‘s illegal for the United States to
     spy on it‘s citizens. Likewise the same for Great Britain. But under the terms of the
     UKUSA agreement, Britain spies on Americans and America spies on British citizens
     and the two groups trade data. Technically, it may be legal, but the intent to evade the
     spirit of the laws protecting the citizens of those two nations is clear.

     The system is called ECHELON, and had been rumored to be in development since
     1947, the result of the UKUSA treaty signed by the governments of the United States,
the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

The purpose of the UKUSA agreement was to create a single vast global intelligence
organization sharing common goals and a common agenda, spying on the world and
sharing the data. The uniformity of operation is such that NSA operatives from Fort
Meade could work from Menwith Hill to intercept local communications without either
nation having to formally approve or disclose the interception.

                        ECHELON intercept station at Menwith Hill, England.

What is ECHELON used for?
In the days of the cold war, ECHELON‘s primary purpose was to keep an eye on the
U.S.S.R. In the wake of the fall of the U.S.S.R. ECHELON justifies it‘s continued multi-
billion dollar expense with the claim that it is being used to fight "terrorism", the catch-all
phrase used to justify any and all abuses of civil rights.

With the exposure of the APEC scandal, however, ECHELON‘s capabilities have come
under renewed scrutiny and criticism by many nations. Although not directly implicated
in the bugging of the Asia Pacific Economic Conference in Seattle, the use of so many
U.S. Intelligence agencies to bug the conference for the purpose of providing
commercial secrets to DNC donors raised the very real possibility that ECHELON‘s all-
hearing ears were prying corporate secrets loose for the advantage of the favored few.

Given that real terrorists and drug runners would always use illegal cryptographic
methods anyway, the USA led attempt to ban strong crypto to the general populace
seemed geared towards keeping corporate secrets readable to ECHELON, rather than
any real attempt at crime prevention.

The cover blows off!

Even close allies do not like it when they are being spied on. Especially if the objective
is not law enforcement but corporate shenanigans to make rich politicians just that
much richer. So, the Civil Liberties Committee of the European Parliament looked into
      ECHELON, and officially confirmed it‘s existence and purpose.

Here is the article that ran in the London Telegraph
      Tuesday 16 December 1997
      Issue 936
      Spies like US

      A European Commission report warns that the United States has developed an
      extensive network spying on European citizens and we should all be worried. Simon
      Davies reports:
              Cooking up a charter for snooping

              A GLOBAL electronic spy network that can eavesdrop on every
              telephone, email and telex communication around the world will be
              officially acknowledged for the first time in a European Commission
              report to be delivered this week.

              The report - Assessing the Technologies of Political Control - was
              commissioned last year by the Civil Liberties Committee of the
              European Parliament. It contains details of a network of American-
              controlled intelligence stations on British soil and around the world, that
              "routinely and indiscriminately" monitor countless phone, fax and email

              It states:
                       "Within Europe all email telephone and fax
                       communications are routinely intercepted by the United
                       States National Security Agency transferring all target
                       information from the European mainland via the
                       strategic hub of London then by satellite to Fort Meade
                       in Maryland via the crucial hub at Menwith Hill in the
                       North York moors in the UK."
              The report confirms for the first time the existence of the secretive
              ECHELON system.

              Until now, evidence of such astounding technology has been patchy
              and anecdotal. But the report - to be discussed on Thursday by the
              committee of the office of Science and Technology Assessment in
              Luxembourg - confirms that the citizens of Britain and other European
              states are subject to an intensity of surveillance far in excess of that
              imagined by most parliaments. Its findings are certain to excite the
              concern of MEPs.
                      "The ECHELON system forms part of the UKUSA
                      system (Cooking up a charter for snooping) but unlike
                      many of the electronic spy systems developed during
                      the Cold War, ECHELON is designed primarily for non-
                      military targets: governments, organizations and
                      businesses in virtually every country.

                       "The ECHELON system works by indiscriminately
                       intercepting very large quantities of communications
                       and then siphoning out what is valuable using artificial
                       intelligence aids like MEMEX to find key words".
              According to the report, ECHELON uses a number of national
dictionaries containing key words of interest to each country.

For more than a decade, former agents of US, British, Canadian and
New Zealand national security agencies have claimed that the
monitoring of electronic communications has become endemic
throughout the world. Rumors have circulated that new technologies
have been developed which have the capability to search most of the
world‘s telex, fax and email networks for "key words". Phone calls, they
claim, can be automatically analyzed for key words.

Former signals intelligence operatives have claimed that spy bases
controlled by America have the ability to search nearly all data
communications for key words. They claim that ECHELON
automatically analyses most email messaging for "precursor" data
which assists intelligence agencies to determine targets. According to
former Canadian Security Establishment agent Mike Frost, a voice
recognition system called Oratory has been used for some years to
intercept diplomatic calls.

The driving force behind the report is Glyn Ford, Labour MEP for
Greater Manchester East. He believes that the report is crucial to the
future of civil liberties in Europe.
         "In the civil liberties committee we spend a great deal
         of time debating issues such as free movement,
         immigration and drugs. Technology always sits at the
         centre of these discussions. There are times in history
         when technology helps democratize, and times when it
         helps centralize. This is a time of centralization. The
         justice and home affairs pillar of Europe has become
         more powerful without a corresponding strengthening
         of civil liberties."
The report recommends a variety of measures for dealing with the
increasing power of the technologies of surveillance being used at
Menwith Hill and other centers. It bluntly advises:
        "The European Parliament should reject proposals from
        the United States for making private messages via the
        global communications network (Internet) accessible to
        US intelligence agencies."
The report also urges a fundamental review of the involvement of the
American NSA (National Security Agency) in Europe, suggesting that
their activities be either scaled down, or become more open and

Such concerns have been privately expressed by governments and
MEPs since the Cold War, but surveillance has continued to expand.
US intelligence activity in Britain has enjoyed a steady growth
throughout the past two decades. The principal motivation for this rush
of development is the US interest in commercial espionage. In the
Fifties, during the development of the "special relationship" between
America and Britain, one US institution was singled out for special

The NSA, the world‘s biggest and most powerful signals intelligence
organization, received approval to set up a network of spy stations
throughout Britain. Their role was to provide military, diplomatic and
              economic intelligence by intercepting communications from throughout
              the Northern Hemisphere.

              The NSA is one of the shadowiest of the US intelligence agencies. Until
              a few years ago, it existence was a secret and its charter and any
              mention of its duties are still classified. However, it does have a Web
              site ( in which it describes itself as being
              responsible for the signals intelligence and communications security
              activities of the US government.

              One of its bases, Menwith Hill, was to become the biggest spy station in
              the world. Its ears - known as radomes - are capable of listening in to
              vast chunks of the communications spectrum throughout Europe and
              the old Soviet Union.

              In its first decade the base sucked data from cables and microwave
              links running through a nearby Post Office tower, but the
              communications revolutions of the Seventies and Eighties gave the
              base a capability that even its architects could scarcely have been able
              to imagine. With the creation of Intelsat and digital telecommunications,
              Menwith and other stations developed the capability to eavesdrop on an
              extensive scale on fax, telex and voice messages. Then, with the
              development of the Internet, electronic mail and electronic commerce,
              the listening posts were able to increase their monitoring capability to
              eavesdrop on an unprecedented spectrum of personal and business

              This activity has been all but ignored by the UK Parliament. When
              Labour MPs raised questions about the activities of the NSA, the
              Government invoked secrecy rules. It has been the same for 40 years.

              Glyn Ford hopes that his report may be the first step in a long road to
              more openness.
                     "Some democratically elected body should surely have
                     a right to know at some level. At the moment that‘s


by Nicky Hager
For 40 years, New Zealand‘s largest intelligence agency, the Government Communications Security
Bureau (GCSB) the nation‘s equivalent of the US National Security Agency (NSA) had been helping its
Western allies to spy on countries throughout the Pacific region, without the knowledge of the New
Zealand public or many of its highest elected officials.

What the NSA did not know is that by the late 1980s, various intelligence staff had decided these
activities had been too secret for too long, and were providing me with interviews and documents
exposing New Zealand‘s intelligence activities. Eventually, more than 50 people who work or have
worked in intelligence and related fields agreed to be interviewed.

The activities they described made it possible to document, from the South Pacific, some alliance-wide
systems and projects which have been kept secret elsewhere. Of these, by far the most important is

Designed and coordinated by NSA, the ECHELON system is used to intercept ordinary e-mail, fax,
telex, and telephone communications carried over the world‘s telecommunications networks. Unlike
many of the electronic spy systems developed during the Cold War, ECHELON is designed primarily for
non-military targets: governments, organizations, businesses, and individuals in virtually every country. It
potentially affects every person communicating between (and sometimes within) countries anywhere in
the world.

It is, of course, not a new idea that intelligence organizations tap into e-mail and other public
telecommunications networks. What was new in the material leaked by the New Zealand intelligence
staff was precise information on where the spying is done, how the system works, its capabilities and
shortcomings, and many details such as the codenames.

The ECHELON system is not designed to eavesdrop on a particular individual‘s e-mail or fax link.
Rather, the system works by indiscriminately intercepting very large quantities of communications and
using computers to identify and extract messages of interest from the mass of unwanted ones. A chain
of secret interception facilities has been established around the world to tap into all the major
components of the international telecommunications networks.

Some monitor communications satellites, others land-based communications networks, and others radio
communications. ECHELON links together all these facilities, providing the US and its allies with the
ability to intercept a large proportion of the communications on the planet.

The computers at each station in the ECHELON network automatically search through the millions of
messages intercepted for ones containing pre-programmed keywords. Keywords include all the names,
localities, subjects, and so on that might be mentioned. Every word of every message intercepted at
each station gets automatically searched whether or not a specific telephone number or e-mail address
is on the list.

The thousands of simultaneous messages are read in "real time" as they pour into the station, hour after
hour, day after day, as the computer finds intelligence needles in telecommunications haystacks.

The computers in stations around the globe are known, within the network, as the ECHELON

Computers that can automatically search through traffic for keywords have existed since at least the
1970s, but the ECHELON system was designed by NSA to interconnect all these computers and allow
the stations to function as components of an integrated whole. The NSA and GCSB are bound together
under the five-nation UKUSA signals intelligence agreement.
The other three partners all with equally obscure names are:
             the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) in Britain
             the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) in Canada
             the Defense Signals Directorate (DSD) in Australia
The alliance, which grew from cooperative efforts during World War II to intercept radio transmissions,
was formalized into the UKUSA agreement in 1948 and aimed primarily against the USSR.

The five UKUSA agencies are today the largest intelligence organizations in their respective countries.
With much of the world‘s business occurring by fax, e-mail, and phone, spying on these communications
receives the bulk of intelligence resources. For decades before the introduction of the ECHELON
system, the UKUSA allies did intelligence collection operations for each other, but each agency usually
processed and analyzed the intercept from its own stations.

Under ECHELON, a particular station‘s Dictionary computer contains not only its parent agency‘s
chosen keywords, but also has lists entered in for other agencies. In New Zealand‘s satellite interception
station at Waihopai (in the South Island), for example, the computer has separate search lists for the
NSA, GCHQ, DSD, and CSE in addition to its own.

Whenever the Dictionary encounters a message containing one of the agencies‘ keywords, it
automatically picks it and sends it directly to the headquarters of the agency concerned. No one in New
Zealand screens, or even sees, the intelligence collected by the New Zealand station for the foreign
agencies. Thus, the stations of the junior UKUSA allies function for the NSA no differently than if they
were overtly NSA-run bases located on their soil.

The first component of the ECHELON network are stations specifically targeted on the international
telecommunications satellites (Intelsats) used by the telephone companies of most countries. A ring of
Intelsats is positioned around the world, stationary above the equator, each serving as a relay station for
tens of thousands of simultaneous phone calls, fax, and e-mail.

Five UKUSA stations have been established to intercept the communications carried by the Intelsats.

                                      ECHELON Station in Morwenstow, UK

The British GCHQ station is located at the top of high cliffs above the sea at Morwenstow in Cornwall.

Satellite dishes beside sprawling operations buildings point toward Intelsats above the Atlantic, Europe,
and, inclined almost to the horizon, the Indian Ocean. An NSA station at Sugar Grove, located 250
kilometers southwest of Washington, DC, in the mountains of West Virginia, covers Atlantic Intelsats
transmitting down toward North and South America. Another NSA station is in Washington State, 200
kilometers southwest of Seattle, inside the Army‘s Yakima Firing Center.

Its satellite dishes point out toward the Pacific Intelsats and to the east.

The job of intercepting Pacific Intelsat communications that cannot be intercepted at Yakima went to
New Zealand and Australia. Their South Pacific location helps to ensure global interception.

New Zealand provides the station at Waihopai (above image) and Australia supplies the Geraldton
station (below image) in West Australia (which targets both Pacific and Indian Ocean Intelsats).

Each of the five stations‘ Dictionary computers has a codename to distinguish it from others in the

The Yakima station, for instance, located in desert country between the Saddle Mountains and
Rattlesnake Hills, has the COWBOY Dictionary, while the Waihopai station has the FLINTLOCK
Dictionary. These codenames are recorded at the beginning of every intercepted message, before it is
transmitted around the ECHELON network, allowing analysts to recognize at which station the
interception occurred.

New Zealand intelligence staff has been closely involved with the NSA‘s Yakima station since 1981,
when NSA pushed the GCSB to contribute to a project targeting Japanese embassy communications.
Since then, all five UKUSA agencies have been responsible for monitoring diplomatic cables from all
Japanese posts within the same segments of the globe they are assigned for general UKUSA

Until New Zealand‘s integration into ECHELON with the opening of the Waihopai station in 1989, its
share of the Japanese communications was intercepted at Yakima and sent unprocessed to the GCSB
headquarters in Wellington for decryption, translation, and writing into UKUSA-format intelligence
reports (the NSA provides the codebreaking programs).

                                             click image to enlarge

The next component of the ECHELON system intercepts a range of satellite communications not carried
by Intelsat. In addition to the UKUSA stations targeting Intelsat satellites, there are another five or more
stations homing in on Russian and other regional communications satellites.

These stations are:
             Menwith Hill in northern England
             Shoal Bay, outside Darwin in northern Australia (which targets Indonesian
             Leitrim, just south of Ottawa in Canada (which appears to intercept Latin
                American satellites - below image)
             Bad Aibling in Germany
             Misawa in northern Japan
A group of facilities that tap directly into land-based telecommunications systems is the final element of
the ECHELON system.

Besides satellite and radio, the other main method of transmitting large quantities of public, business,
and government communications is a combination of water cables under the oceans and microwave
networks over land. Heavy cables, laid across seabeds between countries, account for much of the
world‘s international communications. After they come out of the water and join land-based microwave
networks they are very vulnerable to interception.

The microwave networks are made up of chains of microwave towers relaying messages from hilltop to
hilltop (always in line of sight) across the countryside. These networks shunt large quantities of
communications across a country. Interception of them gives access to international undersea
communications (once they surface) and to international communication trunk lines across continents.

They are also an obvious target for large-scale interception of domestic communications.

Because the facilities required to intercept radio and satellite communications use large aerials and
dishes that are difficult to hide for too long, that network is reasonably well documented. But all that is
required to intercept land-based communication networks is a building situated along the microwave
route or a hidden cable running underground from the legitimate network into some anonymous building,
possibly far removed. Although it sounds technically very difficult, microwave interception from space by
United States spy satellites also occurs.

The worldwide network of facilities to intercept these communications is largely undocumented, and
because New Zealand‘s GCSB does not participate in this type of interception, my inside sources could
not help either.

A 1994 exposé of the Canadian UKUSA agency, Spyworld, co-authored by one of its former staff, Mike
Frost, gave the first insights into how a lot of foreign microwave interception is done (see p. 18).

It described UKUSA "embassy collection" operations, where sophisticated receivers and processors are
secretly transported to their countries‘ overseas embassies in diplomatic bags and used to monitor
various communications in foreign capitals.

Since most countries‘ microwave networks converge on the capital city, embassy buildings can be an
ideal site. Protected by diplomatic privilege, they allow interception in the heart of the target country.

The Canadian embassy collection was requested by the NSA to fill gaps in the American and British
embassy collection operations, which were still occurring in many capitals around the world when Frost
left the CSE in 1990. Separate sources in Australia have revealed that the DSD also engages in
embassy collection.

On the territory of UKUSA nations, the interception of land-based telecommunications appears to be
done at special secret intelligence facilities. The US, UK, and Canada are geographically well placed to
intercept the large amounts of the world‘s communications that cross their territories.

The only public reference to the Dictionary system anywhere in the world was in relation to one of these
facilities, run by the GCHQ in central London.

In 1991, a former British GCHQ official spoke anonymously to Granada Television‘s World in Action
about the agency‘s abuses of power. He told the program about an anonymous red brick building at 8
Palmer Street where GCHQ secretly intercepts every telex which passes into, out of, or through London,
feeding them into powerful computers with a program known as "Dictionary."

The operation, he explained, is staffed by carefully vetted British Telecom people:
       "It‘s nothing to do with national security. It‘s because it‘s not legal to take every single
       telex. And they take everything: the embassies, all the business deals, even the
       birthday greetings, they take everything. They feed it into the Dictionary."
What the documentary did not reveal is that Dictionary is not just a British system; it is UKUSA-wide.

Similarly, British researcher Duncan Campbell has described how the US Menwith Hill station in Britain
taps directly into the British Telecom microwave network, which has actually been designed with several
major microwave links converging on an isolated tower connected underground into the station.

The NSA Menwith Hill station, with 22 satellite terminals and more than 4.9 acres of buildings, is
undoubtedly the largest and most powerful in the UKUSA network. Located in northern England, several
thousand kilometers from the Persian Gulf, it was awarded the NSA‘s "Station of the Year" prize for
1991 after its role in the Gulf War. Menwith Hill assists in the interception of microwave communications
in another way as well, by serving as a ground station for US electronic spy satellites.

These intercept microwave trunk lines and short range communications such as military radios and
walkie talkies.
Other ground stations where the satellites‘ information is fed into the global network are Pine Gap (click
above images) run by the CIA near Alice Springs in central Australia and the Bad Aibling station in

Among them, the various stations and operations making up the ECHELON network tap into all the main
components of the world‘s telecommunications networks. All of them, including a separate network of
stations that intercepts long distance radio communications, have their own Dictionary computers
connected into ECHELON.

In the early 1990s, opponents of the Menwith Hill station obtained large quantities of internal documents
from the facility. Among the papers was a reference to an NSA computer system called Platform. The
integration of all the UKUSA station computers into ECHELON probably occurred with the introduction of
this system in the early 1980s.

James Bamford wrote at that time about a new worldwide NSA computer network codenamed Platform,
       "which will tie together 52 separate computer systems used throughout the world. Focal
       point, or `host environment,‘ for the massive network will be the NSA headquarters at
       Fort Meade. Among those included in Platform will be the British SIGINT organization,

The Dictionary computers are connected via highly encrypted UKUSA communications that link back to
computer data bases in the five agency headquarters.

This is where all the intercepted messages selected by the Dictionaries end up. Each morning the
specially "indoctrinated" signals intelligence analysts in Washington, Ottawa, Cheltenham, Canberra,
and Wellington log on at their computer terminals and enter the Dictionary system. After keying in their
security passwords, they reach a directory that lists the different categories of intercept available in the
data bases, each with a four-digit code.

For instance, 1911 might be Japanese diplomatic cables from Latin America (handled by the Canadian
CSE), 3848 might be political communications from and about Nigeria, and 8182 might be any
messages about distribution of encryption technology.

They select their subject category, get a "search result" showing how many messages have been
caught in the ECHELON net on that subject, and then the day‘s work begins. Analysts scroll through
screen after screen of intercepted faxes, e-mail messages, etc. and, whenever a message appears
worth reporting on, they select it from the rest to work on.

If it is not in English, it is translated and then written into the standard format of intelligence reports
produced anywhere within the UKUSA network either in entirety as a "report," or as a summary or "gist."
A highly organized system has been developed to control what is being searched for by each station
and who can have access to it. This is at the heart of ECHELON operations and works as follows.

The individual station‘s Dictionary computers do not simply have a long list of keywords to search for.
And they do not send all the information into some huge database that participating agencies can dip
into as they wish. It is much more controlled.

The search lists are organized into the same categories, referred to by the four digit numbers. Each
agency decides its own categories according to its responsibilities for producing intelligence for the
network. For GCSB, this means South Pacific governments, Japanese diplomatic, Russian Antarctic
activities, and so on.

The agency then works out about 10 to 50 keywords for selection in each category. The keywords
include such things as names of people, ships, organizations, country names, and subject names. They
also include the known telex and fax numbers and Internet addresses of any individuals, businesses,
organizations, and government offices that are targets. These are generally written as part of the
message text and so are easily recognized by the Dictionary computers.

The agencies also specify combinations of keywords to help sift out communications of interest. For
example, they might search for diplomatic cables containing both the words "Santiago" and "aid," or
cables containing the word "Santiago" but not "consul" (to avoid the masses of routine consular
communications). It is these sets of words and numbers (and combinations), under a particular category,
that get placed in the Dictionary computers. (Staff in the five agencies called Dictionary Managers enter
and update the keyword search lists for each agency.)

The whole system, devised by the NSA, has been adopted completely by the other agencies.

The Dictionary computers search through all the incoming messages and, whenever they encounter one
with any of the agencies‘ keywords, they select it. At the same time, the computer automatically notes
technical details such as the time and place of interception on the piece of intercept so that analysts
reading it, in whichever agency it is going to, know where it came from, and what it is.

Finally, the computer writes the four-digit code (for the category with the keywords in that message) at
the bottom of the message‘s text. This is important. It means that when all the intercepted messages
end up together in the database at one of the agency headquarters, the messages on a particular
subject can be located again.

Later, when the analyst using the Dictionary system selects the four- digit code for the category he or
she wants, the computer simply searches through all the messages in the database for the ones which
have been tagged with that number.

This system is very effective for controlling which agencies can get what from the global network
because each agency only gets the intelligence out of the ECHELON system from its own numbers. It
does not have any access to the raw intelligence coming out of the system to the other agencies. For
example, although most of the GCSB‘s intelligence production is primarily to serve the UKUSA alliance,
New Zealand does not have access to the whole ECHELON network. The access it does have is strictly

A New Zealand intelligence officer explained:
       "The agencies can all apply for numbers on each other‘s Dictionaries. The hardest to
       deal with are the Americans. ... [There are] more hoops to jump through, unless it is in
       their interest, in which case they‘ll do it for you."
There is only one agency which, by virtue of its size and role within the alliance, will have access to the
full potential of the ECHELON system the agency that set it up.

What is the system used for? Anyone listening to official "discussion" of intelligence could be forgiven for
thinking that, since the end of the Cold War, the key targets of the massive UKUSA intelligence machine
are terrorism, weapons proliferation, and economic intelligence.

The idea that economic intelligence has become very important, in particular, has been carefully
cultivated by intelligence agencies intent on preserving their post-Cold War budgets. It has become an
article of faith in much discussion of intelligence.

However, I have found no evidence that these are now the primary concerns of organizations such as

A different story emerges after examining very detailed information I have been given about the
intelligence New Zealand collects for the UKUSA allies and detailed descriptions of what is in the yards-
deep intelligence reports New Zealand receives from its four allies each week.

There is quite a lot of intelligence collected about potential terrorists, and there is quite a lot of economic
intelligence, notably intensive monitoring of all the countries participating in GATT negotiations. But by
far, the main priorities of the intelligence alliance continue to be political and military intelligence to assist
the larger allies to pursue their interests around the world. Anyone and anything the particular
governments are concerned about can become a target.

With capabilities so secret and so powerful, almost anything goes. For example, in June 1992, a group
of current "highly placed intelligence operatives" from the British GCHQ spoke to the London Observer:
        "We feel we can no longer remain silent regarding that which we regard to be gross
        malpractice and negligence within the establishment in which we operate."
They gave as examples GCHQ interception of three charitable organizations, including Amnesty
International and Christian Aid. As the Observer reported:
         "At any time GCHQ is able to home in on their communications for a routine target
         request," the GCHQ source said.
In the case of phone taps the procedure is known as Mantis. With telexes it is called Mayfly. By keying in
a code relating to Third World aid, the source was able to demonstrate telex "fixes" on the three
         "It is then possible to key in a trigger word which enables us to home in on the telex
         communications whenever that word appears," he said. "And we can read a pre-
         determined number of characters either side of the keyword."
Without actually naming it, this was a fairly precise description of how the ECHELON Dictionary system

Again, what was not revealed in the publicity was that this is a UKUSA-wide system. The design of
ECHELON means that the interception of these organizations could have occurred anywhere in the
network, at any station where the GCHQ had requested that the four-digit code covering Third World aid
be placed.

Note that these GCHQ officers mentioned that the system was being used for telephone calls. In New
Zealand, ECHELON is used only to intercept written communications: fax, e-mail, and telex. The reason,
according to intelligence staff, is that the agency does not have the staff to analyze large quantities of
telephone conversations.
Mike Frost‘s exposé of Canadian "embassy collection" operations described the NSA computers they
used, called Oratory, that can "listen" to telephone calls and recognize when keywords are spoken. Just
as we can recognize words spoken in all the different tones and accents we encounter, so too,
according to Frost, can these computers. Telephone calls containing keywords are automatically
extracted from the masses of other calls and recorded digitally on magnetic tapes for analysts back at
agency headquarters.

However, high volume voice recognition computers will be technically difficult to perfect, and my New
Zealand-based sources could not confirm that this capability exists. But, if or when it is perfected, the
implications would be immense. It would mean that the UKUSA agencies could use machines to search
through all the international telephone calls in the world, in the same way that they do written messages.

If this equipment exists for use in embassy collection, it will presumably be used in all the stations
throughout the ECHELON network. It is yet to be confirmed how extensively telephone communications
are being targeted by the ECHELON stations for the other agencies.

The easiest pickings for the ECHELON system are the individuals, organizations, and governments that
do not use encryption. In New Zealand‘s area, for example, it has proved especially useful against
already vulnerable South Pacific nations which do not use any coding, even for government
communications (all these communications of New Zealand‘s neighbors are supplied, unscreened, to its
UKUSA allies).

As a result of the revelations in my book, there is currently a project under way in the Pacific to promote
and supply publicly available encryption software to vulnerable organizations such as democracy
movements in countries with repressive governments. This is one practical way of curbing illegitimate
uses of the ECHELON capabilities.

One final comment. All the newspapers, commentators, and "well placed sources" told the public that
New Zealand was cut off from US intelligence in the mid-1980s.

That was entirely untrue.

The intelligence supply to New Zealand did not stop, and instead, the decade since has been a period of
increased integration of New Zealand into the US system. Virtually everything the equipment, manuals,
ways of operating, jargon, codes, and so on, used in the GCSB continues to be imported entirely from
the larger allies (in practice, usually the NSA). As with the Australian and Canadian agencies, most of
the priorities continue to come from the US, too.

The main thing that protects these agencies from change is their secrecy. On the day my book arrived in
the book shops, without prior publicity, there was an all-day meeting of the intelligence bureaucrats in
the prime minister‘s department trying to decide if they could prevent it from being distributed. They
eventually concluded, sensibly, that the political costs were too high. It is understandable that they were
so agitated.

Throughout my research, I have faced official denials or governments refusing to comment on publicity
about intelligence activities. Given the pervasive atmosphere of secrecy and stonewalling, it is always
hard for the public to judge what is fact, what is speculation, and what is paranoia.

Thus, in uncovering New Zealand‘s role in the NSA-led alliance, my aim was to provide so much detail
about the operations the technical systems, the daily work of individual staff members, and even the
rooms in which they work inside intelligence facilities that readers could feel confident that they were
getting close to the truth.

I hope the information leaked by intelligence staff in New Zealand about UKUSA and its systems such
as ECHELON will help lead to change.

                           Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                          Security Agency
                                  Return to Temas / Sociopolitica
                                         Return to Echelon

  PROBABLY the most secretive branch of the Invisible Government is the National Security
  Agency. Even more than the CIA, the NSA has sought to conceal the nature of its activities.

  The CIA's functions were revealed in general outline by Congress in the National Security Act of
  1947. But the NSA's duties were kept secret in the classified presidential directive which
  established the agency in 1952.

  The only official description of its activities is contained in the U.S. Government Organization
  Manual, which states vaguely:
          "The National Security Agency performs highly specialized technical and
          coordinating functions relating to the national security."
  Nevertheless, it is no secret that the NSA is the nation's code-making and code-breaking agency.
  It is impossible, however, to receive official confirmation of that obvious fact. Unlike Allen Dulles
  and other high-ranking CIA men who have occasionally talked to the press and on television, NSA
  officials have refused to grant interviews under any circumstances.

  As a sub-agency of the Defense Department, the NSA is watched over by the deputy director of
  defense research and engineering. But the various men who have held this post have been
  similarly uncommunicative.

  During the Eisenhower years, the job of overseeing the NSA was held by military men. The
  Kennedy and Johnson Administrations turned to civilians with broader scientific expertise. In 1963
  the assignment was taken on by Dr. Eugene G. Fubini, a fifty-year-old Italian-born physicist.

  Fubini was confirmed by the Senate without difficulty despite a challenge from Senator Thurmond,
  the South Carolina Democrat. During the Armed Services Committee hearings on June 27, 1963,
  Thurmond questioned Fubini closely on his political affiliations in Italy prior to his emigration to the
  United States in 1939.

  Fubini admitted that he had been a dues-paying member of the GUF, the Fascist student
  organization in the universities. But he explained that membership was "almost a compulsory
  thing" in Mussolini's Italy, and that he finally left his homeland in political protest.

  Fubini made it clear, to Thurmond's evident relief, that he had never been associated with
  Communist or Socialist movements. His biographical data also underscored the fact that he had
  served ably as a scientific consultant and technical observer with the U.S. Army and Navy in
  Europe during World War II.
After the war Fubini joined the Airborne Instruments Laboratory of Long Island, New York. He
worked on several classified electronic projects and rose to become the vice-president of the
company. By the time he joined the Pentagon in 1961 he was thoroughly impressed with the need
for tight security. He became convinced that a mass of vital national secrets was being given to
the Russians through careless public disclosure.

Fubini and his staff maintained a long list of security violations which appeared in the press and
elsewhere. Prominent on the list were public statements by Defense Secretary McNamara and his
deputy, Roswell Gilpatric. In their zeal to defend administration policy, notably in McNamara's
television extravaganza after the Cuban missile crisis, Fubini felt his bosses were sometimes
imprudent about national security.

Fubini's dedication to security was matched by the agency he inherited. The NSA's U-shaped,
three-story steel-and-concrete building at Fort Meade, Maryland, is surrounded by a double
barbed-wire fence ten feet high. The fences are patrolled night and day, and guards with ready
machine guns are posted at the four gatehouses.

The interior, including the longest unobstructed corridor in the world (980 feet long and 560 feet
wide), is similarly patrolled. The building is 1,400,000 square feet, smaller than the Pentagon but
larger than the CIA's Langley headquarters. It houses high-speed computers and complicated
radio and electronic gear. It is said to have more electric wiring than any other building in the

Special security conveyor belts carry documents at the rate of a hundred feet a minute and a
German-made pneumatic tube system shoots messages at the rate of twenty-five feet a second.

The NSA headquarters was built at a cost of $30,000,000 and was opened in 1957. It contains a
complete hospital, with operating rooms and dental offices. It also houses eight snack bars, a
cafeteria, an auditorium and a bank. All of the building's windows are sealed and none can be

Comparable precautions have been taken with NSA employees. They are subject to lie-detector
tests on application and intensive security indoctrination on acceptance. Periodically, the
indoctrination briefing is repeated and employees are required to sign statements that they have
reread pertinent secrecy regulations.

Even so, the NSA has had more than its share of trouble with security violations. In 1960 two
young mathematicians, William H. Martin and Bernon F. Mitchell, defected to Russia. They held a
news conference in Moscow, describing in detail the inner workings of the NSA. They were soon
discovered to be homosexuals, a fact which led indirectly to the resignation of the NSA's
personnel director, and the firing of twenty-six other employees for sexual deviation.

It also led on May 9, 1963 to a vote by the House, 340 to 40, to give the Secretary of Defense the
same absolute power over NSA employees as the Director of Central Intelligence had over his
employees. Under the legislation, which was introduced by the Un-American Activities Committee,
the Secretary of Defense was authorized to fire NSA employees without explanation and without
appeal if he decided they were security risks. The bill also required a full field investigation of all
persons before they were hired.

The legislation was attacked by several congressmen.

Thomas P. Gill, the Hawaii Democrat, warned that the bill opened the way to "arbitrary and
capricious action on the part of government administrators ... There has been much said about
danger to the national security. Democracy itself is a dangerous form of government and in its
very danger lies its strength. The protection of individual rights by the requirement of due process
of law, which has long endured in this nation of ours, is a radical and dangerous idea in most of
the world today.
         "This dangerous concept is outlawed in the Soviet Union, in Red China, in
         Castro's Cuba, indeed, in all of the Communist bloc and many of those countries
         aligned with it. I think we might well ask: How does one destroy his enemy by
         becoming like him?"
Edwin E. Willis, the Louisiana Democrat and a member of the Un-American Activities Committee,
defended the bill on grounds that the NSA,
       "carries out the most delicate type intelligence operations of our government ...
       The National Security Agency plays so highly specialized a role in the defense
       and security of the United States that no outsider can actually describe its
       activities. They are guarded not only from the public but from other government
       agencies as well. The Civil Service Commission, which audits all government
       positions, is not allowed to know what NSA employees do."
If the bill was so important for the NSA, Willis was asked, why shouldn't it be applied to all other
sensitive agencies?
          "As to the other agencies," Willis replied, "we will have to take them one at a
Although the Martin and Mitchell case stirred the House to action, it was only one of several
sensational security scandals to hit the NSA.

In 1954 Joseph Sydney Petersen was tried and convicted on charges of misusing classified NSA
documents. He was accused of taking and copying documents to aid another nation. In the court
papers the government said Petersen "copied and made notes from classified documents
indicating the United States' success in breaking codes utilized by The Netherlands." The Dutch
Embassy in Washington admitted it had exchanged "secret intelligence" with Petersen on the
assumption that he had acted with the knowledge of his superiors.

In 1959, during his visit to the United States, Khrushchev bragged that he had obtained top-secret
American codes and had intercepted messages from President Eisenhower to Prime Minister
Nehru. "You're wasting your money," Khrushchev remarked to Allen Dulles. "You might as well
send it direct to us instead of the middleman, because we get most of it anyway. Your agents give
us the code books and then we send false information back to you through your code. Then we
send cables asking for money and you send it to us."

On July 22, 1963, Izvestia published a letter from Victor Norris Hamilton, a naturalized American
of Arab descent who had sought asylum in the Soviet Union. Hamilton said he had worked for a
division of the NSA which intercepted and decoded secret instructions from Arab countries to their
delegations at the United Nations. Hamilton claimed UN Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge had
sent a letter to the division thanking them for the information. The Pentagon admitted Hamilton
had been an employee of the NSA and said he had been discharged in 1959 because he was
"approaching a paranoid-schizophrenic break." (The NSA has an unusually high rate of mental
illness and suicide.)

An even graver security breach at the NSA was also disclosed in July of 1963. Army Sergeant
First Class Jack E. Dunlap committed suicide when he realized he had been discovered selling
top-secret NSA documents to Soviet officials. Dunlap reportedly received $60,000 during a two-
year period for disclosing United States intelligence on Russian weapons advances, the
deployment of their missiles and troops, as well as similar information about the NATO countries.

The playboy sergeant, who had a wife and five children, spent the money on several girl friends,
two Cadillacs and frequent trips to the race track. A Pentagon official described the case as "thirty
to forty times as serious as the Mitchell and Martin defections."
These security violations revealed a mass of information about the NSA. And most of it was
indirectly confirmed by the Pentagon in its contradictory statements on the case, and by the
House Un-American Activities Committee in issuing a public report stressing the seriousness of
the Martin and Mitchell defection.

Out of it all a painstaking enemy analyst could have derived the following picture of the National
Security Agency:
         NSA was divided into four main offices. The Office of Production (PROD)
         attempted to break the codes and ciphers * and read the messages of the Soviet
         Union, Communist China, other Communist countries, United States Allies and
         neutral nations.

         The Office of Research and Development (R/D) carried out research in
         cryptanalysis, digital computing and radio propagation. It also developed new
         communications equipment.

         The Office of Communications Security (COMSEC) produced U.S. codes and
         tried to protect them. And the Office of Security (SEC) investigated NSA
         personnel, conducted lie-detector tests and passed on the loyalty and integrity of

         While the NSA was reading the secret communications of over forty nations,
         including the most friendly, it shared some of its secrets through a relationship
         between its United Kingdom Liaison Office (UKLO) and its British counterpart, the
         GCHQ. The NSA, at least according to Martin and Mitchell, also provided code
         machines to other nations and then intercepted their messages on the basis of its
         knowledge of the construction and wiring of the machines.

         The NSA gathered its raw information through more than 2,000 intercept stations
         around the world. They were designed to pick up every electronic emanation and
         communication in the Communist bloc: countdowns at missile sites, tell-tale
         sounds of industrial construction, military orders for troop movements, and air
         defense instructions to radar installations and fighter-plane squadrons.

         In addition, the NSA sent its eavesdropping equipment along on flights by the U-2
         and other aircraft over the Soviet Union (until 1960) and over Communist China.
         Separate flights, called ELINT (for electronic intelligence) missions, skirted
         Communist borders, picking up the location and characteristics of enemy radar
         stations. Occasionally, the planes would play "foxes and hounds," feinting toward
         or into Soviet defenses so as to analyze the nature of the response on nearby
         U.S. radar screens and listening gear.

         The NSA also practiced what is known in the trade as "audio surveillance" and in
         layman's terms as "bugging," or "telephone tapping."
It was clear that the United States had come a long way from that day in 1929 when Secretary of
State Henry L. Stimson closed the "black chamber," the State Department's primitive code-
breaking section, with the explanation:

"Gentlemen do not read each other's mail."

* Codes use symbols or letter groups for whole words or thoughts. Ciphers use letters or numbers for other
letters or numbers.
Back to Contents

Back to The NSA - The Super Secret National Security Agency

THE DIA, the newest member of the Invisible Government and the most powerful competitor of
the CIA, owes its existence to the post-Sputnik "missile gap" controversy of the late 1950s.

As the Soviets demonstrated the range and accuracy of their missiles in a series of spectacular
space shots, the Air Force demanded that the United States embark on a massive ICBM program
of its own. Almost weekly in the period between 1957 and 1960 the Air Force went before the
United States Intelligence Board to argue that the Russians were deploying hundreds of ICBMs
and were tipping the military balance of power in their favor.

To substantiate the claim, Air Force photo-interpreters introduced scores of pictures taken by the
U-2 spy plane, which started to fly over the Soviet Union in 1956.

"To the Air Force every flyspeck on film was a missile," a CIA man remarked scornfully. Allen
Dulles, relying on the independent interpretation of the photos by the CIA's Research Division,
challenged two thirds of the Air Force estimates.

USIB's meetings were dominated by long and bitter arguments over the conflicting missile
estimates. The situation reflected the perennial problem of interservice rivalry. Each service
tended to adopt a self-serving party line and pursue it relentlessly. At budget time each year the
Air Force would see endless numbers of Soviet missiles and bombers; the Navy would detect the
latest enemy submarines just off the East Coast; and the Army would mechanize a few dozen
more Russian divisions.

Overwhelmed by the constant bickering, USIB and the civilian leaders of the Pentagon were
anxious to find some mechanism for resolving the conflict. They turned the problem over to a Joint
Study Group which was set up in 1959 to conduct a sweeping investigation of the intelligence

The group was composed of military men, active and retired, and career intelligence officials in
the State Department, the Defense Department and the White House. It was headed by Lyman
Kirkpatrick, then the inspector general of the CIA. A polio victim who was confined to a wheel
chair, Kirkpatrick was often spotted overseas, pursuing his many investigations.

The Joint Study Group submitted a comprehensive list of recommendations late in 1960. One of
the most important called for the creation of the DIA and for the removal of the service intelligence
agencies from USIB. The DIA was to serve as the arbiter of the conflicting service estimates and
to present its findings to USIB as the final judgment of the Pentagon.

The idea appealed strongly to Thomas S. Gates, Jr., the last Secretary of Defense in the
Eisenhower Administration. When the Kennedy Administration took office in January, 1961, Gates
forcefully urged McNamara to put the recommendation into effect without delay.

McNamara was quickly persuaded of the wisdom of Gates' advice. After a thorough study of the
missile-gap claims, McNamara concluded that there was no foundation in the argument that the
United States was lagging behind the Soviet Union in the production or deployment of ICBMs.
The study convinced him of the dangers inherent in the fragmented intelligence operation at the
Pentagon. He saw great value in subordinating the service intelligence branches to a centralized
agency directly under his supervision.

Accordingly, McNamara recommended the speedy creation of the DIA. But Dulles balked at the
idea. Despite his many wrangles with the services, Dulles felt it was imperative that they continue
to have a voice in the deliberations of the intelligence community. He feared that the creation of
the DIA would lead to the elimination of the service intelligence branches from USIB.

Then the CIA would be cut off from direct access to the facts and opinions developed by the
military men and would be forced to rely on whatever information the DIA saw fit to give it. Dulles
was impressed with the service argument, which ran something like this:
         Yes, the services have been guilty at times of analyzing intelligence from a
         parochial point of view. But other agencies of the government are no less
         susceptible to self-serving judgments. The function of USIB is to serve as a forum
         for all viewpoints -- even extreme viewpoints. Only then can the Director of
         Central Intelligence, and through him the President, arrive at comprehensive and
         objective assessments. Dissent should be aired at the highest possible level and
         not suppressed outside the orbit of presidential observation.

        If the service intelligence branches were removed from USIB, the DIA would
        become the sole representative of the government's biggest producer and biggest
        consumer of intelligence. And the DIA as an agency subordinate to a political
        appointee -- the Secretary of Defense -- would be more vulnerable to political
        influences than are the services which have a semi-autonomous status by law.
Dulles was particularly worried about the possibility that the DIA would gain a monopoly over
aerial reconnaissance. The Defense Department controlled the reconnaissance equipment and
Dulles feared that the DIA would be tempted to hoard the photographs produced by the
equipment. He was determined to prevent any such thing.

During the U-2 era, the CIA had built up a skilled corps of civilian photo-interpreters and they
would surely quit if the Pentagon monopolized aerial photographs. Without interpreters, the CIA
would have no way to verify Defense Department estimates. At a time when electronic espionage
was bulking ever larger, Pentagon control of aerial reconnaissance could result in Pentagon
dominance of the entire intelligence community.

Dulles expressed his misgivings to McNamara, who responded with assurances that the DIA
would be only a coordinating body and that it would not supplant the intelligence branches of the
Army, Navy and Air Force. Some of Dulles' advisers suspected that the Pentagon had covert
ambitions for the DIA which were being suppressed temporarily for tactical reasons. But Dulles
felt McNamara's pledge left no ground for him to oppose the DIA. He went along with the
proposal. So did John McCone, then head of the AEC.

The DIA was created officially on October 1, 1961. Named as director was Lieutenant General
Joseph F. Carroll, who had been the inspector general of the Air Force. Carroll started his career
with the FBI and was a leading assistant of J. Edgar Hoover at the time he moved to the Air Force
in 1947 to set up its first investigation and counter-intelligence section.

CIA men delighted in pointing out that all of Carroll's experience had been as an investigator and
that he had no credentials as a foreign or military intelligence analyst. More to the CIA's liking
were Carroll's two subordinates, both of whom had served with the CIA: Major General William W.
(Buffalo Bill) Quinn, a former West Point football star, who was named deputy director; and Rear
Admiral Samuel B. Frankel, a Chinese and Russian-speaking expert on the Communist world,
who became the DIA's chief of staff.

Both of these men had worked closely with Allen Dulles. Frankel served under him on USIB.
Quinn, the G-2 for the Seventh Army in Europe during World War II, acted as personal courier for
the information Dulles gathered in Switzerland on Nazi troop movements. (Quinn left the DIA to
become the commander of the Seventh Army in November, 1963.)

The original charter for the DIA provided that the new agency was to:
        (1) draw up a consolidated budget for all the intelligence units within the
        (2) produce all Defense Department estimates for USIB and other elements of the
        intelligence community;
        (3) provide representation on USIB in the person of its director; and
        (4) develop plans for integrating the intelligence schools run by the various
Although the original list of functions seemed relatively modest, an expansion of the DIA's
responsibilities was clearly implied in its authorization by McNamara to provide "overall guidance
for the conduct and management" of all duties retained by the individual services.

And with the inevitability of Parkinson's Law, the DIA quickly added to its domain. By 1964, when
the DIA became fully operational, it had more than 2,500 employees. It had acquired 38,000 feet
of Pentagon office space and had submitted a request for a separate $17,000,000 building.

It had succeeded in eliminating the separate service intelligence publications and supplanting
them with two of its own; and it had launched a Daily Digest, which was viewed by the CIA as
duplicatory and competitive to its Own Central Intelligence Bulletin.

The DIA had also supplanted the J-2, the intelligence staff of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, both on
USIB and in supplying information to the Chiefs themselves. It had replaced the services in the
production of "order of battle" intelligence-estimates of the size and deployment of enemy forces.
And it was occasionally providing information directly to the President without funneling it through
USIB. The DIA did so on request in 1963 when Kennedy wanted quick intelligence on whether the
Guatemalan Army would be able to handle expected Communist riots.

By 1964 the DIA's control over military intelligence had expanded to such a degree that the
services were reduced to the role of providing technical information on enemy weapons, running
the attache system and collecting -- but not analyzing -- raw intelligence.

Most significantly, the leaders of the Invisible Government had decided to remove the service
intelligence agencies from USIB. Only a veto by President Johnson could prevent the DIA from
becoming the sole military voice on the board. Allen Dulles' apprehensions were being realized.
         "There is, of course, always the possibility," Dulles had observed with
         monumental understatement, "that two such powerful and well-financed agencies
         as CIA and DIA will become rivals and competitors." [1]
Back to Contents

THROUGH the large picture window of his immaculate private dining room atop the CIA's
$46,000,000 hideaway in Langley, Virginia, the Director of Central Intelligence can watch deer
and other wild life gambol in the woodland below.

When John McCone took over as CIA director in November, 1961, he must have found a glimpse
of an occasional passing fawn a pleasant relief from the cares of office. He could dine, if he
chose, in utter isolation and complete quiet, twenty minutes and eight miles from downtown
Washington and the lunchtime hustle and bustle that is the lot of less powerful, and less secluded,

As far as the eye can see, the lovely rolling hills of Virginia's Fairfax County surround the CIA
building on all four sides. The Pentagon is bigger; but that colossus is easily visible from almost
anywhere in the capital.

Appropriately, the CIA's concrete headquarters is invisible, an architectural diadem set in bucolic
splendor in the middle of nowhere and modestly veiled by a thick screen of trees. In the State
Department, which does not always love its brothers in the intelligence world, the CIA is often
referred to as "those people out in the woods." And it is literally true.

Part of the reason for this is that it makes guarding the building much easier. The advantages of a
rustic retreat were extolled by Allen Dulles when he went before a House Appropriations
Subcommittee in June, 1956, to seek funds for the CIA headquarters. He submitted a report
which said:
         "Located on a 125-acre tract forming an inconspicuous part of a larger 750-acre
         government reservation, the Langley site was chosen as the one location, among
         many sites inspected in detail, most adequate for safeguarding the security of
         CIA's operations ... This site, with its isolation, topography and heavy forestation,
         permits both economical construction and an added measure of security
         safeguards ..."
Three years later guests, in response to engraved invitations from Dulles, attended the
cornerstone-laying ceremony. Colonel Stanley Grogan, the CIA's public information man at that
time, handed out a press release.
        "The entire perimeter of the main part of the site is bounded by trees," it noted,
        "and very little of the building will be visible from the public highways."
One CIA official summed it up. "It's well hidden," he said with a note of pride.

The fact that the CIA could send out public invitations to lay the cornerstone of its hidden
headquarters reflects a basic split personality that plagues the agency and occasionally makes it
the butt of unkind jokes. This dichotomy pervades much of what the CIA does. On the one hand it
is supersecret; on the other hand it isn't.

When Allen Dulles became the CIA director in February, 1953, the agency was housed in a
ragged complex of buildings at 2430 E Street in the Foggy Bottom section of the capital. A sign
out front proclaimed: "U.S. Government Printing Office."

Once President Eisenhower and his brother Milton set out to visit Dulles. They were unable to find
the place. Dulles investigated the secrecy policy. When he discovered that even guides on
sightseeing buses were pointing out the buildings as "the CIA," he had the printing-office sign
taken down and one that said "Central Intelligence Agency" put up.

When the CIA moved across the Potomac to its Langley home in 1961, the matter of secrecy still
proved bothersome. Large green and white signs pointed the way to the CIA from the George
Washington Memorial Parkway, which had been extended to the new headquarters at a cost of
$8,500,000. Originally, the signs were erected to guide workmen to the site during construction.
After the CIA moved into the building, some of its officials felt there was no need to leave them up.
As one put it: "We knew where it was."

But the signs stayed up -- for a while. As he drove to and from work each day, Robert Kennedy,
who lived in nearby McLean, Virginia, would pass the signs that trumpeted the way to the CIA.
One day they abruptly disappeared. In their place, there was only a small green and white marker
reading "Parkway," with an arrow pointing along the highway, and "B.P.R.," with an arrow pointing
to the CIA turn-off. *

The lack of signs causes scant inconvenience. No outsiders venture into the CIA anyhow unless
they are on official business. No social visiting is allowed. A CIA employee cannot tell his wife or
mother-in-law to drop in on him.

Another example of the now-you-see-it-now-you-don't atmosphere surrounding the building is the
way the CIA answers the telephone. Other government-agency switchboards answer with the
name of their department. Although the CIA is listed in two places in the Washington telephone
book, * a call to the number, 351-1100, is answered by a switchboard girl who says simply,
"Three five one, one one hundred." Only a few officials can be reached by name; for most, the
caller must ask for the extension he wants.

Despite the atmosphere of secrecy which surrounds the building, a KGB agent trying to find the
CIA headquarters would have no difficulty. He could drive to the nearest Amoco station and ask
for a map of Washington, which (like most other maps) clearly identifies the CIA site at Langley.
On the other hand, the Russian spy would not have to drive; he could get to the CIA from
downtown Washington by taxi for $4.50. Or he could make the trip for forty-four cents on a public-
transit bus, as do hundreds of the CIA's regular employees. (An enterprising few have commuted
across the Potomac by canoe.)

A caller who asked the transit company for the schedule to Langley received this reply:
         "Going to CIA? Buses leave at 7:12 A.M., 7:46 A.M. and 8:16 A.M., and arrive at
         CIA thirty-four minutes later. Returning in the evening at 4:38 P.M., 5:08 P.M. and
         5:40. Have a nice trip."
If the Soviet spy were a top "illegal," as the Russians call their agents who have no embassy
cover, he could check the Washington Post for a suitable location. In March, 1963, for instance,
the paper carried a large advertisement for the Broadfalls Apartments in Falls Church, Virginia.
Not only did the building advertise a Kelvinator refrigerator and tiled baths in every apartment, but
it also headlined: "Convenient to CIA-Dulles Airport-Pentagon." And below the inviting headline,
leaving nothing to chance, there appeared a map showing exactly how to get from the apartment
house to the CIA.

There is such a thing as an apartment house becoming too convenient to the CIA. Early in 1963,
an enterprising realtor, who owned thirteen acres adjacent to the CIA, applied to the local zoning
board for permission to build apartment houses on his land. It was with a sense of growing horror
that the CIA learned that from the fourth or fifth floor, residents would be able, with a spyglass, to
look right into McCone's picture window and read his classified documents. Secretly, the CIA
ordered the government's General Services Administration to buy up the land in the area

What happened next is best told in the words of Dr. H. Hatch Sterrett, a physician who lived on
Saddle Lane near the CIA:
       "The first I heard of it was when the GSA called my office and asked when they
       could have an appointment to arrange to take over my property. They kept saying
       they didn't know who wanted it or why it was wanted and that the only reason for
       taking it was that there was an established need for it. They said there was just
       no recourse, that there wasn't anything I could do about it."
The distraught physician consulted with his attorney, Samuel E. Neel, who was advised that the
entire subject had been "classified." Neel persevered, and finally diagnosed it as a severe case of

The agency killed off the apartment-house project by buying up most of the land, but it finally
permitted the doctor to keep his home. Under the agreement, however, the CIA can screen and
reject anyone to whom he wishes to rent or sell. The reason? In the summer the CIA is invisible
behind the trees. But in winter, when the leaves are gone, the CIA can be glimpsed through the
branches from the Sterrett home.

The headquarters building has been a subject of some difficulty for the CIA from the outset. When
Bedell Smith was head of the CIA, he requested $30,000,000 for a new building. To preserve
security, the request was concealed in the budget the agency sent to Capitol Hill. When economy-
minded congressmen discovered $30,000,000 with no apparent purpose, they cut it out of the

Not until after Dulles had become the director did Congress, in July, 1955, finally vote the funds to
begin planning and construction. Although the CIA's main headquarters at that time was the E
Street complex, which had been used by the OSS in World War II, the agency was scattered
about in thirty-four buildings all over Washington. An elaborate system of couriers and safeguards
was needed to shuffle papers back and forth with security.

L. K. White, a CIA deputy director, told the House Appropriations Committee hearing in 1956 that
by moving the agency into one building, "we will save about 228 people who are guards,
receptionists, couriers, bus drivers and so forth." The CIA estimated it would save $600,000 a
year by eliminating time lost shuttling between buildings.

Dulles had asked for a $50,800,000 building. The Budget Bureau slashed this to $50,000,000 and
Congress finally authorized $46,000,000.* Noting that construction costs had risen, Dulles
testified that for $46,000,000 "we could have a very austere building" which would house only "87
percent of the people for which we had originally planned."

Dulles, of course, carefully omitted saying how many people that was. And he foiled anyone who
might try to compute precisely how many people worked at Langley. Someone could attempt to
do so by dividing the standard amount of office space needed by a Washington worker into the
CIA building's net floor space of 1,228,100 square feet.
         "Our plans," Dulles told the House Committee, "are based on an average net
         office space utilization per person which is considerably below the government-
         wide average of net office space per employee in Metropolitan Washington." *
In the fall of 1961, the CIA moved in.

A visitor to the new headquarters turns off at the "B.P.R." sign at Langley and comes shortly to a
ten-foot-high wire-mesh fence, which surrounds the entire CIA site. On the fence are various
signs -- none saying CIA. One reads: "U.S. Government Property for Official Business Only."
Another says: "Cameras Prohibited." In case anyone failed to get the message, a third sign says:
"No Trespassing."

Beyond the gate is a guardhouse, but a visitor who appears to know where he is going is waved
through without having to stop and show credentials. A sharp left, and the building, still half-
hidden by the trees, comes into view. Finally, several hundred feet farther along, near the main
entrance, the building emerges from the trees for the first time.

It is massive, grayish-white concrete, several stories high and cold in appearance. The windows
are recessed and those on the lower floors are barred with a heavy mesh. Off to the right of the
main entrance a separate domed structure housing a 500-seat auditorium gives an almost
Martian atmosphere to the grounds.

But what strikes the visitor most of all is the complete silence outside the building. In the
summertime, only the hum of the building's air conditioners and the sound of crickets and birds
can be heard. In the winter, not even that. The effect is eerie. The building might be a hospital or a
huge private sanitarium in the woods.
On this same site, half a century ago, Joseph Leiter, the son of a millionaire Chicago
businessman, built a beautiful home and called it the Glass Palace. He and his wife entertained
lavishly and enjoyed the view of the Potomac. After Leiter died in 1932, the government bought up
the land. The Glass Palace burned down in 1945.

There is still glass in the CIA's concrete palace, but it is mainly on the second and seventh floors,
where the outside walls are formed by continuous windows. On the grounds, there are twenty-one
acres of parking space for 3,000 cars. (Dulles had asked Congress for space for 4,000.) The
cafeteria seats 1,400 persons at a time.

On the roof, there are $50,000 worth of special radio antennas, a vital part of the CIA's own world-
wide communication system. Deep inside the CIA headquarters is a central control room to which
alarm systems throughout the building are wired. Three security incinerators, built at a cost of
$105,000, gobble up classified wastepaper.

The domed auditorium outside is used mostly for training courses for junior CIA executives, and
as Colonel Grogan's press release noted, it has, fittingly, "a small stage with a disappearing
curved screen ..."

Inside the vast headquarters, a visitor can get about as far as the inscription in marble on the left
wall --" And ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free. John VIII-XXXII" -- before he
is stopped by a guard. He is then directed to a reception room, where he signs in. A security
escort takes him where he is going, waits until he is through and escorts him back to the front
door. There, just inside the airy lobby, a mammoth official seal with the words "Central Intelligence
Agency" is set in the marble floor, with an eagle's head in the center. As he walked through the
corridors, the visitor might have noticed that most of the doors to offices were closed and
unmarked, giving the false impression of a virtually deserted building.

Like a battleship, the CIA headquarters is built in compartments. An employee in one office would
not necessarily know what was happening a few feet away on the other side of the wall.

The CIA report to the House Appropriations Committee explained that this was a major
consideration in the plans drawn up by Harrison & Abramovitz, the New York architects:
        "The new building will consist of block-type wings, readily compartmented from
        one another, so that specially restricted areas can be established and special
        security controls maintained in each section."
Among the building's special facilities is a $200,000 scientific laboratory, where the CIA perfects
some of its miniaturized weapons, invisible inks, special explosives and other devices.

One of the really spooky instruments at Langley is the CIA's electronic "brain," which stores and
retrieves the mountains of information that flow into the building. The CIA's library is split into four
parts: a regular library of books and documents, special libraries known as "registers" which store
biographic and industrial intelligence, a document center -- and the electronic brain.

The brain is called WALNUT and it was developed just for the CIA by IBM. A desired document is
flashed in front of the CIA viewer by means of a photo tape robot called Intellofax.

WALNUT and Intellofax, unlike humans, are infallible. Aside from the vast amounts of classified
data that come into the CIA, the agency collects 200,000 newspapers, books and other "open"
material each month. The information is stored on 40,000,000 punch cards.

When a CIA man wants a particular item, be it a Castro speech or a top-secret report on
Khrushchev's health, he feeds into WALNUT a list of key words -- perhaps twenty-five -- about the
subject. The brain finds the right microfilmed document and photographs it with ultraviolet light.
The tiny photo is then projected on the viewing machine. The whole thing takes five seconds. The
CIA has also been experimenting with another brain called Minicard, developed by Eastman
Kodak for the Air Force.

The CIA also has a special spy-fiction library, which it does not advertise. This library contains
thousands of past and current mystery and spy stories. It should please fans of Ian Fleming,
Helen MacInnes and Eric Ambler to know that the CIA makes a point of keeping up with the latest
tricks of fictional spy heroes. Before Langley, the spy fiction was housed in the old Christian
Heurich Brewery near the State Department.

CIA men and women lead a cloistered life. By and large they stick to themselves. Intermarriage is
not unusual, the most notable recent example being the U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers. After his
release by the Russians, Powers continued to work for the CIA at Langley.* He divorced his wife
Barbara, and on October 26, 1963, in a quiet ceremony at Catlett, Fauquier County, Virginia, he
married Claudia Edwards Downey, a twenty-eight-year-old divorcee and a CIA psychologist. Mrs.
Downey, the mother of a seven-year-old girl, was said to have resigned from the CIA to become
Mrs. Powers.

In Washington, a highly social city given to much partying and mixing of many diverse circles, it is
remarkable how few CIA men are casually encountered on the cocktail circuit. The reason is that
CIA couples give parties mostly for each other.

In bygone years, CIA employees were barred from admitting where they worked. In social
situations they usually managed to hint at it anyhow. Nowadays, overt employees are permitted to
say where they work -- although not to a foreign national. Those in the Clandestine Services are
not, however, normally allowed to say they work for the CIA.

And cover names are used even inside the CIA.
       "I don't know the names of everyone I deal with at the agency," one high official
       confided. "We often use pseudonyms in house, in case a wire is tapped or a
       piece of paper gets into the wrong hands. And we never use real names in
The CIA is constantly facing little problems that no other agency faces. For example, suppose an
agent in the Clandestine Services breaks his arm in the line of duty. Blue Cross? Ah, but then
Group Hospitalization would find out his name when he filled out the inevitable form. And for the
first few years after the agency's creation, that is exactly what happened, much to the CIA's
irritation. When agents were hospitalized, Group Hospitalization had to know who they were. So in
1956 the CIA canceled its contract with Blue Cross. It took its business to Mutual of Omaha,
which benevolently agreed to waive the paperwork on ailing spies.

Although CIA employees are not technically under Civil Service, they qualify for the government's
normal retirement provisions and their pay is equivalent to those in Civil Service. Secretaries start
at GS-3, which is $3,820 a year. The director's salary is $30,000 The deputy director gets

In 1963 McCone asked Congress to set up a better retirement system for his top people, similar to
that of the State Department's Foreign Service. A House Armed Services Subcommittee heard
McCone's plea in camera. Later, in 1964, Congress passed a law allowing high-ranking agents
with twenty years of service to retire at age fifty. The CIAR, as the pension plan was called, would
cost an estimated $4,000,000 by 1969, or $900,000 a year.

The Armed Services Committee, in approving the measure, said that "many CIA employees serve
under conditions which are at least as difficult and frequently more onerous and dangerous" than
those faced by the FBI and other agencies.

In a report to the House Committee, the CIA said the pension system would help it to weed out
older men in the ranks.
       "The Central Intelligence Agency," it said, "needs to attract and retain a force of
       highly motivated careerists ... agency requirements demand that this group of
       careerists be composed of younger and more vigorous officers than are generally
       required in government service."
Many of the CIA's younger people are recruited off college campuses. The agency tries to select
students standing near the top of their class. CIA stays quietly in touch with college deans and
hires most of its research analysts this way. On every large campus there is usually someone who
serves secretly as the CIA's talent scout.

At Yale, for example, during the early 1950s, it was Skip Walz, the crew coach. John Downey,
who was imprisoned by Communist China in 1952, was recruited off the Yale campus in 1951.
The college recruits are enrolled as CIA JOTs -- junior officer trainees. Recently, in the manner of
large business corporations, the CIA quietly published a booklet, The Central Intelligence Agency,
extolling the virtues of a career in the agency. The booklet's cover, in yellow, red, brown, violet
and white, portrays a handsome young man with jaw on hand, pondering his future.

From every 1,000 persons considered, the CIA selects 200 for security investigation. Of this 20
percent, about 11 percent are screened out because,
        "they drink too much, talk too much, have relatives behind the iron curtain, which
        may make the applicants subject to foreign pressures; for serious security
        reasons 4 percent of this 11 percent are screened out. These latter are
        individuals who have contacts that render them undesirable for service in this
        highly sensitive agency." *
What this boils down to is that 178 out of 1,000 applicants are accepted.

From the start, the CIA has employed lie detectors. The polygraph is standard equipment at the
agency and all new employees take the test.

The most revealing information on this delicate subject came in a televised interview with Allen
Dulles, carried by the American Broadcasting Company: [1]
         Q: In that connection, sir, of how great a value is the lie detector to an agency like
         CIA in detecting potential spies, agents and/or homosexuals?

        A: In my experience in the CIA we found it of great indicative value. No one is
        ever convicted or cleared just on a polygraph test, a lie-detector test ...

        Q: What kind of cases do you turn up most easily by using lie detectors?

        A: Well, we turn up homosexual cases particularly, but not only that. There can
        be other weaknesses ...

        Q: Almost every CIA employee had to undergo a lie detector test as a condition of

        A: Well, I won't say no, it is not a condition of employment. I know of people who
        have said they didn't for various reasons want to take the lie-detector test, and
        they have not been dismissed or terminated for that reason.

        Q: But were they hired?

        A: But generally when people come on board, the general rule is that they take
        the test. But it is not any formalized rule, as far as I know.
Should an applicant pass all these hurdles and be accepted by the CIA, he must sign a security
agreement in which he swears never to divulge classified information or intelligence (except in the
performance of his official duties) unless he is specifically authorized, in writing, by the director of
the CIA. Employees are thus barred from talking about their work even after they leave the
agency: they certainly cannot go out and write their memoirs about their CIA experiences.

Criticism that the CIA is an "Ivy League" institution is only partially accurate. Although the top
twenty executives have always been largely from Ivy League colleges, this is not true of the
agency generally. Nevertheless, a good education is highly prized. About 60 percent of the senior
600 employees at the CIA have advanced degrees, many of them Ph.D.s. This is not surprising in
an agency that devotes a major portion of its efforts to research and analysis.

To satisfy the interests of its scholarly employees, the CIA publishes its own digest-sized
magazine, the most exclusive magazine in the world. It can't be purchased. It is not available at
outside libraries. It is called Intelligence Articles.

The magazine was begun because the CIA has so many former professors who, for the most
part, cannot publish on the outside. Intelligence Articles provides an anonymous outlet for their
scholarship. Like any specialized periodical, it has studies of current interest in the field, in this
case, intelligence. But there is one difference: most of the articles and book reviews have no

The literary style leans toward a rather heavy prose. There is an attempt to treat on a high
academic level such subjects as how to keep a double agent from being tortured and shot by the
enemy. Other forms of mayhem are dealt with in a similar scholarly vein.

One issue not long ago featured an article explaining the difference between a "write-in" and a
"walk-in." (Both are volunteer spies: the terms apply to the way in which they offer their services.)
The article, entitled " A Classic Write-In Case," was a study of Captain Stephan Kalman, a Czech
Army officer who in 1936 betrayed secrets to the German High Command until he was caught and
        "The agent of an adversary service," the article begins, "or a person high in an
        adversary bureaucracy, if he wishes to make contact with another intelligence or
        security service, can choose from a number of different means. He can present
        himself physically as a walk-in. He can use an intermediary in order to retain
        some control, especially with respect to his own identity. He can send a
        messenger, make a phone call, or establish a radio contact. Or he can simply
        write a letter, anonymous or signed."
After detailing the story of Kalman's treachery, the CIA publication, under the headline "Moral of
the Story," asks: "What conclusions can be drawn from the Kalman case?
        ... One conclusion derives from positive and negative aspects of the Czech
        performance with respect to security. Security applies on every echelon of
        command. There is no place for laxness, even if it may seem overbureaucratic
        and ridiculous. The application of security measures has to be executed precisely
        in every detail. There is no place for overconfidence in friends and old
        acquaintances. That Kalman, with his alien loyalties, came to be trusted with
        sensitive materials is evidence of such overconfidence."
A discerning CIA reader might come to suspect that, all in all, Intelligence Articles' academic
objectivity leaves something to be desired. Another excerpt worth quoting in this respect is from
the magazine's review of a book * that presented ideas about foreign policy not at all to the liking
of the CIA reviewer. For one thing, the book suggested that the CIA is ineffective.

After noting that the book was written under the pseudonym "John Forth Amory," the equally
anonymous CIA reviewer concludes:
        "If his identity is worth a search, one might look for a fervent Jeffersonian and F.
        D. Rooseveltian who has some bookish knowledge of the United States
        Government and of big business and who entertains a particular sympathy for
        Indonesians, having had opportunities to discuss with them their philosophy of
        social change -- a neoacademic sort, probably juvenile or with development
        arrested at the simplistic stage, possibly an instructor in some local college
        course for fledgling foreign service officers."
If the CIA has its cloistered advantages for the scholar at Langley, there are hazards for agents in
the field. Espionage is a dangerous business and some of the CIA's clandestine employees crack
under the pressure. (Even at Langley, there are strains. One deputy director drove himself so
hard, he had to be transferred to a less demanding post overseas.)

Many CIA employees, working irregular hours in odd corners of the globe, suffer from what the
agency itself calls "motivational exhaustion." A CIA report to the House Armed Services
Committee in 1963 explained:
       "This term is used to describe a gradual lessening of interest and enthusiasm of
       an officer as a result of impingements on his personal and family life. These stem
       from the transient nature of his assignments, the complications and restrictions of
       security requirements and intrusions on his family life."
The agency has a fairly high rate of suicides, which usually get little attention outside of the
Washington newspapers. In October, 1959, for example, a thirty-two-year-old CIA employee and
his wife, just back from a two-year tour of duty in Germany, jumped into the Potomac River rapids
in a suicide pact.

The CIA man, James A. Woodbury, drowned, but his blond wife was pulled out. Police quoted her
as saying her husband had a lot on his mind. "They wanted to put him in a psycho ward," she
said, "and we figured it best to do away with ourselves." The police said Mrs. Woodbury would not
elaborate on her reference to "they."

Despite the risks, CIA employees have no job security. Under the 1947 law they can be fired by
the director "in his discretion" with no appeal. In at least one instance, this led to a series of
embarrassing disclosures about the agency's operations and personnel.

On January 30, 1961, Dulles fired a veteran CIA intelligence officer and contact specialist named
John Torpats, who then went into Federal Court seeking reinstatement. Dulles filed an answer
urging the case be thrown out. In the course of it, Dulles stated that "George B. Carey," an
assistant director of the CIA, had notified "Emmet Echols," the director of personnel, that Torpats
was allowed to discuss his case with "Ralph Poole" and "Fred Lott," both assistants to Echols.

Torpats decided if Dulles could name names, so could he. In an affidavit filed June 30, 1961, in
answer to the CIA director, Torpats said:
        "In early 1956 a situation had developed in a European mission of CIA which my
        then area superiors, Frank G. Wisner, Richard Helms, John M. Maury, Jr., and N.
        M. Anikeeff, felt had been mishandled by the personnel of the mission. The
        mission reports were considered to be unsatisfactory in our component. My
        superiors felt that I could handle the problem more effectively and expeditiously
        and decided to send me to do it. The principal figures in this particular mission
        were Mr. Tracy Barnes, Mr. Thomas Parrott and Mr. Paul Losher. At the time of
        my separation, Mr. Barnes and Mr. Parrott were employed by the Agency in the
        Washington, D.C., office.

        "Notice was given to the mission in April of 1956 that I was being sent over. I was
        given no special instructions before I left; I was to be on my own. The mission
        had sent a report on the problem which I later proved was incorrect. Had the
        mission report been followed, it would have done incalculable harm to the United
         "When I finished my assignment, for which I received several commendations
         from headquarters, but before I could file my report, Mr. Barnes, on a complaint
         by Mr. Parrott, put me under house arrest; ordered an investigation, shipped me
         home; cabled charges against me to headquarters with a demand that I be fired."
The ousted CIA man then detailed a long history of his case as it dragged on through the agency
bureaucracy for several years. He said one charge against him was that he had disobeyed a high
CIA official in the office of the DDP "and visited a station contrary to his orders."

In addition, Torpats said, a CIA fitness report claimed he had an "inability to handle agents" and
"total lack of objectivity where Estonian emigre matters are concerned." He said he was
transferred out of the Clandestine Services and eventually fired.

Dulles angrily filed an answer to Torpats on July 2, citing an old Civil War case to support his
contention that employees of secret services cannot air their grievances in court. Torpats, Dulles
        "understood that the nature of his work was secret, and that the disclosure of his
        duties and the names of fellow employees would not be in the best interest of his
        government. Moreover, he swore, as a condition of his employment that he would
        never reveal such information."
If CIA employees can go into court every time they feel they are treated unfairly, said Dulles, it
would be no way to run an espionage apparatus.
        "Operation of the Central Intelligence Agency, with liability to publicity in this way,"
        he said, "would be impossible." *
Even CIA employees who make it to the top can look forward to little overt recognition after their
long years of service. President Kennedy, speaking to CIA employees at Langley on November
28, 1961, told them:
        "Your successes are unheralded -- your failures are trumpeted."
President Eisenhower voiced a similar sentiment when he spoke at the cornerstone-laying at
Langley on November 3, 1959.
       "Success cannot be advertised: failure cannot be explained," he said. "In the work
       of intelligence, heroes are undecorated and unsung, often even among their own
This is not completely correct. The truth is that some CIA men are decorated. Despite the fact that
he was eased out after the Bay of Pigs, for example, Richard M. Bissell received a secret
intelligence medal honoring him for his years as deputy director for plans.

There was no public announcement of the award, and Bissell was not allowed to talk about his
medal, to show it to anyone or to wear it. As far as the CIA was concerned, officially the medal did
not exist.

The Invisible Government had awarded him an invisible medal.

* The "B.P.R." stands for Bureau of Public Roads, which really does have two buildings at Langley. One is a
research laboratory for testing road materials; the lab also has a wind tunnel to measure the effect of breezes on
suspension bridges.
* Under Central Intelligence Agency and under United States Government. The 1964 Washington phone book had
something new -- it listed a downtown "Employment Office" for the CIA.
* The exact final construction cost is classified, according to a spokesman for the General Services
*  Each worker in a government building takes up an average of about 150 square feet of office space, according
to figures compiled nationwide by the GSA since 1960. On this basis, the CIA building would hold 8,187 people.
However, as Dulles indicated, the space-per-worker figure can be much lower. Washington's new Civil Service
Commission building has 135 square feet per worker, for example. At that figure, the CIA would house 9,097
people. Based on these space-utilization figures, some 8,000 to 10,000 people would work at the CIA
headquarters at Langley.
*  Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, which built the U-2 and along with NASA served as a front for the CIA,
announced on November 3, 1962, that Powers had taken "a routine test pilot job" with Lockheed at Burbank,
California. "It involves checking out the U-2s that are modified, maintained and overhauled," said a Lockheed
public-relations spokesman. A CIA source said the same day that Powers had left the agency because "his work
was finished." After the U-2 was shot down in May, 1960, both NASA and Lockheed announced that Powers was a
civilian pilot employed by Lockheed. Actually, he was flying for the CIA under a $30,000-a-year contract he had
signed with the intelligence agency in 1956.
*   From a twenty-page limited circulation booklet the CIA published about itself in 1961.

*   Around the Edge of War, Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., New York, 1961.

*   Torpats lost his case. Both the U.S. District Court and the Court of Appeals upheld Dulles.

Back to Contents

Back to CIA - The Central Intelligence Agency

                                           PART TWO:
                               THE NSA’S GLOBAL SPYING NETWORK

     The US National Security Agency uses the ECHELON system not only for surveillance of civilians and
                              but also for spying on behalf of US corporations.

    A fundamental foundation of free societies is that when controversies arise over the assumption
    of power by the state, power never defaults to the government, nor are powers granted without
    an extraordinary, explicit and compelling public interest.

    As the late United States Supreme Court Justice William Brennan pointed out:
The concept of military necessity is seductively broad and has a dangerous plasticity. Because
they invariably have the visage of overriding importance, there is always a temptation to invoke
security "necessities" to justify an encroachment upon civil liberties.

For that reason, the military-security argument must be approached with a healthy skepticism: its
very gravity counsels that courts be cautious when military necessity is invoked by the
Government to justify a trespass on [Constitutional] rights.

Despite the necessity of confronting terrorism and the many benefits that are provided by the
massive surveillance efforts embodied by ECHELON, there is a dark and dangerous side of
these activities that is concealed by the cloak of secrecy surrounding the intelligence operations
of the United States.

The discovery of domestic surveillance targeting American civilians for reasons of "unpopular"
political affiliation or for no probable cause at all - in violation of the First, Fourth and Fifth
Amendments of the Constitution - is regularly impeded by very elaborate and complex legal
arguments and privilege claims by the intelligence agencies and the US Government.

The guardians and caretakers of our liberties - our duly elected political representatives - give
scarce attention to the activities, let alone the abuses, that occur under their watch. As pointed
out below, our elected officials frequently become targets of ECHELON themselves, chilling any
effort to check this unbridled power.
In addition, the shift in priorities resulting from the demise of the Soviet Empire, and the necessity
to justify intelligence capabilities, resulted in a redefinition of "national security interests" to
include espionage committed on behalf of powerful American companies.

This quiet collusion between political and private interests typically involves the very same
companies that are involved in developing the technology that empowers ECHELON and the
intelligence agencies.

When considering the use of ECHELON on American soil, the pathetic historical record of NSA
and CIA domestic activities in regard to the Constitutional liberties and privacy rights of American
citizens provides an excellent guidepost for what may occur now with the ECHELON system.

Since the creation of the NSA by President Truman, its spying capability has frequently been
used to monitor the activities of an unsuspecting public.


In 1945, Project SHAMROCK was initiated to obtain copies of all telegraphic information exiting
or entering the United States. With the full cooperation of RCA, ITT and Western Union
(representing almost all of the telegraphic traffic in the US at the time), the NSA‘s predecessor
and later the NSA itself were provided with daily microfilm copies of all incoming, outgoing and
transiting telegraphs.

This system changed dramatically when the cable companies began providing magnetic
computer tapes to the agency, which enabled the agency to run all the messages through its
HARVEST computer to look for particular keywords, locations, senders or addresses.

Project SHAMROCK became so successful that in 1966 the NSA and CIA set up a front
company in lower Manhattan (where the offices of the telegraph companies were located) under
the code-name LPMEDLEY. At the height of Project SHAMROCK, 150,000 messages a month
were printed and analyzed by NSA agents.

NSA Director Lew Allen brought Project SHAMROCK to a crashing halt in May 1975 as
congressional critics began to rip open the program‘s shroud of secrecy.

The testimony of both the representatives from the cable companies and Director Allen at the
hearings prompted Senate Intelligence Committee chairman Senator Frank Church to conclude
that Project SHAMROCK was "probably the largest government interception program affecting
Americans ever undertaken".


A sister project to Project SHAMROCK, Project MINARET involved the creation of "watch lists",
by each of the intelligence agencies and the FBI, of those accused of "subversive" domestic
activities. The watch lists included such notables as Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Jane Fonda,
Joan Baez and Dr. Benjamin Spock.
After the Supreme Court handed down its 1972 Keith decision - which held that, while the
President could act to protect the country from unlawful and subversive activity designed to
overthrow the government, that same power did not extend to include warrantless electronic
surveillance of domestic organizations - pressure came to bear on Project MINARET.

Attorney General Elliot Petersen shut down Project MINARET as soon as its activities were
revealed to the Justice Department, despite the fact that the FBI (an agency under the Justice
Department‘s authority) was actively involved with the NSA and other intelligence agencies in
creating the watch lists.

Operating between 1967 and 1973, over 5,925 foreigners and 1,690 organizations and US
citizens were included on the Project MINARET watch lists. Despite extensive efforts to conceal
the NSA‘s involvement in Project MINARET, NSA Director Lew Allen testified before the Senate
Intelligence Committee in 1975 that the NSA had issued over 3,900 reports on the watch-listed

Additionally, the NSA Office of Security Services maintained reports on at least 75,000
Americans between 1952 and 1974. This list included the names of anyone who was mentioned
in an NSA message intercept.


While the NSA was busy snooping on US citizens through Projects SHAMROCK and MINARET,
the CIA got into the domestic spying act by initiating Operation CHAOS. President Lyndon
Johnson authorized the creation of the CIA‘s Domestic Operations Division (DOD), whose
purpose was to "exercise centralized responsibility for direction, support and coordination of
clandestine cooperation activities within the United States".

When Johnson ordered CIA Director John McCone to use the DOD to analyze the growing
college student protests against the Administration‘s policy towards Vietnam, two new units were
set up to target anti-war protesters and organizations: Project RESISTANCE, which worked with
college administrators, campus security and local police to identify anti-war activists and political
dissidents; and Project MERRIMAC, which monitored any demonstrations being conducted in the
Washington, DC, area.

The CIA then began monitoring student activists and infiltrating anti-war organizations by working
with local police departments to pull-off burglaries, illegal entries (black bag jobs), interrogations
and electronic surveillance. After President Nixon came to office in 1969, all of these domestic
surveillance activities were consolidated into Operation CHAOS.

After the revelation of two former CIA agents‘ involvement in the Watergate break-in, the
publication of an article about CHAOS in the New York Times and the growing concern about
distancing itself from illegal domestic spying activities, the CIA shut down Operation CHAOS.

But during the life of the project, the Church Committee and the Commission on CIA Activities
within the United States (the Rockefeller Commission) revealed that the CIA had compiled files
on over 13,000 individuals, including 7,000 US citizens and 1,000 domestic organizations.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC)
In response to the discovery of such a comprehensive effort by previous administrations and the
intelligence agencies, Congress passed legislation (the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of
1978) that created a top-secret court, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), to hear
applications for electronic surveillance from the FBI and NSA to provide some check on the
domestic activities of the agencies. In 1995, Congress granted the court additional power to
authorize surreptitious entries. In all of these actions, congressional intent was to provide a check
on the domestic surveillance abuses mentioned above.

The seven-member court, comprised of Federal District Court judges appointed by the Supreme
Court Chief Justice, sits in secret in a sealed room on the top floor of the Department of Justice
building. Public information about the FISC‟s hearings is scarce, but each year the Attorney-
General is required by law to transmit to Congress a report detailing the number of applications
each year and the number granted.

With over 10,000 applications submitted to the FISC during the past 20 years, the court has only
rejected one application (and that rejection was at the request of the Reagan Administration,
which had submitted the application).

While the FISC was established to be the watchdog for the Constitutional rights of the American
people against domestic surveillance, it quickly became the lap dog of the intelligence agencies.
Surveillance requests that would never receive a hearing in a state or federal court are routinely
approved by the FISC. This has allowed the FBI to use the process to conduct surveillance to
obtain evidence in circumvention of the US Constitution, the evidence then being used in
subsequent criminal trials.

But the process established by Congress and the courts ensures that information regarding the
cause or extent of the surveillance order is withheld from defense attorneys because of the
classified nature of the court.

Despite Congress‘s initial intent for the FISC, it is doubtful that domestic surveillance by means of
ECHELON comes under any scrutiny by the court.


                      US National Security Agencies Remote Mind Control Head-Quarters
                                 at Menwith Hill, North Yorkshire, England.

Several incidents of domestic spying involving ECHELON have emerged from the secrecy of the
UKUSA relationship. What these brief glimpses inside the intelligence world reveal is that,
despite the best of intentions by elected representatives, presidents and prime ministers, the
temptation to use ECHELON as a tool of political advancement and repression proves too strong.

Former Canadian spy Mike Frost recounts how former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
made a request in February 1983 to have two ministers from her own government monitored
when she suspected them of disloyalty.

In an effort to avoid the legal difficulties involved with domestic spying on high-level governmental
officials, the GCHQ liaison in Ottawa made a request to CSE for them to conduct the three-week-
long surveillance mission at British taxpayer expense. Frost‘s CSE boss, Frank Bowman,
traveled to London to do the job himself. After the mission was over, Bowman was instructed to
hand over the tapes to a GCHQ official at head office.

Using the UKUSA alliance as legal cover is seductively easy.

As Spyworld co-author Michel Gratton puts it:

"The Thatcher episode certainly shows that GCHQ, like NSA, found ways to put itself above the
law and did not hesitate to get directly involved in helping a specific politician for her personal
political benefit…

"[T]he decision to proceed with the London caper was probably not put forward for approval to
many people up the bureaucratic ladder. It was something CSE figured they would get away with
easily, so checking with the higher-ups would only complicate things unnecessarily."

Frost also told of how he was asked in 1975 to spy on an unlikely target: Prime Minister Pierre
Trudeau‘s wife, Margaret Trudeau.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police‘s (RCMP) Security service division was concerned that the
Prime Minister‘s wife was buying and using marijuana, so they contacted the CSE to do the dirty
work. Months of surveillance in cooperation with the Security Service turned up nothing of note.
Frost was concerned that there were political motivations behind the RCMP‘s request:

"She was in no way suspected of espionage. Why was the RCMP so adamant about this? Were
they trying to get at Pierre Trudeau for some reason or just protect him? Or were they working
under orders from their political masters?"

The NSA frequently gets into the political spying act as well. Nixon presidential aide John
Ehrlichman revealed in his published memoirs, Witness to Power: The Nixon Years, that Henry
Kissinger used the NSA to intercept the messages of then Secretary of State William P. Rogers,
which Kissinger used to convince President Nixon of Rogers‘ incompetence.

Kissinger also found himself on the receiving end of the NSA‘s global net. Word of Kissinger‘s
secret diplomatic dealings with foreign governments would reach the ears of other Nixon
administration officials, incensing Kissinger.

As former NSA Deputy Director William Colby pointed out:
"Kissinger would get sore as hell…because he wanted to keep it politically secret until it was
ready to launch."

However, elected representatives have also become targets of spying by the intelligence
agencies. In 1988, Margaret Newsham, a former Lockheed software manager who was
responsible for a dozen VAX computers that powered the ECHELON computers at Menwith Hill,
came forth with the stunning revelation that she had actually heard the NSA‘s real-time
interception of phone conversations involving South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond.

Newsham was fired from Lockheed after she filed a whistle-blower lawsuit alleging that the
company was engaged in flagrant waste and abuse. After a top-secret meeting in April 1988 with
then Chairman of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Rep. Louis Stokes,
Capitol Hill staffers familiar with the meeting leaked the story to the Cleveland Plain Dealer. While

Thurmond was reluctant to pressure for a thorough investigation into the matter, his office
revealed at the time that it had previously received reports that the Senator was a target of the
NSA. After the news reports, an investigation into the matter discovered that there were no
controls or questioning over who could enter target names into the Menwith Hill system.

The NSA, under orders from the Reagan Administration, also targeted Maryland Congressman
Michael Barnes. Phone calls he placed to Nicaraguan officials were intercepted and recorded,
including a conversation he had with the Foreign Minister of Nicaragua, protesting the
implementation of martial law in that country. Barnes found out about the NSA‘s spying after
White House officials leaked transcripts of his conversations to reporters.

CIA Director William Casey, later implicated in the Iran-Contra affair, showed Barnes a
Nicaraguan Embassy cable that reported a meeting between embassy staff and one of Barnes‘
aides. The aide had been there on a professional call regarding an international affairs issue, and
Casey asked for Barnes to fire the aide. Barnes replied that it was perfectly legal and legitimate
for his staff to meet with foreign diplomats.

Barnes commented:

"I was aware that NSA monitored international calls, that it was a standard part of intelligence
gathering. But to use it for domestic political purposes is absolutely outrageous and probably

Another former chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee has also expressed his concerns
about the NSA‘s domestic targeting.

"It has always worried me. What if that is used on American citizens?" queried former Arizona
Senator Dennis DeConcini. "It is chilling. Are they listening to my private conversations on my

Seemingly non-controversial organizations have ended up in the fixed gaze of ECHELON, as
several former GCHQ officials confidentially told the London Observer in June 1992. Among the
targeted organizations they named were Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and Christian Aid -
an American missionary organization that works with indigenous pastors engaged in ministry
work in countries closed to Western, Christian workers.

In another story published by the London Observer, a former employee of the British Joint
Intelligence Committee, Robin Robison, admitted that Margaret Thatcher had personally ordered
the communications interception of Lonrho, the parent company of the Observer, after the
Observer had published a 1989 exposé charging that bribes had been paid to Thatcher‘s son,
Mark, in a multibillion-dollar British arms deal with Saudi Arabia. Despite facing severe penalties
for violating his indoctrination vows, Robison admitted that he had personally delivered
intercepted Lonrho messages to Mrs Thatcher‘s office.

It should hardly be surprising that ECHELON ends up being used by elected and bureaucratic
officials to their political advantage or by the intelligence agencies themselves for the purpose of
sustaining their privileged surveillance powers and bloated budgets. The availability of such
invasive technology practically begs for abuse, although it does not justify its use to those ends.
But what is most frightening is the targeting of such "subversives" as those who expose corrupt
government activity, protect human rights from government encroachments, challenge corporate
polluters or promote the Gospel of Christ.

That the vast intelligence powers of the United States should be arrayed against legitimate and
peaceful organizations is demonstrative not of the desire to monitor, but of the desire to control.

With the rapid erosion of the Soviet Empire in the early 1990s, Western intelligence agencies
were anxious to redefine their mission to justify the scope of their global surveillance system.
Some of the agencies‘ closest corporate friends quickly gave them an option: commercial
espionage. By redefining the term "national security" to include spying on foreign competitors of
prominent US corporations, the signals intelligence game has got uglier. And this may very well
have prompted the recent scrutiny by the European Union that ECHELON has endured.

While UKUSA agencies have pursued economic and commercial information on behalf of their
countries with renewed vigor after the passing of communism in Eastern Europe, the NSA
practice of spying on behalf of US companies has a long history.

Gerald Burke, who served as Executive Director of President Nixon‘s Foreign Intelligence
Advisory Board, notes commercial espionage was endorsed by the US Government as early as

"By and large, we recommended that, henceforth, economic intelligence be considered a function
of the national security, enjoying a priority equivalent to diplomatic, military and technological

To accommodate the need for information regarding international commercial deals, the
intelligence agencies set up a small, unpublicized department within the Department of
Commerce: the Office of Intelligence Liaison. This office receives intelligence reports from the US
intelligence agencies about pending international deals that it discreetly forwards to companies
that request it or may have an interest in the information.

Immediately after coming to office in January 1993, President Clinton added to the corporate
espionage machine by creating the National Economic Council, which feeds intelligence to
"select" companies to enhance US competitiveness. The capabilities of ECHELON to spy on
foreign companies is nothing new, but the Clinton Administration has raised its use to an art.

In 1990, the German magazine Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA had intercepted messages
about an impending $200 million deal between Indonesia and the Japanese satellite
manufacturer NEC Corp. After President Bush intervened in the negotiations on behalf of
American manufacturers, the contract was split between NEC and AT&T.

In 1994, the CIA and NSA intercepted phone calls between Brazilian officials and the French firm
Thomson-CSF about a radar system that the Brazilians wanted to purchase. The US firm
Raytheon was a competitor as well, and was forwarded reports prepared from intercepts.

In September 1993, President Clinton asked the CIA to spy on Japanese auto manufacturers that
were designing zero-emission cars and to forward that information to the Big Three US car
manufacturers: Ford, General Motors and Chrysler.

In 1995, the New York Times reported that the NSA and the CIA‘s Tokyo station were involved in
providing detailed information to US Trade Representative Mickey Kantor‘s team of negotiators in
Geneva, facing Japanese car companies in a trade dispute. Recently, the Japanese newspaper
Mainichi accused the NSA of continuing to monitor the communications of Japanese companies
on behalf of American companies.

Insight magazine reported in a series of articles in 1997 that President Clinton ordered the NSA
and FBI to mount a massive surveillance operation at the 1993 Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation (APEC) conference, held in Seattle. One intelligence source for the story related
that over 300 hotel rooms had been bugged for the event - a move which was designed to obtain
information regarding oil and hydro-electric deals pending in Vietnam, that was passed on to
high-level Democratic Party contributors competing for the contracts.

But foreign companies were not the only losers. When Vietnam expressed interest in purchasing
two used 737 freighter aircraft from an American businessman, the deal was scuttled after
Commerce Secretary Ron Brown arranged favourable financing for two new 737s from Boeing.

But the US is not the only partner of the UKUSA relationship which engages in such activity.
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher ordered the GCHQ to monitor the activities of
international media mogul Robert Maxwell on behalf of the Bank of England.

Former CSE linguist and analyst Jane Shorten claimed that she had seen intercepts from
Mexican trade representatives during the 1992-1993 NAFTA trade negotiations, as well as 1991
South Korean Foreign Ministry intercepts dealing with the construction of three Canadian
CANDU nuclear reactors for the Koreans in a US$6 billion deal. Shorten‘s revelation prompted
Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Sheila Copps to launch a probe into the allegations after the
Mexicans lodged a protest.

But every spy agency eventually gets beat at its own game. Mike Frost related in Spyworld how
an accidental cellphone intercept in 1981, of the American Ambassador to Canada discussing a
pending grain deal that the US was about to sign with China, provided Canada with the American
negotiating strategy for the deal. The information was used to outbid the US, resulting in a three-
year, $2.5 billion contract for the Canadian Wheat Board. CSE out-spooked the NSA again a
year later when Canada snagged a $50-million wheat sale to Mexico.

Another disturbing trend regarding the present commercial use of ECHELON is the incestuous
relationship that exists between the intelligence agencies and the US corporations that develop
the technology that fuels their spy systems. Many of the companies that receive the most
important commercial intercepts - Lockheed, Boeing, Loral, TRW and Raytheon - are actively
involved in the manufacturing and operation of many of the spy systems that comprise
The collusion between intelligence agencies and their contractors is frightening in the chilling
effect it has on creating any foreign or even domestic competition. But just as important is that it
is a gross misuse of taxpayer-financed resources.


                                                        Menwith Hill
                    The Menwith Hill facility is located in North Yorkshire, England, near Harrogate.
 The important role that Menwith Hill plays in the ECHELON system was recognized by the recent European Parliament
                                                       STOA report:
               Within Europe, all e-mail, telephone and fax communications are routinely intercepted by
                  the United States National Security Agency, transferring all target information from
                                the European mainland via the strategic hub of London,
                             then by satellite to Fort Meade in Maryland via the crucial hub
                                   at Menwith Hill in the North Yorks Moors of the UK.

While the UKUSA relationship is a product of Cold War political and military tensions, ECHELON
is purely a product of the 20 century - the century of "statism".

The modern drive toward the assumption of state power has turned legitimate national security
agencies and apparati into pawns in a manipulative game, where the stakes are no less than the
survival of the Constitution. The systems developed prior to ECHELON were designed to
confront the expansionist goals of the Soviet Empire - something the West was forced out of
necessity to do.

But as Glyn Ford, European Parliament representative for Manchester, England, and the driving
force behind the European investigation of ECHELON, has pointed out:

"The difficulty is that the technology has now become so elaborate that what was originally a
small client list has become the whole world."

What began as a noble alliance to contain and defeat the forces of communism has turned into a
carte blanche to disregard the rights and liberties of the American people and the population of
the free world.
As has been demonstrated time and again, the NSA has been persistent in subverting not just
the intent of the law in regard to the prohibition of domestic spying, but the letter as well. The
laws that were created to constrain the intelligence agencies from infringing on our liberties are
frequently flaunted, re-interpreted and revised according to the bidding and wishes of political
spymasters in Washington, DC. Old habits die hard, it seems.

As stated above, there is a need for such sophisticated surveillance technology. Unfortunately,
the world is filled with criminals, drug lords, terrorists and dictators who threaten the peace and
security of many nations.

The thought that ECHELON can be used to eliminate or control these international thugs is
heartening. But defenders of ECHELON argue that the rare intelligence victories over these
forces of darkness and death give wholesale justification to indiscriminate surveillance of the
entire world and every member of it. But more complicated issues than that remain.

The shameless and illegal targeting of political opponents, business competitors, dissidents and
even Christian ministries stands as a testament that if we are to remain free, we must bind these
intelligence systems and those that operate them with the heavy chains of transparency and
accountability to our elected officials. But the fact that the ECHELON apparatus can be quickly
turned around on those same officials in order to maintain some advantage for the intelligence
agencies indicates that these agencies are not presently under the control of our elected

That Congress is not aware of or able to curtail these abuses of power is a frightening harbinger
of what may come here in the United States. The European Parliament has begun the debate
over what ECHELON is, how it is being used and how free countries should use such a system.

The US Congress should join that same debate with the understanding that the consequences of
ignoring or failing to address these issues could foster the demise of our republican form of

Such is the threat, as Senator Frank Church warned the American people over twenty years ago:
At the same time, that capability at any time could be turned around on the American people and
no American would have any privacy left, such [is] the capability to monitor everything: telephone
conversations, telegrams, it doesn‘t matter.

There would be no place to hide. If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took
charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the
government could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back,
because the most careful effort to combine together in resistance to the government, no matter
how privately it was done, is within the reach of the government to know. Such is the capability of
this technology…

I don‘t want to see this country ever go across the bridge. I know the capacity that is there to
make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that
possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never
cross over that abyss.

That is the abyss from which there is no return.

Since this author‘s ECHELON report was first sent to the US Congress in November 1998,
increased attention has been directed at the spy system by international media outlets and
governmental representatives. As news of the system‘s sweeping technological capability comes
to light, questions continue to be raised concerning the possible illicit uses of the system to
circumvent domestic civil liberties protections.

The May 1999 publication of British investigator Duncan Campbell‘s detailed report,
"Interception Capabilities 2000", for the European Parliament‘s Science and Technology Options
Assessment Panel (STOA) continued to expose the scope of ECHELON‘s supporting facilities
and the reach of its surveillance technology.

Among the report‘s key findings:

· While "word spotting" search systems have been previously thought to be widespread
throughout the system, evidence indicates that this nascent technology is currently ineffective.
However, ECHELON utilizes speaker recognition system "voice-prints" to recognize the speech
patterns of targeted individuals making international telephone calls.

· US law enforcement agencies are working with their European counterparts under the auspices
of a previously secret organization, ILETS (International Law Enforcement Telecommunications
Seminar), to incorporate backdoor wiretapping capabilities into all existing forms of
communications systems. In addition, the US Government is continuing to pursue diplomatic
initiatives to convince other governments to adopt "key escrow" legislation requiring computer
users to provide law enforcement agencies with encryption keys.

· The NSA continues to work with US software manufacturers to weaken the cryptographic
capability of popular software programs, such as Lotus Notes and Internet browsers, to assist the
intelligence agency in gaining access to a user‘s personal information.

· Intelligence sources reveal the increasing use of signals intelligence facilities to provide
commercial advantages to domestic companies involved in international trade deals.

· The report provides original, new documentation about the ECHELON system and its role in the
interception of communications satellites. This includes details concerning how intelligence
agencies are able to intercept Internet traffic and digital communications, including screen shots
of traffic analysis from NSA computer systems.

Official UKUSA Confirmation
Privacy researchers were surprised in May when an Australian intelligence official confirmed the
existence of the UKUSA intelligence-sharing treaty, in response to a formal information request
by Channel 9 Sunday reporter Ross Coulthart.

Martin Brady, director of the Defense Signals Directorate (DSD), admitted in a letter dated 16
March that his agency "does cooperate with counterpart signals intelligence organizations
overseas under the UKUSA relationship".

Parliamentary and Congressional Inquiries
The growing concern about the use of ECHELON has finally extended to capitals and elected
representatives around the world. Pressure from the international business community has been
brought to bear on government officials in response to mounting evidence that industrial
espionage by the US is costing European firms billions of dollars each year.

Germany also followed the French example in June, when the cabinet issued a policy statement
encouraging its companies and citizens to utilize encryption programs without restrictions.
German business leaders were alerted to the extent of US commercial spying after an
anonymous NSA employee admitted on German television in August 1998 that he had
participated in stealing industrial secrets from the wind generator manufacturer, Enercon, which
were passed on to its main US competitor, Kenetech.

Perhaps the most important governmental development is the growing interest of members of the
US Congress regarding ECHELON and its surveillance capabilities. Since the NSA is the prime
mover in the UKUSA intelligence partnership, any hope of reining-in the activities of the US
intelligence agencies will require the involvement of congressional oversight committees.

Back to Contents

Back to The NSA - The Super Secret National Security Agency

                                      by Harry Mason
                                       from Rense Website
     Dear Jeff,

     I have received several e-mails from irate Antarctic personnel and others upset at
     "MY" article re Lake Vostock and "NSA Overide-Coverup" as shown on your web
     site. Basically they seem to think that I verified and am the source of the
     "anonymous NSA Overide-Coverup" story that started this entire discussion -
     which I was NOT !!!

     Whilst reviewing the recent post on your web site it has become obvious that the
     ex-Nexus ex-Scientific American ex-anonymous (believed to be an NASA-JPL
     insider) "NSA Overide-Coverup" story line as reproduced there DOES give the
     impression that I have written it and verified it.

     I am sure that this is purely an editing error whilst attempting to cull the various
     dispatches forwarded to you by me a few months ago. In fact, I DID NOT write it,
     NOR have I verified its veracity. AND, in later emails on the subject matter over
     the last few months I have raised several redflag outpoints concerning different
       aspects of this allegedly true "NSA Overide-Coverup" Anon story.

       In short, I am reasonably certain that 90% of the original anonymous story is a
       concocted piece of bullshit that was fostered upon Nexus Magazine via Scientific
       American magazine from person(s) unknown for reasons unknown.

       The story of the re-forced repatriation of the two female Antarctic skiers, the
       alleged "pulled" satellite image, the location of the Lake Vostock camp and
       magnetic anomaly, and the original dispatch's apparent legal NASA advisory
       report number are all seriously flawed and quite untrue aspects of this
       anonymous story. Thus, there appear to be enough outpoints to junk the entire
       story. This was not the case when I first received it a few months ago - but has
       been the case since a week after my first dispatch on this matter.

       Some basic aspects of the original anonymous story ARE factual e.g.: regarding
       the Lake Vostok magnetic anomaly and potential environmental dangers of
       drilling there. What I have done is to append to my advisory e-mails to you and
       others on this anonymous storyline MY OWN views on geological aspects and
       INFO from my discussions on matters geological with Prof. Thomas Gold (which
       he was keen to see go public) as regards to the Lake Vostok magnetic anomaly
       and the possible truth of the environmental gas emission dangers reported in this
       anonymous story.

       I append below relevant quotes from my various e-mails on this subject for your
       info. Perhaps you could post this correction onto the same page as the Lake
       Vostok story to clear up any misunderstanding that might arise in your readers
       minds as to the EXACT origins of the original anonymous Lake Vostok story line,
       and my personal beliefs as to it's veracity.

       Harry Mason

Excerpts from my more recent private discussion e-mails to Nexus Magazine personnel (Jeff
Rense - and others) on the Lake Vostok NSA Over-Ride story line:
       Re: the two women skiing across the ice shelf scenario - they were interviewed
       on Australian ABC news a few days ago after being dropped off at an Australian
       Antarctic base by the US "rescue" team. I saw this news segment.

       They stated they personally requested airlift as their progress had been slower
       than anticipated and they were in danger from rapidly advancing winter storms.
       Once these hit you are isolated from air or ground rescue for months. They
       appeared quite relaxed but wistful about their need for rescue - did not appear
       "got at" - but who knows ???

       I have previously seen the most outrageous lies propagated by our ABC TV
       News over the AUM sect and Banjawarn Station Sarin Nerve gas stories. My
       personal field research interviewed the Banjawarn Station people (indigenous
       and white) and uncovered a huge series of lies aired knowingly by the ABC - so
       who knows on this Antarctic scenario??? But I begin to suspect we should red
       flag this story as of doubtful veracity!!!

       Just another point about the "Space Mapping Mission of Antarctica Aborted Due
       to NSA Over-Ride" story.
        The letter states that,
                 "The linked photo at the end was released by NASA in Jan 2001
                 seemingly by mistake. It is no longer available from the official
        Yet take a look at this reproduction of an official NASA web site of the EXACT
        SAME radarsat image and the attached section (58.1Kb jpg) image I just cut out
        today (1-03-2001 - 2.00pm) from the Vostock High Resolution Bird's Eye View Tif
        (3.8Mb) that I downloaded today from

        Thus it has NOT been pulled as the anonymous "NSA Over-Ride" story
        alleges ..........

        Further - a close inspection reveals a road running diagonally from SW to NE
        across the lake (smoothed out on anonymous original jpg - but just visible there
        also) that originates at a camp site in the SW corner of the lake with a NNW
        trending "airstrip" ???

        The road continues NE off of the field of the image. I suspect that the image
        provided by anonymous has incorrectly labeled the SW airstrip and camp as the
        "Magnetic Anomaly" and has most certainly placed Vostok Station (Russia) with
        an arrow pointing where there is nothing but Ice.

        Incidentally elsewhere in NASA literature Vostok Station is said to be situated at
        the southern end of the lake and if NASA followed convention with it's image
        orientation then Vostok Station is where the airstrip-camp site show in the SW
        part of the lake. In other words who ever wrote up the story line did NOT know
        much about the correct location of things around lake Vostok.

        Also the Russians have drilled down 3600 meters since the lake discovery in the
        1970's (to some 400 meters??? above the liquid lake surface) with preserved ice
        cores being sent to Montana State University a few years ago. These have been
        analyzed and they found various gases locked up in the ice (including methane).

        Due to the above errors about the so called missing (removed) image and the
        location of sites around Lake Vostok I am inclined to place a very large red flag
        against this anonymous post. Do you have any corroborative data for the original
        premise of NSA Over-Ride and the removal from stage of Debra

A friend has found NASA Press Release 01-24 from Feb 21-2001 which I copy below for your
info. This is where the first part of David's original anonymous post came from - namely the
names and addresses of David E. Steitz and Rosemary Sullivent followed by the Release - 01-
24 number.

It does not prove that David's post from the anonymous editor source is a fake however - since
the body of his anonymous letter states who it came from - but it is a tad worrying as to why it was
inserted in a manner that "appears" to give official status number 01-24 to the title "SPACE

When the actual title of NASA Release 01-24 is (as seen below) "SPACE MAPPING MISSION
Personally I would like to see some more backing for the original press conference - anonymous
story?? Have you got any more info?? Just two extra points re Vostok story.

I have just read the story in the Antarctic Sun. I quote from there:
         "The evidence is a huge magnetic anomaly on the east coast of the lake's
         shoreline. As the first SOAR flight crossed over to the lake's east side, the
         magnetometer dial swung suddenly. The readings changed almost 1,000
         nanotesla from the normal 60,000 nanoteslas around Vostok. A tesla is the
         standard measure of magnetism. Studinger typically finds anomalies of 500-to-
         600 nanotesla in places where volcanic material has poured out of the ground
                 "When we first saw this huge magnetic anomaly, that was very
                 exciting," Studinger said.
        Usually magnetic anomalies are much smaller and it takes some effort to
        distinguish the anomaly from normal daily changes in the magnetic field. In this
        case there was no confusion.
                 "This anomaly is so big that it can't be caused by a daily change
                 in the magnetic field," Studinger said.
        The anomaly was big in another way, encompassing the entire Southeast corner
        of the lake, about (65 b 46 miles) 105 km by 75 km (click below image). The size
        and extremity of the magnetic anomaly indicated the geological structure changes
        beneath the lake, and Studinger guessed it might be a region where the earth's
        crust is thinner.

        To create the type of topography found at Lake Vostok, the earth's crust was
        probably stretched, thinning one to three percent as it pulled taut, Studinger said."
I (HM) deal with interpreting aeromagnetic imagery daily in my mineral exploration work here in
OZ. The huge size and intensity of the above mentioned magnetic anomaly strongly suggests a
very large ultrabasic complex is present below this section of lake Vostok in the continental crustal
rock surface i.e. at the old land surface -pre ice level.

This would fit with the apparently tensional pull-apart rifted tectonic style of the lake geo-
environment and would probably represent a major mantle derived plume of ultrabasic intrusives
along the lines of Prof Careys Expanding Earth diapirs - this fits the stretched crust model noted
by Studinger above.

As such it would also fit Prof. Gold's hypothesis that there is a substantial - possibly world climate
dangerous amount if released - volume of methane (as hydrate at the expected
temperatures ???) plus oil and other exotic gas (He, X, etc) component to the hot water lake -
sourced from the Mantle-Core along the upwelling structural plumbing.

The reported "ice boils" could easily be composed of gaseous plumes frozen into the ice -
arrested as it were in their upwards progress - initially as hot water gas mixtures but cooled by the
surrounding ice until their water content froze and they could no longer melt (i.e. rise) through the
ice above them.

As such these ice boils could represent fascinating analogies with granite intrusive plumes in
mountain belts - both "boils" rise due to their heat melting above rock (ice) layers whilst their lower
density relative to enclosing rocks causes a gravity gradient and drives their upward motion until
they crystallize (freeze).

The ice "dunes" look like flat ice folded under stress - also analogous to folds in sediments in
mountain belts around the planet - possibly due to gravity sliding away from the upwelling diaper
of lake Vostok???

        --Original Message--
        From: Nexus Magazine-UK

        Editor disclaimer:
        Yet unable to confirm authenticity of JPL source
        2/24/01 6:23:56 PM Pacific Standard Time
        This was sent to me. Where it came from I don't know yet.

        David E. Steitz
        Nexus Magazine
        Headquarters, Washington, DC
        February 21, 2001
        Phone: 202 358-1730

                 Space-Mapping Mission of Antarctica Aborted -
                 Overruled by The NSA
                 Contact: Rosemary Sullivant
                 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA
                 Phone 818/354-0747

                 RELEASE: 01-24-01

                 In a brief announcement today, NASA and the JPL terminated all
                 further study of Lake Vostok in S. Antarctica. In an apparent slip
                 of confidentiality, spokeswoman Debra Shingteller alluded to
                 "National Security Issues" allowing the NSA to assume full
                 control of what had been an International effort to explore a huge,
                 under-ice lake near the Russian Vostok research station.

                 Ms. Shingteller was immediately led away from the podium, and
                 an aid responded to the many further questions with the same
                 answer: "the project has been halted due to environmental
                 issues", and that no further releases were pending. The large
                 crowd of press corp. were left clamoring as the officials left the
                 stage. Ms. Shingteller has not responded to repeated attempts at

                 The above is a report from an official JPL PR representative who
                 attended the announcement.
The following is part of a letter written to an editor of Scientific
American Magazine (who has requested anonymity). The linked
photo at the end was released by NASA in Jan 2001 seemingly
by mistake. It is no longer available from the official archive...

               (Click below satellite images of Lake Vostok)

        Approximately 300 miles from the South Pole
        there is a lake, a very large lake. It is Lake
        Vostok. It is also located over 3/4 mile beneath
        the Continental Ice Sheet. The best photos of
        Lake Vostok are from space, where the outline is
        clearly visible. Current ice-penetrating radar
        studies indicate that the water is up to 2000 ft
        deep in places, and has an over-arching dome
        up to 1/2 mile high.

        Estimates for filtered light at the lake surface
        indicate something like "continuous first morning
        light" during Antarctica's summer months.
        Thermograph imaging proposes an amazing 50-
        degree average water temperature with "hot
        spots" near 65 degrees. This can only be
        attributed to subsurface geothermal heat
        sources. At 300 miles long, and 50 miles wide,
        the encapsulated atmosphere should have the
        ability to cleanse itself through interaction with
        the lake, and possibly... plant life.

        Also proposed as a possible route for
        atmospheric interaction with the lake's
        environment are what are being labeled
        "geothermal boils". These are thousands of
        bubbles in the ice sheet located in the some 200
        sq. miles of "ice dunes" discovered by the late
        Russian scientist Ivan Toskovoi who was
        stationed at Vostok research base until his
        disappearance in March 2000. The surveyed
        bubbles range from a few to several hundred
        feet in diameter.

        Quite possibly just as exciting as all of the data
        related so far, is the discovery through Magnetic
        Imaging that there is an extremely powerful
        source of magnetic energy located at the North
        end of the lake's shoreline. As of this writing, no
                          one has suggested an explanation for the
                          magnetic "anomaly".

                          As recently as February 2000, at least two
                          international teams were planning separate
                          probes of the lake. Both consisted of fairly similar
                          robotic sensors that would have been lowered
                          through shafts (to be drilled). The team based at
                          Cambridge University, London were sponsored
                          by the UK and US governments, and backed by
                          NASA technology.

                          For reasons not clear, both programs have been
                          shelved indefinitely, with NASA going so far as to
                          deny any involvement, and both governments
                          citing "environmental concerns". An independent
                          source that visited Norway's research base some
                          150 miles to the East stated that a large amount
                          of new equipment and personnel have been
                          arriving at Russia's Vostok Station over the last
                          six months. This is interesting considering
                          Russia's current financial situation.

                          A final note is a verified dispatch out of Casey
                          Station (AU). The pair of women adventurers
                          who were attempting to ski across the continent
                          last month, and were extracted by plane during
                          the last leg of their trip, did NOT request the

                          Over the protests of the Australian crew at
                          Casey, the two were airlifted via an extraordinary
                          48 hour flight by a USN Special Forces team out
                          of American Samoa. According to the dispatch
                          the women were insistent on reporting
                          something unusual they had seen. The latest
                          news reports have the pair resting in "seclusion".

                          Lake Vostok: A Curiosity or a Focus for
                          Interdisciplinary Study?
                The lost world of lake Vostok radio echo sounding of ice deciphering mysteries
                of past climate from Antarctic ice cores Antarctica's lake vostok exploring lake
                vostok scientists say Antarctic lake worth a look-see warm lake found under
                Antarctic ice sheet frozen time capsule from lake vostok arrives at Montana state
                university bacteria may thrive in Antarctic lake the frosty plains of Europe

The following e-mail reflects Professor Thomas Gold's views on the subject of the above Nexus
Magazine Lake Vostock post data. Professor Gold and I have entered into a long e-mail debate
over Martian Water & Palaeo Seas/planetary wide Ice sheets and have discussed at length his
theories of continuously renewed Earth Core-Mantle derived methane and oil - as opposed to the
finite volume squashed bug/plant theories of the origin of oil - extant in western oil company
dominated science.

Prof Gold had previously stated his belief to me that Lake Vostock could contain large amounts of
methane under pressure and that drilling into same might represent a hazardous operation.....
See his various oil & gas papers (including reasons for magnetite concentrations) at http
        Dear Mr. Mason:

        Thank you for this fascinating information.

        I had previously considered informing the Vostok investigators, Russian, UK, US,
        that there was a severe hazard that above the water there would most likely be a
        large amount of methane, and breaking into that would be very hazardous. It may
        of course be so large an amount that letting it out would make a severe change of
        atmospheric chemistry, and hence of climate.

        The bubbles in the ice, the large dome, and the magnetic anomaly all point to
        such a situation. Most permafrost regions have methane underneath them, and
        this would be by far the largest of them. May be the scientist who vanished
        crashed into a methane ice bubble. Large deposits of magnetite are common in
        methane-rich regions, being produced from iron oxides acting as oxygen donor to
        microbes that live on the oxidation of methane.

        If you have the contacts, feel free, or even encouraged, to distribute this letter to
        other parties in this business, together with my name. I don't wish to hide behind

        Yours sincerely,
        Thomas Gold

(Here is the original story on about the exploration of Lake Vostok. -ed)

           Antarctic Lake Isolated 40 Million Years
                                       To Be Explored
                                        by Roger Highfield
                                        The Electronic Telegraph

Scientists are to explore one of the world's last uncharted natural wonders, a lake trapped
beneath the Antarctic ice.

Eighty scientists from 14 countries will meet in Cambridge next week to discuss how to study the
strange life expected to lurk in Lake Vostok, a body of water the size of Lake Ontario resting more
than two miles under the East Antarctic ice cap. The lake is one of the world's 10 largest and one
of about 80 lakes that underlie 10 per cent of the ice sheet of Antarctica.

Lake Vostok formed as a result of the combination of overlying pressure of ice and heat from the
Earth's core. It fascinates scientists because it appears to have been isolated for millions of years,
providing an opportunity for life to develop along a separate evolutionary path.

Micro-organisms that have been isolated for between one and 40 million years may be found in its
sediments and water, potentially yielding promising new enzymes or antibiotics, and offering
views of how ancient and contemporary microbes differ, says Cynan Ellis-Evans, who is
organizing the conference at Lucy Cavendish College.
Dr Ellis-Evans, a microbiologist with the British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, said the conditions
in the lake are probably too barren and cold - sub-zero - for larger organisms to evolve.
         "It could be one of the most extreme, nutrient poor, permanently pressurized,
         permanently cold, permanently dark environments on the planet."
This would lead to slow-growing microbes that are adapted to a life of starvation. However, if a
volcanic or hot spring system pumped in energy, a greater diversity of creatures may be present.

Lake Vostok is likely to be the oldest of all the "sub-glacial" ice lakes because of its size. If it has
been isolated for 40 million years, there would have been enough time for unique creatures to
evolve, as opposed to creatures that have adapted to a new environment. The Antarctic studies
may be a prelude to similar missions elsewhere in our solar system, notably to Jupiter's moon
Europa. NASA regards the Vostok mission as a test-bed for the search for alien life on the oceans
thought to exist on Europa.

The Vostok exploration would take place in the next five years. The exploration of Europa would
be in a series of missions beginning in 2003 and lasting for 15 years.

Dr Ellis-Evans said:
         "All the NASA people I am talking to are very enthusiastic about an ice
         penetration mission in 2015. I have no problem with the basic idea that there may
         be microbial life somewhere like Europa as good life markers exist there, notably
         liquid water, organic molecules and chemical energy sources."
The first entry of a probe into Lake Vostok will require extraordinary precautions to ensure that the
vehicle and its instruments are clean, so as not to contaminate the pristine lake. One suggestion
is to use a Cryobot, a 10ft 6in pencil-shaped device with a heated tip that unspools a cable
carrying power and a fiber-optic video and data cable.

The Cryobot splits into two under the ice and the top half stays at the ice-water interface to hunt
for life. The lower part (the point of the pencil) continues down a smaller cable until it hits the
sediment at the bottom, where it will also search for life and release a Hydrobot, a tiny submarine
equipped with sonar and a camera.

The Hydrobot rises like a soap bubble, reporting what it sees above and below it.

                                      Return to Antarctica
                         Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                        Security Agency
             Robin E. Bell - David M. Karl
                   Lake Vostok Workshop
                      Washington D.C.
                    November 7 & 8, 1998
         from Lamont-DohertyEarthObservatory Website

     Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary
2. Introduction
3. Preliminary Science Plan and Timeline
4. Lake Vostok: Background Information
5. Group Reports
6. Appendices
        1. Presentations on ―Why Lake Vostok?‖
        2. Workshop Program
        3. Workshop participants
7. Acknowledgements
8. References
9. Background Reading - Key Articles

     Return to Return to Antarctica Rediscovered
             Return to Temas / La Tierra
(1) Executive Summary
Life continues to appear in the unusual and extreme locations from hot vents on the seafloor to
ice covered hypersaline lakes in Antarctica (Priscu et al., 1998). The subglacial environment
represents one of the most oligotrophic environments on earth, an environment with low nutrient
levels and low standing stocks of viable organisms. It is also one of the least accessible habitats.

Recently the significance of understanding subglacial communities has been highlighted by
discoveries including the thriving bacterial communities beneath alpine glaciers (Sharp et al.,
1999), to the evidence from African stratigraphy for a Neoproterozoic snowball earth (Hoffman et
al., 1998a, Kirschvink, 1992) to the compelling ice images from Europa, the icy moon of Jupiter. If
life thrives in these environments it may have to depend on alternative energy sources and
survival strategies. Identifying these strategies will provide new insights into the energy balance of

The identification of significant subglacial bacterial action (Sharp et al., 1999) as well the work on
permafrost communities (i.e. Gilichinsky et al., 1995) suggests that life can survive and possibly
thrive at low temperatures. Neither the alpine subglacial environment nor the permafrost
environment is as extreme as the environment found beneath a continent-wide ice sheet as
Antarctica today.

The alpine subglacial environment has a continual high level of flux of nutrients from surface
crevasses. The Antarctic subglacial environment lacks a rapid flux of surface meltwater and
subsequently is more isolated. In addition to being more isolated, the Antarctic subglacial
environment is a high pressure region due to the overburden of ice.

The Antarctic subglacial environment may be similar to the environment beneath the widespread
ice sheets in the Neoproterozoic, a time period from about 750 to 543 million years ago. It has
been suggested that during this period the earth experienced a number of massive glaciations -
covering much of the planet for approximately 10 million years at a time. The evidence for an
ancient ice covered planet comes from thick widespread sedimentary sequences deposited at the
base of large ice bodies.

These glacial units alternate with thick carbonates units-warm shallow water sedimentary
deposits. These paired sequences have been interpreted as representing a long period when the
earth alternated between from an extremely cold, completely ice covered planet (the snowball
earth) and a hothouse planet (Hoffman et al, 1998b). Some speculate that the extremes of these
climates introduced an intense ―environmental filter‖, possibly linked to a metazoan radiation prior
to the final glaciation and an Ediacaran radiation (Hofmann et al., 1990; Knoll, 1992).

Portions of the Antarctic continental subglacial environment today, which have been isolated from
free exchange with the atmosphere for at least 10 million years, are similar to the environment in
this ancient global environment. Understanding the environmental stresses and the response of
the microbes in a modern extreme subglacial environment will help us decipher the processes
which lead to the post-glacial evolutionary radiation over 500 million years ago.

The third important analogue for modern Antarctic subglacial environments is from the outer
reaches of the solar system, the ice moon of Jupiter, Europa. Recent images resembling sea ice,
combined with the very high albedo of this moon has lead to the interpretation that this moon is
ice covered. Beneath the ice covering Europa is believed to be an ocean. The thick cover of ice
over a liquid ocean may be a fertile site for life (Chyba, 1996; Williams et al., 1997). The
Antarctica subglacial lakes have similar basic boundary conditions to Europa.
An investigation of Antarctic subglacial environments should target the unique role these lakes
may have in terms of the triggers for rapid evolutionary radiation, for understanding the global
carbon cycle through major glaciations and as an analogue for major planetary bodies.
                                    2                                                         o
Lake Vostok is a large (10,000 km ) water body located beneath ~4 km of glacial ice at 77 S,
105 E within the East Antarctica Precambrian craton (Kapitsa et al., 1996). Based on limited
geophysical data, it has been suggested that the Lake occupies a structural depression, perhaps
a tectonically active rift.

The water depth varies from approximately 500 m beneath Vostok Station to a few 10‘s of meters
at the northern end of the Lake; the ice sheet thickness also varies by nearly 400 m and is
thickest in the north (4,150 m). Ice motion across the lake, freezing and melting at the base of the
ice sheet and geothermal heating could establish density-driven flows, large scale circulation and
geochemical gradients in Lake Vostok.

                                                  Figure 1:
                          ERS-1 Surface Altimetry indicating location of Lake Vostok

The existence of this lake, and at least 76 others like it, has been documented by extensive
airborne 60 MHz radio-echo sounding records that provide coarse sampling coverage of
approximately half of the Antarctic ice sheet (Siegert et al., 1996). The majority of sub-glacial
lakes are near ice divides at Dome C and Ridge B, East Antarctica.

More recently, the European Research Satellite-1 (ERS-1, Figure 1) has provided radar altimeter
data which provide unprecedented detail of ice surface elevations. These data have been used to
define the physical dimensions of the lake, its drainage basin, and predict lake water density
(Kapitsa et al., 1996).

The water body appears to be fresh. Based on considerations of temperature and pressure fields,
most of the dissolved gases in the lake would be present as hydrates, which may be segregated
in density layers. The unique geochemical setting of Lake Vostok may present an opportunity and
a challenge for the development of novel life forms.

Lake Vostok, due to its size, is the lake which is most likely to have remained liquid during
changes in the Antarctic ice sheet volume and therefore most likely to provide new insights into
these subglacial environments. We understand much more about the subglacial processes such
as accretion and melting within Lake Vostok than any other lake, and we have a solid local
climate record for the last 400,000 years from the overlying ice core (Petit et al., 1999).

                                                        Figure 2:
          Location of subglacial lakes in Antarctica determined from the NSF/SPRI airborne radar program.
           The radar flight lines are shown in the inset on the lower left. (adapted from Siegert et al., 1996)

An international team of scientists and engineers has been drilling the ice sheet above Lake
Vostok to obtain a detailed record of the past climate on earth. This ice-core program, started in
1989, recently terminated drilling at a 3,623 m depth (approximately 120 m above the ice-water
interface at this location). This is the deepest ice core ever recovered.

The ice core corresponds to an approximately 400,000 year environmental record, including four
complete ice age climate cycles. Below 3,538 m there is morphological and physical evidence that
basal ice is comprised of re-frozen Lake Vostok water.

Throughout most of the ice core, even to depths of 2,400 m, viable microorganisms are present
(Abyzov, 1993). Previous sampling of ice in the interior of the Antarctic continent has repeatedly
demonstrated that microorganisms characteristic of atmospheric microflora are present. Air-to-
land deposition and accumulation is indicated, rather than in situ growth in the ice (Lacy et al.,
1970; Cameron et al., 1972).

Cameron and Morelli (1974) also studied 1 million year old Antarctic permafrost and recovered
viable microorganisms. Prolonged preservation of viable microorganisms may be prevalent in
Antarctic ice-bound habitats. Consequently, it is possible that microorganisms may be present in
Lake Vostok and other Antarctic subglacial lakes. However, isolation from exogenous sources of
carbon and solar energy, and the known or suspected extreme physical and geochemical
characteristics, may have precluded the development of a functional ecosystem in Lake Vostok.

In fact, subglacial lakes may be among the most oligotrophic (low nutrient and low standing stocks
of viable organisms) habitats on earth. Although ―hotspots‖ of geothermal activity could provide
local sources of energy and growth-favorable temperatures, in a manner that is analogous to
environmental conditions surrounding deep sea hydrothermal vents (Karl, 1995), it is important to
emphasize that without direct measurements, the possible presence of fossil or living
microorganisms in these habitats isolated from external input for nearly 500,000 years is

Lake Vostok may represent an unique region for detailed scientific investigation for the following
     it may be an active tectonic rift which would alter our understanding of the East Antarctic
         geologic terrains
     it may contain a sedimentary record of earth‘s climate, especially critical information about
         the initiation of Antarctic glaciation
     it may be an undescribed extreme earth habitat with unique geochemical characteristics
     it may contain novel, previously undescribed, relic or fossil microorganisms with unique
         adaptive strategies for life
     it may be a useful earth-based analogue and technology ―test-bed‖ to guide the design of
         unmanned, planetary missions to recently discovered ice-covered seas on the Jovian
         moon, Europa.
These diverse characteristics and potential opportunities have captivated the public and motivated
an interdisciplinary group of scientists to begin planning a more comprehensive investigation of
these unusual subglacial habitats. As part of this overall planning effort, a NSF-sponsored
workshop was held in Washington, D.C. (7-8 Nov. 1998) to evaluate whether Lake Vostok is a
curiosity or a focal point for sustained, interdisciplinary scientific investigation.

Because Lake Vostok is located in one of the most remote locations on earth and is covered by a
thick blanket of ice, study of the lake itself that includes in situ measurements and sample return
would require a substantive investment in logistical support, and, hence financial resources.

Over a period of two days, a spirited debate was held on the relative merits of such an investment
of intellectual and fiscal resources in the study of Lake Vostok. The major recommendations of
this workshop were:
      To broaden the scientific community knowledgeable of Lake Vostok by publicizing the
          scientific findings highlighted at this workshop.
      To initiate work on sampling, measurement and contamination control technologies so that
          the Lake can be realistically and safely sampled.
      Both NASA and NSF should prepare separate, or a joint, announcement of opportunity for
          the study of Lake Vostok, possibly through the LExEn program.
Back to Contents

(2) Introduction
The goal of the workshop was to stimulate discussion within the U.S. science community on Lake
Vostok, specifically addressing the question:
        ―Is Lake Vostok a natural curiosity or an opportunity for uniquely posed
        interdisciplinary scientific programs?‖
The workshop was designed to outline an interdisciplinary science plan for studies of the lake.
The structure of the workshop was a series of background talks on subjects including:
             Review of Lake Vostok Studies - Robin E. Bell
             The Overlying Ice: Melting and Freezing - Martin Siegert
             Evidence from the Vostok Ice Core Studies - Jean Robert Petit
             Tectonic Setting of Lake Vostok - Ian Dalziel
             Biodiversity and Extreme Niches for Life - Jim Tiedje
             Lake Vostok Planetary Analogs - Frank Carsey
             Identification of Life - David White
             Mircrobial Contamination Control - Roger Kern
A summary of each of these background talks is presented in this report Section (4) entitled:
      ―Lake Vostok: Background Information.‖
Following these talks each workshop participant presented a 3 minute, one overhead presentation
of why, from their perspective, Lake Vostok was more than a curiosity, and warranted significant
effort to study. These presentations ranged from discussion of helium emerging from the mantle,
to the unique temperature and density structure which might develop in such an isolated high
pressure, fresh water environment as Lake Vostok. Written summaries of these presentations and
key illustrations are included in Appendix 1 entitled ―Why Lake Vostok?‖.

Next, the workshop participants as a large group, identified the fundamental aspects of a research
program across Lake Vostok with each participant presenting five key ideas. These ideas were
synthesized into 6 major themes which became the subject of working groups.

The working groups and their members were:
    1. Geochemistry-Mahlon C. Kennicutt II, Berry Lyons, Jean Robert Petit, Todd Sowers
    2. Biodiversity-Dave Emerson, Cynan Ellis-Evans, Roger Kern, José de la Torre, Diane
        McKnight, Roger Olsen
    3. Sediment Characterization - Luanne Becker, Peter Doran, David Karl, Kate Moran, Kim
        Tiedje, Mary Voytek
    4. Modeling - David Holland, Christina Hulbe
    5. Site Survey - Robin Bell, Ron Kwok, Martin Siegert, Brent Turrin
    6. Technology Development - Eddy Carmack, Frank Carsey, Mark Lupisella, Steve Platt,
        Frank Rack, David White
Each group was tasked with developing: a) justification for a Lake Vostok effort; b) the goals of a
research effort; c) a strategy to meet the goals; and d) a time-frame for the effort. In addition, the
groups were tasked with presenting the single most compelling scientific justification for studying
Lake Vostok.

The groups worked through the morning of the second day preparing draft presentations. The
draft reports were presented in plenary at the conclusion of the workshop. The reports from the
working groups are found in Section 6, ―Group Reports‖. The workshop participants debated the
justifications and the major obstacles to studying Lake Vostok.

The discussion of the major obstacle to advancing a well developed scientific justification and plan
to study Lake Vostok hinged on several major factors including:
      the exploratory nature of the program coupled with the paucity of data about this unknown
         region making development of a detailed scientific justification difficult
      the need for technological developments to ensure contamination control and sample
         retrieval, recognizing that Lake Vostok is a unique system whose pristine nature must be
      the need for a strong consensus within the U.S. science community that Lake Vostok
         represents an important system to study, and recognition that international collaboration
         is a necessary component of any study
      the recognition that the logistical impact of a Lake Vostok program will be significant and
         that the scientific justification must compete solidly with other ongoing and emerging
      that the lack of understanding of the present state of knowledge of the Lake as a system
         within the U.S. science community remains a difficulty in building community support and
         momentum for such a large program.
These obstacles were addressed in workshop discussions and are specifically addressed in the
report recommendations, the draft science plan and the proposed timeline. The preliminary
science plan and timeline was based on working group reports and is presented below in Section
(3) "Preliminary Science Plan and Timeline ".

Back to Contents

(3) Preliminary Science Plan and Timeline
This preliminary science plan is based on a synthesis of working group reports. The overarching
goal of the science plan is to understand the history and dynamics of the Lake Vostok as the
culmination of a unique suite of geological and glaciological factors. These factors may have
produced an unusual ecological niche isolated from major external inputs. The system structure
may be uniquely developed due to stratification of gas hydrates.

Specific scientific targets to accomplish this goal include:
    determine the geologic origin of Lake Vostok within the framework of an improved
        understanding of the East Antarctic continent as related to boundary conditions for a Lake
        Vostok ecosystem
    develop an improved understanding of the glaciological history of the lake including the
        flux of water, sediment, nutrients and microbes into a Lake Vostok ecosystem
    characterize the structure of the lake‘s water column, to evaluate the possibility of density
        driven circulation associated with melting/freezing processes or geothermal heat, the
        potential presence of stratified gas hydrates, and the origin and cycling of organic carbon
    establish the structure and functional diversity of any Lake Vostok biota, an isolated
        ecosystem which may be an analogue for planetary environments
    recover and identify extant microbial communities and a paleoenvironmental record
        extending beyond the available ice core record by sampling the stratigraphic record of
        gas hydrates and sediments deposited within the Lake
    ensure the development of appropriate technologies to support the proposed experiments
        without contaminating the Lake.

        1999 (99-00)
               Planning Year
               Modeling studies
               Develop international collaboration
               SCAR Lake Vostok workshop
               Begin technology development
        2000 (00-01)
               Site Survey Year I
               Joint NSF/NASA LExEn Call for Lake Vostok Proposals
               Airborne site survey
               Preliminary ground based measurements
               Preliminary identification of observatory sites
        2001 (01-02)
               Site Identification and Site Survey Year II
               Ground based site surveys
               Complete airborne survey if necessary
               Test access/contamination control technology at a site on the
               Ross Ice Shelf
               Finalize selection of observatory sites
        2002 (02-03)
                In Situ Measurement Year
                Drill access hole for in situ measurements
                Attempt in situ detection systems to demonstrate presence of
                microbial life
                Install long term observatory
                Acquire vertical profile of water column
                Acquire microscale profiles within surface sediments
                Conduct interface survey (ice/water and water/sediment)
                International planning workshop (including exchange workshop)
        2003 (03-04)
               Sample Retrieval Year
               Acquire samples of basal ice
               Acquire samples of water and gas hydrates
               Acquire samples of surface sediments
               Stage logistics for second observatory
               International planning workshop (including data exchange)
        2004 (04-05)
               Installation of Second Long Term Observatory
               Installation of second long term observatory
               Analysis of data
               Build new models
               International planning workshop (including data exchange)
        2005 (05-06)
               Core Acquisition Year
               Begin acquisition of long core
               International planning workshop (including data exchange)
In order for this science plan and timetable to be realized, several coordination issues must be
addressed including inter-agency and international collaboration, refinement of the scientific
objectives, rigorous selection of the observatory and sample locations, and identification of the
critical observations.

The development of three major groups is envisioned including,
       (1) an interagency working group to identify the relative interests and potential
       roles in a Lake Vostok program
       (2) an international working group focused on scientific and logistical coordination
       for studies of Lake Vostok
       (3) a Lake Vostok Science Working group to address refinement of science
       objectives, site selection and determination of primary objectives
        Inter-agency Working Group:
        The study of the Lake Vostok system is relevant to the mandate of several
        agencies, most notably NASA, NSF and the USGS. Active coordination between
        these agencies will be key to a successful science program focused on Lake
        Vostok. Other agencies or industrial partners might be sought as well. Due to
        their role as stewards of Antarctica and providers of logistical support, NSF would
        be the preferred lead U.S. agency for any Lake Vostok mission.

        International Working Group:
        To date, our understanding of Lake Vostok is the result of integration of diverse
        data sets from the international research community. A successful exploration of
        Lake Vostok will require ongoing international collaboration with significant
        contributions from all participants. International collaboration will broaden the
        scope of the Lake Vostok studies. The SCAR workshop in 1999 is an excellent
        venue for developing an international Lake Vostok Working Group.
       Science Working Group:
       Before implementation of the science plan can begin, scientific objectives must
       be refined, the site selection process defined, and the critical observations
       defined. Careful review of these issues would best be accomplished by a small
       team of scientists, engineers, and logistics experts. The creation of this group is a
       key first step. This group will be tasked with addressing issues such as site
       selection and development of an observation and sampling strategy.
Back to Contents

(4) Lake Vostok: Background Information
       Robin E. Bell
       Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964,
       p (914) 365-8827; f (914) 365-8179,

       The identification of Lake Vostok in 1996 by Russian and British scientists
       (Kapitsa et al., 1996) represented the culmination of decades of data acquisition
       with a broad range of techniques including ground based seismics, star
       observations, and airborne ice penetrating radar supplemented by spaceborne
       altimetric observations. These measurements were the result of a long history of
       investment in Antarctic research by the international science community.

       The initial discovery was subsequently complemented by results from the
       Russian-French-American Vostok ice coring program and the Russian Antarctic
       program. This review outlines the general characteristics of the Lake, beginning
       with a description of the overlying ice sheet, continuing to the lake itself and on
       into the sedimentary deposits (Figure 3).

       The horizontal extent of the Lake is estimated from the flat surface (0.01 degrees)
       observed in the ERS-1 ice surface altimetry. The 4 km thick ice sheet floats as it
       crosses the lake, just as ice sheets become floating ice shelves at the grounding
       line. The flat ice surface associated with Lake Vostok extends 280 km in the
       north-south direction and 50-60 km in the east-west direction. Over the lake the
       ice surface slopes from 3550 m above sea level in the north to 3480 m above sea
       level in the south. The ice surface is ten times flatter over Lake Vostok than in the
       surrounding regions.

       The regional ice flows in from an elevated feature known as Ridge B-C to the
       west down the slope to the east. The presence of water may significantly alter
       this flow (Robin, 1998). The flow rates across Lake Vostok have been estimated
       from star sights at Vostok Station in 1964 and 1972 (Kapitsa et al., 1996) and
       synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferonmetric methods (Kwok et al., 1998).

       The star sights at Vostok Station suggest primarily an easterly ice flow (142
       degrees) at 3.7 m/yr . The SAR results indicate a significant component of flow
       (2.22 m/yr) along the lake axis (Kwok et al., 1998). As the overlying ice sheet is
       probably the major source of sediments, microbes and gas hydrates in the lake,
understanding the trajectory of the ice across the lake will be critical to
understanding the lake as a system.

The present understanding of the 3750-4100 m of ice sealing Lake Vostok comes
from limited airborne ice penetrating radar data acquired by a joint U.S.-British
program in the 1970‘s, and from the deep ice core drilling at the Russian Vostok
Station by an international team of scientists from 1989 - 1998. The radar data,
collected as part of a reconnaissance survey of Antarctica, provides cross-
sectional images of the bedrock surrounding the lake, the internal layering within
the ice, and the base of the ice over the lake for six flight lines.

Across the lake the reflection from the base of the ice sheet is strong and very
flat. In contrast, reflections from portions of the ice sheet over bedrock are
characterized by rugged reflections of varying strength that are dominated by
reflection hyperbolas. Radar data indicate that water within the northern half of
the lake may be very shallow (~10-30 m) and that several bedrock islands
protrude through the lake into the ice sheet. The ice thickness is 4150 m in the
north thinning to 3750 m in the south beneath Vostok Station.

The ice core at Vostok Station was drilled to recover a record of global climate
changes over the past 400,000 years which is preserved in distinct ice layers.
Near the bottom of the core, beginning at a core depth of 3311 m, the ice first
shows signs of disruption of the layering by ice dynamics. Generally ice layers
become tilted and geochemical climatic signals become difficult to interpret (Petit
et al., 1998, Duval et al., 1998).

This layer between 3311 m and 3538 m has been interpreted as ice which was
part of the continuous ice column but has been disrupted by deformation
processes as the ice sheet moves over the underlying bedrock. The randomly
distributed moraine particles in the base of this section are interpreted as an
active shear layer. Below this layer, changes in ice character are significant with a
dramatic increase in crystal size (to 10-100 cm), a decrease by two orders of
magnitude in the electric conductivity, the stable isotopic content of the ice and
the gas content.

These physical and chemical changes continue through the base of the Vostok
ice core at 3623 m and is interpreted to represent ice accreted to the base of the
ice sheet as it passed over Lake Vostok. The upper 70 m of this large crystal ice
includes numerous mud inclusions approximately 1 mm in diameter. These 70 m
of ―muddy‖ ice are interpreted to be ice accreted during a repeated melting and
freezing cycle along the lake‘s margin.

Below the 70 m of ice containing mud (i.e. below 3608 m) the ice is very clear
and is believed to have been formed as accreted ice as the ice sheet floated over
Lake Vostok. In this interpretation, the base of the ice sheet consists of a layer of
227 m of disrupted ice, 70 m of ice with mud inclusions and approximately 150 m
of clear accreted ice. A freezing rate of several mm per year is required to
generate these layers of accreted ice.
                                                Figure 3:
 Cartoon of Lake Vostok indicating the ice flow over the Lake near Vostok Station. The melting and
  accreting processes are indicated at the base of the ice sheet. Arrows also indicate the potential
 circulation within the lake. The accretion ice is the light blue layered material at the base of the ice
 sheet. The sediments (orange lined pattern) and hypothesized gas hydrates (pebble pattern) on the
                                         lake floor are shown.

The Russian seismic experiments, led by Kapitsa in the 1960‘s and by Popkov
in the 1990‘s (Popkov et al., 1998), provided insights into the depth of the lake at
the southern end of the Lake and the presence of sediments. Interpretation of
Kapitsa‘s 1960‘s data is that 500 m of water exist between the base of the ice
sheet and the underlying rock (Figure 3). These seismic experiments show the
base of the lake is 710 m below sea level.

This level is close to the estimated level of 600 m below sea level for the northern
portion of the lake. Recent seismic experiments have confirmed the early
measurement of ~500 m of water beneath Vostok Station and deeper water (670
m) several kilometers to the north.

These new experiments also identified 90-300 m sediment layers close to Vostok
Station. Sediments were absent 15 km to the southwest. Leichenkov used very
limited gravity data to infer as much as 4-5 km of sediments in the central portion
of the lake (Leichenkov et al., 1998). Russian scientists (Kapitsa et al., 1996)
have suggested that Lake Vostok results from extensional tectonics, inferring that
the Lake has an origin similar to Lakes Malawi (Africa) and Baikal (Russia)
(Figure 4).
                                                 Figure 4:
Satellite images of several large lakes shown at the same scale. (a) An ERS-1 image of Lake Vostok
                                             (R. Kwok, JPL).
         Lake Vostok shows as the flat featureless region. In this image north is to the right,
                             and Vostok Station is on the left of the image.
                      Both (b) and (c) are AVHRR false color composite images.
           Red indicates regions of high thermal emittance, either bare soil or urban areas.
           Green represents vegetation, Blue primarily indicates clouds and black is water.
           (b) An AVHRR image of Lake Ontario, a glacially scoured lake in North America.
               Toronto is the red area at the western end of the lake (left side of image).
        An AVHRR image of Lake Malawi, an active rift lake from the East African Rift system.
                                   North is to the right in this image.

This interpretation is based on the long narrow nature of the lake and the
bounding topography in some profiles. If the extensional origin is correct, the lake
may have thick sequences of sediment, elevated heat flow, and hot springs.

Conceptual models of circulation within the lake have been advanced by Zotikov
(1998) and Salamatin (1998). These models are based on the density
differentials associated with variable ice thickness across the lake. The poor
understanding of the size of the lake, the distribution of the melting and freezing
regions and the geothermal flux, limits the applicability of these models.

Finally, in terms of understanding microbes within the lake, the overlying Vostok
ice core contains a diverse range of microbes including algae, diatoms, bacteria,
fungi, yeasts and actiomycetes (Ellis-Evans and Wynn-Williams, 1996). These
organisms have been demonstrated to be viable to depths as deep as 2400 m
(Abyzov, 1993).

In summary, these data provide us with a general sense of the horizontal scale of
the lake and hints of the nature of the Lake‘s structure and origin, but many
questions remain unanswered.
Martin J. Siegert
Bristol Glaciology Centre, School of Geographical Sciences,
University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1SS, UK,
p. 44-117-928-7875; f. 44-117-928-7878,

The location and extent of Lake Vostok have been determined from ERS-1
altimetry and radar sounding (Kapitsa et al., 1996). The ice thickness over the
lake is 3740 m at Vostok Station and 4150 m at the northern extreme of the lake.
The ice-sheet surface elevation decreases by ~40 m from north to south, whilst
the base of the ice sheet increases by ~400 m. The water depth is about 500 m at
Vostok Station (from seismic information) and a few tens of meters at the
northern end (from VHF radio-wave penetration through water).

The basal ice-sheet conditions that prevail over the lake have not been previously
identified. However, this information is required in order to establish the
environment within the lake and, from this, the likelihood of life in the water.

A new interpretation of internal ice-sheet layering from existing airborne 60 and
300 MHz radar indicates that as ice flows across the subglacial lake, distinct
melting and freezing zones occur at the ice-water interface. These events
suggest a major transfer of water between the ice sheet and lake, inducing
circulation in the lake and the deposition of gaseous hydrates and sediments into
the lake.

The position of one airborne radar line (Fig. 5) is approximately parallel to the
direction of ice flow as derived from InSAR interferometry and steady-state ice
flow considerations (Siegert and Ridley, 1998). Three individual radar layers,
extracted from the raw 60 MHz radar data, were continuously traced across the
lake. The change in ice thickness between the top two internal layers, and the
change in ice thickness between the lowest layer and the ice-sheet base, were
then calculated (Fig. 6).
                                                Figure 5:
                   The position of one airborne radar line is approximately parallel
     to the direction of ice flow as derived from InSAR interferometry and steady-state ice flow

Generally, over grounded sections of ice sheets, internal layers are observed to
converge and diverge in vertical sections as ice gets thinner and thicker,
respectively. In contrast, if the grounded ice-sheet base is flat, the internal layers
tend to be flat in response. Along a W-E transect across the middle of Lake
Vostok, the ice thickness is relatively constant and the ice-sheet base is very flat
(Fig. 6).

However, along this line, internal radar layers from 60 Mhz radar are (1)
approximately parallel to each other and (2) non-parallel to the ice base (Fig. 6).
Any loss or gain in thickness between the ice base and the lowest internal layer
along the flow-parallel transect probably reflects accumulation or ablation of ice at
the ice-water interface. In contrast, 300 MHz radar indicates that compression of
layering occurs in the top layers of the ice sheet, where ice density changes
cause internal reflections.

Other possible explanations for the pattern of internal radar layering observed in
the transect can be discounted. For example, decoupling within the ice sheet (so
that ice flow above the internal layers is different from that below) is unlikely
because of negligible basal shear stress between ice and water. Further,
convergent and divergent flow around the bedrock island (Fig. 6) is not observed
in the ice-surface velocity field derived from InSAR interferometry.

                                             Figure 6:
         Calculation of the change in ice thickness between the top two internal layers,
        and the change in ice thickness between the lowest layer and the ice-sheet base.

Divergent flow around the island in lower ice layers would only cause ice
thickening in adjacent regions. However, thickening of the ice sheet on either side
of the island is not observed in radar data. Furthermore, the internal layers do not
reflect ice flow around bedrock upstream of the lake because radar data show
that such ice structure involves deeper internal layers diverging with increasing
ice depth, whereas the layering in our transect maintains a steady separation of
internal layers across the lake.

Assuming that ice does not accelerate across the lake (e.g. Mayer and Siegert,
submitted), the ice velocity will be steady at around 2 m yr-1 across the transect
from west to east (left to right in Fig. 6).

The processed 60 MHz radar data can then be used to determine rates of change
of ice thickness between the lowest layer and the subglacial interface. Assuming
that there is neither lateral flow nor compression of ice in the lower layers, these
rates of change of ice thickness may be related directly to rates of subglacial
melting or freezing (Fig.6).

Using this method, melting of up to 15 cm yr-1 occurs across the first ten
kilometers of the ice-water interface (Fig. 6d).

This zone is followed by a thirty kilometer-long region of net freezing with an
accumulation rate of up to 8 cm yr-1 (Fig. 6d). These data, therefore, indicate
significant release of water from the ice sheet to the lake over the first 10 km of
the transect, which is followed by net refreezing of lake water to the ice base.

Using these estimates approximately 400 m of basal ice will be accreted to the
base of the ice sheet as it traverses the central portion of Lake Vostok. This
compares to the 200 m of refrozen ice observed 100 km to the south at Vostok
Station in the narrow portion of the lake (Fig. 5).

The melting of the ice sheet as it first encounters the lake provides a supply of
water, gas hydrates, biological debris and sediments to the lake. The sediments
and gas hydrates will be deposited at the base of the lake, while the water will be
refrozen in the base of the ice sheet in the accretion zone. The refrozen or
accreted ice appears to be derived from freshwater (J. R. Petit, pers. comm.).

This investigation indicates how basal ice-sheet conditions may be identified from
analysis of airborne radar data. However, the present radar dataset is too sparse
to provide a detailed analysis of ice-sheet basal melting and freezing for the
entire 14000 km2 area of the lake.

New radar data are therefore required to extend this investigation over the full
extent of Lake Vostok. Analysis of new surveys will quantify the total volume of
water involved in the exchange between the ice sheet and the lake, and allow
calculation of the input of non-ice material to the lake. This volume estimate will
supplement the glaciological parameters that radar measurements will provide.

J. R. Petit
LGGE-CNRS, BP 96, 38402 St. Martin d’Hères Cedex, France,
p. +33 (0)4 76 82 42 44, fax +33 (0)4 76 82 42 01,

As part of the long term Russian-American-French collaboration on Vostok ice
cores, started in 1989, the drilling of hole number 5G was completed during the
97-98 field season. Ice coring reached 3623 m depth, the deepest ice core ever
obtained. The drilling operations stopped 120 m from the ice/water interface to
prevent contamination of the underlying lake by kerosene based drilling fluid.

The ice core continuously sampled for paleoclimate studies and discontinuous
sections have been sent to selected laboratories in three countries. Below 3350
m depth, one half of the main core was cut as a continuous archive for future
studies, and stored at -55°C in an ice cave at Vostok station.
The very good quality and transparency of the retrieved deep ice allowed for
continuous visual inspection of the ice inclusions, studies of ice crystals, and
measurements of electrical conductivity. Preliminary isotopic measurements of
the ice, (deuterium, dD), and analyses of the gas and dust content have be
performed on selected deep ice samples.

The upper 3000 m of the ice core (88% of the total ice thickness) provides a
continuous paleoclimatic record of the last 400,000 years. The preservation of
this paleoclimatic record is due to the slow velocities of the glacier ice and the low
accumulation rates at Vostok Station (presently 2 cm water equivalent per year).

Preliminary studies of the ice have yielded information on;
        a) the local temperature and precipitation rates (from isotopic
        composition studies)
        b) aerosol fluxes of marine volcanic, and terrestrial origin (from
        chemical, ECM and dust content analyses)
        c) atmospheric trace gases (in particular the greenhouse gas
                      2        4
        content [CO and CH ] and the isotopic composition of this
        ―fossil‖ air)
        d) the physical properties of the ice, including air hydrates, ice
The preliminary results of these studies indicate that the main patterns of the
Vostok temperature are well correlated to global ice volume from deep sea
sediments, back to the marine stage 11 (circa 400,000 BP) (Petit et al., 1999).
The record shows four complete climatic cycles, including four ice age or glacial
periods associated with the development of large ice sheets over the Northern
Hemisphere, and four transitional warmer interglacial periods (Petit et al., 1998).

Between depths of 3300 m and 3538 m, the layering is disturbed by ice sheet
dynamics. For example, at 3311 m depth, three volcanic ash layers 10 cm apart
are tilted in opposite directions. Moreover, 10 m deeper, at 3321 m, stable
isotope content, gas composition and dust concentrations of the ice, display very
sharp and significant variations which cannot be of climatic origin. In these deep
layers, the geochemical parameters interpreted as climatic proxies can no longer
be interpreted as the glacial-interglacial cycles.

The observed values are intermediate between glacial and interglacial levels,
suggesting the layers have been mixed. At the base of this ice there is evidence
of disruption due to ice sheet dynamics (3460 - 3538 m). The ice contains
randomly distributed moraine particles with particle sizes up to a few millimeters
in diameter, indicative of an active shear layer.

Beneath these disturbed and apparently mixed layers, (below 3538 m) the ice
character changes dramatically: ice crystals are very large (10-100 cm), electrical
conductivity drops by two orders of magnitude, stable isotope content of ice
shifts, and gas content becomes two orders of magnitude lower. These drastic
and related changes, indicate that the basal ice at this location is re-frozen lake
water. The accreted ice at the base of the Vostok core is about 220 m thick, or
6% of the total ice thickness.

The ice from the Vostok basin originates from the Ridge B area and flows over
the lake in a manner similar to an ice shelf. Temperature in the ice sheet and
melting or freezing events at the base are linked to ice sheet dynamics and lake
and bedrock heat fluxes. Whilst Lake Vostok exhibits evidence of large scale
melting, the flow line passing through Vostok site indicates a significant refreezing
event. This provides a constraint that must be taken into account when modeling
the ice paths and dating the climatic record.

Sampling the lake and underlying sediments is necessary, but will require the
development of ―clean‖ sampling techniques. A continuation of geophysical
measurements in the existing bore hole, and complementary studies of deep ice
from Vostok, may provide important insights into the ice sheet, regional geology
and the lake.

Ian Dalziel
Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas, Austin, 4412 Spicewood Springs Rd., Bldg. 600, Austin
TX 78759-8500,
p (512) 471.0431, f (512) 471-8844,

Lake Vostok is located at 77°S, 105°E within the East Antarctic Precambrian
craton, remote (>500 km) from both the Neoproterozoic rifted Transantarctic
margin and the Mesozoic rifted margin south of Australia and India. Its specific
geologic setting is completely unknown.

It has been suggested on the basis of limited geophysical data that the Lake
occupies a structural depression such as a rift (Kapitsa et al., 1996). Assuming
this to be correct, several plausible scenarios can be developed that would
explain the tectonic setting of such a depression in central East Antarctica:
         Intracratonic Rift associated with Extensional Processes:
         Given the presence of the extensive Lambert-Amery aulacogen
         along the Indian Ocean margin of the craton at 69°45‘S, 71°00‘E,
         Lake Vostok could occupy an intracratonic rift valley comparable
         to the lakes of the East African rift. An aulacogen is a rift system
         penetrating a craton from its margin. This could be either an
         active rift system, as suggested by Leitchenkov et al. (1998) or
         an ancient and tectonically inactive rift.
Despite the presence of a young volcanic edifice at Gaussberg, also on the
Indian Ocean margin at 66°48‘S, 89°11‘E, there is nothing to directly indicate
present tectonic activity in the Lake Vostok area. Gaussberg is >1000 km distant
and located at the termination of the Kerguelen oceanic plateau.

The Antarctic continent is anomalously aseismic, and only proximity to the
Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains with their unusual 4 km of relief at 80°30‘S,
76°00‘E might be taken to indicate any local tectonic or magmatic activity. These
mountains, which do not crop out, could be like the Cenozoic Tibetsi or Hoggar
volcanic massifs of North Africa.

Again, however, there is no direct evidence of recent, let alone active, volcanism
or tectonism in central East Antarctica. Evidence from sedimentary strata within
the Lambert-Amery system suggests that this aulacogen is of Paleozoic age, and
may be the southern limb of a rift in India that predates Mesozoic opening of the
Indian Ocean basin (Veevers et al., 1994).

Rift Resulting From a Continental Collision: A depression containing Lake Vostok
and the Gamburtzev Subglacial Mountains could be in a setting similar to Lake
Baikal and the Tien Shan Mountains or Mongolian Plateau, i.e. a rift and
intracratonic uplift associated with transmission of compressive stress thousands
of kilometers into a continental interior as a result of collision with another

Unlike Lake Baikal, however, Lake Vostok is not situated within a craton that has
undergone Cenozoic collision like that of Asia with India. Veevers (1994) has
suggested that the Gamburtzevs may have resulted from far-field compressive
stresses associated with the amalgamation of Pangea at the end of Paleozic
times along the Ouachita-Alleghanian-Hercynian-Uralian suture. Alternatively,
uplift and rifting within the East Antarctic craton could have been generated in the
latest Precambrian ―Pan African‖ continent-continent collision of East and West
Gondwanaland along the East African orogen (Dalziel, 1997).

The early Paleozoic Ross orogen along the Transantarctic Mountain margin was
a subduction related event which is not likely to have transmitted compressive
stress far into the cratonic interior. Consideration of subduction-generated
Andean uplifts, however well to the east of the present Pacific margin of South
America, demands that this possibility also be kept open.

Hot Spot or Mantle Plume Driven Depression: Plate tectonic reconstructions
maintaining the present day positions of the Atlantic and Indian ocean basin ―hot
spots‖ such as Tristan da Cunha and Reunion islands, indicate that several of
these (notably Crozet-Heard and Kerguelen) could have been beneath East
Antarctica prior to the opening of the Southern Ocean basins. The Gamburtzev
Subglacial Mountains and an associated Lake Vostok depression could owe their
origin to such activity.

Glacial Scour possibly Eroding an Older Feature: An erosional origin for the Lake
Vostok depression, i.e. a Lake Ontario-type scenario, is possible, but could also
have its origin in tectonism. For example, several of the Great Lakes occupy
depressions formed during the development of the North American mid-continent
rift system at 1100 Ma that was excavated by the Laurentide ice sheet during
Cenozoic glaciation of that continent.

Meteor Impact: Circular depressions in the interior of cratons can form as a result
of meteor impact. Even the elongate depression indicated by the shape of Lake
Vostok could result from a bolide impact scar modified by subsequent tectonism,
as in the case of the elliptical Sudbury basin in Ontario, Canada.

Hence the age of the depression that Lake Vostok appears to occupy could have
resulted from a variety of tectonic causes, and could range in age from
Precambrian to Recent. At present, there is no evidence to indicate that the
setting is tectonically or magmatically active.

Several lines of investigation should be undertaken to clarify the tectonic setting,
and hence the likely history and possible present activity of the feature:
        1. Airborne geophysical survey of the region surrounding the lake
        2. Seismic refraction profiling to ascertain the deep crustal
        structure beneath the lake
        3. Seismic reflection profiling to determine the shallower
        structural setting, nature of the sedimentary fill, and relation to
        overlying present ice sheet and its base 3 Comparable
        geophysical studies of the Gamburtzev Subglacial Mountains
        4. Sampling of the Gamburtzev Subglacial Mountains by drilling -
          evidence of a young volcanic construct locally would dramatically
          change the geologic picture.

James M. Tiedje
Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, 540 Plant and Soil Science Building, East
Lansing, MI 48824-1325,
p (517)-353-9021, f (517)-353-2917,

Microorganisms have been on Earth at least 3.7 billion years and during this
evolutionary history have developed incredible biochemical, physiological and
morphological diversity. Members of the microbial world encompass the three
domains of life, the Bacteria, the Archaea, and the lower Eukarya.

This diversity encompasses organisms with novel redox couples for production of
energy; adaptations to extremes of temperature, salt, and pH; novel energy
acquisition mechanisms as well as strategies for withstanding starvation. About
4,200 prokaryotic species have been described out of an estimated 105 to 106
prokaryotic species on Earth. Many of the extant microorganisms have not been
cultured in the laboratory and hence remain unknown because we apparently
cannot reproduce their environment in the laboratory.

Conditions in Lake Vostok are not so severe as to make microbial life impossible.
Hence, at least some forms of microorganisms should exist in Lake Vostok water
and sediment. The founding populations (original inoculum) could come either
from the rock or sediment prior to ice cover, or from microbes trapped in the ice
that are slowly transported through the ice to the water. In either case, Lake
Vostok microbes would have been isolated from their global relatives for at least
1 million years.

Some changes in genotype and even phenotype could have occurred during this
time, presumably making the organisms more adapted to this cold, dark,
oligotrophic environment. The time scale of 1 million years, however, is not long
in terms of prokaryotic evolution when compared to their 3.7 x 109 year history.
As points of reference, the E. coli-Salmonella enterica genospecies, which are
closely related organisms but differentiated because of their health importance,
are considered to have diverged only in the last 100 million years (Lawrence and
Ochman, 1998).

Hence, species level differentiation may take at least 10-100 million years.
Secondly, changes due to mutation (silent mutants) occur at the rate of
approximately 5 x 10-10 per base pair (bp) per replication (Drake et al., 1998).
Assuming an average gene size of 103 bp and 10 generations per year, one
would expect on average a change in only one base pair per gene in the 1 million
years since Lake Vostok microbes have been isolated from their relatives.

Other mechanisms of genetic change, especially recombination and mutator
genes, could have altered organism phenotype more rapidly allowing for
adaptation to Lake Vostok conditions. The above discussion is based on the
conservative estimate of biological isolation by the ice cover of 1 million years. If
the original inoculum were derived from rocks or sediments that had been sealed
from surface microbial contamination pre-Lake Vostok, their age of isolation
would have been longer, probably 35-40 million years. It should be noted that this
form of isolation is not unique to Lake Vostok rocks.

The major biological questions to be addressed in Lake Vostok would appear to
be the following:
             1. Who (what taxonomic groups) lives there?
             2. How different are the Lake Vostok organisms from what
                 we already know?
             3. Who are the Lake Vostok organisms related to and from
                 what habitats do these related organisms arise?
             4. Which of the Lake Vostok organisms are metabolically
             5. How do these organisms live in this unique environment?
             6. Where do they get their energy (geothermal?, clathrates
                 [gas hydrates]?, other?), and do Lake Vostok natives
                 have special adaptive strategies for this environment?
Microbial exploration of a new ecosystem such as Lake Vostok should include
three complementary approaches since each gives unique and vital information:
nucleic acid-based methods, microscopy, and the isolation-cultivation approach.
The nucleic acid-based methods provide much more comprehensive information
on the community than culture-based methods and, through sequencing of small
subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rRNA), provide information on the
organism‘s identity.

rRNA-based methods such as sequencing of clone libraries, fluorescent terminal
restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, denaturing gradient
gel electrophoresis/ temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE),
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative hybridization by
phylogenetic group probes, are well proven methods for exploring the microbial
community of new habitats such as Lake Vostok.

Other phylogenetically important genes such as 23S rRNA, intergeneric spacer
regions and gyrB may also be useful. Once pure culture isolates are obtained,
reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) can be used to quantify the importance
of isolated organisms in the total community.

Microscopy remains a powerful exploratory approach because it is the best
method for comprehensive observation and quantification of the microbial
community. New forms of microscopy such as confocal laser scanning and
environmental scanning electron microscopy, as well as coupling microscopy with
the use of fluorescent probes of various types can reveal key information both on
organism‘s identity as well as on their activity.

Isolation and cultivation of pure cultures remains the primary means to fully
characterize a microorganism, including its metabolic capacity, unique
physiology, confirming its taxonomy and for studies at the molecular level. An
example of the latter could be to identify genes responsible for adaptation to cold,
genes potentially useful to making plants more winter hardy. Strategies that might
be useful for cultivating Lake Vostok organisms would be to minimize the shock
of warming, matching the ion composition of the medium to the lake water,
maintaining oligotrophic nutritional conditions yet stimulating growth, and planning
for a long incubation period.

Special challenges for the study of Lake Vostok microbes would likely include the
following. Very low densities of microbes, which is probably the case in Lake
Vostok, always requires special methodologies to concentrate cells. Furthermore,
risk from contamination from outside microbes is more problematic.

Determination of the metabolically active cells versus resting or dead forms, is
especially difficult at low temperatures because of the low metabolic rate.
Isolation and cultivation of oligotrophic microbes is always difficult. The more
interesting microbes are likely to be the ones most difficult to cultivate and isolate.
It may be difficult to determine whether what is found is really new and unique
since so many of the world‘s microbes remain unknown. To answer this question
one may have to seek ―Lake Vostok-like‖ relatives outside of Lake Vostok once
the former are characterized.

Abyzov and colleagues have studied microbes in the Vostok ice core by
microscopy and cultivation (Abyzov et al., 1998). They find low densities (103
cells/ml) of microbes in the ice core extending to ages of 240,000 years, the
oldest period on which they have reported. Microbial density fluctuated with ice
core age, being higher when the dust particle density is high, which also
corresponds to periods of greater atmospheric turbulence. Bacteria were the
most prevalent microbial cells, but yeast, fungi, microalgae, including diatoms,
were also seen. Thawed ice samples assimilated 14C-amino acids establishing
that some of the cells were alive.

Most of the organisms that were isolated from the ice core are spore-formers, e.g.
Bacillus. Attempts to isolate more oligotrophic types apparently have not been
made. Organisms from the ice core could be one source of inoculum to Vostok

Studies on the microorganisms of Antarctica and buried Arctic permafrost soils
have relevance to Lake Vostok questions. Culturable strains from 1 million year
old buried arctic permafrost soil belong to the Planococcus, Psychrobacterium,
Arthrobacter, and Exigobacterium groups. It is interesting that the closest
relatives of some of these strains are found in Antarctica.

Some of the ancient arctic isolates grow relatively rapidly at -4.5°C. Hence,
growth rate at the Vostok temperature of -3.2°C would not appear to be a
limitation. The major limitation to microbial density in Lake Vostok would be a
renewable supply of energy. If clathrates (gas hydrates) were present, the
potential microbial use of this energy source would be particularly intriguing.

Frank Carsey
California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JPL ms 300-323, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109,
p (818) 354-8163, f (818) 393-6720,

About the time that the true scale of Lake Vostok was generating excitement in
the Earth Science community, spacecraft images and other data of the Galilean
satellites of Jupiter similarly electrified the Planetary Science community, and for
a similar reason: in both cases strong evidence was suddenly provided for large,
previously unknown bodies of water which might well be home to unique life

As of this writing, large, old, subsurface oceans are suspected on both Europa
and Callisto, and water ice is known or speculated to occur in a great number of
other sites, including Earth‘s moon. Meanwhile, the microbiologists are
revolutionizing the picture of biodiversity of life on Earth and repeatedly
astounding the scientific community and the public with information on microbes
thriving in sites long considered untenable for life.

These developments are obviously interrelated; it is clear that explorations of
Lake Vostok and Europa/ Callisto have much in common, including the scientific
excitement of exploring a new place.

The chief similarity is in the primary scientific goals at Lake Vostok and the Jovian
satellite oceans, the search for life. In the Jovian system, this search must be
carried out robotically, and the robotic approach has much to offer in various sites
on Earth where such issues as contamination prevention and remoteness make
sample removal challenging. Lake Vostok, in particular, is a site in which low
temperatures, high pressures, low salinity, isolation, and great age indicate an
oligotrophic environment.

This suggests that life could occur in highly specialized microbial communities
with low populations. This situation may not be representative of Europa or
Callisto, as these sites may be prebiotic. However, the exercise of locating and
examining life in small numbers is clearly excellent preparation for sites which
may have no life forms at all. The scientist will be testing a system trying to
establish a negative, which is demanding. Similarly, at both Earth and planetary
sites, the issue of evaluating habitat and bioenergy sources will be crucial.

In addition to the physical and scientific similarities, the technologies required for
accessing and studying the liquid water domains at Lake Vostok and
Europa/Callisto have numerous elements in common, many of them quite
challenging. Both sites require vehicles that can move through great distances of
ice, 4 to 10 km vertically; both sites require communication of data through the ice
and water; both sites require sophisticated instrumentation to locate and describe
life and evaluate habitats; and both sites call for exploration with little basic data
on site characterization as they are unknown places.

In addition, it is worth noting that when a NASA mission goes to a planetary site it
can take only the smallest quantity of equipment, yet it must do a sophisticated
job. These kinds of capabilities could greatly benefit Earth-bound science,
especially in polar regions, as the investment in on-site support could be
dramatically reduced, and more of the agency resources could go into science.

Additional sites exist on Earth with key similarities to both the deep ice sheet and
the oceans of Europa/Callisto, e.g., the deep ocean. Timely and interesting
projects that promise multi-use developments for all three sites include
observations of clathrates, high pressure habitat characteristics, and
microbiological studies.

There is clear benefit in collaborative efforts of U.S. and foreign agencies
concerned with cold-region science and operations, aqueous instrumentation and
robotics, high pressure/low temperature processes in water and sediment, and
extremophile biology. There are programmatic vehicles in place to initiate and
coordinate these collaborations, NSF, NASA, the Polar Research Board and the
Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research. Communications with and among
these agencies should be encouraged.
David C. White
University of Tennessee, ORNL, JPL, 10515 Research Dr., Suite 300Knoxville TN 37932-2575,
p (423) 974-8001, f (423)974-8027,

Lake Vostok as a pristine, cold, dark, high-pressure, and large lake provides a
new extreme environment in which to search for indigenous microorganisms that
have been isolated from the rest of the biosphere for a long time. Thus it is of
paramount importance to prevent contamination of the lake by organisms from
the overlying ice or contaminants introduced by the sampling device during the
assessment process.

The parallels to the detection of life on the Jovian moon Europa with a thick ice
layer provide an excellent venue for monitoring the Planetary Protection
technologies‘ life detection through a thick ice cover. The technologies discussed
below were derived for use within the space program, but are applicable to the
Lake Vostok exploration project.

The cleaning, sterilization, and validation technologies for extraterrestrial life
detection require extraordinary ―instrument‖ protection. Since the life forms that
might be encountered may not conform to the rules of life as currently
understood, the JPL Astrobiology team under Ken Nealson has defined the
criteria for life as having some essential characteristics that form the basis for life
          1. Life detection technology will require mapping those localized
          areas of heterogeneities in the distribution of biomarkers between
          the putative life forms and the background matrices. These
          localized areas of putative life forms must also show
          concentrations of biomarkers and state conditions far from
          chemical equilibrium in the components of cells,
          macromolecules, smaller molecules, and/or elements. The
          system requires mapping in space and time to demonstrate
          localization of these heterogeneities and their metabolic

         2. The system must have an exploitable energy source and this
         source for extraterrestrial life may be non-traditional. Non-
         traditional energy sources could be tidal, radiation, heat, wind, or
         magnetic, not typical of the visible solar or chemosynthetic redox
         driven energy systems currently understood.

         3. Whatever the system, the basic chemistry must be
         thermodynamically feasible.
These broad constraints indicate that these missions will require much more
comprehensive ―instrument‖ cleaning than the Viking standard of 300 viable
spores/m . This was considered adequate twenty years ago when the entire
spacecraft was held at 112° C for a long period so that no cells known on Earth
were known to survive the treatment. This was prior to the discovery of the
hyperthermophilic Archaea from the deep oceanic hydrothermal vents.

The sterilization technologies currently under examination at JPL utilize hydrogen
peroxide under pressure (oxidative sterilization) and low temperature non-
oxidative use of supercritical fluid or other solvents that result in cell lysis, leaving
no organic residues. The hydrogen peroxide yields water and oxygen. Not only
must the critical areas of the spacecraft be sterile they must be cleaned of
biomarkers that could interfere with the detection of life. Life detection will be
based in part on detection spatial heterogeneities in concentrations of

The JPL efforts in ―instrument‖ cleaning are currently exploring in situ destruction
techniques utilizing ultra-violet with photodynamic activation and deep ultra-violet
delivered in a vacuum. This is used in combination with various types and
recovery techniques more effective than the previously employed cotton swab
with 70% aqueous alcohol at room temperature and pressure. Whatever the
technology utilized for cleaning, the residue left on the ―instrument‖ after cleaning
must be analyzed quantitatively, structurally identified, and mapped.

Validation of the cleaning will require detection of biomarkers in cells,
macromolecules, and small molecules. Cells will be detected and mapped
microscopically and live/dead determinations made. These are currently
compared to traditional viable culture methods that are required for flight. Nucleic
acid macromolecules will be determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of
various nucleic acid polymers and enzymes that detect their activity.

Small molecule detection will exploit diagnostic lipids. Lipids can quantitatively
indicate viable biomass by differentiating the polar phospholipids, which are lysed
by endogenous phospholipases during cell stress forming diglycerides. The
nutritional/physiological status, as well as the community composition, can be
determined by analysis of specific lipid components, which with
HPLC/electrospray ionization/ tandem mass spectrometry can be detected at the
subfemtomolar levels (approaching detection limits of a single bacterial cell).

Spores can be detected in this system by their dipicolinic acid content. Lipid
analysis has the potential for automation and speed by the application of
enhanced solvent extraction at high pressure saved temperatures. Components
like amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleotides can be detected at subfemtomolar
concentrations by capillary electrophoresis which has great potential for

There is a possibility of using tracer biomolecules labeled with several isotopes at
unusual concentrations that can be clearly identified. These techniques would
provide a direct estimate of the degree of contamination after the cleaning
procedures have been completed.

The JPL program currently utilizes modifications of extant analytical detection
methods and equipment to analyze ―coupons‖ exposed on the ―instrument‖.
(Coupons or ―witness plates‖ are recoverable surfaces on or around the
spacecraft that are exposed and then removed for analysis; they can also be
used to test various cleaning methods by putting a known contaminant mixture on
them and then analyzing the biomarkers after treatment.)

Alternative recovery methods of solvent or adhesive polymers like the Scotch
tape 5414 used in forensic investigations are being explored. A proposed second
level of analysis would involve direct detection from the ―instrument‖ using soft X-
rays, Raman, infrared, or fluorescent detectors that could be mapped on a virtual
―instrument‖ and successively cleaned. The next level would be on-line reporting
of in situ biosensors built into the ―instrument‖. These would be developed into
the in situ life detection systems that monitor the extraterrestrial site and validate
planetary protection.

Significant research remains to be done and adequate methods need to be in
place by 2000 if the new methods are to be used during sample return missions.
International collaboration with industries, academia and the government will be
required to fulfill the responsibility to protect Lake Vostok from contamination.

Roger G. Kern
Technical Group Lead/Planetary Protection Technologies
Mail Stop: 89-2, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109
p (818) 354-2233, f (818) 393-4176,

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory‘s Planetary Protection Technologies Group is
currently assessing the feasibility of entering Lake Vostok without introducing new
types of microorganisms into the lake. Since the inception of robotic missions to
the Mars surface, Viking Landers 1 and 2 in the mid 1970‘s, JPL has had an
interest in this specialized type of microbial contamination control.

The objective of the Vostok microbial contamination protection research is to
prevent contamination of Lake Vostok with viable microbes from the Earth‘s
surface while enabling the robotic exploration of the lake.

The Vostok contamination control challenge is composed of three parts:
       1) delivery of a clean and sterile probe to the ice surface 4 km
       above the lake
       2) preventing contamination of the probe as it is lowered down a
       warm water drilled bore hole to within a few hundred meters of
       the lake surface
       3) performing a sterilization event upon entering the ice at the
       base of the bore hole to enable the melter probe to proceed
       without introducing viable surface microorganisms into the lake
Microorganisms present in the ice immediately above the lake are constantly
raining into the lake as the ice melts, at an estimated rate of 1 to 2 mm per year,
and are therefore not considered contamination in this approach. An
environmentally benign chemical sterilization is being tested that could take place
at the base of the bore hole and would permit entry into the ice above the lake
without entraining viable microbes from the surface.

JPL is currently adapting methods under development by the Mars Exploration
Technology Program for application to aqueous environments such as Lake
Vostok and the suspected Europan ocean. For future exploration of the surface of
Mars, JPL is currently evaluating basic decontamination approaches for the
efficacy against microbial cells and molecular cell remnants; proteins, nucleic
acids, lipids, and carbohydrates.

These initial studies have focused on hardware surface cleaning to remove
materials of biological origin from all surfaces both inside and outside the probe.
Cleaning techniques being evaluated at JPL include: hydrogen peroxide plasma
sterilization; 70% sterile ethanol wash; and existing precision cleaning methods.
Sterilization techniques being evaluated at JPL include: hydrogen peroxide
plasma; gamma irradiation; and a dry heat procedure developed for the Viking
mission to Mars.

At present four methods for characterizing biological contamination are being
evaluated for use in verifying the level of cleanliness of hardware. The first of
these is a viable count assessment based on the ability to remove and culture a
single viable organism on tryptic soy agar.

The second method does not require microbial growth since it is widely
recognized that less than 1% of the total microbial world is currently culturable.
Epifluorescent microscopy is being adapted for validating microbial cleanliness.
Microbes sampled are transferred to a 0.2 micron filter where cells are suitably
stained to enumerate the total population as well as confirm the absence of
viability. This allows the assessment of the microbial population independent of
ability to culture in the laboratory.

PCR techniques are being employed to detect the presence of trace amounts of
DNA associated with the sampled surfaces. Recently capillary electrophoresis
has been added to JPL‘s list of approaches for determining the presence or
absence of trace biological molecules associated with hardware. This research
into cleaning and sterilization methods, as well as techniques to validate
cleanliness is ongoing, and new approaches are constantly being evaluated to
achieve and assure a level of cleanliness and the absence of viable microbes.

These ongoing planetary protection efforts can be applied to the NASA Vostok
Probe (consisting of a cryobot and hydrobot) and instrumentation, and the overall
mission design. The current planetary protection technologies research effort will
influence the selection of materials compatible with cleaning and sterilization
procedures. Recommendations are awaiting results that are expected in 1999.
Materials compatibility studies could lead to the co-location of components with
similar cleaning and sterilization constraints (i.e. electronics, optics, chemical

The protection of Lake Vostok presents challenges new to NASA, since the probe
does not transverse sterile space, but rather a water column containing viable
surface organisms and ice containing a very low level of viable spore forming
microbes. The mission sequence will be determined by unique forward biological
contamination constraints.

The current mission approach calls for a sterile biobarrier capable of permitting
pressure equalization, to deliver the probe to the base of a warm water drilled
bore hole. Prior to further descent of the probe by ice melting, an antimicrobial
oxidizing agent would be employed to kill organisms present at the base of the
bore hole.

At present, experiments are underway to assess the application of 30%
                                    2 2
concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H O ) to sterilize both the water at the base of
the borehole as well as the ice surfaces around the probe. Freezing point
                                         2 2
suppression caused by the release of H O , results in the melting of ice at the
                                                        2 2
bore hole base and formation of a sterile slush as the H O self dilutes to a
concentration permitting the solution to freeze.

Using this approach it may be possible to execute a surface sterilization event at
the base of the bore hole in the ice, hundreds of meters above the lake. A straight
forward experimental design to test the efficacy of ice formation in situ with
             2 2
respect to H O 2 concentration, temperature and time, is planned to evaluate this

         The ability to enter the Lake without contamination that could impact either the
         environment or the scientific goals of the mission, will require stringent cleaning,
         sterilization and verification methods.

         The proposed mission sequence for the Vostok melter probe calls for a
         sterilization event to occur at the base of the bore hole that will enable the already
         sterile probe to leave its biobarrier, pass through sterilized ice, and proceed to the
         lake‘s surface entraining only those living microorganisms that naturally rain into
         the lake as the glacial ice melts.

         The only organisms recovered by culture to date from deep drill cores at Vostok
         station are spore-forming bacteria and actinomycetes although others may be
         present and as yet not detected.
Back to Contents

(5) Group Reports
Each of the five working groups was tasked with developing scientific goals for a program,
justifying the program, developing a strategy and time-line to accomplish the goals, and justifying
why Lake Vostok is the preferred study site.

Group Members: Mahlon C. Kennicutt II (archivist), Todd Sowers, Berry Lyons, Jean Robert Petit

         Due to the remote location and the complexity and cost of the logistics to mount a
         study of subglacial lakes, it is imperative that the scientific return from such a
         study be justified in light of the resources needed to accomplish the program. In
         particular, it is important to elucidate what it is that makes subglacial lakes a high
         priority for study, and in particular why Lake Vostok is the preferred site amongst
         all other possible sites.

         On the first issue, the ―extreme‖ environment under which the lakes exist
         suggests that fundamental questions related to an array of scientific issues could
         be addressed by an interdisciplinary study of subglacial lakes. Life at the
         extremes is justified in the context of the ongoing LExEn program. From a
         geochemical standpoint, the subglacial lake systems represent an unique and
         unparalleled combination of physical and chemical environments.

         The lakes are unique in the low temperatures and high pressures encountered,
         the total darkness, the origins of the water in the system (suspected to be fresh),
         the overlying thickness of ice, and their isolation from the atmosphere for long
         periods of time. It is hypothesized that this combination of attributes will lead to an
         unique geochemical system that is duplicated under few, if any other,
circumstances world-wide.

While individual attributes can be found in various locations (dark, cold, and high
pressure in the deep sea) the combination of traits described above is only found
in subglacial lakes.

Amongst subglacial lakes, the most obvious characteristic of Lake Vostok that
differentiates it from the 60 to 80 other known lakes, is its size. Lake Vostok is
believed to be the largest subglacial lake on the Antarctic continent. The size of
the lake imparts attributes that make it well-suited for an initial study of subglacial

The size of the lake suggests that Lake Vostok is the most likely site for a fully
developed subglacial lake system that might be precluded in other smaller lakes.
The varying water depths, the varying and substantial sediment accumulations,
the varying thickness of the overlying ice sheet, and the sheer size of the lake
suggests that the likelihood of physical and chemical gradients within the lake is

The physical setting suggests that circulation, stratification, and
compartmentalization within the lake is likely. This setting is believed to be the
most favorable for supporting a fully developed subglacial lake system and
provides the greatest likelihood that biological systems have inoculated and
developed within the lake.

     1) The first and foremost goal of any geochemical investigations
     would be to characterize the structure of the lake‘s water column.
     Due to the low temperatures and high pressures it is believed
     that hydrates of various gases will play an important role in
     determining the distribution of the lake‘s geochemical properties.
     Stratification of the lake in very unusual ways may occur due to
     density differences between various gas hydrates, some heavier
     than water and some lighter, and the suspected cycles of thawing
     and freezing that appear to characterize different regions of the
     lake. In a more standard sense, initial studies of the lake would
     establish the limnological characteristics of the lake both
     vertically and horizontally including, for example, the distributions
     of salinity, temperature, major ions, and nutrients.

        2) As a follow on to the discussion of hydrates, the gaseous
        constituents of the lake would also be a high priority for
        investigation. The physical occurrence of gaseous constituents
        and the partitioning between free, dissolved and hydrate phases
        will be important to establish. The origins of these gases should
        also be explored through the use of stable isotopic analysis of
        various key elements. It would also be important early in the
        study of the lakes to determine the distribution of those
        geochemical properties most directly affected by the presence of
        biota, in particular microbiota. These properties include, but are
        not limited to: redox potential, pH, sulfate reduction,
        methanogenesis, metal and nutrient concentrations.

        3) Due to the emphasis on the theme of life in extreme
        environments, the carbon cycle would be an area of special
        emphasis for geochemical investigations. The system is
        expected to be unique in that cold water carbonates and hydrates
        of hydrocarbon gases may be important reservoirs of carbon.
        The carbonic acid system may also be unusual at the ambient
        high pressures and low temperatures. The origins and cycling of
        organic carbon in the lakes will also be of special interest. The
        distribution between dissolved and particulate organic carbon
        and the portions of the pools that are biologically available will be
        important considerations. The reservoir of carbon in sediments
        may also be important for sustaining any extant biological

        4) Finally, the interaction between the geochemical properties of
        the lake and the circulation within the lake will be important to
        characterize. Redistribution of chemicals in the lake and the
        development and location of physical and chemical gradients
        may be important in developing and sustaining biological

Geochemical investigations of subglacial lakes are critical to interdisciplinary
studies to determine the origins and functioning of subglacial lake systems.
Geochemical properties are widely recognized as evidence of the presence of life
in systems. It can be argued that some of the more easily measured attributes of
a system that provides evidence of biological processes are geochemical
distributions and patterns.

Biological processes are known to produce and consume various compounds in
the process of living and surviving in aquatic systems. The water and the
sediments of the lake are also a repository of chemicals derived from various
interactions over the lifetime of the lake. As such, geochemical distributions and
patterns are keys to understanding the origins of various lake constituents.

As previously mentioned, subglacial lakes also represent geochemistry at the
extremes of temperature, pressure, light, and isolation suggesting that the study
of these lakes will provide insight into geochemical systems in general. Areas of
particular interest where geochemical investigations will be key in providing
information are the age of the lake and the origin of the water.

The sedimentary record is an important repository of evidence of the history and
evolution of the lake. Organic and inorganic geochemical markers of the lake‘s
history may be deposited and preserved in the sedimentary record. Geochemical
investigations are fundamental to addressing a wide range of interdisciplinary
questions related to the evolution and history of subglacial lakes as well as
documenting the functioning of these unique systems.

Most of the investigations that are important for the geochemistry component of
an interdisciplinary study of subglacial lakes rely on standard and proven
technologies. However, if it is proposed that the first entry into the lake will be in a
non-sample retrieval mode, appropriate sensors for measuring geochemical
attributes of the water column need to be developed.
         As mentioned above, inferences related to the presence of life can be obtained
         by measuring specific geochemical characteristics of the lake. Initial
         establishment of the water column structure and heterogeneity will require real-
         time in situ detection of geochemical properties.

         Once the investigations have proceeded to sample retrieval, the methods to be
         used are readily available and proven. In order to optimize the information return
         from geochemical investigations, water column profiles at multiple locations will
         be necessary. Time series measurements will also be important to determine if
         the lake is static or dynamic on short timeframes (< 1 yr).

         A range of technologies including continuous measuring sensors left in place,
         profiling sensors, and discrete samples will be required to address the goals of
         the geochemical investigations.

         Geochemical investigations will be key to an interdisciplinary study of subglacial
         lakes. A range of characterization activities would be an initial goal including
         water column structure, the distribution and occurrence of gaseous components,
         the reservoirs and cycling of carbon, and the biogeochemical processes
         operating in the lake.

         The vertical and horizontal distribution of essential chemicals in the lake will
         reflect interactions with lake circulation and the alteration of these patterns by
         organisms. Geochemical measurements will be key in determining the age, the
         origins of various constituents, the history, and the evolution of the lake.

         Most technologies are currently available but development of remote sensors of
         geochemical properties will be needed. It is estimated that one to three years will
         be needed to develop these new technologies.

Group Members: Cynan Ellis-Evans (archivist), José de la Torre, Dave Emerson, Paul Olsen, Roger Kern, Diane McKnight

         The compelling science justification for undertaking research at Lake Vostok is:
                1)the unique nature of the environment - permanently cold, dark,
                high pressure freshwater environment

                   2)this lake may lie within a rift valley of as yet undetermined age
                   or activity - this offers the potential for geothermal processes
                   comparable to the hydrothermal vents of the ocean abyss

                   3)the spatial scale of the environment - the lake is amongst the
                   top 10 largest lakes worldwide and offers an opportunity to
                   research large scale processes

                   4)the temporal scale of the environment - the possibility exists
                   that the lake overlies sediments of an earlier rift valley lake,
                   providing a vertical chronology

                   5)information on possible inoculum is available - it is likely to be
        representative of other sub-glacial lakes but the Vostok ice core
        has a detailed record for the overlying ice sheet of biota present
        within that ice sheet

        6)the first opportunity to sample a microbial community isolated
        from the atmosphere for
        perhaps a million years or more - possibly uncovering novel
        micro-organisms or
        processes, notably the microbiology of gas clathrates (hydrates)
        in a water column

        7)possible data on evolution of global biota - data gathered could
        potentially contribute to the current debate regarding the
        evolution of global biota.

Extreme environments have proved a rich source of novel physiological
processes and biodiversity. The estimated age of this lake and its isolation from
the atmosphere for possibly a million years, may allow the identification and study
of novel micro-organisms or processes, notably the microbiology of gas clathrates
(hydrates) in a water column. The goal of the biodiversity studies should be to
establish the structure and functional diversity of Lake Vostok biota.

Microorganisms are a substantial component of all environments and their
significant role in key food web processes is recognized increasingly. The main
lineages of life are dominated by microbial forms, and comparative analyses of
molecular sequences indicate that all life belongs to one of three domains,
Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.

Microbes are ubiquitous in extreme environments. Recent deep ocean
hydrothermal vent studies suggest that such environments may have been sites
for the origin of life. Novel environments, such as sub-glacial lakes, may likewise
contain unique biota.

At least four biodiversity scenarios exist for the lake:
         1)The lake is geologically inactive and only contains till, glacially
         derived sediments with low organic carbon. No geothermal hot
         spots exist, and the low organic carbon till, substantially dilutes
         any input of ice sheet biota. Gas clathrates present in the lake
         are a potential target for microbial activity.
         2)The lake is geologically inactive with old lake sediments buried
         under recent till. The clathrates are still a target, but retrieval of
         old lake sediments is a further goal.
         3)The lake is geologically active without old lake sediments. The
         sites of geothermal activity would be a major focus requiring
         several coring sites.
         4)The lake is geologically active and old lake sediments are
         present. This would be the best case scenario, offering a range
         of research topics, requiring long cores and possibly multiple
         sampling sites.
In the absence of detailed data on the lake characteristics this group suggests
that the initial starting point for sampling the lake should be in the melting zone of
the lake and not the accretion zone. The melt zone will be where the clathrates
and ice sheet microflora enter the lake.

Both the ice/water interface region and the sediments offer the best opportunity
for initially looking for microbes, but it was recognized that clathrates may be
distributed through the water column. The accretion zone will not be a source for
microbial or clathrate input to the lake.

In light of these four scenarios, the strategy for studying biodiversity in Lake
Vostok would involve (a) preliminary activities prior to any field sampling (zero-
order activities) to establish the nature of the environment, possible microfloral
inputs and relevant technologies and (b) field sampling of Lake Vostok and post-
sampling analysis:
          (a) ZERO-ORDER ACTIVITIES -(no field campaign needed)
                   1 - Physical characterization of the lake (non-
                   2 - Technological developments for in situ micro-
                   and macro- scale probes, sample retrieval, non-
                   contamination of lake and data relay from within
                   lake. Remote operated vehicle (ROV) to
                   increase the area of lake studied
                   3 - Development of biogeochemical and
                   ecosystem models
                   4 - Characterization of the ice sheet microflora
                   using existing cores if possible and both
                   molecular and cultural methodologies
        (B) MAIN SAMPLING ACTIVITIES -(Field campaign needed)
               1 - Obtain vertical profiles of physical and
               chemical parameters from the ice/water interface
               through to sediments. Microscale profiles within
               surface sediments
               2 - Leave monitoring observatories in place with
               both physical/chemical monitoring and a bio-
               sensing capability, for detecting life in dilute
               environments needing long incubation times
               3 - Sample retrieval (for chemical and biological
               purposes) from the ice/water interface, from the
               water body (may need to filter large volumes to
               concentrate biota) and from sediments - A suite
               of molecular, microscopical and activity
               measurements (see earlier overview by Jim
               Tiedje) will be required to analyze potential biota.
               Anti-contamination protocols will feature
               significantly here (see earlier overview by
               4 - May need to consider repeat sampling or
               further sites, notably if there are geothermal hot
               spots. Also need to take into account possible
               heterogeneity, particularly in sediments. An ROV
               may offer an ability to sample heterogeneity
               more cheaply than numerous drill holes.
              Zero order activities - 2-3 years in advance of lake penetration, but
                 continuing afterwards, notably with modeling studies
              Year 1 - Vertical profiling and establishment of long term in situ
              Years 2 and 3 - Sample retrieval activities at one or more sites
              Year 4 - Sample analysis ongoing and further planning
              Year 5 and 6 - New research initiatives building on data collected to date -
                 could include tackling issues of heterogeneity or perhaps novel
                 biogeochemical processes
         *Note 1: The merits of sampling another lake in the vicinity of Lake Vostok need
         to be considered.
         *Note 2: The Year 1 work might be best undertaken with the NASA strategy of
         using both a hot water drill* and a modified Philberth probe** to penetrate the
         lake, deployment of hydrobots beneath the ice and at the sediments and
         establishment of observatories in the lake. Subsequent years could potentially
         use alternative drilling technologies to facilitate sample retrieval, once
         contamination issues have been addressed.

         *A hot water drill pushes hot water down a hole to melt the ice.
         **A Philberth probe is an instrumented cylindrical shaped device that has an electrical heater at its
         tip. The melting of ice ahead of the probe allows it to drop down through the ice under its own weight
         paying out cable to the surface as it goes. A device such as this is being proposed as a means of
         getting through the last 100 m or so of overlying ice sheet. (For more information on this please refer
         to Appendix (1) “Why Lake Vostok?” write up by Stephen Platt pg. 45.)

Group Members: Peter T. Doran (archivist), Mary Voytek, David Karl, Luanne Becker, Jim Tiedje, Kate Moran

         The existing ice core from Lake Vostok can provide us with unique background
         information on the Lake which is not available to us from any other subglacial
         lakes in Antarctica. The size and estimated age of the lake offers the best
         potential for a long continuous sedimentary record.

         The sediments of Antarctic subglacial lakes have the potential to be significant for
         the following reasons:
                  1. Extant microbial communities. Microbial communities often
                  favor interfaces as habitats, so that the ice/water and
                  sediment/water interfaces will be prime targets in the search for
                  life. Along with sediment deposition at the bottom of the lake,
                  chemical energy required by the microbes may be focused on the
                  bottom, i.e., if geothermal energy flux is significant in this habitat.

                   Therefore, the search for extant life in Lake Vostok should not
                   end at the sediment/water interface, but should extend into the
                   sediment column. Measurements of chemical profiles (including
                   dissolved, particulate and gas phases) in the sediment can also
                   be used for life detection (past and present) and for mapping of
                   metabolic processes.

                   2. Storehouse of paleoenvironmental information. The sediment
                   column in Lake Vostok has been estimated to be ~300 m. This
                   thickness of sediment could contain an unparalleled record of
        Antarctic paleoenvironmental information, extending beyond the
        limit of ice core records. The record contained in the sediments
        may reveal information on past geochemical processes, microbial
        communities, and paleoclimate. Interpretation of this record will
        require a thorough understanding of the modern lake depositional

        The gas geochemistry in Lake Vostok has the potential to be
        unique, with hydrated gas layers accumulating in the water
        column based on density stratification. In particular, CO
        hydrates are expected to sink upon entering the water column
        and collect in the bottom sediments, potentially creating a
        continuous record of atmospheric CO in the lake sediments.

        3. Direct measurement of geothermal heat flow. Any sediment
        borehole created can be used to determine geothermal heat flux
        through direct temperature measurements. This information will
        contribute to models of the lake‘s origin, possible circulation and

        4. Extraterrestrial material capture. The lake sediments
        undoubtedly contain a large number of meteorites,
        micrometeorites and cosmic dust (e.g. interplanetary dust
        particles and cometary debris) given that all ―coarse‖ material
        that moves into the lake and melts out of the ice will be focused
        in the sediments. In this way the sediments offer an extraordinary
        opportunity to measure extraterrestrial flux over possibly several
        million years.

        The flux of extraterrestrial material can be monitored by
        measuring helium-3 in very small grains (<50 µm) in bulk
        sediments. In fact, it has been suggested that periodic changes
        in the accretion rate of extraterrestrial material is due to a
        previously unrecognized 100,000 yr periodicity in the Earth‘s
        orbital inclination which may account for the prominence of this
        frequency in the climate record over the past million years.
        Measurements of the extraterrestrial flux of material to the Vostok
        sedimentary record coupled with the possible presence of CO
        clathrates may provide a record of climate change that could only
        be preserved in this unique setting.

The sedimentary analysis of Lake Vostok is of particular interest among Antarctic
subglacial lakes by virtue of its size, thickness of sediments, and because of the
background information already available. The ice core record collected at Vostok
Station will be valuable in conjunction with the historical sediment record for
reconstruction of the paleoenvironment of the lake.

This is particularly true for the accretion zone at the base of the ice core.
Furthermore, Lake Vostok‘s size makes it the best candidate for the existence of
a stable microbial community and a long, continuous sediment record.

         Information that can be gained by in situ measurements at the sediment/water
         interface will be limited. Therefore, its strongly encouraged that a strategy based
         on sample return be pursued. Initial survey measurements can be accomplished
         remotely and by in situ instruments, but in order to fully implement the science
         plan, return of samples to the surface will be essential.

         The largest technological obstacle to the collection and return of 300 m of
         sediment core will be creating and maintaining an access hole through the deep
         ice. The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has already developed many of the
         techniques necessary for collecting and sampling cores of this length, and from
         this depth (in the ocean).

         Some technology development would be required to utilize lake water as drilling
         fluid to minimize lake contamination. A suite of ODP standard procedures
         currently used could be applied to Lake Vostok sediments including: acquisition
         300+ m of sediment core in pressurized ten (10) meter sections for sampling;
         sampling of gas hydrate formations; pore water sampling; down-hole logging;
         establishment of long-term benthic monitoring observatories; casing of the bore-
         hole for later re-entry if desired; and established sampling and repository

         It is recommended that methodology for investigating the lake sediments proceed
         as follows:
                   1. remote site survey (e.g. thickness of sediments, stratigraphy,
                   2. in situ sediment/water interface survey (use of resistivity
                   probes, video, sonar, particulate sampling)
                   3. surface sample ―video grab‖ and return to the surface
                   4. establishment of long-term in situ sediment-water interface
                   5. collection of long cores
                   6. down-hole logging (e.g. geothermal heat flux, fluid flow)
                   7. cap hole for future re-entry if desired

         Disturbance of the lake and contamination of the lake and samples can be kept to
         a minimum through a number of initiatives:
                 1. sterilization of all equipment entering the lake to greatest
                 degree possible;
                 2. collection of the cores in sealed canisters so that there is no
                 loss of sediment on removal or contact of the sample with upper
                 strata as it is being raise through the water column; and 3. use of
                 benthic lake water as drilling fluid to reduce introduction of
                 foreign fluids.

Group Members: Christina L Hulbe (archivist) and David Holland

         Lake Vostok is an unique physical environment which offers the opportunity for
         new development of information, and a better understanding of subglacial lakes.
         The study of closed lake circulation is new and therefore allows us to test and
         refine existing models, and develop new models and theories. Furthermore,
         available information suggests that Lake Vostok may be an analogue for ice-
covered planetary bodies.

Numerical modeling of ice sheet and lake behavior should begin early in a Lake
Vostok initiative and form a close collaboration with other research communities
before and after the direct exploration of the lake. Models will provide the best a
priori characterization of the lake environment, offer advice for drilling site
selection, and constrain the interpretation of observations made within the lake.

Existing ice sheet/ice shelf models need little modification to meet the
requirements for such studies. However, the exploration of Lake Vostok poses a
new challenge for modelers of lake circulation. The lake has no free boundaries,
a unique physical environment on Earth that may be an analogue for ice-covered
oceans on other planetary bodies.

The primary goal of an ice sheet flow/lake circulation modeling effort is
characterization of the lake environment. Simulations of the modern ice sheet can
provide three-dimensional views of temperature in the ice and lake sediments,
and of ice velocity. Those results can then be used to predict the thermal
environment of the lake and the pathways and delivery rates of sediments
through the ice sheet into the lake.

Because basal melting is widespread under the thick East Antarctic Ice Sheet,
the lake probably receives water and bedrock-derived sediments from the
surrounding area. The flow of water and sediments at the ice/bed interface, both
to and from the lake, should also be modeled. Another important use of the
results of ice sheet simulations will be in the prescription of boundary conditions
for lake circulation models.

Lake circulation will be influenced by gradients in ice temperature and overburden
pressure (due to gradients in ice thickness), and by meltwater flow into and out of
the lake along the ice/bed interface. The pattern of ice melting and freezing
predicted by a lake circulation model will in turn be used to refine modeled ice
flow over the lake.

Lake circulation models will resolve the patterns of water temperature, salinity,
and clathrate (gas hydrate) distribution. Together, the simulations will define the
habitats in which lake biota exist and can also be used to evaluate the constancy
of those habitats over time.

Because the present state of the lake depends in part on past events, it will be
important to conduct full climate-cycle ice sheet simulations. A coupled grounded
ice/floating ice model that incorporates basal water and sediment balance can
estimate past changes in lake water and sediment volume, including the
possibility of periodic sediment fill-and-flush cycles.

The proximity of the Vostok ice core climate record makes Lake Vostok an ideal
setting for such experiments. Investigating the full range of time since the lake
first closed to the atmosphere is more challenging and may best be accomplished
by a series of sensitivity studies, in which lake volume and melt water flow are
predicted for extreme changes in ice sheet geometry, sea level, and geothermal
heat flux.
Sensitivity experiments can also be used to speculate about the likelihood of
modern hotspot activity, given what is known about lake extent and volume.
Perspectives on past lake environments may be used to determine the best sites
for lake sediment coring and will aid in understanding present-day lake habitats
and biota.

Numerical modeling of Lake Vostok will be interactive with the other areas of
research undertaken at Lake Vostok, and will provide valuable support
information for these research objectives. The modeling will provide valuable
information on lake circulation characterization/ ice sheet flow, the role of past
events such as changes in lake water and sediment volume, and the possibility of
periodic sediment fill-and -flush cycles.

The first stage in meeting the modeling objectives for the exploration of Lake
Vostok should be model development. Models of whole ice-sheet systems must
be constructed to properly characterize ice flowing into the Vostok region. Nested
models should be used to provide the high resolution needed for detailed studies
of flow in the region. Existing models of grounded ice sheet and floating ice shelf
flow are sufficient for those tasks, provided grounding-line flow transitions can be

Basal water and sediment balance models should be coupled to the ice flow
model. Full climate-cycle simulations should incorporate bedrock isostasy
accurately but in a computationally practical manner. New lake circulation models
must be developed to meet the challenge of Lake Vostok‘s unique physical
setting, in which there is no free boundary and clathrates (hydrates) are likely to
be present in the water column.

New equations of state, that account for the lake‘s low-temperature, high-
pressure, low-salinity setting, must be developed. The optimal model will be
three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, resolving both vertical motions and
convection, and must be of fine enough resolution to capture details of what is
likely to be a complicated circulation pattern.

Biological and chemical models that use the products of ice sheet and lake
circulation models to simulate the lake‘s biogeochemical cycles should also be
developed, although the final nature of such models cannot be determined until
lake waters are sampled (for example, does the lake have a carbon cycle?).

The second stage of a Lake Vostok modeling effort should be the integration of
new data sets into the models. Regional topography, especially lake bathymetry,
will be essential for the fine resolution needed to fully characterize the lake

Radar profiling of ice internal layers would promote studies of grounding line
dynamics. Simulations of the present-day system can make use of existing ice
sheet Digital Elevation Models and measurements of surface climate. The Vostok
ice core climate record is ideal for driving longer-time simulations of ice sheet and
lake behavior. Improved knowledge of regional geology will be important, both
rock type—for model studies of lake sedimentation—and geothermal heat flux—
         for ice thermodynamics.

         Such regional data sets should be developed before the drilling program begins,
         to give modelers ample time to describe the lake environment, discuss
         preliminary results with other project scientists, refine the models, and finally aid
         in drill site selection. Lake circulation models, in particular the development of an
         appropriate equation of state, will benefit from the products of drilling and lake
         water sampling. Interaction between modelers, biologists, limnologists, and the
         borehole site selection group will be vital as models are developed and tested.

         In a final stage, the fully-developed and tested models can be used to link
         together observations made at discrete locations and to develop a robust history
         of lake evolution. The unique physical setting of the lake and its remoteness for
         observation demand an interdisciplinary approach to this stage of the modeling
         effort, including theoretical, numerical, and observational components.

         Any time schedule proposed for a Lake Vostok initiative must accommodate time
         in the predrilling phase for model development, analysis, and interaction with
         other project scientists. That development can proceed in tandem with
         preliminary geophysical surveys of the Vostok region.

         Model simulations should be analyzed, in conjunction with geophysical surveys,
         prior to drilling site selection in order to identify areas of special interest (for
         example, likely sites of thick sediment deposits). Once sampling has begun, lake
         circulation models can be tested and improved and biogeochemical models can
         be developed. Finally, modelers can work with biologists, geochemists, and
         limnologists to develop a comprehensive understanding of the lake‘s unique
         physical and ecological systems.

Group members: Brent Turrin (archivist), Ron Kwok, Martin Siegert, Robin Bell

         Lake Vostok provides a rare opportunity for an interdisciplinary study of an
         extremely cold, dark, high pressure aqueous environment. The chance to study
         the synergy between geologic/ geochemical processes and biologic/biochemical
         processes that define this distinct aqueous system may lead to new fundamental

         The primary goal of a site characterization study at Lake Vostok is to acquire the
         critical regional information both across Lake Vostok and the surrounding area to
         constrain the flux of material across and into the Lake, and to provide insights into
         the geologic framework for the Lake. These improved datasets will provide critical
         insights into selecting sites for installing observatories and acquiring samples.

         Site selection would best be facilitated by generation of a high-resolution 3-D
         geophysical image of the ice-sheet, water body, the lake sediment package, and
         bedrock. This 3-D image would address ice-sheet thickness and structure as well
         as dynamics; water-depth and aerial extent; lake sediment thickness and
         distribution; and bedrock topography, structure, and lake bathymetry.
         These data sets will also provide input for ice sheet and water circulation models.

         Lake Vostok is the largest subglacial lake yet discovered. Because of its size,
         Lake Vostok will have a greater influence on ice dynamics than a smaller
         subglacial lake. Therefore, it provides a superior natural laboratory for studying
         the phenomena of ice dynamics such as grounding/ungrounding and the
         associated stress/strain regime and mass balance considerations, in both the
         transition and upstream-downstream environs.

         In addition to providing an occasion to study ice dynamics, the drilling of Lake
         Vostok will also provide an opportunity to sample a distinct extreme (cold, dark,
         high pressure) aqueous environment. Biologic and biochemical sampling of Lake
         Vostok could lead to the discovery of new organisms and enzymes with
         potentially invaluable societal relevance.

         Geologic, geochemical and geophysical studies will lead to a better
         understanding of (1) the geology of Antarctica and (2) how geologic/geochemical
         processes interact with biologic and biochemical processes that define this
         distinct aqueous system

         The site survey strategy is broken down into two components: airborne studies;
         and ground-based studies. The airborne studies consist of collecting aerogravity
         data, aeromagnetic data and coherent radar data. These data sets would be
         enhanced by ground-based seismic studies, and by the installation of a passive
         seismic and Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) network around Lake Vostok.

         The seismic studies should be further broken down into two phases. First, a
         preliminary pilot study, where data collection is concentrated mostly in the Lake
         Vostok area proper, and second, a high-resolution seismic study in which the
         seismic lines are tied into the existing regional seismic data.

         The group feels that the necessary data can be collected and evaluated in two
         years/field seasons. In year one four separate teams would be needed. Team
         one, would be responsible for the airborne geophysical studies; gravity,
         magnetics, and radar. Team two, would conduct the pilot seismic study. The third
         team would install the passive seismic and GPS nets. The fourth team will
         conduct radar 3-D imaging studies on and around Lake Vostok.

         Year two, would be devoted mostly to a collaborative international project
         collecting high-resolution seismic data, tied to existing regional data.

Group members: Frank Carsey (archivist), Steve Platt, David White, Mark Lupisella, Frank Rack, Eddy Carmack

         Why should we study Lake Vostok? The lake is unique and interesting because
         of its immense size, isolation, high pressure, low temperature, estimated age,
water thermodynamics, contamination concerns, habitat, biota, sediments,
geological setting and possible planetary analogue.

The broad goal of Lake Vostok exploration is to access the lake water and
sediments in a noncontaminating fashion, obtain certain physical, chemical and
biological measurements, as well as retrieve water and sediment samples for
study in the laboratory. Numerous aspects of this program have never been done
and have no documented approaches.

The areas which require technologic development are detailed below.
       1. Site Selection. The lake is large. Presently the satellite
       altimeter and limited airborne radar data point to the presence of
       numerous, varied interesting sites but rigorous site selection
       requires improved regional data. Well-planned airborne
       geophysics and seismic programs are necessary to complete the
       specification of the lake, its ice cover, and its sediments. In this
       regard, ice penetrating radar is a key means of observing the ice,
       providing estimates of ice ablation and accretion over and near
       the lake. The technology of sounding radar has developed rapidly
       in recent years. To generate accurate data on ablation and
       accretion as it varies in the lake environs, optimized radar
       configurations should be employed in the site survey.

        2. Entry Means. The emerging scientific goal requires robotic,
        observatory installation and sample-return programs. These
        approaches necessitate different means of obtaining access to
        the lake water, ice surface, lakefloor, and sediment. None of
        these approaches has ever been demonstrated through 3700 m
        of ice or within a lake of this pressure-depth.

        3. Contamination Prevention. Access to the lake, activities within
        the lake, withdrawal from the lake, any equipment abandoned in
        the lake, and possible unplanned experimental difficulties in the
        course of studying the lake must be proven to be safe with
        respect to contamination by living microbes.

        4. Sampling Requirements. Preliminary scientific goals point to
        physical, chemical, and biological observations of the ice above
        the lake, the lake water, the lakefloor, and the sediments, at
        several sites. To understand the three dimensional system within
        the Lake several in situ robotic, observatory installations and
        sample-return efforts will be necessary. On the whole, these
        campaigns require accessing the lake in at least two different
        ways, one way for robotic vehicles and observatory installations
        and another for coring operations.
Contamination issues are significant for both approaches. In addition, some
means of sampling within the lake is required, e.g. something simple such as a
vertical profile to the lake floor from the entry point, or something more complex
such as an autonomous submersible vehicle.

The sediments must be sampled; it is probable that in situ sampling of the pore
water and structure of the upper sediment layers will precede sample return of
sediment cores.

The lake floor itself should be observed, both the sediment and basement rock
areas, for paleoenvironmental and sedimentation studies. Finally, the water, ice,
and sediment must be observed and analyzed in situ for composition, microbial
populations, stratification, particulate burden and nature, circulation, and related

In situ Observations and Robotics. In the past few years the capability for robotic
activity and in situ measurements with micro-instrumentation has grown
immensely; in coastal oceanography it has significantly changed spatial data
gathering, and the Ocean Drilling Program is now interested in this kind of data
acquisition at depth.

Also, NASA has undertaken a significant program of in situ development for solar
system exploration. The goals of Lake Vostok exploration have much in common
with those of oceanographic and planetary work, and this overlap of interests
provides an avenue for economy and creative collaboration which the Lake
Vostok exploration can utilize.

Technology development is a resource investment, and an appropriate question
in a discussion of it concerns its inherent value, i.e., the importance of its
immediate use and its applicability to other uses.
To address the first issue, the question ―Why Lake Vostok?‖ is posed.

Lake Vostok is scientifically unique and interesting because it is large and deep,
essentially isolated, at high pressure and low temperature, old, fresh (as nearly
as can be determined), the site of interesting water thermodynamics and
dynamics, underlain by deep sediments of biological and geological promise, in
an interesting geological setting, characterized by several unusual sorts of
habitats, strongly influenced by the overlying ice sheet, and analogous to
interesting planetary sites.

Taken together, the pressure and temperature regimes and the ice sheet
processes give rise to another interesting aspect; they indicate that the gases
present will be in clathrate (gas hydrate) form, and this provides a key biological
question regarding the ability of microbes to utilize gas clathrates.

The second category addresses whether the technologies of Lake Vostok
exploration are of use in other pursuits. Clearly they are. The tools and
techniques needed for Lake Vostok site survey and in situ campaigns are
applicable to ice sheet and permafrost studies, in situ water and sediment
composition analysis, device miniaturization, sterilization and sterile methods
development, biological assessments, seafloor characterization, radar surveys in
other sites and even other planets, and similar problems.

The pathway of activity to lead from this workshop to the actual initiation of Lake
Vostok campaigns is complex, with some elements that can, in principle, be
conducted in parallel.
Technology development precedes field deployments; thus, with the exception of
procedural and legal issues related to contamination control, the technology will
come first and determine the earliest date that performance data or testing results
can be available. Clearly, the technology time frame is of crucial importance; what
controls it?

The following approximate high-level sequence of activities is suggested.
         1. Interagency International Interest Group. The science and
         technology of Lake Vostok, and similar sites, is relevant to
         several agencies and a number of national Antarctic programs,
         and possibly industrial supporting partners. A group representing
         interested agencies should be formed to outline possible lines of

        2. Science Working Team. Before any implementation can begin,
        a working team of scientists, engineers, and logistics experts
        must be appointed to establish science requirements for the first
        campaign, and a general sequence for future campaigns.

        3. Site Survey and Selection Team. A working group on site
        selection issues and information needs, should meet immediately
        to set forth what data should be sought.

        4. Observation and Sampling Strategy. A strategy of
        measurement and sampling needs can be constructed as project
        scenarios, flexible enough to adapt to varying success rates for
        the development activities.

        5. Technology Plan. A plan is needed for technology
        development and testing, including subsystem level functional
        units as well as integrated systems and including contamination
        prevention procedures and validation at each step. This will
        include documentation of requirements, priorities, constraints,
        information system roles, and phasing of deployment and
        integration. The plan should be viewed as a roadmap and a living
        document, and its architecture is not specified here as there may
        be effective web-based methods for its implementation.

        6. Technology Implementation. Development of implementation
        teams to obtain funding and perform the functional unit
        development. Selection and recruitment of these specialists
        groups are key tasks. Actual development of technologies will
        follow, and coordination of developments is needed.

        7. Testing. The subsystems, the integrated systems, and the
        contamination prevention techniques all require realistic testing.
        These testing regiments are demanding and can be expensive,
        but they are not as expensive as failure during a campaign. The
        testing of a given subsystem, e.g. an instrument to obtain
        chemical data from the lake water, may well call for deployment
        in an analogous environment, e.g. an ice-covered lake, and this
        deployment could be costly unless it is collaborative with other
        investigations of ice-covered lakes. To optimize the testing
        process, planning, coordination and collaboration are essential.
                1. Summary of Actions. From above, the actions required for a
                Lake Vostok program include interagency communications,
                science and engineering team definition work, development of
                technology requirements and project scenarios, system
                definition, subsystem development (including integration and
                test), system level test, the first Lake Vostok entry, and the
                subsequent review of status to determine future directions.

                     2. Crucial Technologies. While much of the technical work
                     required for a successful Lake Vostok exploration is challenging,
                     most of the technologies are seen to be within reach, and many
                     of the tasks have several candidate approaches. An exception is
                     contamination control; this technology is challenging in both
                     development and validation, and it should be developed and
                     proved before any in situ examination of the lake can be
                     addressed. Apparently, this work has begun within NASA, and at
                     the earliest opportunity an estimate of the time required for its
                     completion should be requested.

                     3. Other Timetable Considerations. In assessing the technology
                     timeframe it is necessary to understand the overall schedule
                     constraints, e.g. contamination prevention, development of
                     consensus on scientific objectives and requirements, logistical
                     resources and commitments, site surveys, international
                     participation, etc. From an initial assessment, it appears that site
                     surveys may be addressable as early as in the 00-01 field year
                     (but maybe later), and this seems to be the schedule driver. From
                     the perspective of participating scientists, the field work could
                     begin in the field season of the year following the site survey,
                     assuming that site survey data can be made widely available.
   Back to Contents

(6) Appendices

Appendix 1 - Presentations on: “Why Lake Vostok?”

        Geochemical Overview of the Lake
        Berry Lyons
        Department of Geology, University of Alabama, Box 870338, Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0338, U.S.A.
        p (205) 348-0583, f (205) 348-0818,

        Lyons discussed how the major ion chemistry of the lake might have evolved based on
        the French research on the chemistry of the Vostok ice core. Because the hydrogen ion
        is a major caption in the ice during interglacial times, the lake‘s water could be acidic.
This might lead to enhanced leaching of particulate matter within or at the sediment-
water interface of the lake. In addition, he described the possible N:P ratios of the water
(again, based on the ice core results), and suggested that the lake could be very P

Technologies for Access Holes and Thermal Probes
Stephen R. Platt
Snow & Ice Research Group (SIRG), Polar Ice Coring Office, Snow & Ice Research Group,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2255 W Street, Suite 101, Lincoln, NE 68583-0850, U.S.A.,
p (402) 472-9833, f (402) 472-9832,

The Snow & Ice Research Group (SIRG) at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln has
conducted a comprehensive analysis of the technological challenges associated with
delivering a cryobot-hydrobot transporter vehicle to the surface of Lake Vostok, and has
developed a plan that we believe has the highest chance of success and lowest cost
consistent with logistical, technical, and time constraints.

The proposed course of action uses a hot water drill to produce a 50 cm diameter
access hole approximately 3700 m deep. An instrument carrying thermal probe (the
cryobot) will then be deployed from the bottom of this hole to penetrate the final few
hundred meters of ice and deliver a hydrobot exploration vehicle to the surface of the

A division of SIRG, the Polar Ice Coring Office, has a proven capability for drilling 2400
meter deep access holes in ice using a hot water drilling system at the South Pole. The
current drill design can be modified to achieve depths of 3500-3700 m. Hot water drilling
will not produce a permanent access hole because the hole will begin to refreeze as
soon as the water stops circulating.

Once the access hole freezes over, the lake would remain sealed from the outside
world, even as the probe entered it. However, because the drilling fluid for this
technique is water, the risk of contaminating the Lake is greatly reduced compared to
alternative drilling techniques. Furthermore, this is the fastest method for producing
large, deep access holes in the ice.

Once the drill equipment is assembled on-site, 3700 m deep holes can be drilled in less
than two weeks SIRG has also developed thermal probes for making in-situ
measurements of the properties of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. A thermal
probe is an instrumented cylindrical vehicle that melts its way vertically down through an
ice sheet.

At Lake Vostok, a thermal probe would be lowered to the bottom of the access hole
created by the hot water drill, where it would start its descent in to the lake. The probe
can be configured to house instruments which measure parameters indirectly through
windows in the outer wall of the vehicle, or directly by using melt-water passed through
the probe.

This approach is fundamentally different from other means of sampling the physical
parameters of ice sheets which usually rely on recovering ice cores. A cable housed
within the upper section of the probe unwinds as it moves down through the ice. This
cable is used for both data and electrical power transmission between the probe and the
support equipment on the surface of the ice sheet.

The probe can only make a one-way trip down through the ice because the melt-water
re-freezes behind the probe so it is not recoverable. SIRG is currently doing the
preliminary design work for modifying existing probes for use as instrument delivery
vehicles, and for integrating in-situ measurement techniques for physical, chemical, and
biological phenomena with the cryobot-hydrobot delivery platform.

Helium isotopic measurements of Lake Vostok
Brent D. Turrin
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Route 9WPalisades New York, 10964, U.S.A.
p (914) 365-8454, f (914) 365-8155,

Helium isotopic measurements will help provide information on the tectonic environment
of Lake Vostok. The input of He into Lake Vostok will come from three discrete sources,
atmospheric, crustal, and mantle. These sources of He have distinctly different isotopic
signatures. Atmospheric He, accounting for the decay of natural tritium to 3He, will have
a R/Ra between 1 to 1.5. Atmospheric He enters the lake via melting ice at the ice-
water interface.

If Lake Vostok is located on old stable continental crust, the measured He (helium) will
have a R/Ra of 0.01. Because crustal He is dominated by a large input of 4He from
radioactive decay of U and Th. On the other hand, if Lake Vostok is located in an active
rift environment, the flux of mantle He (R/Ra=6) into the lake would increase the
measured He R/Ra to values significantly greater than one.

The He sampling protocol must sample a profile thorough the water column. This is
necessary to determine the mixing structures between different He sources.
Molecular Characterization of Microbial Communities
José R. de la Torre & Norman R. Pace
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102 U.S.A.
p (510) 643-2572, f (510) 642-4995,

It has recently become accepted that microbial organisms thrive in habitats previously
deemed too extreme to support life. Lake Vostok represents a new and unexplored
habitat, subglacial lakes, which may contain untold biodiversity despite the challenges
presented by the physical environment: extreme pressure, darkness, cold and
presumably few available nutrients.

The use of molecular techniques in studying microbial populations presents several
advantages over traditional survey methods. Most importantly, these methods eliminate
the need for laboratory cultivation, since the vast majority (>99%) of microorganisms are
refractory to laboratory cultivation using standard techniques. This molecular approach
is based on the use of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences to identify population
constituents, and to deduce phylogenetic relationships.

This sequence information is obtained by either directly cloning environmental DNA, or
by cloning amplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated using
oligonucleotide primers complimentary to either universally conserved or phylogenetic
group specific sequences in the rDNA. Comparison of these cloned sequences with
those of known rRNA genes reveals quantifiable phylogenetic relationships,
independent of morphological and physiological variations, between constituents of the
studied community and previously characterized organisms.

These data allow the inference of physiological and metabolic properties based on the
properties of known relatives within particular phylogenetic groups. This sequence
information can also be used to design fluorescently-labeled oligonucleotide probes to
examine the morphology and physical distribution of the novel organisms in the
environmental setting.
Contributions of Ice Sheet Models to Understanding Lake Vostok
Christina L Hulbe
Code 971, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, U.S.A.,
p (301) 614-5911, f (301) 614-5644,

Dynamic/thermodynamic numerical models of ice sheet flow should play a role in
several aspects in the exploration of Lake Vostok. First, models can be used to
characterize the present-day physical environment of the lake. For example, by
providing a 3-dimensional view of ice temperature and age, estimating the influx of
debris carried by ice flow, and estimating the horizontal flux of ice sheet basal melt-
water into the lake.

When coupled with a numerical model of lake water circulation, an ice sheet model can
predict the spatial pattern and rate of melting and freezing above the lake. Second,
numerical models can investigate the climate-cycle history of the lake. Changes in ice
sheet mass balance over the time since the lake was isolated from the atmosphere are
likely to have affected Lake Vostok‘s area extent, its sediment content, and melt-water

To perform such computations, ice sheet models will need accurate, well-resolved basal
topography of the region around the lake and as much information about basal geology
and geothermal heat flux as possible. Other input data, such as present-day surface
elevation and the local climate record, are available. Indeed, the closeness of the
Vostok ice core climate record is ideal.

Numerical-model studies of both present and past lake environments would be useful in
both site-selection prior to direct contact with the lake and in interpretation of data
retrieved from lake exploration.

Implications of Ice Motion Over Lake Vostok
Ron Kwok
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr.
Pasadena, CA 91109, U.S.A.
p (818) 354-5614, f (818) 393-3077,
Ice motion estimates show that the subglacial lake exerts considerable control over the
regional ice dynamics. As the ice flows pass the grounding line, there seems to be a
pronounced southward component of motion with a profile which increases slowly at the
northern tip of the lake and then rather rapidly starting at approximately 100 km along
the length of the lake.

Critical to the understanding of past trajectories of the ice recently cored at Vostok
Station, and the interpretation of internal layers of the ice sheet from radio echo
sounding measurements, the characteristics of the ice motion of the ice sheet as it flows
over the lake are important. If flow is normal to the contours over the center of the lake,
ice from the lower parts of the Vostok ice core spent on the order of 100,000 yrs
traveling down the length of the lake.

In this case, dating core layering should be regular and accurate. If there was a
westward component, the age-depth relation in the previously grounded ice core would
be less regular than for transport down the lake. The ice motion field also raises
numerous interesting questions concerning thermal and mechanical processes in the
ice sheet.

It will help in the modeling of bottom melt and accretion; processes which might help
localize areas where ecosystems could most likely exist.
The Study & Evolution of an Ancient Ecosystem & Its Evolution
Todd Sowers
Penn State University, Geosciences Dept., 447 Deike Bldg., University Park, PA, 16802 U.S.A.,
p (814) 863-8093, Lab 863-2049 or 863-3819, f (814) 863-7823,

Why study the Lake?
One fascinating aspect of the lake involves the notion that we may be able to study an
ancient ecosystem that has evolved for millions of years. This ecosystem has been
effectively isolated from almost every aspect of the biosphere as we know it.

As such, the organisms which inhabit the lake have adapted to a very different
environment compared to most of the near-surface ecosystems studied to date. In my
mind, the most important reason to study the lake is to document the evolution of the
biota within the lake. The results will not only shed light on evolutionary biology here on
Earth, but it will also help in the search for life on other (cold) planets.

In terms of my specific contribution to the study of Lake Vostok, I‘d be very interested in
looking at the isotope systematics of the lake. Specifically, I‘d like to look into the stable
                          2   2
isotopic composition of O , N , and Ar clathrates which are liable to be floating near the
water/ice interface.

There are two interesting aspects of such a study which will need to be considered in
parallel; 1) the possibility of dating the lake and 2) providing some constraints on the
                                2       2
biogeochemical cycling of O and N within the lake.
         1) The 18º/16º of O in the lake may provide some information
         regarding the age of the lake.
                      18                   2                               18
         To use the d O of clathrate O , we must first assume that the d O of
                                 2                  18
         paleoatmospheric O has followed the d O of sea water as it
         apparently has (to a first approximation) over the last 400,000 years
         (Bender et al., 1994; Jouzel et al., 1996; Sowers et al., 1993).

         Then, using the d O of benthic forams covering the Tertiary (Miller et
         al., 1987) as a proxy for the d O of sea water (and paleoatmospheric
         O ), we may be able to ascertain the youngest age of the lake by
                         18                2
         analyzing the d O of clathrate O from the lake.

                  18        2
         If the d O of O is within 1‰ of the present day value, then we can
         safely say that the lake is probably less than 2.2 myr old. If, on the other
                     18       2
         hand, the d O of O is between 1 and 3‰ lower than today, then we
         can say that the clathrates (and lake) are probably between 2.2 and 50
         ma (myr before present). Values which are lower than 3‰ could be
         interpreted as signaling clathrates which are more than 50 myr old.
                                                                      2    2
         2) By studying the stable isotope systematics of O , N , and Ar, we may
         be able to learn something about the biogeochemical cycling of these
         bioactive elements within the lake. Assuming organisms can be
         cultured and incubated under conditions approaching Lake Vostok,
                                             2     2
         (and the organisms use/produce O and N as part of their metabolic
         activity), we can determine the community isotope effect for these
         gases using laboratory incubations. Having this data in hand, along with
         the isotope measurements on the air clathrates from the lake, we may
         be able to provide some qualitative estimates of the longevity of the
         ecosystem via simple isotope mass balance.

Modeling the thermal forcing of the circulation in Lake Vostok
David Michael Holland
Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 251 Mercer Street, Warren Weaver Hall, 907, New York
University, MC 0711, New York City, New York, 10012 U.S.A.
p (212) 998-3245, f (212) 995-4121,

Lake Vostok is situated at the base of the huge Antarctic Ice Sheet. The isolation and
remoteness of the lake imply that it will have a circulation driven by the heat and
freshwater fluxes associated with phase changes at the ice sheet - lake surface

While geothermal fluxes would also play a role at the lake bed interface, the nature of
these important, but poorly known fluxes for Lake Vostok, are not considered in the
present discussion. A hierarchy of formulations that could be used to describe the heat
and mass transfer processes at the lake surface are presented. The main difference
between them is the treatment of turbulent transfer within the lake surface boundary

The computed response to various levels of thermal driving and turbulent agitation in
the upper layers of the lake is discussed, as is the effect of various treatments of the
conductive heat flux into the overlying ice sheet. The performance of the different
formulations has been evaluated for the analogous environment of an oceanic cavity
found beneath an ice shelf.

In an effort to understand what the physical circulation is in the lake and subsequently of
what relevance it might be to chemical and biological activity in the lake, the following
investigation is proposed: An investigation of the details of the thermal interaction
between the lake and the overlying ice sheet could be pursued by building on existing
theoretical and modeling studies of other cold liminological/oceanographical

The detection of life - Nucleotide fingerprints
David M. Karl
School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, U.S.A.
p (808) 956-8964, f (808) 956-5059,

Perhaps the first question that one should ask about ―life‖ in Lake Vostok there
any? If the answer is yes, then one needs to ask how much life is there, how rapidly is
the crank turning and what kind of life forms are present. Although there are numerous
methods available to address these fundamental ecological questions, only a relatively
few have the sensitivity required for the detection of low standing stocks of
microorganisms that might occur in the hyperoligotrophic Lake Vostok.

Adenosine 5‘-triphosphate (ATP) is present in all living cells where it functions as an
essential link between energy generation and biosynthesis and as a precursor for RNA
and DNA synthesis. Furthermore, in concert with related cellular nucleotides (e.g., ADP,
AMP, GTP, cAMP, ppGpp), ATP also serves to regulate and direct cellular metabolism.
In addition, ATP and associated nucleotide biomarkers can be extracted from cells and
measured in situ; hence sample return is not mandatory, although it is desirable.

ATP has already proven to be useful in many ecological studies of remote and extreme
environments including the deepest portions of the Aleutian Trench (>7500m),
hydrothermal vents and ice covered polar habitats.
Alternative Mechanisms for Organic Syntheses and the Origin of
Life: Lake Vostok as a Case Study
Luann Becker
University of Hawaii, Manoa, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822, U.S.A.
p (808) 956-5010, f (808) 956-3188;

One of the more exciting new fields of research that is emerging within the deep-sea
drilling program is the search for a subsurface biosphere. This field has developed as a
result of the study of extreme environments and their possible link to the first living
organisms that inhabited the early Earth.

Recent experimental data show that amino acids can be activated under plausible
‗Prebiotic‘ geologic conditions [nickel, iron (Ni,Fe) sulfide (S) and carbon monoxide (CO)
in conjunction with hydrogen sulfide (H S) as a catalyst and condensation agent at
100 C, pH 7-10 under anaerobic, aqueous conditions; Huber and Wachtershauser
(1998)]. These findings support a thermophilic origin of life and the early appearance of
peptides in the evolution of a primordial metabolism.

Other research efforts have focused on identifying alternative energy sources available
in hydrothermal regimes as supporting a deep subsurface biosphere. For example, it
has been suggested that hydrogen produced from basalt-ground-water interactions may
serve as an energy source that supports the existence of microorganisms in the deep
subsurface of the Earth (Steven and McKinley, 1995).

However, Anderson et al., (1998) have demonstrated experimentally that hydrogen is
not produced from basalt at an environmentally relevant alkaline pH. Furthermore,
geochemical considerations suggest that previously reported rates of hydrogen
production couldn‘t be sustained over geologically significant time frames. Nevertheless,
results from the Anderson et al., (1998) study do not rule out the possibility that reduced
gases emanating from deeper in the Earth could fuel deep subsurface microbial
ecosystems (Gold, 1992).

Finally, the hypothesis that a reducing lithosphere on the early Earth would have
resulted in an ammonia-rich atmosphere was tested experimentally by using a mineral
                    2     2          3                   3
catalyst to reduce N , NO - and NO - to ammonia (NH ) under typical crustal and
oceanic hydrothermal conditions (Brandes et al., 1998). Results of this study showed
that oceanic hydrothermally derived ammonia could have provided the reservoir needed
to facilitate the synthesis of these compounds on the early Earth.

All of these studies indicate that a direct evaluation of the subsurface biosphere
ecosystem is needed to assess the plausibility that organic syntheses capable of
supporting life can occur in this environment. A planned program to sample water,
porewater and sediment samples for the detection of organic components (i.e. amino
acids, peptides etc.) is necessary to ascertain the mechanism of formation (abiotic or
biotic) and further determine whether the organic components detected are capable of
supporting or synthesizing a subsurface biosphere.

These samples can be collected and examined on board using conventional organic
geochemical approaches (i.e. HPLC, PY-GCMS, etc.). In addition, a planned re-entry
program will allow us to measure for organics in situ downhole (e.g. state-of–the-art
fiber-optic fluorescence or micro-Raman approaches). The use of fluorescence for the
detection of organic compounds is an extremely versatile and sensitive technique
(detection at the sub-femtomole level).

The development of an ‗Organic Probe‘ that we can attach to a re-entry device to detect
organic components ‗real-time‘ in the Lake Vostok aqueous and sedimentary
environment is needed. These measurements are critical to the assessment of
contamination that may be introduced during the sampling program.

Thus, the instrument implementation and the results obtained will be important to future
investigations of life in extreme environments on Earth and perhaps beyond (e.g.

Hypotheses about the Lake Vostok Ecosystem
Diane McKnight
INSTAAR, University of Colorado, 1560 30th St., Boulder, CO 80309-0450, U.S.A.,
p (303) 492-7573, f (303) 492-6388,

Lake Vostok allows us an opportunity to extend our knowledge of ecosystem processes
to a new extreme environment; one in which there has been sufficient time for
microorganisms to adapt. Our approach should be to develop ecosystem hypotheses
based upon current knowledge. Our current knowledge of environments of this type is
based on the Dry Valley ecosystem characteristics.

Dry Valley ecosystem characteristics:
        1. Autotrophs in lakes and streams are adapted to use low energy, e.g.
        photosynthesis begins with sunrise.
        2. Relict organic carbon sustains ecosystems at a slow rate over long
        periods, e.g. soil system runs on old algal carbon.
        3. All landscape components - lakes, streams, soils - have a food web,
        e.g. ―microbial loop‖ in lakes.
        4. In the lakes, viable organisms persist through winter and mixotrophs
        become abundant.
Hypotheses about the Lake Vostok ecosystem:
       1. Autotrophic microorganisms exist and use chemical energy sources
       at very low fluxes.
       2. The Lake Vostok ecosystem will be primarily heterotrophic, with
       organic compound deposited with snow on plateau as an organic
          carbon source.
          3. The Lake Vostok ecosystem will have a microbial look, including
          mixotrophs and grazers.
*Even if DOC of glacier ice is 0.1 mg C/L, this DOC may be a greater energy source than those available to
support autotrophic processes. One could hypothesize that humics in Lake Vostok water would have a
different signature than humics in overlying glacier ice because of microbial processing.

Plan for discoveries, for unexpected observations
It should be noted that studies in the Dry Valleys began in the 1960s, and were not
conducted with a focus on avoiding the introduction of exotic microorganisms. Although
there is not evidence of introduced algal species becoming abundant, we have not
assessed introductions as an ecological factor.

For isolated inland locations, introductions should be a concern because equipment or
food could transport species that do not survive long range aeolian transport.

A Terrestrial Analog
Mark Lupisella
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Rd., Mailstop 584.3, Building 23, Rm. W207, Greenbelt, MD
20771, U.S.A.
p (301) 286-2918, f (301) 286-2325,

A key challenge for a human mission to Mars will involve assessing and minimizing
adverse impacts to the indigenous environment, where ―adverse‖ means anything that
could compromise the integrity of scientific research-especially the search for life. Due
to the extreme surface conditions of Mars, signs of Martian life, if they exist at all, are
likely to be under the surface where there is thought to be a layer of permafrost.

It is also possible that sub-glacial lakes exist under the polar caps of Mars. Humans on
Mars will eventually have to drill for many reasons, including the search for life, so Lake
Vostok should be considered as a terrestrial analog for understanding how humans
might conduct such drilling activities on Mars-particularly regarding issues of
contamination control.

Microbial Sample Characterization and Preservation
David Emerson
American Type Culture Collection, 10801 University Blvd., Manassas, VA 20110-2209, U.S.A.,
p (707) 365-2700, f (707) 365-2730,

Characterization and preservation of samples of microbes that are returned from Lake
Vostok will be a vital aspect of any attempt to study the life that lives in the Lake. The
American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) houses the world‘s most diverse collection of
microorganisms, and includes large collections of prokaryotes, fungi, and free-living
protists. Members of all these groups are likely to be found in Lake Vostok waters.

ATCC scientists are well versed in the methods of cryopreservation and lyophilization of
microbes, and microbe containing samples, as well as in isolation and characterization
of the microbes themselves. Recently, the ATCC has acquired the ability to carry out
more extensive genomic analysis of isolates, including sequencing of SSU rRNA genes,
DNA fingerprinting, and hybridization technologies.
In addition, the ATCC has a strong bioinformatics group with experience in developing
databases concerning specific groups of microorganisms. The ATCC would be a willing
participant in efforts to preserve and characterize samples returned from Lake Vostok.

Some of the issues regarding sample handling from the Lake would involve returning
unfrozen samples through the ice sheet for culturing. It is known that one freeze/thaw
cycle can significantly diminish the number of viable organisms in a sample and can be
especially hard on the protists.

An alternative would be to inject cryopreservatives into samples in situ so freezing upon
return would be less deleterious, although some protists will not tolerate any freezing at
all. Once samples are returned to the surface, it will be important to have the logistical
support in place to insure that they remain close to ambient temperature (assuming the
ambient temperatures are near 0°C, and not from a ‗hot spot‘) during any transport and
handling back to the laboratories where they will be processed. In addition, assuming
samples are returned unfrozen, it would be wise to preserve a subset of samples with
different cryopreservatives for archival maintenance.

In terms of cultivating microbes, and especially novel prokaryotes from Lake Vostok
samples, the most interesting habitat from a physiological perspective would be the
putative gas clathrates that exist in the Lake. While methane clathrates are known to
exist at cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, and other deep-sea environments, relatively
little microbiological work has been done with these, and environments suitable for life
containing other types of gas clathrates are even less known.

These unusual chemical conditions are most likely to lead to unusual
metabolic/phylogenetic types of microbes. Understanding and reproducing the
conditions whereby it might be possible to culture these organisms will be important,
and will require collaboration between chemists and microbiologists to establish the best

It would be best to have the protocols for these methods worked out prior to sample
return; for cultivation studies it is best to use ‗fresh‘ samples and there may be a
relatively narrow window of a few weeks to have the highest rate of success for
cultivation. Finally, from a culture collection perspective, it would be ideal to have
thorough documentation procedures in place for any biological samples collected from
Lake Vostok.

This would include a WWW accessible database that would catalog where samples
were taken, how they were preserved, where they were distributed, and a summary of
the results obtained for each sample, including the ultimate deposition of any isolated
microbes from the samples with a major culture collection.

Ready access to this information would insure the widest participation of the whole
scientific community in what is likely to be a highly unique and exciting, though costly,

Motivation for Sampling Hydrates and Sediments
Peter T. Doran
University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 845 W. Taylor St.,
Chicago, Illinois, 60607-7059, U.S.A.
p (312) 413-7275 f (312) 413-2279,,
The impetus to study a deep subglacial lake such as Lake Vostok will undoubtedly be
driven by the investigation of life‘s extremes on this planet. Extremes for life in Lake
Vostok will include high pressure (for a freshwater environment), low nutrient levels,
absence of light, and all gases being in hydrated form.

Lake Vostok is analogous to the bottom 500 m of a 4 km deep freshwater lake with a
3.5 km perennial ice cover. The motivation for studying Lake Vostok is similar to the
motivation for studying other unique and extreme habitats such as Antarctic Dry Valley
lakes, hydrothermal vents, and the deep Earth.

Defining modern life‘s extremes is critical to understanding the origins and evolution of
life on this planet and others. Having said this, science at Lake Vostok should not be
limited to the search for life. If no life exists in Lake Vostok we will want to know why,
which will require a detailed biogeochemical sampling of the lake. Furthermore, the
water column and sediments of Lake Vostok should offer new and exciting sources of
paleoenvironmental information (e.g. CO clathrate record, extraterrestrial flux), even in
the absence of a viable lake community.

The sediment record could conceivably extend well beyond ice core records. The first
stage of any Lake Vostok study should be exploration with in situ instruments, but in situ
monitoring will fall short of answering the key science questions (particularly in the
sediment record).

Samples will need to be brought to the surface, which appears feasible with some
technology development. Access and retrieval technologies should be tested in a
smaller, logistically convenient subglacial lake or analogous environment prior to going
to Vostok.

Some Factors Influencing Circulation in Lake Vostok
Eddy Carmack
Institute of Ocean Sciences, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Rd.
P.O. Box 6000, Sidney BC V8L4B2, Canada,
p (250) 363-6585, f (250) 363-6746,

Density-driven flows are likely to dominate water motion within Lake Vostok. Hence,
consideration must be given to
                 (1) the equation of state of fresh water
                 (2) the effect of pressure on freezing point
                 (3) potential material flux from the overlying ice
                 (4) geothermal heating from below
In turn, these factors may be modified by sloping boundaries, e.g. along the ice-water
interface (ceiling) and water-sediment (floor) of the lake. Some simple constraints follow
from basic thermodynamic considerations.

The depression of the temperature of maximum density (TMD) with pressure is given by
TMD(S, p) = TMD(0, p) - 0.021p, where p is pressure in bars or 105 Pa (Chen and
Millero, 1986). The depression of the freezing temperature (TFP) with pressure is given
by TFP(S, p) = TFP(S, 0) ñ 0.00759p (Fujino et al., 1975).

                          o                        o
Taking TMD(0, 0) ~ 4 C and TFP(0, 0) ~ 0 C we see that the two lines cross at a critical
pressure (pcrit) of about 305 bars, which corresponds to an overlying ice thickness of
about 3350 m. Above this critical pressure TMD > TFP and the system is stable when
(T/(Z > 0); that is, it behaves as a lake.

Below this pressure TMD < TFP and the system is stable when (T/(Z < 0); that is, it
behaves as an ocean. It appears that pressures with Lake Vostok place it in the ―ocean‖
category. Other Antarctic lakes, for example the one at South Pole, may fall into the
―lake‖ category.

An interesting situation would arise if pcrit were to lie internal to the lake, yielding
bimodal flow conditions. External sources of buoyancy to the system include geothermal
heating (perhaps ~ 50 mWm-2) and particle fluxes (unknown, but, if existent, likely to be
highly localized).

Lateral gradients of buoyancy may also arise from boundary conditions at the sloping
ceiling (required to be at the local TFP) and bottom (derived from either geothermal
effects or solute flux). It is noted that examples are found elsewhere in nature where
extreme pressures affect water stratification and motion; for example in the oceans off
Antarctic ice shelves (Carmack and Foster, 1975) and in deep lakes such as Baikal
(Weiss et al., 1991).

Prior to in situ measurements of circulation in Lake Vostok, possible scales of motion
should be explored with simple models. Also, field experiments could be carried out to
see if flow can be detected in similar but less extreme high pressure and low
temperature situations (e.g. beneath the Ward Hunt Ice shelf off Ellsmere Island
(Jefferies, 1992).

Figure Caption
Concerning water column stratification, three types of lakes under ice can be expected
in Antarctica, depending on whether the ice thickness is larger or less than the depth,
where freezing temperature TF and the temperature of maximum density TMD are
identical (3170 m ice). Lake Vostok, where TF (lake temperature = -2.7 C) is warmer
than TMD ( -4 C), thermal expansivity a is positive and subsequently density sT
        decreases with depth, as typical under convective instability.
Back to Contents

Appendix 2 - Workshop Program
Lake Vostok Workshop - “A Curiosity or a Focus for Interdisciplinary Study?”
An NSF Sponsored Workshop
Washington D.C.
November 7 & 8, 1998

    Robin E. Bell, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Oceanography, Rt. 9W, Palisades, New York
      10964, Phone: 914-365-8827, E-mail:
    David M. Karl, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii,
      Honolulu, HI 96822, Phone 808-956-8964, E-Mail:

        The goal of the Lake Vostok workshop will be to stimulate discussion within the US
        science community on Lake Vostok specifically addressing the question:
                ―Is Lake Vostok a natural curiosity or an opportunity for uniquely posed
                interdisciplinary scientific programs?‖
        The workshop will attempt to develop an interdisciplinary science plan for studies of the

        The workshop will open with a series of short talks setting the background on Lake
        Vostok. Prior to the meeting a package of information on Lake Vostok will be distributed
        to ensure that the group has adequate background. Following the background talks,
        each participant will be provided an opportunity to share their focused thoughts on Lake
        Vostok, and critical information or research directions they would like to see pursued.

        In the following day and a half the group will break into cross disciplinary groups to
        develop a sequence of key science objectives and a strategy to carry them out. Each
        group will present its plan to the full workshop group and the results will be discussed.

        Saturday 11/7/98
               8AM - 8:45 AM Continental Style Breakfast at AGU facilities
               9:00 Welcome and Introduction (Robin Bell & David Karl)
               9:15 NSF Charge (Julie Palais)
                       Overview talks on Lake Vostok
                       Review of studies to Date (Robin Bell)
                       The Overlying Ice (Martin Siegert)
                       Possible Lake Samples - Basal Ice (Jean Robert Petit)
                10:30 Break
                        Geologic Framework
                        Biodiversity Questions
                        NASA & Lake Vostok
                        How to Identify Life
                                (Ian Dalziel)
                                (Jim Tiedje)
                                (Frank Carsey)
                                (David White/Roger Kern)
                12:30 lunch break (lunch provided for group)
                1:30 PM session
                1:30 *Why Lake Vostok? 3-5 minute - 1 overhead presentations from
                participants (see section labeled ―Why Lake Vostok‖ for more
                3:30 Break
                3:45 Break into Discipline Based Groups to Develop List of Key
                4:45 Present Key Questions & Discuss linkages
                6:00 Reception at AGU
        Sunday 11/8/98
               8:00-845 Continental Style Breakfast @ AGU facilities
               9:00 Review Linkages Break into Interdisciplinary Groups to
                       (1) Develop Questions
                       (2) Research Plan
                12:00 lunch break (lunch provided for group)
                1:00 Groups Present Summaries Discussion
                4:00 Adjourn
Back to Contents


Back to Contents

(7) Acknowledgements
This workshop and report were sponsored and supported by the National Science Foundation under
grant number OPP-9820596. We would especially like to thank Julie Palais, Polly Penhale and Dennis
Peacock from the Office of Polar Programs for their commitment to this project.

Each of the workshop participants contributed to this report through their involvement in developing a
science plan for the study of Lake Vostok, and their written contributions to the individual and group
reports. We greatly appreciate the editorial skills of Mahlon Kennicutt II, Cynan Ellis-Evans, Berry Lyons
and Frank Carsey in blending the writing styles of the numerous authors, and in calling for clarification of
the many scientific terms used by the various disciplines represented in the report.

Margie Turrin provided critical assistance in the workshop organization as well as the editing and
production of the final report.

Back to Contents

(8) References
     Abyzov, S.S., 1993. Antarctic Microbiology (E.I. Friedmann, ed.). Wiley-Liss, New York, 265295.
     *Abyzov, S.S., I. N. Mitskevich, M. N. Poglazova, 1998. Microflora of the deep glacier horizons of
       Central Antarctica. Microbiology (translated from Russian), 67, 451-458. Anderson, R. T., F. H.
       Chapelle, D. R. Lovley, 1998. Evidence against hydrogen-based microbial ecosystems in basalt
       aquifers. Science, 281, 976-977.
     Bender, M. L., T. Sowers, L. Labeyrie, 1994. The Dole effect and its variations during the last
       130,000 years as measured in the Vostok ice core. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 363-376.
       Brandes, J. A., N. Z. Boctor, H. S. Yoder Jr.,. 1998. Abiotic nitrogen reduction on the early
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       *Article included in background reading section (9)
Back to Contents
                                         by Gareth Halfacree
                                             19 November 2009
                                           from Bit-Tech Website

                               With Microsoft working closely with the NSA,
                       Windows 7 should prove the 'most secure' version of the OS yet.

A lot may be said about Windows 7 being the most secure version of Microsoft's operating
system yet, but you might not be aware that this is the result of a partnership with the National
Security Agency.

As reported over on the NPR News Blog - via Maximum PC - the NSA - the secretive security
organization which often finds itself the subject of spy thrillers and conspiracy theories alike - has
coughed to its work with Microsoft which saw the NSA,
        "leverag[ing] our unique expertise and operational knowledge of system threats
        and vulnerabilities to enhance Microsoft's operating system security guide
        without constraining the user's ability to perform their everyday tasks," according
        to Richard Schaeffer, the NSA's information assurance director.
Although this isn't the first time the NSA has poked around at an operating system in order to
improve security for all - the organization is also responsible for the Security Enhanced Linux
system which finds use in most modern distributions - but this marks the one of the first times
that its Information Assurance division has had the chance to do so,
         "in coordination with the product release, not months or years later in the
         product cycle."
This partnership with Microsoft isn't new - the NSA also 'helped out' with 'security functionality'
for Vista and XP, and works with other vendors including Apple and RedHat to keep their
systems safe - but demonstrates the importance of security to a modern operating system, to the
point where an organization tasked with keeping a nation safe will voluntarily get involved.

Of course, while improved security is always a good thing, there will be those who see the
partnership as a problem:
        with one of the NSA's remits being to monitor electronic communications, it's
        easy to get carried away with theories of backdoors hidden in the system and
        deliberate holes punched in cryptography implementations.
Whether the public admission of the NSA's hand in Windows 7's development will help or hinder
sales of the OS remains to be seen.

Are you pleased to see the NSA taking a proactive approach to protecting the US's electronic
infrastructure, or does it have you reaching for the tinfoil hat while wishing the spooks would
keep their hands off your OS?

Share your thoughts over in the forums.

                                 Return to Windows-Microsoft-
                                           Bill Gates
                         Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                        Security Agency

                                           by Lonnie Wolfe
                                             from IAE Website

Special Report EIR (Executive Intelligence Review) March 10, 1981

Investigations by EIR have uncovered a planning apparatus operating outside the control of the
White House whose sole purpose is to reduce the world‘s population by 2 billion people through
war, famine, disease and any other means necessary.

This apparatus, which includes various levels of the government is determining U.S. foreign
policy. In every political hotspot - El Salvador, the so-called arc of crisis in the Persian Gulf, Latin
America, Southeast Asia and in Africa - the goal of U.S. foreign policy is population reduction.

The targeting agency for the operation is the National Security Council‘s Ad Hoc Group on
Population Policy. Its policy-planning group is in the U.S. State Department‘s Office of Population
Affairs, established in 1975 by Henry Kissinger.

This group drafted the Carter administration‘s Global 2000 Report, which calls for global
population reduction, and the same apparatus is conducting the civil war in El Salvador as a
conscious depopulation project.
        "There is a single theme behind all our work-we must reduce population levels,"
        said Thomas Ferguson, the Latin American case officer for the State
        Department‘s Office of Population Affairs (OPA). "Either they [governments] do it
        our way, through nice clean methods or they will get the kind of mess that we
        have in El Salvador, or in Iran, or in Beirut. Population is a political problem.

        Once population is out of control it requires authoritarian government, even
        fascism, to reduce it. "The professionals," said Ferguson, "aren‘t interested in
        lowering population for humanitarian reasons. That sounds nice. We look at
        resources and environmental constraints. We look at our strategic needs, and we
        say that this country must lower its population - or else we will have trouble.

        So steps are taken. El Salvador is an example where our failure to lower
        population by simple means has created the basis for a national security crisis.
        The government of El Salvador failed to use our programs to lower their
        population. Now they get a civil war because of it.... There will be dislocation and
        food shortages. They still have too many people there."
Civil wars are somewhat drawn-out ways to reduce population, the OPA official added.
         "The quickest way to reduce population is through famine, like in Africa or through
         disease like the Black Death," all of which might occur in El Salvador.
Ferguson‘s OPA monitors populations in the Third World and maps strategies to reduce them. Its
budget for FY 1980 was $190 million; for FY 198l, it will be $220 million.

The Global 2000 Report calls for doubling that figure.

The sphere of Kissinger
In 1975, OPA was brought under a reorganized State Department Bureau of Oceans,
International Environmental, and Scientific Affairs - a body created by Henry Kissinger.

The agency was assigned to carry out the directives of the NSC Ad Hoc Group. According to an
NSC spokesman, Kissinger initiated both groups after discussion with leaders of the Club of
Rome during the 1974 population conferences in Bucharest and Rome.

The Club of Rome, controlled by Europe‘s black nobility, is the primary promotion agency for the
genocidal reduction of world population levels. The Ad Hoc Group was given "high priority" by the
Carter administration, through the intervention of National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski
and Secretaries of State Cyrus Vance and Edmund Muskie.

According to OPA expert Ferguson, Kissinger initiated a full about-face on U.S. development
policy toward the Third World. "For a long time," Ferguson stated, "people here were timid". They
listened to arguments from Third World leaders that said that the best contraceptive was
economic reform and development.

So we pushed development programs, and we helped create a population time bomb.
       "We are letting people breed like flies without allowing for natural causes to keep
       population down. We raised the birth survival rates, extended life-spans by
       lowering death rates, and did nothing about lowering birth rates.

        That policy is finished. We are saying with Global 2000 and in real policy that you
        must lower population rates. Population reduction and control is now our primary
        policy objective - then you can have some development."
Accordingly, the Bureau of Oceans, International Environmental, and Scientific Affairs has
consistently blocked industrialization policies in the Third World, denying developing nations
access to nuclear energy technology - the policies that would enable countries to sustain a
growing population.

According to State Department sources, and Ferguson himself, Alexander Haig is a "firm believer"
in population control.
        "We will go into a country," said Ferguson, "and say, here is your goddamn
        development plan. Throw it out the window. Start looking at the size of your
        population and figure out what must be done to reduce it."
        If you don‘t like that, if you don‘t want to choose to do it through planning, then
        you‘ll have an El Salvador or an Iran, or worse, a Cambodia."
According to an NSC spokesman, the United States now shares the view of former World Bank
President Robert McNamara that the "population crisis" is a greater threat to U.S. national
security interests than "nuclear annihilation."
         "Every hot spot in the world corresponds to a population crisis point," said
         Ferguson who would rename Brzezinski‘s arc of crisis doctrine the "arc of
         population crisis."
This is corroborated by statements in the NSC Ad Hoc Group‘s April 1980 report. There is "an
increased potential for social unrest, economic and political instability, mass migration and
possible international conflicts over control of land and resources," says the NSC report. It then
cites "demographic pressures" as key to understanding,
         "examples of recent warfare in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, El Salvador.
         Honduras, and Ethiopia, and the growing potential for instability in such places as
         Turkey, the Philippines, Central America, Iran, and Pakistan."
Through extraordinary efforts, the Ad Hoc Group and OPA estimate that they may be able to keep
a billion people from being born through contraceptive programs.

But as the Ad Hoc Group‘s report states, the best efforts of the Shah of Iran to institute "clean
programs" of birth control failed to make a significant dent in the country‘s birth rate. The promise
of jobs, through an ambitious industrialization program, encouraged migration toward
"overcrowded cities" like Teheran. Now under Ayatollah Khomeini, the "clean programs" have
been dismantled. The government may make progress because it has a program,
         "to induce up to half of Teheran‘s 6 million residents to relocate, as well as
         possible measures to keep rural migrants from moving to the cities."
Behind the back of the President, Ferguson and others involved with the OPA and NSC group
maintain that the United States will continue a foreign policy based on a genocidal reduction of the
world‘s population.
        "We have a network in place of co-thinkers in the government," said the OPA
        case officer. "We keep going, no matter who is in the White House."
But Ferguson reports that the "White House" does not really understand what they are saying and
that the President thinks that population policy means how do we speed up population increase.
         "As long as no one says differently," said Ferguson, "we will continue to do our
         jobs. "
                                      Return to The Club of
                                   Return to Depopulation of
                                          Planet Earth
                               Return to A Ponerological Profile -
                                         Henry Kissinger
                              Return to The NSA - The Super Secret
                                    National Security Agency

                                            by John Perkins
                                             February 17, 2005
                                         from WantToKnow Website

                                         About JOHN PERKINS:

       From 1971 to 1981, John Perkins worked for the international consulting firm of Chas. T. Main,
          where he held the titles of Chief Economist and Manager of Economics. He later founded
                     Independent Power Systems, Inc., an alternative energy company.
       Today, Perkins writes and teaches about achieving peace and prosperity by expanding personal
        awareness and transforming American institutions. His previous books include Shapeshifting,
                          The World Is As You Dream It and The Stress-Free Habit.

General Overview
Confessions of An Economic Hit Man is John Perkins‘ fast-paced autobiography, which reveals
his career as an economist for an international consulting firm. Perkins says he was actually an
―Economic Hit Man‖ and his job was to convince countries that are strategically important to the
United States to accept enormous loans for infrastructure development and to make sure that
the lucrative projects were contracted to U.S. corporations.

Perkins takes the reader through his career and explains how he created economic projections
for countries to accept billions of dollars in loans they surely couldn‘t afford.

He shares his battle with his conscience over these actions and offers advice for how Americans
can work to end these practices, which he feels have directly resulted in terrorist attacks and
animosity towards the United States.
What Is An Economic Hit Man?
Perkins defines economic hit men as,
       ―highly paid professionals who cheat countries around the globe out of trillions of
       dollars. They funnel money from the World Bank, the U.S. Agency for
       International Development (USAID), and other foreign ‗aid‘ organizations into
       the coffers of huge corporations and the pockets of a few wealthy families who
       control the planet‘s natural resources.

        Their tools include fraudulent financial reports, rigged elections, payoffs,
        extortion, sex, and murder. They play a game as old as empire, but one that has
        taken on new and terrifying dimensions during this time of globalization.‖
In Perkins‘ case, he was hired as an economist for the international consulting firm of Chas.
T.Main, Inc. (MAIN).

He was told in confidential meetings with ―special consultant‖ to the company Claudine Martin
that he had two primary objectives:
            1. He was supposed to justify huge loans for countries. These loans would
                be for major engineering and construction projects, which were to be
                carried out by MAIN and other U.S. companies such as Bechtel,
                Halliburton, Stone & Webster and Brown & Root.

            2. He was supposed to help bankrupt the countries that received these
                loans after the U.S. companies involved had been paid. This would
                make sure that these countries would remain in debt to their creditors
                and would then be easy targets when the U.S. needed favors such as
                military bases, UN votes and access to natural resources like oil.
Perkins‘ job was to produce economic growth projections that would make the case for a variety
of major projects.

If the U.S. decided to lend a country money (in order to persuade its leaders not to align with the
Soviet Union, for example), Perkins would compare the economic benefits of different projects
such as power plants or telecommunications systems. He would then produce reports that
showed the economic growth the country would experience due to these projects. These
economic growth projections needed to be high enough to justify the loans. Otherwise, the loans
would be denied.

The gross national product (GNP) was always the most important factor in these economic
projections. The project expected to increase the GNP the most would be chosen. In the cases
where there was only one project under consideration, it needed to be shown that the project
would greatly benefit the GNP.

Luckily for the economic hit man, GNP figures can be quite deceptive.
         ―For instance, the growth of GNP may result even when it profits only one
         person, such as an individual who owns a utility company, while the majority of
         the population is burdened with debt.‖
All of these projects were meant to make huge profits for the contractors.

The U.S. engineering and construction companies involved would be assured of great wealth. At
the same time, a few wealthy families and influential leaders in the receiving countries would
become very happy and very rich thanks to these loans. The leaders of these countries would
also have bolstered political power because they were credited with bringing industrial parks,
power plants and airports to their people.

The problem is that these countries simply cannot handle the debt of these loans and their
poorest citizens are deprived of health, education and other social services for several decades
as these countries struggle economically to overcome their huge debts. Meanwhile, the huge
American media conglomerates portray these projects as favors being provided by the United
States. American citizens in general have no trouble believing these messages, and in fact are
led to perceive that these actions are unselfish acts of international goodwill.

Ultimately, due to the large debts, the U.S. is able to draw on these countries for political,
economic and military favors whenever desired.

And of course, the U.S. corporations involved with the expensive projects become extremely

The U.S. Government’s Role
Economic hit men [EHM] don‘t actually work for a United States government organization such
as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The risk with such a direct association is obvious.

For example, if an EHM was working to put a country in debt to the U.S. with the main reason
being for favorable military and political positions against the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union
would be quite likely to take military action against the U.S. if that EHM were found to be working
for the U.S. government. In the 1960s, America found a way to use economic hitmen without
directly implicating Washington.

It was during the 1960s that we saw the empowerment of international corporations and
multinational organizations such as the World Bank. This allowed for governments, corporations
and multinational organizations to form mutually beneficial relationships. United States
intelligence agencies were able to use these relationships to their advantage.

Government organizations such as the National Security Agency (NSA) were now able to screen
for potential economic hitmen (as they did with Perkins) and then have them hired by
international corporations such as MAIN.
         ―These economic hitmen would never be paid by the government; instead, they
         would draw their salaries from the private sector. As a result, their dirty work, if
         exposed, would be chalked up to corporate greed rather than to government
         policy. In addition, the corporations that hired them, although paid by
         government agencies and their multinational banking counterparts (with
         taxpayer money), would be insulated from congressional oversight and public
         scrutiny, shielded by a growing body of legal initiatives, including trademark,
         international trade, and Freedom of Information laws.‖

Perkins’ Story of Being Recruited as an Economic Hit Man
Perkins married a former college classmate in 1967. A good friend of her father‘s, referred to as
―Uncle Frank‖, was a top-echelon executive at the NSA. Uncle Frank immediately took a liking to
Perkins and informed him that a job with the NSA would make him eligible for draft deferment,
meaning he could avoid fighting in the Vietnam War.
After extensive interviews with the NSA, Perkins was offered a job, but declined it to instead join
the Peace Corps. Surprisingly, Uncle Frank supported this decision, largely because it meant
that Perkins would have the opportunity to go to Ecuador and live with the indigenous people of
the Amazon region.

It was with the Peace Corps in Ecuador when a vice president of Chas. T. Main, Inc. approached
Perkins about working for MAIN. The man explained that he sometimes acted as an NSA liaison,
which made this job opportunity a perfect fit for Perkins, who had intended on accepting the NSA
job when his Peace Corps tour was over.

Upon returning to the U.S., Perkins was hired as an economist for MAIN. He was told that
MAIN‘s primary business was engineering, but that their biggest client, the World Bank, had
insisted that the company keep economists employed in order to produce the ―critical economic
forecasts used to determine the feasibility and magnitude of engineering projects.‖

Shortly after being hired, Perkins was trained confidentially by Claudine Martin, a special
consultant to MAIN. It was Martin who explained to Perkins what his real job was.

It was Martin who explained that he was now an ―Economic Hit Man‖ and that once he accepted
this job, he could never leave it.

Perkins‘ first assignment took him took to Indonesia. Indonesia was an oil-rich country and had
been described as ―the most heavily populated piece of real estate on the planet.‖ Perkins‘ job
was to produce very optimistic economic forecasts for the country, showing that by building new
power plants and distribution lines, the country‘s economy would explode. These projections
would allow USAID and international banks to justify huge loans for the country, which would
then be paid to U.S. corporations to build the projects.

In 1971, Indonesia had become even more important to the U.S. in its battle against
Communism. Potential withdrawal from Vietnam had the U.S. worried about a domino effect of
one country after another falling under Communist rule. Indonesia was viewed as the key. If the
U.S. could gain control of Indonesia (with the debts that would incur thanks to the loans for these
huge projects), they believed it would help ensure American dominance in Southeast Asia.

While spending three months in Indonesia to conduct interviews and study the economic
potential for the country, Perkins was exposed to the drastic discrepancy between the wealthy
and the extremely poor in Indonesia. While there were certainly signs of a striving economy with
first-class hotels and mansions, Perkins also personally saw the tragic side of Indonesia where
women and children bathed in wretched, sewer-filled water and beggars packed the streets.

He also met some of the country‘s native citizens and learned of their resentment of American
greed and extravagance in the face of their starving children.

These close encounters with the Indonesians created a struggle of conscience for Perkins. He
wondered if American capitalism was really the answer for the people of Indonesia. He
wondered if the population as a whole would really benefit from the infrastructures the U.S.
wanted to build in Indonesia, or would it only be a wealthy few who became even wealthier while
the rest of the country became more entrenched in poverty and became even more anti-

While conducting his studies in Indonesia, Perkins was encouraged by his superiors to create
strong forecasts for economic growth. He was told that growth rates of 17 percent per annum
were expected. Also providing economic forecasts for MAIN was an older employee named
Howard Parker. Parker told Perkins not to be pressured by his superiors, he told him not to buy
into the game, not to create unrealistic projections. He told Perkins that the electrification project
could not create economic growth rates of more than 7-9 percent.

Conversations with Parker led to more conscience battles for Perkins. Ultimately, he told himself
that the decision wasn‘t really his to make, it would be up to his bosses and they could simply
choose between his high economic forecast and Parker‘s lower forecast. When the final
projections were presented to the executives at MAIN, Perkins‘ figures pleased his bosses with
17-20 percent growth rate projections while Parker‘s forecast came in at eight percent.

Parker was promptly fired and Perkins was promoted to Chief Economist at MAIN and received
a nice raise.

In 1972, Perkins was sent to Panama to close the deal on MAIN‘s master development plan
with the country.
         ―This plan would create a justification for World Bank, Inter-American
         Development Bank, and USAID investment of billions of dollars in the energy,
         transportation, and agricultural sectors of this tiny and very crucial country. It
         was, of course, a subterfuge, a means of making Panama forever indebted and
         thereby returning to its puppet status.‖
Again, Perkins experienced the enormous differences between the wealthy and the poor.
However, in Panama, the differences were most extreme in one area, the Canal Zone. In the
Canal Zone, Americans lived in beautiful homes and enjoyed golf courses and first-class

Just outside of the Canal Zone, Panamanians lived in wooden shacks and among overflowing
sewage. These harsh differences created high levels of animosity between the Americans living
in the Canal Zone and the natives of Panama. It was not uncommon to see graffiti messages
demanding that the U.S. leave Panama.

On his trip, Perkins met with Panama‘s president and charismatic leader, Omar Torrijos.
Perkins was very impressed with Torrijos and became friends with the leader. Torrijos was well
aware of the EHM practices and knew fully how the game was played. He knew that he could
become a very wealthy man by cooperating with the U.S. companies that wanted to build their
projects in his country, but he worried about Panama losing its independence and not taking
care of its many citizens living in poverty.

Torrijos made a peculiar deal with Perkins and MAIN. He wanted Panama to take back control of
the Panama Canal and in doing so he wanted to build a more efficient canal, a sea-level one
without locks that would allow for bigger ships. The Japanese, the Canal‘s biggest clients, would
be interested in financing this construction, which would anger Bechtel Group, Inc.

Bechtel was a company closely connected to Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and George H.W.

Omar Torrijos was concerned that these actions might send the wrong signals internationally. He
wanted to make sure that Panama was recognized as an independent country and was not
dictated by Russia, China or Cuba. He did not want Panama to be perceived as against the
United States. Instead, he wanted it known that they were simply protecting the rights of the

Torrijos did want to invest in huge advancement projects in electricity, transportation and
communications for Panama, but he wanted to make certain that these projects benefited his
entire country, including those living in extreme poverty. To do so would require huge amounts
of money from the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Torrijos worried that
his commitment to taking back the Canal would anger the top people at Bechtel so much that it
would make it nearly impossible to achieve his plans for these projects.

So, Torrijos made a deal with Perkins and MAIN. He told Perkins that if he could secure the
financing for these projects, MAIN could have all the work they wanted on this master
development plan.

Perkins agreed to the deal and would do Torrijos‘ bidding.

Saudi Arabia
In response to the power of the international oil companies, which collaborated to hold down
petroleum prices, a group of oil-producing countries formed OPEC in the 1960s. The huge
impact OPEC was capable of became evident to the world with the 1973 oil embargo. This
embargo was a result of the United States‘ support of Israel when Egypt and Syria launched
attacks on the country.

As the U.S. provided Israel with more financial aid, Saudi Arabia and other Arab oil producing
countries imposed a total embargo on oil shipments to the U.S. While the embargo was short-
lived, its impact was huge as Saudi oil prices jumped from $1.39 per barrel on January 1, 1970
to $8.32 on January 1, 1974.

As a result, Wall Street and Washington became obsessed with protecting American oil supplies
and the U.S. was forced to recognize Saudi Arabia‘s importance to its economy.
        ―For Saudi Arabia, the additional oil income resulting from the price hikes was a
        mixed blessing.‖
Suddenly, the country‘s conservative religious beliefs were being replaced with a sense of

Washington recognized this movement and negotiated with Saudi Arabia for assurance that
there would never again be an oil embargo from the country. The result of these negotiations
was the United States-Saudi Arabian Joint Economic Commission, known as JECOR. The
unprecedented agreement was the opposite of the norm, where countries had to borrow from
the U.S. until it could never get out of that debt. Instead, this agreement relied on Saudi Arabia‘s
own money to hire American firms to build up the country.

The U.S. wanted Saudi Arabia to guarantee to maintain oil supplies at prices that would be
acceptable to the U.S. and its allies. Due to Saudi Arabia‘s vast petroleum supplies, this
guarantee would protect the U.S. even if other countries threatened oil embargos. In exchange
for the guarantee, the U.S. offered the House of Saud a commitment to provide complete
political and military support (this would guarantee that the royal family would continue to rule in
Saudi Arabia). The condition would be that the Saudis buy U.S. government securities with their
petrodollars and that the interest earned on these securities would be used to pay U.S.
companies to convert Saudi Arabia into a modern industrial power.

Perkins was brought in as an adviser in the early stages of these negotiations.
His job was,
        ―to develop forecasts of what might happen in Saudi Arabia if vast amounts of
        money were invested in its infrastructure, and to map out scenarios for spending
        that money.‖
He was told that not only would this job result in huge profits for MAIN, but that it was also a
matter of national security.

This job was different for Perkins as the final objective was not to burden Saudi Arabia with
debts it could never repay, but instead to ―assure that a large portion of petrodollars found their
way back to the United States.‖ Basically, MAIN and other U.S. corporations needed to convince
Saudi Arabia of the importance and benefits of transforming their country to a more modern
nation. This would ultimately make Saudi Arabia more dependent on U.S. corporations and
make U.S. corporations extremely wealthy.

For his part, Perkins convinced a key player within the House of Saud, a man he calls Prince W.,
that these projects would benefit his country as well as him personally. Perkins was able to
eventually persuade Prince W. by arranging for a beautiful prostitute to live with him. By
arranging for the prostitute to live with Prince W., Perkins was able to gain his trust and
eventually convinced him of the value of the deal.

The entire package was finally approved by the royal family of Saudi Arabia and MAIN was
rewarded with one of the first highly lucrative contracts, which was actually administered by the
U.S. Department of the Treasury.
        ―The deal between the United States and Saudi Arabia transformed the kingdom
        practically overnight.‖
It also marked the beginning of an ongoing relationship between the House of Saud, the bin
Laden family and the Bush family, which benefited greatly from a financial standpoint thanks to
the deal.

Struggling with His Conscience
Perkins saw his career take off as he was promoted again and became the youngest partner in
the history of MAIN. He would go on to head major projects all over the world while taking home
a huge salary. However, Perkins could not stop struggling with his conscience over the negative
outcomes he believed he was causing as an EHM.

In 1978 and 1979, the consequences of EHM empire building became clear to Perkins by what
he saw happen in Iran.

While the U.S. had supported the Shah, the results had led to class wars and passionate
animosity towards the ―corporatocracy‖ being implemented in Iran. Perkins had seen this
hostility first-hand in several of the countries where he had helped to create similar situations
with his EHM practices. Citizens of these countries hated U.S. policy and blamed it for their
corrupt leaders and despotic government. In Iran, the situation escalated and led to the shah
fleeing the country for his own safety and Iranians storming the U.S. Embassy and taking 52

It was then that Perkins fully realized that ―the United States is a nation laboring to deny the truth
about its imperialist role in the world" and he became overwhelmed with guilt over his role in this
global movement.
Perkins sank into a depression and quit his job at MAIN in 1980.

The Impact of the Economic Hit man Continues
Perkins would continue to be haunted by the impact of economic hitmen even as he started his
own company (a company that committed to producing environmentally friendly electricity), did
special consulting for MAIN and other corporations, and became involved with nonprofit
organizations and their efforts to work with and help indigenous people in Latin America.

In 1981, Perkins became deeply disturbed by the death of his friend and the leader of Panama,
Omar Torrijos. Perkins believes that Torrijos‘ death in a plane crash was a CIA assassination
because of his positions on the Panama Canal (Torrijos had achieved his goal of taking back the
Canal) and his unwillingness to cooperate with American corporations.

Torrijos was replaced by Manuel Noriega, who ―became a symbol of corruption and decadence.‖

Eventually, in 1989, the United States attacked Panama and the Arias family and the pre-
Torrijos oligarchy, which had served as U.S. puppets from the time when Panama was torn from
Columbia until Torrijos took over, were reinstated.

Perkins also watched closely throughout the ‗80s and ‗90s as the U.S. tried to get Iraq and
Saddam Hussein to buy into the EHM scenario as Saudi Arabia had done before. Hussein
refused and when he invaded Kuwait, the U.S. wasted little time and attacked Iraq. The
economic hitmen failed again in their efforts following the invasion of Iraq and in 2003, the U.S.
invaded Iraq once again.

Perkins began to write Confessions of An Economic Hit Man on several occasions, but stopped
due to bribes or threats. But after 9/11, Perkins knew he could no longer wait and felt he had to
expose these practices and the devastating consequences they create.

What to Do Now
Perkins now spends his life trying to educate people about the role of the economic hit man and
how we can end their practices and achieve more global peace and prosperity by transforming
our institutions.

He believes,
        ―we have convinced ourselves that all economic growth benefits humankind,
        and that the greater the growth, the more widespread the benefits.‖
We must realize that the American capitalism we are trying to push on other countries may not
be what‘s best for the rest of the world.

We can‘t just blame this movement on a conspiracy.
       ―The empire depends on the efficacy of big banks, corporations, and
       governments – the corporatocracy – but it is not a conspiracy. This
       corporatocracy is ourselves – we make it happen – which, of course, is why
       most of us find it difficult to stand up and oppose it. We cannot bring ourselves
       to bite the hand of the master who feeds us.‖
Perkins offers several ways to help stop ―the corporatocracy and to end this insane and self-
destructive march to global empire.‖
             Read between the lines of each and every media report and help others
                do the same. The majority of our media outlets – newspapers,
                magazines, publishing houses, television stations, radio stations, etc. –
                are owned by huge international corporations and these corporations
                aren‘t afraid to manipulate the news they deliver. Always seek the truth
                and encourage others to do the same.
             Cut back on oil consumption and shopping. When you are shopping, be
                very aware of the products you buy and the companies you‘re
             Downsize your personal possessions, including your home, your car and
                your office.
             Protest against unfair free trade agreements.
             Protest against companies that exploit desperate people in sweatshops.
             Protest against companies that pillage the environment.
             Look for ways to educate others about what is going on in the world. This
                can be done by writing letters and emails to friends, newspapers, school
                boards and local organizations.
             And finally, ask yourself the following questions:
                     Why have I allowed myself to be sucked into a system that I know
                         is unbalanced?
                     What will I do to make sure our children, and all children
                         everywhere, are able to fulfill the dream of our Founding
                         Fathers, the dream of life liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?
                     What course will I take to end starvation, and make sure there is
                         never again a day like September 11?
                     How can I help our children understand that people who live
                         gluttonous, unbalanced lives should be pitied but never, ever
                         emulated, even if those people present themselves, through the
                         media they control, as cultural icons and try to convince us that
                         penthouses and yachts bring happiness?
                     What changes will I commit to making in my attitudes and
                     What forums will I use to teach others and to learn more on my
These are the essential questions of our time.

    Book review of Confessions of an Economic Hitman by David Korten
       How the Richest of the Rich Steal from the
                  Poorest of the Poor
                                       by David C. Korten
                                     from DragonFlyMedia Website
                              recovered through WayBackMachine Website

        David C. Korten is the author of WHEN CORPORATIONS RULE THE WORLD and THE POST-
                               CORPORATE WORLD: Life After Capitalism.
John Perkins was for 10 years a player in a high-stakes game of global empire.

Confessions of An Economic Hit Man is his very personal account of the events that forced him
to choose between conscience and a glamorous life of power, luxury and beautiful women. It is
also an adventure thriller worthy of Graham Green or John Le Carré that connects the dots
between corporate globalization, American Empire, and the dynasty of the House of Bush.

During my own 30 years as a development worker in Africa, Latin America and Asia, I came to
realize that the institutions of the aid system and the global economy persistently serve the
interests of the rich at the expense of the poor. I sometimes wondered whether the outcome
might have been orchestrated by some secret inner circle of power brokers who knew exactly
what they were doing.

By Perkins‘ account, he was recruited and trained by just such a circle. He served their cause
until he defected in a fit of conscience and, later, decided to spill the beans. Confessions tells
stories of deals Perkins helped to broker with key oil exporting countries such as Indonesia,
Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Venezuela, Ecuador and Colombia. Naming names, he explains in
riveting detail exactly how the system works—and illuminates the reality behind the hostility of
those the United States now condemns as terrorists.

Perkins‘ job as chief economist for Chas.T.Main, a secretive consulting firm with close ties to the
U.S. intelligence and corporate communities, was much like that of an Enron accountant. He
cooked the books in a gigantic international con game. More specifically, he produced and
defended grossly inflated projections of economic growth that were then used to justify super-
sized infrastructure projects financed with debts to foreign banks that could never be repaid.

Intentionally making unpayable loans to foreign governments may seem the work of fools, but
the money flowed directly into the bottom lines of well-connected U.S. construction and energy
companies like Bechtel and Halliburton, and the perpetual debts gave the U.S. government a
stranglehold over the economic and political resources of the indebted nations. The ruling
classes of the debtor nations who benefited rarely objected; the people the projects displaced
had no voice.

Selling bogus projections was specialized work that required the social skills of a con man and
the ethics of a hired killer. By Perkins‘ account, recruiters from the National Security Agency
(NSA), one of the U.S. intelligence services, decided he fit the bill.

Of particular interest is Perkins‘ story of his role in the deal that tied Saudi Arabia to U.S.
interests, created a financial and political alliance between the House of Saud and the House of
Bush, and led to a partnership that channeled billions of dollars to Osama bin Laden.

Under this agreement, the Saudis hold their oil earnings in U.S. Treasury bonds. The Treasury
Department pays the interest on these bonds directly to favored U.S. corporations, with which it
contracts to modernize Saudi Arabia‘s physical infrastructure. In return the U.S. government
uses its political and military clout to keep the Saudi royal family in power.

According to Perkins, the Saudi agreement was to be a model for Iraq, but Saddam Hussein
refused to play—which explains why George W. Bush was so intent on invading Iraq to remove
him from office. The war was simply a different means to the same outcome. Effective control of
Iraqi oil reserves was transferred to U.S. hands. Bechtel, Halliburton and other corporate Bush
cronies received billions in new contracts.

Perhaps, as implied by Perkins‘ experience, the assault on the world‘s poor was orchestrated
out of some super-secret NSA project office charged with recruiting and training economic hit
men. Or perhaps it was the unintentional consequence of playing out elite interests. In the end it
makes little difference. The power brokers and their minions win, and hundreds of millions of
losers are left to choose between death and slavery. Either way, it‘s important to address the
deeper cultural and institutional causes of what is a spreading global disaster.

It‘s here that Perkins misses a key point.
         ―The fault lies not in the institutions themselves, but in our perceptions of the
         manner in which they function and interact with one another, and of the role
         their managers play in that process…,‖ he writes.

        ―Imagine if the Nike swoosh, McDonald‘s arches and Coca-Cola logo became
        symbols of companies whose primary goals were to clothe and feed the world‘s
        poor in environmentally beneficial ways.‖
Yes, the perceptions are important, but so are the institutions.

Perkins should by now be aware of two historic truths:
           1. Between the demands of financial markets and legal interpretations of the
                fiduciary responsibility of corporate officers, global for-profit corporations
                face strong pressures to maximize returns to their shareholders without
                regard to social or environmental consequences
           2. Any unaccountable concentration of institutional power is an invitation to
                the very corruption he so skillfully documents


                  The Corporatocracy and Central and South America

                                               Part 1

                                               Part 2

                                               Part 3
                          Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
              How the U.S. Uses Globalization to
Cheat Poor Countries Out of Trillions
                                     from DemocracyNow Website

We speak with John Perkins, a former respected member of the international banking

In his book Confessions of an Economic Hit Man he describes how as a highly paid professional,
he helped the U.S. cheat poor countries around the globe out of trillions of dollars by lending
them more money than they could possibly repay and then take over their economies.

                                        Democracy Now
                            A Conversation With John Perkins

Rush Transcript

        AMY GOODMAN: John Perkins joins us now in our firehouse studio. Welcome
        to Democracy Now!

        JOHN PERKINS: Thank you, Amy. It‘s great to be here.

        AMY GOODMAN: It‘s good to have you with us. Okay, explain this term,
        ―economic hit man,‖ e.h.m., as you call it.

        JOHN PERKINS: Basically what we were trained to do and what our job is to do
        is to build up the American empire. To bring—to create situations where as
        many resources as possible flow into this country, to our corporations, and our
        government, and in fact we‘ve been very successful. We‘ve built the largest
        empire in the history of the world. It‘s been done over the last 50 years since
        World War II with very little military might, actually.

        It‘s only in rare instances like Iraq where the military comes in as a last resort.
        This empire, unlike any other in the history of the world, has been built primarily
through economic manipulation, through cheating, through fraud, through
seducing people into our way of life, through the economic hit men.

I was very much a part of that.

AMY GOODMAN: How did you become one? Who did you work for?

JOHN PERKINS: Well, I was initially recruited while I was in business school
back in the late sixties by the National Security Agency, the nation‘s largest and
least understood spy organization; but ultimately I worked for private

The first real economic hit man was back in the early 1950‘s, Kermit Roosevelt,
the grandson of Teddy, who overthrew of government of Iran, a democratically
elected government, Mossadegh‘s government who was Time‗s magazine
person of the year; and he was so successful at doing this without any
bloodshed—well, there was a little bloodshed, but no military intervention, just
spending millions of dollars and replaced Mossadegh with the Shah of Iran.

At that point, we understood that this idea of economic hit man was an
extremely good one. We didn‘t have to worry about the threat of war with Russia
when we did it this way. The problem with that was that Roosevelt was a CIA

He was a government employee. Had he been caught, we would have been in a
lot of trouble. It would have been very embarrassing.

So, at that point, the decision was made to use organizations like the CIA and
the NSA to recruit potential economic hit men like me and then send us to work
for private consulting companies, engineering firms, construction companies, so
that if we were caught, there would be no connection with the government.

AMY GOODMAN: Okay. Explain the company you worked for.

JOHN PERKINS: Well, the company I worked for was a company named
Chas.T.Main in Boston, Massachusetts. We were about 2,000 employees, and I
became its chief economist. I ended up having fifty people working for me. But
my real job was deal-making. It was giving loans to other countries, huge loans,
much bigger than they could possibly repay.

One of the conditions of the loan—let‘s say a $1 billion to a country like
Indonesia or Ecuador—and this country would then have to give ninety percent
of that loan back to a U.S. company, or U.S. companies, to build the
infrastructure—a Halliburton or a Bechtel. These were big ones.

Those companies would then go in and build an electrical system or ports or
highways, and these would basically serve just a few of the very wealthiest
families in those countries. The poor people in those countries would be stuck
ultimately with this amazing debt that they couldn‘t possibly repay. A country
today like Ecuador owes over fifty percent of its national budget just to pay down
its debt. And it really can‘t do it. So, we literally have them over a barrel.
So, when we want more oil, we go to Ecuador and say,
       ―Look, you‘re not able to repay your debts, therefore give our oil
       companies your Amazon rain forest, which are filled with oil.‖
And today we‘re going in and destroying Amazonian rain forests, forcing
Ecuador to give them to us because they‘ve accumulated all this debt. So we
make this big loan, most of it comes back to the United States, the country is left
with the debt plus lots of interest, and they basically become our servants, our
slaves. It‘s an empire.

There‘s no two ways about it. It‘s a huge empire. It‘s been extremely successful.

AMY GOODMAN: We‘re talking to John Perkins, author of Confessions of an
Economic Hit Man. You say because of bribes and other reason you didn‘t write
this book for a long time. What do you mean? Who tried to bribe you, or who—
what are the bribes you accepted?

JOHN PERKINS: Well, I accepted a half a million dollar bribe in the nineties not
to write the book.


JOHN PERKINS: From a major construction engineering company.

AMY GOODMAN: Which one?

JOHN PERKINS: Legally speaking, it wasn‘t... Stoner-Webster. Legally
speaking it wasn‘t a bribe, it was... I was being paid as a consultant. This is all
very legal. But I essentially did nothing.

It was a very understood, as I explained in Confessions of an Economic Hit Man,
that it was —I was— it was understood when I accepted this money as a
consultant to them I wouldn‘t have to do much work, but I mustn‘t write any
books about the subject, which they were aware that I was in the process of
writing this book, which at the time I called ―Conscience of an Economic Hit

And I have to tell you, Amy, that, you know, it‘s an extraordinary story from the
standpoint of — It‘s almost James Bondish, truly, and I mean...

AMY GOODMAN: Well that‘s certainly how the book reads.

JOHN PERKINS: Yeah, and it was, you know? And when the National Security
Agency recruited me, they put me through a day of lie detector tests. They found
out all my weaknesses and immediately seduced me. They used the strongest
drugs in our culture, sex, power and money, to win me over. I come from a very
old New England family, Calvinist, steeped in amazingly strong moral values.

I think I, you know, I‘m a good person overall, and I think my story really shows
how this system and these powerful drugs of sex, money and power can seduce
people, because I certainly was seduced. And if I hadn‘t lived this life as an
economic hit man, I think I‘d have a hard time believing that anybody does these

And that‘s why I wrote the book, because our country really needs to
understand, if people in this nation understood what our foreign policy is really
about, what foreign aid is about, how our corporations work, where our tax
money goes, I know we will demand change.

AMY GOODMAN: We‘re talking to John Perkins. In your book, you talk about
how you helped to implement a secret scheme that funneled billions of dollars of
Saudi Arabian petrol dollars back into the U.S. economy, and that further
cemented the intimate relationship between the House of Saud and successive
U.S. administrations. Explain.

JOHN PERKINS: Yes, it was a fascinating time. I remember well, you‘re
probably too young to remember, but I remember well in the early seventies how
OPEC exercised this power it had, and cut back on oil supplies. We had cars
lined up at gas stations. The country was afraid that it was facing another 1929-
type of crash—depression; and this was unacceptable. So, they—the Treasury
Department hired me and a few other economic hit men. We went to Saudi
Arabia. We...

AMY GOODMAN: You‘re actually called economic hit men — e.h.m.‘s?

JOHN PERKINS: Yeah, it was a tongue-in-cheek term that we called ourselves.
Officially, I was a chief economist. We called ourselves e.h.m.‗s. It was tongue-
in-cheek. It was like, nobody will believe us if we say this, you know? And, so,
we went to Saudi Arabia in the early seventies. We knew Saudi Arabia was the
key to dropping our dependency, or to controlling the situation. And we worked
out this deal whereby the Royal House of Saud agreed to send most of their
petro-dollars back to the United States and invest them in U.S. government

The Treasury Department would use the interest from these securities to hire
U.S. companies to build Saudi Arabia—new cities, new infrastructure—which
we‘ve done. And the House of Saud would agree to maintain the price of oil
within acceptable limits to us, which they‘ve done all of these years, and we
would agree to keep the House of Saud in power as long as they did this, which
we‘ve done, which is one of the reasons we went to war with Iraq in the first

And in Iraq we tried to implement the same policy that was so successful in
Saudi Arabia, but Saddam Hussein didn‘t buy. When the economic hit men fail
in this scenario, the next step is what we call the jackals. Jackals are CIA -
sanctioned people that come in and try to foment a coup or revolution. If that
doesn‘t work, they perform assassinations. or try to. In the case of Iraq, they
weren‘t able to get through to Saddam Hussein.

He had—His bodyguards were too good. He had doubles. They couldn‘t get
through to him. So the third line of defense, if the economic hit men and the
jackals fail, the next line of defense is our young men and women, who are sent
in to die and kill, which is what we‘ve obviously done in Iraq.
AMY GOODMAN: Can you explain how Torrijos died?

JOHN PERKINS: Omar Torrijos, the President of Panama. Omar Torrijos had
signed the Canal Treaty with Carter much—and, you know, it passed our
congress by only one vote. It was a highly contended issue. And Torrijos then
also went ahead and negotiated with the Japanese to build a sea-level canal.
The Japanese wanted to finance and construct a sea-level canal in Panama.

Torrijos talked to them about this which very much upset Bechtel Corporation,
whose president was George Schultz and senior council was Casper
Weinberger. When Carter was thrown out (and that‘s an interesting story—how
that actually happened), when he lost the election, and Reagan came in and
Schultz came in as Secretary of State from Bechtel, and Weinberger came from
Bechtel to be Secretary of Defense, they were extremely angry at Torrijos—tried
to get him to renegotiate the Canal Treaty and not to talk to the Japanese.

He adamantly refused. He was a very principled man. He had his problem, but
he was a very principled man. He was an amazing man, Torrijos.

And so, he died in a fiery airplane crash, which was connected to a tape
recorder with explosives in it, which... I was there. I had been working with him. I
knew that we economic hit men had failed. I knew the jackals were closing in on
him, and the next thing, his plane exploded with a tape recorder with a bomb in
it. There‘s no question in my mind that it was CIA sanctioned, and most—many
Latin American investigators have come to the same conclusion.

Of course, we never heard about that in our country.

AMY GOODMAN: So, where... when did your change your heart happen?

JOHN PERKINS: I felt guilty throughout the whole time, but I was seduced. The
power of these drugs, sex, power, and money, was extremely strong for me.
And, of course, I was doing things I was being patted on the back for. I was chief
economist. I was doing things that Robert McNamara liked and so on.

AMY GOODMAN: How closely did you work with the World Bank?

JOHN PERKINS: Very, very closely with the World Bank. The World Bank
provides most of the money that‘s used by economic hit men, it and the IMF. But
when 9/11 struck, I had a change of heart. I knew the story had to be told
because what happened at 9/11 is a direct result of what the economic hit men
are doing.

And the only way that we‘re going to feel secure in this country again and that
we‘re going to feel good about ourselves is if we use these systems we‘ve put
into place to create positive change around the world. I really believe we can do
that. I believe the World Bank and other institutions can be turned around and
do what they were originally intended to do, which is help reconstruct devastated
parts of the world. Help—genuinely help poor people.

There are twenty-four thousand people starving to death every day. We can
           change that.

           AMY GOODMAN: John Perkins, I want to thank you very much for being with
           us. John Perkins‘ book is called, Confessions of an Economic Hit Man.
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                                 Return to The NSA - The Super Secret
                                       National Security Agency

                                          by Prof. Alfred W. McCoy
                                                November 16, 2009
                                           from GlobalResearch Website

             Alfred W. McCoy is the J.R.W. Smail Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin-
                     Madison and the author of A Question of Torture, among other works.

            His most recent book is Policing America's Empire - The United States, the Philippines, and
           the Rise of the Surveillance State which explores the influence of overseas counterinsurgency
              operations throughout the twentieth century in spreading ever more draconian internal
                                          security measures here at home.

In his approach to National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance, as well as CIA renditions, drone
assassinations, and military detention, President Obama has to a surprising extent embraced the
expanded executive powers championed by his conservative predecessor, George W. Bush.

This bipartisan affirmation of the imperial executive could "reverberate for generations," warns Jack
Balkin, a specialist on First Amendment freedoms at Yale Law School. And consider these but some
of the early fruits from the hybrid seeds that the Global War on Terror has planted on American soil.
Yet surprisingly few Americans seem aware of the toll that this already endless war has taken on our
civil liberties.

Don't be too surprised, then, when, in the midst of some future crisis, advanced surveillance methods
and other techniques developed in our recent counterinsurgency wars migrate from Baghdad, Falluja,
and Kandahar to your hometown or urban neighborhood.

And don't ever claim that nobody told you this could happen - at least not if you care to read on.

Think of our counterinsurgency wars abroad as so many living laboratories for the undermining of a
democratic society at home, a process historians of such American wars can tell you has been going
on for a long, long time.

Counterintelligence innovations like centralized data, covert penetration, and disinformation developed
during the Army's first protracted pacification campaigning a foreign land - the Philippines from 1898 to
1913 - were repatriated to the United States during World War I, becoming the blueprint for an invasive
internal security apparatus that persisted for the next half century.

Almost 90 years later, George W. Bush's Global War on Terror plunged the U.S. military into four
simultaneous counterinsurgency campaigns, large and small - in Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, and (once
again) the Philippines - transforming a vast swath of the planet into an ad hoc "counterterrorism"

The result? Cutting-edge high-tech security and counter-terror techniques that are now slowly
migrating homeward.

As the War on Terror enters its ninth year to become one of America's longest overseas conflicts, the
time has come to ask an uncomfortable question:
        What impact have the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq - and the atmosphere they created
        domestically - had on the quality of our democracy?
Every American knows that we are supposedly fighting elsewhere to defend democracy here at home.

Yet the crusade for democracy abroad, largely unsuccessful in its own right, has proven remarkably
effective in building a technological template that could be just a few tweaks away from creating a
domestic surveillance state - with omnipresent cameras, deep data-mining, nano-second biometric
identification, and drone aircraft patrolling "the homeland."

Even if its name is increasingly anathema in Washington, the ongoing Global War on Terror has
helped bring about a massive expansion of domestic surveillance by the FBI and the National Security
Agency (NSA) whose combined data-mining systems have already swept up several billion private
documents from U.S. citizens into classified data banks.

Abroad, after years of failing counterinsurgency efforts in the Middle East, the Pentagon began
applying biometrics - the science of identification via facial shape, fingerprints, and retinal or iris
patterns - to the pacification of Iraqi cities, as well as the use of electronic intercepts for instant
intelligence and the split-second application of satellite imagery to aid an assassination campaign by
drone aircraft that reaches from Africa to South Asia.

In the panicky aftermath of some future terrorist attack, Washington could quickly fuse existing foreign
and domestic surveillance techniques, as well as others now being developed on distant battlefields, to
create an instant digital surveillance state.

The Crucible of Counterinsurgency
For the past six years, confronting a bloody insurgency, the U.S. occupation of Iraq has served as a
white-hot crucible of counterinsurgency, forging a new system of biometric surveillance and digital
warfare with potentially disturbing domestic implications.

This new biometric identification system first appeared in the smoking aftermath of "Operation
Phantom Fury," a brutal, nine-day battle that U.S. Marines fought in late 2004 to recapture the
insurgent-controlled city of Falluja. Bombing, artillery, and mortars destroyed at least half of that city's
buildings and sent most of its 250,000 residents fleeing into the surrounding countryside.
Marines then forced returning residents to wait endless hours under a desert sun at checkpoints for
fingerprints and iris scans. Once inside the city's blast-wall maze, residents had to wear identification
tags for compulsory checks to catch infiltrating insurgents.

The first hint that biometrics were helping to pacify Baghdad's far larger population of seven million
came in April 2007 when the New York Times published an eerie image of American soldiers
studiously photographing an Iraqi's eyeball.

With only a terse caption to go by, we can still infer the technology behind this single record of a retinal
scan in Baghdad:
              digital cameras for U.S. patrols
              wireless data transfer to a mainframe computer
              a database to record as many adult Iraqi eyes as could be gathered
Indeed, eight months later, the Washington Post reported that the Pentagon had collected over a
million Iraqi fingerprints and iris scans. By mid-2008, the U.S. Army had also confined Baghdad's
population behind blast-wall cordons and was checking Iraqi identities by satellite link to a biometric

Pushing ever closer to the boundaries of what present-day technology can do, by early 2008, U.S.
forces were also collecting facial images accessible by portable data labs called Joint Expeditionary
Forensic Facilities, linked by satellite to a biometric database in West Virginia.
        "A war fighter needs to know one of three things," explained the inventor of this lab-in-
        a-box. "Do I let him go? Keep him? Or shoot him on the spot?"
A future is already imaginable in which a U.S. sniper could take a bead on the eyeball of a suspected
terrorist, pause for a nanosecond to transmit the target's iris or retinal data via backpack-sized
laboratory to a computer in West Virginia, and then, after instantaneous feedback, pull the trigger.

Lest such developments seem fanciful, recall that Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward claims the
success of George W. Bush's 2007 troop surge in Iraq was due less to boots on the ground than to
bullets in the head - and these, in turn, were due to a top-secret fusion of electronic intercepts and
satellite imagery.

Starting in May 2006, American intelligence agencies launched a Special Action Program using,
         "the most highly classified techniques and information in the U.S. government" in a
         successful effort "to locate, target and kill key individuals in extremist groups such as
         al-Qaeda, the Sunni insurgency and renegade Shia militias."
Under General Stanley McChrystal, now U.S. Afghan War commander, the Joint Special Operations
Command (JSOC) deployed,
       "every tool available simultaneously, from signals intercepts to human intelligence" for
       "lightning quick" strikes.
One intelligence officer reportedly claimed that the program was so effective it gave him "orgasms."
President Bush called it "awesome."

Although refusing to divulge details, Woodward himself compared it to the Manhattan Project in World
War II. This Iraq-based assassination program relied on the authority Defense Secretary Donald
Rumsfeld granted JSOC in early 2004 to "kill or capture al-Qaeda terrorists" in 20 countries across the
Middle East, producing dozens of lethal strikes by airborne Special Operations forces.

Another crucial technological development in Washington's secret war of assassination has been the
armed drone, or unmanned aerial vehicle, whose speedy development has been another by-product of
Washington's global counterterrorism laboratory. Half a world away from Iraq in the southern
Philippines, the CIA and U.S. Special Operations Forces conducted an early experiment in the use of
aerial surveillance for assassination.

In June 2002, with a specially-equipped CIA aircraft circling overhead offering real-time video
surveillance in the pitch dark of a tropical night, Philippine Marines executed a deadly high-seas
ambush of Muslim terrorist Aldam Tilao (a.k.a. "Abu Sabaya").

In July 2008, the Pentagon proposed an expenditure of $1.2 billion for a fleet of 50 light aircraft loaded
with advanced electronics to loiter over battlefields in Afghanistan and Iraq, bringing "full motion video
and electronic eavesdropping to the troops." By late 2008, night flights over Afghanistan from the deck
of the USS Theodore Roosevelt were using sensors to give American ground forces real-time images
of Taliban targets - some so focused that they could catch just a few warm bodies huddled in darkness
behind a wall.

In the first months of Barack Obama's presidency, CIA Predator drone strikes have escalated in the
Pakistani tribal borderlands with a macabre efficiency, using a top-secret mix of electronic intercepts,
satellite transmission, and digital imaging to kill half of the Agency's 20 top-priority al-Qaeda targets in
the region.

Just three days before Obama visited Canada last February, Homeland Security launched its first
Predator-B drones to patrol the vast, empty North Dakota-Manitoba borderlands that one U.S. senator
has called America's "weakest link."

Homeland Security
While those running U.S. combat operations overseas were experimenting with intercepts, satellites,
drones, and biometrics, inside Washington the plodding civil servants of internal security at the FBI and
the NSA initially began expanding domestic surveillance through thoroughly conventional data sweeps,
legal and extra-legal, and - with White House help - several abortive attempts to revive a tradition that
dates back to World War I of citizens spying on suspected subversives.
        "If people see anything suspicious, utility workers, you ought to report it," said
        President George Bush in his April 2002 call for nationwide citizen vigilance.
Within weeks, his Justice Department had launched Operation TIPS (Terrorism Information and
Prevention System), with plans for,
        "millions of American truckers, letter carriers, train conductors, ship captains, utility
        employees and others" to aid the government by spying on their fellow Americans.
Such citizen surveillance-sparked strong protests, however, forcing the Justice Department to quietly
bury the president's program.

Simultaneously, inside the Pentagon, Admiral John Poindexter, President Ronald Reagan's former
national security advisor (swept up in the Iran-Contra scandal of that era), was developing a Total
Information Awareness program which was to contain "detailed electronic dossiers" on millions of

When news leaked about this secret Pentagon office with its eerie, all-seeing eye logo, Congress
banned the program, and the admiral resigned in 2003.

But the key data extraction technology, the Information Awareness Prototype System, migrated quietly
to the NSA. Soon enough, however, the CIA, FBI, and NSA turned to monitoring citizens electronically
without the need for human tipsters, rendering the administration's grudging retreats from conventional
surveillance at best an ambiguous political victory for civil liberties advocates.

Sometime in 2002, President Bush gave the NSA secret, illegal orders to monitor private
communications through the nation's telephone companies and its private financial transactions
through SWIFT, an international bank clearinghouse.

After the New York Times exposed these wiretaps in 2005, Congress quickly capitulated, first
legalizing this illegal executive program and then granting cooperating phone companies immunity
from civil suits. Such intelligence excess was, however, intentional. Even after Congress widened the
legal parameters for future intercepts in 2008, the NSA continued to push the boundaries of its
activities, engaging in what the New York Times politely termed the systematic "over-collection" of
electronic communications among American citizens.

Now, for example, thanks to a top-secret NSA database called "Pinwale," analysts routinely scan
countless "millions" of domestic electronic communications without much regard for whether they came
from foreign or domestic sources.

Starting in 2004, the FBI launched an Investigative Data Warehouse as a "centralized repository for...
counterterrorism." Within two years, it contained 659 million individual records. This digital archive of
intelligence, social security files, drivers' licenses, and records of private finances could be accessed
by 13,000 Bureau agents and analysts making a million queries monthly.
By 2009, when digital rights advocates sued for full disclosure, the database had already grown to over
a billion documents.

And did this sacrifice of civil liberties make the United States a safer place? In July 2009, after a careful
review of the electronic surveillance in these years, the inspectors general of the Defense Department,
the Justice Department, the CIA, the NSA, and the Office of National Intelligence issued a report
sharply critical of these secret efforts.

Despite George W. Bush's claims that massive electronic surveillance had "helped prevent attacks,"
these auditors could not find any,
        "specific instances" of this, concluding such surveillance had "generally played a
        limited role in the FBI's overall counterterrorism efforts."
Amid the pressures of a generational global war, Congress proved all too ready to offer up civil liberties
as a bipartisan burnt offering on the altar of national security.

In April 2007, for instance, in a bid to legalize the Bush administration's warrantless wiretaps,
Congressional representative Jane Harman (Dem., California) offered a particularly extreme example
of this urge.

She introduced the Violent Radicalization and Homegrown Terrorism Prevention Act, proposing a
powerful national commission, functionally a standing "star chamber," to,
        "combat the threat posed by homegrown terrorists based and operating within the
        United States."
The bill passed the House by an overwhelming 404 to 6 vote before stalling, and then dying, in a
Senate somewhat more mindful of civil liberties.

Only weeks after Barack Obama entered the Oval Office, Harman's life itself became a cautionary tale
about expanding electronic surveillance. According to information leaked to the Congressional
Quarterly, in early 2005 an NSA wiretap caught Harman offering to press the Bush Justice Department
for reduced charges against two pro-Israel lobbyists accused of espionage.

In exchange, an Israeli agent offered to help Harman gain the chairmanship of the House Intelligence
Committee by threatening House Democratic majority leader Nancy Pelosi with the loss of a major
campaign donor.

As Harman put down the phone, she said,
       "This conversation doesn't exist."
How wrong she was.

An NSA transcript of Harman's every word soon crossed the desk of CIA Director Porter Goss,
prompting an FBI investigation that, in turn, was blocked by then-White House Counsel Alberto

As it happened, the White House knew that the New York Times was about to publish its sensational
revelation of the NSA's warrantless wiretaps, and felt it desperately needed Harman for damage
control among her fellow Democrats. In this commingling of intrigue and irony, an influential legislator's
defense of the NSA's illegal wiretapping exempted her from prosecution for a security breach
discovered by an NSA wiretap.

Since the arrival of Barack Obama in the White House, the auto-pilot expansion of digital domestic
surveillance has in no way been interfered with. As a result, for example, the FBI's "Terrorist Watchlist,"
with 400,000 names and a million entries, continues to grow at the rate of 1,600 new names daily.
In fact, the Obama administration has even announced plans for a new military cyber-command-staffed
by 7,000 Air Force employees at Lackland Air Base in Texas. This command will be tasked with
attacking enemy computers and repelling hostile cyber-attacks or counterattacks aimed at U.S.
computer networks - with scant respect for what the Pentagon calls "sovereignty in the cyber-domain."

Despite the president's assurances that operations,
        "will not - I repeat - will not include monitoring private sector networks or Internet
        traffic," the Pentagon's top cyber-warrior, General James E. Cartwright, has conceded
        such intrusions are inevitable.

Sending the Future Home
While U.S. combat forces prepare to draw-down in Iraq (and ramp up in Afghanistan), military
intelligence units are coming home to apply their combat-tempered surveillance skills to our expanding
homeland security state, while preparing to counter any future domestic civil disturbances here.

Indeed, in September 2008, the Army's Northern Command announced that one of the Third Division's
brigades in Iraq would be reassigned as a Consequence Management Response Force (CMRF) inside
the U.S. Its new mission: planning for moments when civilian authorities may need help with "civil
unrest and crowd control."

According to Colonel Roger Cloutier, his unit's civil-control equipment featured "a new modular
package of non-lethal capabilities" designed to subdue unruly or dangerous individuals - including
Taser guns, roadblocks, shields, batons, and beanbag bullets.

That same month, Army Chief of Staff General George Casey flew to Fort Stewart, Georgia, for the
first full CMRF mission readiness exercise.

There, he strode across a giant urban battle map filling a gymnasium floor like a conquering Gulliver
looming over Lilliputian Americans. With 250 officers from all services participating, the military war-
gamed its future coordination with the FBI, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and
local authorities in the event of a domestic terrorist attack or threat.

Within weeks, the American Civil Liberties Union filed an expedited freedom of information request for
details of these deployments, arguing:
         "[It] is imperative that the American people know the truth about this new and
         unprecedented intrusion of the military in domestic affairs."
At the outset of the Global War on Terror in 2001, memories of early Cold War anti-communist witch-
hunts blocked Bush administration plans to create a corps of civilian tipsters and potential vigilantes.

However, far more sophisticated security methods, developed for counterinsurgency warfare overseas,
are now coming home to far less public resistance. They promise, sooner or later, to further jeopardize
the constitutional freedoms of Americans.

In these same years, under the pressure of War on Terror rhetoric, presidential power has grown
relentlessly, opening the way to unchecked electronic surveillance, the endless detention of terror
suspects, and a variety of inhumane forms of interrogation. Somewhat more slowly, innovative
techniques of biometric identification, aerial surveillance, and civil control are now being repatriated as

In a future America, enhanced retinal recognition could be married to omnipresent security cameras as
a part of the increasingly routine monitoring of public space. Military surveillance equipment, tempered
to a technological cutting edge in counterinsurgency wars, might also one day be married to the
swelling domestic databases of the NSA and FBI, sweeping the fiber-optic cables beneath our cities for
any sign of subversion.

And in the skies above, loitering aircraft and cruising drones could be checking our borders and
peering down on American life.

If that day comes, our cities will be Argus-eyed with countless thousands of digital cameras scanning
the faces of passengers at airports, pedestrians on city streets, drivers on highways, ATM customers,
mall shoppers, and visitors to any federal facility.

One day, hyper-speed software will be able to match those millions upon millions of facial or retinal
scans to photos of suspect subversives inside a biometric database akin to England's current National
Public Order Intelligence Unit, sending anti-subversion SWAT teams scrambling for an arrest or an
armed assault.

By the time the Global War on Terror is declared over in 2020, if then, our American world may be
unrecognizable - or rather recognizable only as the stuff of dystopian science fiction. What we are
proving today is that, however detached from the wars being fought in their name most Americans may
seem, war itself never stays far from home for long.

It's already returning in the form of new security technologies that could one day make a digital
surveillance state a reality, changing fundamentally the character of American democracy.

                          Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                         Security Agency
                                Return to Big Brother Loves You
                                 Return to The New World Order
                                        Return to Temas /

                                           from Wikipedia Website
                                Agency overview
                             Formed - 1958
                             Headquarters - Arlington, Virginia
                             Employees - 240
                             Annual budget - $3.2 billion
                              Agency executive - Regina E. Dugan ,
                             Website -

                                                  DARPA headquarters
                                   in the Virginia Square neighborhood of Arlington.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States
Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military.

DARPA has been responsible for funding the development of many technologies which have had a
major effect on the world, including computer networking, as well as NLS, which was both the first
hypertext system, and an important precursor to the contemporary ubiquitous graphical user interface.

Its original name was simply Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), but it was renamed
DARPA (for Defense) during March 1972, then renamed ARPA again during February 1993, and then
renamed DARPA again during March 1996.

DARPA was established during 1958 (as ARPA) in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik during
1957, with the mission of keeping U.S. military technology more sophisticated than that of the nation's
potential enemies.

From DARPA's own introduction,
      DARPA‘s original mission, established in 1958, was to prevent technological surprise
      like the launch of Sputnik, which signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into
      space. The mission statement has evolved over time. Today, DARPA‘s mission is still
      to prevent technological surprise to the US, but also to create technological surprise
      for our enemies.
DARPA is independent from other more conventional military R&D and reports directly to senior
Department of Defense management. DARPA has around 240 personnel (about 140 technical) directly
managing a $3.2 billion budget.

These figures are "on average" since DARPA focuses on short-term (two to four-year) projects run by
small, purpose-built teams.

DARPA's mission
DARPA's own introduction:
      DARPA is a Defense Agency with a unique role within DoD. DARPA is not tied to a
      specific operational mission: DARPA supplies technological options for the entire
      Department, and is designed to be the ―technological engine‖ for transforming DoD.

        Near-term needs and requirements generally drive the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and
        Air Force to focus on those needs at the expense of major change. Consequently, a
        large organization like DoD needs a place like DARPA whose only charter is radical

        DARPA looks beyond today‘s known needs and requirements. As military historian
        John Chambers noted,
               ―None of the most important weapons transforming warfare in the 20th
               century – the airplane, tank, radar, jet engine, helicopter, electronic
               computer, not even the atomic bomb – owed its initial development to
               a doctrinal requirement or request of the military.‖
        None of them.

        And to this list, DARPA would add unmanned systems, Global Positioning System
        (GPS) and Internet technologies.

        DARPA‘s approach is to imagine what capabilities a military commander might want in
        the future and accelerate those capabilities into being through technology

        These not only provide options to the commander, but also change minds about what
        is technologically possible today.
DARPA as a model
According to former DARPA Director Tony Tether and W. B. Bonvillian (―Power Play,‖ W. B.
Bonvillian, The American Interest, Volume II, p 39, November-December 2006), DARPA's key
characteristics to be replicated to reproduce DARPA's success are:
              Small and flexible: DARPA has only about 140 technical professionals; some
                 have referred to DARPA as ―100 geniuses connected by a travel agent.‖
              Flat organization: DARPA avoids hierarchy, essentially operating at only two
                 management levels to ensure the free and rapid flow of information and ideas,
                 and rapid decision-making.
              Autonomy and freedom from bureaucratic impediments: DARPA has an
                 exemption from Title V civilian personnel specifications, which provides for a
                 direct hiring authority to hire talent with the expediency not allowed by the
                 standard civil service process.
              Eclectic, world-class technical staff and performers: DARPA seeks great talent
                 and ideas from industry, universities, government laboratories, and individuals,
                 mixing disciplines and theoretical and experimental strengths. DARPA neither
                 owns nor operates any laboratories or facilities, and the overwhelming majority
                 of the research it sponsors is done in industry and universities. Very little of
                 DARPA‘s research is performed at government labs.
              Teams and networks: At its very best, DARPA creates and sustains great teams
                 of researchers from different disciplines that collaborate and share in the
                 teams‘ advances.
              Hiring continuity and change: DARPA‘s technical staff is hired or assigned for
                 four to six years. Like any strong organization, DARPA mixes experience and
                 change. It retains a base of experienced experts – its Office Directors and
                 support staff – who are knowledgeable about DoD. The staff is rotated to
                 ensure fresh thinking and perspectives, and to have room to bring technical
                 staff from new areas into DARPA. It also allows the program managers to be
                 bold and not fear failure.
              Project-based assignments organized around a challenge model: DARPA
                 organizes a significant part of its portfolio around specific technology
                 challenges. It foresees new innovation-based capabilities and then works back
                 to the fundamental breakthroughs required to make them possible. Although
                 individual projects typically last three to five years, major technological
                 challenges may be addressed over longer time periods, ensuring patient
                 investment on a series of focused steps and keeping teams together for
                 ongoing collaboration. Continued funding for DARPA projects is based on
                 passing specific milestones, sometimes called ―go/no-go‘s.‖
              Outsourced support personnel: DARPA extensively leverages technical,
                 contracting, and administrative services from other DoD agencies and
                 branches of the military. This provides DARPA the flexibility to get into and out
                 of an area without the burden of sustaining staff, while building cooperative
                 alliances with its ―agents.‖ These outside agents help create a constituency in
                 their respective organizations for adopting the technology.
              Outstanding program managers: The best DARPA program managers have
                 always been freewheeling zealots in pursuit of their goals. The Director‘s most
                 important task is to recruit and hire very creative people with big ideas, and
                 empower them.
              Acceptance of failure: DARPA pursues breakthrough opportunities and is very
                 tolerant of technical failure if the payoff from success will be great enough.
              Orientation to revolutionary breakthroughs in a connected approach: DARPA
                 historically has focused not on incremental but radical innovation. It
                 emphasizes high-risk investment, moves from fundamental technological
                advances to prototyping, and then hands off the system development and
                production to the military services or the commercial sector.
              Mix of connected collaborators: DARPA typically builds strong teams and
                networks of collaborators, bringing in a range of technical expertise and
                applicable disciplines, and involving university researchers and technology
                firms that are often not significant defense contractors or beltway consultants.

DARPA was created as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by Public Law 85-325 and
Department of Defense Directive 5105.41, in February 1958.

Its creation was directly attributed to the launching of Sputnik and to U.S. realization that the Soviet
Union had developed the capacity to rapidly exploit military technology.

Additionally, the political and defense communities recognized the need for a high-level Department of
Defense organization to formulate and execute R&D projects that would expand the frontiers of
technology beyond the immediate and specific requirements of the Military Services and their
laboratories. In pursuit of this mission, DARPA has developed and transferred technology programs
encompassing a wide range of scientific disciplines which address the full spectrum of national security

From 1958-1965, ARPA's emphasis centered on major national issues, including space, ballistic
missile defense, and nuclear test detection. During 1960, all of its civilian space programs were
transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the military space
programs to the individual Services.

This allowed DARPA to concentrate its efforts on the DEFENDER (defense against ballistic missiles),
Project Vela (nuclear test detection), and AGILE (counterinsurgency R&D) Programs, and to begin
work on computer processing, behavioral sciences, and materials sciences. The DEFENDER and
AGILE Programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor, surveillance, and directed energy R&D,
particularly in the study of radar, infrared sensing, and x-ray/gamma ray detection.

During the late 1960s, with the transfer of these mature programs to the Services, ARPA redefined its
role and concentrated on a diverse set of relatively small, essentially exploratory research programs.
The Agency was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1972, and
during the early 1970s, it emphasized direct energy programs, information processing, and tactical

Concerning information processing, DARPA made great progress, initially through its support of the
development of time-sharing (all modern operating systems rely on concepts invented for the Multics
system, developed by a cooperation between Bell Labs, General Electric and MIT, which DARPA
supported by funding Project MAC at MIT with an initial two-million-dollar grant), and later through the
evolution of the ARPANET (the first wide-area packet switching network), Packet Radio Network,
Packet Satellite Network and ultimately, the Internet and research in the artificial intelligence (AI) fields
of speech recognition and signal processing.

DARPA also funded the development of the Douglas Engelbart's NLS computer system and the Aspen
Movie Map, which was probably the first hypermedia system and an important precursor of virtual

The Mansfield Amendment of 1973 expressly limited appropriations for defense research (through
ARPA/DARPA) to projects with direct military application.

Some contend that the amendment devastated American science, since ARPA/DARPA was a major
funding source for basic science projects of the time; the National Science Foundation never made up
the difference as expected. But the resulting "brain drain" is also credited with boosting the
development of the fledgling personal computer industry.

Many young computer scientists fled from the universities to startups and private research labs like
Xerox PARC.

From 1976-1981, DARPA's major thrusts were dominated by air, land, sea, and space technology,
such as follow-on forces attack with standoff weapons and associated Command, Control, and
Communications; tactical armor and anti-armor programs; infrared sensing for space-based
surveillance; high-energy laser technology for space-based missile defense; antisubmarine warfare;
advanced cruise missiles; advanced aircraft; and defense applications of advanced computing.

These large-scale technological program demonstrations were joined by integrated circuit research,
which resulted in submicrometre electronic technology and electron devices that evolved into the Very
Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Program and the Congressionally mandated charged particle beam

Many of the successful programs were transitioned to the Services, such as the foundation
technologies in automatic target recognition, space based sensing, propulsion, and materials that were
transferred to the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), later known as the Ballistic Missile
Defense Organization (BMDO), now titled the Missile Defense Agency (MDA).

During the 1980s, the attention of the Agency was centered on information processing and aircraft-
related programs, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) or Hypersonic Research Program.
The Strategic Computing Program enabled DARPA to exploit advanced processing and networking
technologies and to rebuild and strengthen relationships with universities after the Vietnam War.

In addition, DARPA began to pursue new concepts for small, lightweight satellites (LIGHTSAT) and
directed new programs regarding defense manufacturing, submarine technology, and armor/anti-

On October 28, 2009 the agency broke ground on a new facility in Arlington, Virginia a few miles from
the Pentagon.

                                                   Directors [6]

                                        Name                          Tenure
                          Roy W. Johnson                           1958 – 1959
                          Austin W. Betts                          1960 – 1961
                          Jack P. Ruina                            1961 – 1963
                          Robert L. Sproull                        1963 – 1965
                          Charles M. Herzfeld                      1965 – 1967
                          Eberhardt Rechtin                        1967 – 1970
                          Steve J. Lukasik                         1970 – 1975
                          George H. Heilmeier                      1975 – 1977
                        Robert R. Fossum                   1977 – 1981
                        Robert S. Cooper                   1981 – 1985
                        Robert C. Duncan                   1985 – 1988
                        Ray S. Colladay                    1988 – 1989
                        Craig I. Fields                    1989 – 1990
                        Victor H. Reis                     1990 – 1992
                        Gary L. Denman                     1992 – 1995
                        Verne L. "Larry" Lynn              1995 – 1998
                        Fernando L. "Frank" Fernandez      1998 – 2001
                        Anthony J. Tether                  2001 – 2009
                        Regina E. Dugan                    2009 – present

Current program offices
DARPA has seven program offices, all of which report to the DARPA director.
          The Adaptive Execution Office (AEO) mission is to conceive and execute novel
             technology and system developments that are adaptive both in end function
             and in the process by which they are developed and to improve the transition
             worthiness of DAPRA programs across the enterprise.

            The Defense Sciences Office (DSO) vigorously pursues the most promising
              technologies within a broad spectrum of the science and engineering research
              communities and develops those technologies into important, radically new
              military capabilities.

            The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) focuses on inventing the
              networking, computing, and software technologies vital to ensuring DOD
              military superiority.

            The Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) mission focuses on the
              heterogeneous microchip-scale integration of electronics, photonics, and
              microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Their high risk/high payoff
              technology is aimed at solving the national level problems of protection from
              biological, chemical and information attack and to provide operational
              dominance for mobile distributed command and control, combined
              manned/unmanned warfare, and dynamic, adaptive military planning and

            The Strategic Technology Office (STO) mission is to focus on technologies that
              have a global theater-wide impact and that involve multiple Services.

            The Tactical Technology Office (TTO) engages in high-risk, high-payoff
              advanced military research, emphasizing the "system" and "subsystem"
              approach to the development of aeronautic, space, and land systems as well
              as embedded processors and control systems. This research includes an
              effort within the TTO to develop a small satellite launch vehicle. This vehicle
              is under development by AirLaunch LLC. This is part of the Force
               Application and Launch from Continental United States (FALCON) effort.

            The Transformational Convergence Technology Office (TCTO) mission is to
              advance new crosscutting capabilities derived from a broad range of emerging
              technological and social trends, particularly in areas related to computing and
              computing-reliant subareas of the life sciences, social sciences,
              manufacturing, and commerce.

Former offices
            Information Awareness Office - 2002-2003

            The Advanced Technology Office (ATO) researched, demonstrated, and
              developed high payoff projects in maritime, communications, special
              operations, command and control, and information assurance and survivability
              mission areas.

            The Special Projects Office (SPO) researched, developed, demonstrated, and
              transitioned technologies focused on addressing present and emerging
              national challenges. SPO investments ranged from the development of
              enabling technologies to the demonstration of large prototype systems.

               SPO developed technologies to counter the emerging threat of underground
               facilities used for purposes ranging from command-and-control, to weapons
               storage and staging, to the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction.

               SPO developed significantly more cost-effective ways to counter proliferated,
               inexpensive cruise missiles, UAVs, and other platforms used for weapon
               delivery, jamming, and surveillance.

               SPO invested in novel space technologies across the spectrum of space
               control applications including rapid access, space situational awareness,
               counterspace, and persistent tactical grade sensing approaches including
               extremely large space apertures and structures.

Active Projects
                     Boeing X-37
                     Boomerang (mobile shooter detection system)
                     CALO or "Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes" - software
                     Combat Zones That See
                     DARPA Network Challenge
                     DARPA XG
                     FALCON
                     High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System
                     High Productivity Computing Systems
                     Northrop Grumman Switchblade
                     Protein Design Processes
                      Remote-controlled insects
                     System F6 - Fractionated Spacecraft demonstrator
                     XOS

Past Projects
                       Project AGILE
                       ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet
                       Aspen Movie Map
                       Boeing X-45
                       CPOF
                       DAML
                       DARPA Grand Challenge - driverless car competition
                       DEFENDER
                       High Performance Knowledge Bases
                       HISSS
                       Hypersonic Research Program
                        I3 (Intelligent Integration of Information), supported the Digital Library research
                        effort through NSF
                       Project MAC
                       MQ-1 Predator
                       Multics
                       NLS Computer System
                       Onion routing
                       Passive radar
                       Policy Analysis Market
                       POSSE
                       Rapid Knowledge Formation
                       Sea Shadow
                       Strategic Computing Program
                       SURAN
                       Project Vela

Notable fiction
ARPA/DARPA is well known as a high-tech government agency, and as such has many appearances
in popular fiction.

Appearances can be classed into three forms. The first are more or less realistic references. Second
are references that incorrectly attribute to ARPA an operational or political role, in addition to its high-
tech responsibilities. Finally are those that want a realistic government reference, but are not DARPA
specific - any other agency would do as well. These are numerous and not particularly notable.

Some realistic references to ARPA in fiction are in Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X (DARPA
consults on a technical threat) , in episodes of television program The West Wing (the ARPA-DARPA
distinction), and in the motion picture Executive Decision (use of a one-of-a-kind experimental
prototype in an emergency).

Non-realistic references often attribute to DARPA an operational or political role, in addition to its real
high-tech responsibilities.

Examples are the Matthew Reilly books Temple and Hell Island, the James Rollins' books
Sandstorm and Black Order, and the video game series Metal Gear Solid.

       2. "50 years of Bridging the Gap"
       3. John Chambers, ed., The Oxford Companion to American Military History (New
       York: Oxford University Press, 1999) p. 791.
       4. Statement by Dr. Tony Tether (Director of Defense Advanced Research Projects
       Agency) to Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities
       (House Armed Services Committee - United States House of Representatives) on
       March 13, 2008 section DARPA as a model in which he says this is content he agrees
       with that he is repeating from ―Power Play,‖ W. B. Bonvillian, The American Interest,
       Volume II, p 39 (November-December 2006).
       5. Washington Times, "Pentagon Agency Breaks Ground", October 29, 2009.
       6. Mollet, C. (2009-02-20). "DARPA Directors, 1958 – 2008". DARPA.
       7. Oral history interview with Charles Herzfeld Charles Babbage Institute, University of
       Minnesota, Minneapolis. Herzfeld discusses programs in and administration of the
       Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
       8. Oral history interview with Stephen Lukasik. Charles Babbage Institute, University of
       Minnesota, Minneapolis. Lukasik discusses his tenure at the Advanced Research
       Projects Agency (ARPA), the development of computer networks and the ARPANET.
       9. DARPA Offices.
       10. DSO Official homepage
       11. DARPA Offices.
       12. "Falcon". DARPA. 2008.
       13. "Airlaunchllc News". Airlaunch.
       14. DARPA Offices.
       17. Carnegie-Mellon University
       18. Victor Appleton II, 1961. Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X, originally
       published by Grosset & Dunlap of New York, now re-published by Project Gutenberg.
       ARPA is referred to on page 68 published 1961

Additional Information
            DARPA - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
            DARPA‘s Insight - New World Order Program to Watch Us All

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                                          by Andrew Wozny
                                         Canada Internet Examiner
                                              October 6, 2010
                                          from Examiner Website

No big surprise that DARPA, the military‘s blue-sky research arm, is the agency behind the lofty
five-year program, called Insight.

The agency‘s goal is to replace ―largely manual exploitation and… chat-based operator
interactions‖ with a system that mines different inputs, including drone footage and on-the-
ground intelligence, and quickly stitches together the data to identify potential threats.

What DARPA‘s calling,
      ―a next generation ISR [intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance]
      exploitation and resource management system‖,
...would be faster than human analysts, but it‘d still rely on their input.

DARPA wants an interface that‘s adaptable, letting users provide context and pick the best
surveillance combo for a given situation.
The Pentagon‘s been investing in super-powered surveillance for years now, and DARPA wants
Insight to capitalize on the rapid growth in the recon field. The program will incorporate brand
new spy cams, like ARGUS-IS, a 1.8 Gigapixel camera that tracks over 100 square miles in real

And ongoing DARPA projects might be rolled into the Insight system too. The agency‘s
solicitation cites a handful, including the recently-launched PerSEAS, a program to design
complex algorithms that can somehow spot threats based on little more than ―weak evidence.‖

It‘s the Information Awareness Office by another name.

The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA) in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on
applying surveillance and information technology to track and monitor terrorists and other
asymmetric threats to national security, by achieving Total Information Awareness (TIA).

This would be achieved by creating enormous computer databases to gather and store the
personal information of everyone in the United States, including,
             personal e-mails
             social network analysis
             credit card records
             phone calls
             medical records,
...and numerous other sources, without any requirement for a search warrant.

This information would then be analyzed to look for suspicious activities, connections between
individuals, and ―threats‖.

Additionally, the program included funding for biometric surveillance technologies that could
identify and track individuals using surveillance cameras, and other methods.

Their logo says it all:
        the New World Order‘s pyramid and all seeing Eye.
It is the total tracking, total control, and total tyranny program.
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                                         Security Agency

                                              by Ian Allen
                                              February 25, 2009
                                           from IntelNews Website

Italian authorities are taking the initiative in a European Union (EU)-wide effort to terminate the tacit
immunity of Voice-Over-Internet-Protocol (VOIP) communications from authorized interception.

Italy‘s delegation to Eurojust, an EU coordination body tasked with combating transnational
organized crime, issued a statement last weekend, promising to spearhead a project to,
         ―overcome the technical and judicial obstacles to the interception of internet
         telephony systems‖.
The statement contains several references to Skype, a Luxembourg-based VOIP provider that has
so far reportedly refused to share its communications encryption system with government

Because of this, the latter have accused Skype of providing organized crime syndicates with the
ability to communicate without fear of their messages being intercepted.

There is some evidence that criminal and militant groups are switching to VOIP communications to
coordinate their operations. In November of 2008, the Pakistani militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba,
used VOIP software to communicate with the Mumbai attackers on the ground and direct the large-
scale operation on a real-time basis.

The distinguishing feature of VOIP-based communications, which form the technical basis of
popular communications software, such as Skype and Vonage, is that audio signals are converted
to data and travel through most of the Internet infrastructure in binary, rather than audio, format.
Furthermore, they are sometimes encrypted using algorithms of various strengths.

Additionally, VOIP data packets often travel through Internet networks looking for unused lines,
which may not necessarily be the shortest route to their destination. Consequently, a VOIP source
signal from New York to Los Angeles could easily reach its destination through, say, Reykjavik or
Bogota. What is more, binary data packets often split, with different parts following different routes to
a given destination and only reuniting at a switch close to the end destination.

This poses severe barriers to communications interception, as well as to the ability of law
enforcement and intelligence agencies to locate the source of target calls.
Companies like Skype point to the technical complexities of VOIP communications and argue that it
is often technically impossible to facilitate communications interception requests by government

Skype in particular says it has repeatedly briefed EU law enforcement agencies about these
technical barriers, and that its policy is to cooperate with government interception requests ―where
legally and technically possible‖.

Technical issues aside, those in the know are aware of ongoing efforts by intelligence agencies to
bypass Internet service providers altogether, concentrating instead on intercepting VOIP messages
at the user end. Earlier this month, reports emerged that German authorities are using malicious
software installed surreptitiously on targeted computers to capture the content of VOIP-based

In January, the EU prompted European law enforcement agencies to resort to computer hacking
(termed ―remote searching‖ in official documents) in order to combat cyber crime. Britain‘s
Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) admitted that British law enforcement and intelligence
agencies already conduct ―a small number‖ of such operations every year.

In 2008, ―remote searching‖ was employed during,
        ―194 clandestine searches [...] of people‘s homes, offices and hotel bedrooms‖,
        ACPO said.
More recently, an anonymous industry insider alleged that the US National Security Agency (NSA)
is actively soliciting several companies in its search for a way out of the technical challenges posed
by Skype‘s strong encryption and peer-to-peer network architecture.

The unnamed source claimed that NSA is,
       ―offering billions to any firm which can offer reliable eavesdropping on Skype IM and
       voice traffic [...]. They are saying to the industry, you get us into Skype and we will
       make you a very rich company‖, said the source.
If accurate, these allegations show that initiatives such as the one by Eurojust, above, which aim at
establishing operational interfaces between law enforcement, intelligence and telecommunications
organizations, are simply one facet of a broader effort to intercept VOIP communications.

While reaching out to VOIP providers, European and American intelligence agencies are
simultaneously engaged in projects -often of dubious legality- to circumvent these providers
altogether, focusing instead on end-point eavesdropping.

These attempts will continue for as long as encrypted, peer-to-peer VOIP remains an attractive
option for consumers.

       Has Skype’s VOIP Encryption Been Broken?
                                             by Ian Allen
                                             August 28, 2009
                                         from IntelNews Website
                                                NSA HQ

I have explained before that the US National Security Agency (NSA) and other intelligence agencies
have found it impossible to intercept Skype‘s instant messaging and voice traffic.

Like other voice-over-Internet protocol (VOIP) communications providers, Skype uses technology
that converts audio signals to data, and transports them through most of the Internet infrastructure in
binary, rather than audio, format. Furthermore, Skype uses very complex algorithms to encrypt its
customers‘ communications.

Skype has repeatedly pointed to the technical complexities of VOIP communications, arguing that it
is often technically impossible to facilitate communications interception requests by government

There are rumors among communications interception specialists that the NSA is offering billions to
anyone who can come up with a reliable eavesdropping model for Skype.

Remarkably, on August 25, a Swiss software developer released what he claims is the source code
of a program for tapping into encrypted Skype communications. I don‘t know whether the source
code (essentially a trojan) is effective.

He claims it is. If this is confirmed, then several people in Fort George F. Meade, Maryland, will be
really close paying attention.

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                                        Security Agency
                                                by Nicky Hager
                             This article is reprinted from CAQ (CovertAction Quarterly)
                                                    from JYA Website


For 40 years, New Zealand‘s largest intelligence agency, the Government Communications Security
Bureau (GCSB) the nation‘s equivalent of the US National Security Agency (NSA) had been helping its
Western allies to spy on countries throughout the Pacific region, without the knowledge of the New
Zealand public or many of its highest elected officials.

What the NSA did not know is that by the late 1980s, various intelligence staff had decided these
activities had been too secret for too long, and were providing me with interviews and documents
exposing New Zealand‘s intelligence activities. Eventually, more than 50 people who work or have
worked in intelligence and related fields agreed to be interviewed.

The activities they described made it possible to document, from the South Pacific, some alliance-wide
systems and projects which have been kept secret elsewhere. Of these, by far the most important is

Designed and coordinated by NSA, the ECHELON system is used to intercept ordinary e-mail, fax,
telex, and telephone communications carried over the world‘s telecommunications networks.

Unlike many of the electronic spy systems developed during the Cold War, ECHELON is designed
primarily for non-military targets: governments, organizations, businesses, and individuals in virtually
every country. It potentially affects every person communicating between (and sometimes within)
countries anywhere in the world.

It is, of course, not a new idea that intelligence organizations tap into e-mail and other public
telecommunications networks. What was new in the material leaked by the New Zealand intelligence
staff was precise information on where the spying is done, how the system works, its capabilities and
shortcomings, and many details such as the codenames.

The ECHELON system is not designed to eavesdrop on a particular individual‘s e-mail or fax link.
Rather, the system works by indiscriminately intercepting very large quantities of communications and
using computers to identify and extract messages of interest from the mass of unwanted ones. A chain
of secret interception facilities has been established around the world to tap into all the major
components of the international telecommunications networks.

Some monitor communications satellites, others land-based communications networks, and others radio
communications. ECHELON links together all these facilities, providing the US and its allies with the
ability to intercept a large proportion of the communications on the planet.
The computers at each station in the ECHELON network automatically search through the millions of
messages intercepted for ones containing pre-programmed keywords. Keywords include all the names,
localities, subjects, and so on that might be mentioned. Every word of every message intercepted at
each station gets automatically searched whether or not a specific telephone number or e-mail address
is on the list.

The thousands of simultaneous messages are read in "real time" as they pour into the station, hour after
hour, day after day, as the computer finds intelligence needles in telecommunications haystacks.

The computers in stations around the globe are known, within the network, as the ECHELON

Computers that can automatically search through traffic for keywords have existed since at least the
1970s, but the ECHELON system was designed by NSA to interconnect all these computers and allow
the stations to function as components of an integrated whole.

The NSA and GCSB are bound together under the five-nation UKUSA signals intelligence agreement.
The other three partners all with equally obscure names are the Government Communications
Headquarters (GCHQ) in Britain, the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) in Canada, and the
Defense Signals Directorate (DSD) in Australia.

The alliance, which grew from cooperative efforts during World War II to intercept radio transmissions,
was formalized into the UKUSA agreement in 1948 and aimed primarily against the USSR.

The five UKUSA agencies are today the largest intelligence organizations in their respective countries.
With much of the world‘s business occurring by fax, e-mail, and phone, spying on these communications
receives the bulk of intelligence resources. For decades before the introduction of the ECHELON
system, the UKUSA allies did intelligence collection operations for each other, but each agency usually
processed and analyzed the intercept from its own stations.

Under ECHELON, a particular station‘s Dictionary computer contains not only its parent agency‘s
chosen keywords, but also has lists entered in for other agencies. In New Zealand‘s satellite interception
station at Waihopai (in the South Island), for example, the computer has separate search lists for the
NSA, GCHQ, DSD, and CSE in addition to its own.

Whenever the Dictionary encounters a message containing one of the agencies‘ keywords, it
automatically picks it and sends it directly to the headquarters of the agency concerned. No one in New
Zealand screens, or even sees, the intelligence collected by the New Zealand station for the foreign
agencies. Thus, the stations of the junior UKUSA allies function for the NSA no differently than if they
were overtly NSA-run bases located on their soil.

The first component of the ECHELON network are stations specifically targeted on the international
telecommunications satellites (Intelsats) used by the telephone companies of most countries. A ring of
Intelsats is positioned around the world, stationary above the equator, each serving as a relay station for
tens of thousands of simultaneous phone calls, fax, and e-mail. Five UKUSA stations have been
established to intercept the communications carried by the Intelsats.

The British GCHQ station is located at the top of high cliffs above the sea at Morwenstow in Cornwall.
Satellite dishes beside sprawling operations buildings point toward Intelsats above the Atlantic, Europe,
and, inclined almost to the horizon, the Indian Ocean.
An NSA station at Sugar Grove, located 250 kilometers southwest of Washington, DC, in the mountains
of West Virginia, covers Atlantic Intelsats transmitting down toward North and South America. Another
NSA station is in Washington State, 200 kilometers southwest of Seattle, inside the Army‘s Yakima
Firing Center.

Its satellite dishes point out toward the Pacific Intelsats and to the east.

The job of intercepting Pacific Intelsat communications that cannot be intercepted at Yakima went to
New Zealand and Australia.

Their South Pacific location helps to ensure global interception. New Zealand provides the station at
Waihopai and Australia supplies the Geraldton station in West Australia (which targets both Pacific and
Indian Ocean Intelsats).

Each of the five stations‘ Dictionary computers has a codename to distinguish it from others in the
network. The Yakima station, for instance, located in desert country between the Saddle Mountains and
Rattlesnake Hills, has the COWBOY Dictionary, while the Waihopai station has the FLINTLOCK
Dictionary. These codenames are recorded at the beginning of every intercepted message, before it is
transmitted around the ECHELON network, allowing analysts to recognize at which station the
interception occurred.

New Zealand intelligence staff has been closely involved with the NSA‘s Yakima station since 1981,
when NSA pushed the GCSB to contribute to a project targeting Japanese embassy communications.

Since then, all five UKUSA agencies have been responsible for monitoring diplomatic cables from all
Japanese posts within the same segments of the globe they are assigned for general UKUSA

Until New Zealand‘s integration into ECHELON with the opening of the Waihopai station in 1989, its
share of the Japanese communications was intercepted at Yakima and sent unprocessed to the GCSB
headquarters in Wellington for decryption, translation, and writing into UKUSA-format intelligence
reports (the NSA provides the codebreaking programs).

The next component of the ECHELON system intercepts a range of satellite communications not carried
by Intelsat.

In addition to the UKUSA stations targeting Intelsat satellites, there are another five or more stations
homing in on Russian and other regional communications satellites. These stations are Menwith Hill in
northern England; Shoal Bay, outside Darwin in northern Australia (which targets Indonesian satellites);
Leitrim, just south of Ottawa in Canada (which appears to intercept Latin American satellites); Bad
Aibling in Germany; and Misawa in northern Japan.

A group of facilities that tap directly into land-based telecommunications systems is the final element of
the ECHELON system.

Besides satellite and radio, the other main method of transmitting large quantities of public, business,
and government communications is a combination of water cables under the oceans and microwave
networks over land. Heavy cables, laid across seabeds between countries, account for much of the
world‘s international communications. After they come out of the water and join land-based microwave
networks they are very vulnerable to interception.

The microwave networks are made up of chains of microwave towers relaying messages from hilltop to
hilltop (always in line of sight) across the countryside.

These networks shunt large quantities of communications across a country. Interception of them gives
access to international undersea communications (once they surface) and to international
communication trunk lines across continents. They are also an obvious target for large-scale
interception of domestic communications.

Because the facilities required to intercept radio and satellite communications use large aerials and
dishes that are difficult to hide for too long, that network is reasonably well documented. But all that is
required to intercept land-based communication networks is a building situated along the microwave
route or a hidden cable running underground from the legitimate network into some anonymous building,
possibly far removed. Although it sounds technically very difficult, microwave interception from space by
United States spy satellites also occurs.

The worldwide network of facilities to intercept these communications is largely undocumented, and
because New Zealand‘s GCSB does not participate in this type of interception, my inside sources could
not help either.

A 1994 expos of the Canadian UKUSA agency, Spyworld, co-authored by one of its former staff, Mike
Frost, gave the first insights into how a lot of foreign microwave interception is done (see p. 18).

It described UKUSA "embassy collection" operations, where sophisticated receivers and processors are
secretly transported to their countries‘ overseas embassies in diplomatic bags and used to monitor
various communications in foreign capitals.
Since most countries‘ microwave networks converge on the capital city, embassy buildings can be an
ideal site. Protected by diplomatic privilege, they allow interception in the heart of the target country.

The Canadian embassy collection was requested by the NSA to fill gaps in the American and British
embassy collection operations, which were still occurring in many capitals around the world when Frost
left the CSE in 1990. Separate sources in Australia have revealed that the DSD also engages in
embassy collection.

On the territory of UKUSA nations, the interception of land-based telecommunications appears to be
done at special secret intelligence facilities. The US, UK, and Canada are geographically well placed to
intercept the large amounts of the world‘s communications that cross their territories.

The only public reference to the Dictionary system anywhere in the world was in relation to one of these
facilities, run by the GCHQ in central London.

In 1991, a former British GCHQ official spoke anonymously to Granada Television‘s World in Action
about the agency‘s abuses of power. He told the program about an anonymous red brick building at 8
Palmer Street where GCHQ secretly intercepts every telex which passes into, out of, or through London,
feeding them into powerful computers with a program known as "Dictionary."

The operation, he explained, is staffed by carefully vetted British Telecom people:
       "It‘s nothing to do with national security. It‘s because it‘s not legal to take every single
       telex. And they take everything: the embassies, all the business deals, even the
       birthday greetings, they take everything. They feed it into the Dictionary."
What the documentary did not reveal is that Dictionary is not just a British system; it is UKUSA-wide.

Similarly, British researcher Duncan Campbell has described how the US Menwith Hill station in Britain
taps directly into the British Telecom microwave network, which has actually been designed with several
major microwave links converging on an isolated tower connected underground into the station.

The NSA Menwith Hill station, with 22 satellite terminals and more than 4.9 acres of buildings, is
undoubtedly the largest and most powerful in the UKUSA network. Located in northern England, several
thousand kilometers from the Persian Gulf, it was awarded the NSA‘s "Station of the Year" prize for
1991 after its role in the Gulf War.

Menwith Hill assists in the interception of microwave communications in another way as well, by serving
as a ground station for US electronic spy satellites. These intercept microwave trunk lines and short
range communications such as military radios and walkie talkies.

Other ground stations where the satellites‘ information is fed into the global network are Pine Gap, run
by the CIA near Alice Springs in central Australia and the Bad Aibling station in Germany.

Among them, the various stations and operations making up the ECHELON network tap into all the main
components of the world‘s telecommunications networks. All of them, including a separate network of
stations that intercepts long distance radio communications, have their own Dictionary computers
connected into ECHELON.

In the early 1990s, opponents of the Menwith Hill station obtained large quantities of internal documents
from the facility. Among the papers was a reference to an NSA computer system called Platform. The
integration of all the UKUSA station computers into ECHELON probably occurred with the introduction of
this system in the early 1980s.
James Bamford wrote at that time about a new worldwide NSA computer network codenamed
        "which will tie together 52 separate computer systems used throughout the world. Focal
        point, or 'host environment,‘ for the massive network will be the NSA headquarters at
        Fort Meade. Among those included in Platform will be the British SIGINT organization,

The Dictionary computers are connected via highly encrypted UKUSA communications that link back to
computer data bases in the five agency headquarters.

This is where all the intercepted messages selected by the Dictionaries end up. Each morning the
specially "indoctrinated" signals intelligence analysts in Washington, Ottawa, Cheltenham, Canberra,
and Wellington log on at their computer terminals and enter the Dictionary system.

After keying in their security passwords, they reach a directory that lists the different categories of
intercept available in the data bases, each with a four-digit code. For instance, 1911 might be Japanese
diplomatic cables from Latin America (handled by the Canadian CSE), 3848 might be political
communications from and about Nigeria, and 8182 might be any messages about distribution of
encryption technology.

They select their subject category, get a "search result" showing how many messages have been
caught in the ECHELON net on that subject, and then the day‘s work begins.

Analysts scroll through screen after screen of intercepted faxes, e-mail messages, etc. and, whenever a
message appears worth reporting on, they select it from the rest to work on.

If it is not in English, it is translated and then written into the standard format of intelligence reports
produced anywhere within the UKUSA network either in entirety as a "report," or as a summary or "gist."

A highly organized system has been developed to control what is being searched for by each station
and who can have access to it.

This is at the heart of ECHELON operations and works as follows.

The individual station‘s Dictionary computers do not simply have a long list of keywords to search for.
And they do not send all the information into some huge database that participating agencies can dip
into as they wish. It is much more controlled.

The search lists are organized into the same categories, referred to by the four digit numbers. Each
agency decides its own categories according to its responsibilities for producing intelligence for the

For GCSB, this means South Pacific governments, Japanese diplomatic, Russian Antarctic activities,
and so on.
The agency then works out about 10 to 50 keywords for selection in each category. The keywords
include such things as names of people, ships, organizations, country names, and subject names. They
also include the known telex and fax numbers and Internet addresses of any individuals, businesses,
organizations, and government offices that are targets. These are generally written as part of the
message text and so are easily recognized by the Dictionary computers.

The agencies also specify combinations of keywords to help sift out communications of interest. For
example, they might search for diplomatic cables containing both the words "Santiago" and "aid," or
cables containing the word "Santiago" but not "consul" (to avoid the masses of routine consular

It is these sets of words and numbers (and combinations), under a particular category, that get placed in
the Dictionary computers. (Staff in the five agencies called Dictionary Managers enter and update the
keyword search lists for each agency.)

The whole system, devised by the NSA, has been adopted completely by the other agencies. The
Dictionary computers search through all the incoming messages and, whenever they encounter one with
any of the agencies‘ keywords, they select it.

At the same time, the computer automatically notes technical details such as the time and place of
interception on the piece of intercept so that analysts reading it, in whichever agency it is going to, know
where it came from, and what it is. Finally, the computer writes the four-digit code (for the category with
the keywords in that message) at the bottom of the message‘s text. This is important.

It means that when all the intercepted messages end up together in the database at one of the agency
headquarters, the messages on a particular subject can be located again. Later, when the analyst using
the Dictionary system selects the four- digit code for the category he or she wants, the computer simply
searches through all the messages in the database for the ones which have been tagged with that

This system is very effective for controlling which agencies can get what from the global network
because each agency only gets the intelligence out of the ECHELON system from its own numbers.

It does not have any access to the raw intelligence coming out of the system to the other agencies. For
example, although most of the GCSB‘s intelligence production is primarily to serve the UKUSA alliance,
New Zealand does not have access to the whole ECHELON network.

The access it does have is strictly controlled.

A New Zealand intelligence officer explained:
       "The agencies can all apply for numbers on each other‘s Dictionaries. The hardest to
       deal with are the Americans. ... [There are] more hoops to jump through, unless it is in
       their interest, in which case they‘ll do it for you."
There is only one agency which, by virtue of its size and role within the alliance, will have access to the
full potential of the ECHELON system the agency that set it up. What is the system used for?

Anyone listening to official "discussion" of intelligence could be forgiven for thinking that, since the end
of the Cold War, the key targets of the massive UKUSA intelligence machine are terrorism, weapons
proliferation, and economic intelligence. The idea that economic intelligence has become very important,
in particular, has been carefully cultivated by intelligence agencies intent on preserving their post-Cold
War budgets. It has become an article of faith in much discussion of intelligence.

However, I have found no evidence that these are now the primary concerns of organizations such as

A different story emerges after examining very detailed information I have been given about the
intelligence New Zealand collects for the UKUSA allies and detailed descriptions of what is in the yards-
deep intelligence reports New Zealand receives from its four allies each week.

There is quite a lot of intelligence collected about potential terrorists, and there is quite a lot of economic
intelligence, notably intensive monitoring of all the countries participating in GATT negotiations.

But by far, the main priorities of the intelligence alliance continue to be political and military intelligence
to assist the larger allies to pursue their interests around the world. Anyone and anything the particular
governments are concerned about can become a target.

With capabilities so secret and so powerful, almost anything goes. For example, in June 1992, a group
of current "highly placed intelligence operatives" from the British GCHQ spoke to the London Observer:
        "We feel we can no longer remain silent regarding that which we regard to be gross
        malpractice and negligence within the establishment in which we operate."
They gave as examples GCHQ interception of three charitable organizations, including Amnesty
International and Christian Aid.

As the Observer reported:
        "At any time GCHQ is able to home in on their communications for a routine target
        request," the GCHQ source said. In the case of phone taps the procedure is known as
With telexes it is called Mayfly.

By keying in a code relating to Third World aid, the source was able to demonstrate telex "fixes" on the
three organizations.
        "It is then possible to key in a trigger word which enables us to home in on the telex
        communications whenever that word appears," he said. "And we can read a pre-
        determined number of characters either side of the keyword."
Without actually naming it, this was a fairly precise description of how the ECHELON Dictionary system

Again, what was not revealed in the publicity was that this is a UKUSA-wide system. The design of
ECHELON means that the interception of these organizations could have occurred anywhere in the
network, at any station where the GCHQ had requested that the four-digit code covering Third World aid
be placed.

Note that these GCHQ officers mentioned that the system was being used for telephone calls. In New
Zealand, ECHELON is used only to intercept written communications: fax, e-mail, and telex. The reason,
according to intelligence staff, is that the agency does not have the staff to analyze large quantities of
telephone conversations.

Mike Frost‘s expos of Canadian "embassy collection" operations described the NSA computers they
used, called Oratory, that can "listen" to telephone calls and recognize when keywords are spoken. Just
as we can recognize words spoken in all the different tones and accents we encounter, so too,
according to Frost, can these computers.
Telephone calls containing keywords are automatically extracted from the masses of other calls and
recorded digitally on magnetic tapes for analysts back at agency headquarters. However, high volume
voice recognition computers will be technically difficult to perfect, and my New Zealand-based sources
could not confirm that this capability exists.

But, if or when it is perfected, the implications would be immense.

It would mean that the UKUSA agencies could use machines to search through all the international
telephone calls in the world, in the same way that they do written messages. If this equipment exists for
use in embassy collection, it will presumably be used in all the stations throughout the ECHELON
network. It is yet to be confirmed how extensively telephone communications are being targeted by the
ECHELON stations for the other agencies.

The easiest pickings for the ECHELON system are the individuals, organizations, and governments that
do not use encryption. In New Zealand‘s area, for example, it has proved especially useful against
already vulnerable South Pacific nations which do not use any coding, even for government
communications (all these communications of New Zealand‘s neighbors are supplied, unscreened, to its
UKUSA allies).

As a result of the revelations in my book, there is currently a project under way in the Pacific to promote
and supply publicly available encryption software to vulnerable organizations such as democracy
movements in countries with repressive governments. This is one practical way of curbing illegitimate
uses of the ECHELON capabilities.

One final comment. All the newspapers, commentators, and "well placed sources" told the public that
New Zealand was cut off from US intelligence in the mid-1980s. That was entirely untrue. The
intelligence supply to New Zealand did not stop, and instead, the decade since has been a period of
increased integration of New Zealand into the US system.

Virtually everything the equipment, manuals, ways of operating, jargon, codes, and so on, used in the
GCSB continues to be imported entirely from the larger allies (in practice, usually the NSA).

As with the Australian and Canadian agencies, most of the priorities continue to come from the US, too.

The main thing that protects these agencies from change is their secrecy.

On the day my book arrived in the book shops, without prior publicity, there was an all-day meeting of
the intelligence bureaucrats in the prime minister‘s department trying to decide if they could prevent it
from being distributed. They eventually concluded, sensibly, that the political costs were too high. It is
understandable that they were so agitated.

Throughout my research, I have faced official denials or governments refusing to comment on publicity
about intelligence activities. Given the pervasive atmosphere of secrecy and stonewalling, it is always
hard for the public to judge what is fact, what is speculation, and what is paranoia.

Thus, in uncovering New Zealand‘s role in the NSA-led alliance, my aim was to provide so much detail
about the operations the technical systems, the daily work of individual staff members, and even the
rooms in which they work inside intelligence facilities that readers could feel confident that they were
getting close to the truth.

I hope the information leaked by intelligence staff in New Zealand about UKUSA and its systems such
as ECHELON will help lead to change.
                                   Return to The Echelon
                       Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                      Security Agency

                                          by Eric Mayes
                                             March 31, 2008
                                         from RawStory Website
                               recovered through WayBackMachine Website

Google is selling storage and data searching equipment to U.S. Intelligence agencies giving
them the power to create internal searches of government data.

The CIA, FBI and National Security Agency (NSA) have all reportedly banded together to create
an internal government intranet - sharing data on a system called Intellipedia.
        "Each analyst, for lack of a better term, has a shoe box with their knowledge,"
        Sean Dennehy, chief of Intellipedia development for the CIA, told the San
        Francisco Chronicle Sunday.

        "They maintained it in a shared drive or a Word document, but we're
        encouraging them to move those platforms so that everyone can benefit."
There are three levels of information available to users:
             top secret
             secret
             sensitive but unclassified
According to numbers provided by the CIA, 37,000 accounts have been established providing
access to 200,000 pages of information. Google supplies the software, hardware and tech

The software and browsing giant is also licensing its mapping data to government agencies.
        "We are a very small group, and even a lot of people in the federal government
        don't know that we exist," said Mike Bradshaw, who leads Google's federal
        government sales team and its 18 employees, yesterday to the Chronicle.
Federal agencies are not the only government groups lining up for the Google‘s know how.

The U.S. Coast Guard, The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, National
Highway Safety Administration and the states of Washington and Alabama have also signed up
for similar Google systems.

Google‘s transactions with the intelligence community have raised privacy concerns.
Questioned by CNET earlier this year, both Google and Microsoft declined to say if they have
provided their users private data to federal authorities under the Foreign Intelligence
Surveillance Act - President Bush's warrantless wiretapping program.

In general email and Internet data are not subject to the same privacy rules that wire, telephone
and radio transmissions are.

Google told CNET:
       "As our privacy policy states, we comply with law enforcement requests made
       with proper service. We do not discuss specific law enforcement requests and
       generally do not share aggregate information about them. There are also some
       legal restrictions on what information we can share about law enforcement
                                 Return to Google and The
                       Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                      Security Agency

                                      by Dark Government
                                originally published on DarkGovernment
                                             04 October 2010
                                      from BeforeItsNews Website

                                 Aircraft Intelligence collection station
The Pentagon‘s surveillance net is massive. But it was holes and seams.

Spy drone videos and communications intercepts may be aimed at the same target. Analysts
have a hard time flipping easily from one kind of intel (intelligence) to the other, however -
allowing those targets to get away.

So the military is working on an out-there idea to fix the problem:
        a single mega-system that pulls together and analyzes every kind of intel you
        can imagine.
If it works as planned, it‘ll be a whole lot harder to slip through that Pentagon net. No surprise
that DARPA, the military‘s blue-sky research arm, is the agency behind the lofty five-year
program, called 'Insight.'

The agency‘s goal is to replace ―largely manual exploitation and…chat-based operator
interactions‖ with a system that mines different inputs, including drone footage and on-the-
ground intel, and quickly stitches together the data to identify potential threats.

What DARPA‘s calling,
      ―a next generation ISR [intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance]
      exploitation and resource management system‖ would be faster than human
      analysts, but it‘d still rely on their input.
DARPA wants an interface that‘s adaptable, letting users provide context and pick the best
surveillance combo for a given situation.

The Pentagon‘s been investing in super-powered surveillance for years now, and DARPA wants
Insight to capitalize on the rapid growth in the recon field. The program will incorporate brand
new spy cams, like ARGUS-IS, a 1.8 Gigapixel camera that tracks over 100 square miles in real
time. And ongoing DARPA projects might be rolled into the Insight system too.

The agency‘s solicitation cites a handful, including the recently-launched PerSEAS, a program to
design complex algorithms that can somehow spot threats based on little more than ―weak

And DARPA‘s betting big on Insight.

The agency‘s creating an entire ―Insight Test Bed,‖ to be located at Fort Irwin‘s National Training
Center, that‘ll mimic ―real world operational settings,‖ complete with scripted scenarios. In hopes
of fast-tracking ongoing programs, DARPA‘s also prepping a ―Development Incubator‖ of
unclassified data and evaluation results for contractors.

The goal is to boost collaboration and lower the cost of systems testing for developers - not to
mention make it easier to integrate their work into Insight‟s eventual surveillance depository.

                                  Return to Big Brother loves
                        Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                       Security Agency
                                        by Tom Burghardt
                                           Antifascist Calling
                                            October 11, 2010
                                      from GlobalResearch Website

                As they walked along the busy, yellow-lit tiers of offices,
                Anderton said:
                        "You're acquainted with the theory of precrime,
                        of course. I presume we can take that for
                Philip K. Dick
                The Minority Report

What do Google, the CIA and a host of so-called "predictive behavior" start-ups have in

They're interested in you, or more specifically, whether your online interests - from Facebook to
Twitter posts, and from Flickr photos to YouTube and blog entries - can be exploited by powerful
computer algorithms and subsequently transformed into "actionable intelligence."

And whether the knowledge gleaned from an IP address is geared towards selling useless junk
or entering a name into a law enforcement database matters not a whit. It's all "just data" and
"buzz" goes the mantra, along what little is left of our privacy and our rights.

Increasingly, secret state agencies ranging from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to the
National Security Agency (NSA) are pouring millions of dollars into data-mining firms which claim
they have a handle on who you are or what you might do in the future.

And to top it off, the latest trend in weeding-out dissenters and nonconformists from the social
landscape will soon be invading a workplace near you; in fact, it already has.

Welcome to the sinister world of "precrime" where capitalist grifters, drug- and torture-tainted spy
shops are all laboring mightily to stamp out every last vestige of free thought here in the heimat.

The CIA Enters the Frame
In July, security journalist Noah Shachtman revealed in Wired that,
         "the investment arms of the CIA and Google are both backing a company that
         monitors the web in real time - and says it uses that information to predict the
Shachtman reported that the CIA's semi-private investment company, In-Q-Tel, and Google
Ventures, the search giant's business division had partnered-up with a dodgy outfit called
Recorded Future (below video) pouring, according to some estimates, $20 million dollars into the
fledgling firm.

A blurb on In-Q-Tel's web site informs us that,
        "Recorded Future extracts time and event information from the web. The
        company offers users new ways to analyze the past, present, and the predicted
Who those ubiquitous though nameless "users" are or what they might do with that information
once they "extract" it from the web is left unsaid.

However, judging from the interest that a CIA-connected entity has expressed in funding the
company, privacy will not figure prominently in the "new ways" such tools will be used.

Wired reported that the company, founded by former Swedish Army Ranger Christopher
        "scours tens of thousands of websites, blogs and Twitter accounts to find the
        relationships between people, organizations, actions and incidents - both
        present and still-to-come."

        "The cool thing is" Ahlberg said, "you can actually predict the curve, in many
And as for the search giant's interest in "predicting the future" for the secret state, it wouldn't be
the first time that Google Ventures sold equipment and expertise to America's shadow warriors.

While the firm may pride itself on the corporate slogan, "don't be evil," data is a valuable
commodity. And where's there value, there's money to be made.

Whether it comes in the form of "increasing share value" through the sale of private information
to marketeers or state intelligence agencies eager to increase "situational awareness" of the
"battlespace" is a matter of complete indifference to corporate bean counters.

After all, as Google CEO Eric Schmidt told CNBC last year,
          "if you have something that you don't want anyone to know, maybe you
          shouldn't be doing it in the first place."

But that standard, "only bad people have something to hide," is infinitely mutable and can be
stretched - or manipulated as has so often been the case in the United States - to encompass
everything from,
              "Papist" conspiracies
              "illegal" migrants
              homosexuality
              communism
              drug use
              America's latest bête noire: the "Muslim threat"
Schmidt went on to say that,
       "the reality is that search engines, including Google, do retain this information
       for some time. And we're all subject, in the U.S., to the Patriot Act, and it is
       possible that that information could be made available to the authorities."
In February, The Washington Post reported that,
        "the world's largest Internet search company and the world's most powerful
        electronic surveillance organization are teaming up in the name of

          "The alliance" between Google and NSA "is being designed to allow the two
          organizations to share critical information without violating Google's policies or
          laws that protect the privacy of Americans' online communications," the Post
An anonymous source told the Post,
       "the deal does not mean the NSA will be viewing users' searches or e-mail
       accounts or that Google will be sharing proprietary data."

Last spring it was revealed that Google's Street View cars had been secretly vacuuming up
terabytes of private wi-fi data for more than three years across Europe and the United States.

The Sunday Times reported that,
       the firm had, "been scooping up snippets of people's online activities broadcast
       over unprotected home and business wi-fi networks."
In July, The Washington Post's "Top Secret America" investigation disclosed that Google
supplies mapping and search products to the U.S. secret state and that their employees,
outsourced intelligence contractors for the Defense Department, may have filched their
customers' wi-fi data as part of an NSA surveillance project.

And what about email and web searches?

Last year, The New York Times revealed that NSA intercepts of,
        "private telephone calls and e-mail messages of Americans are broader than
        previously acknowledged."
In fact, a former NSA analyst described how he was trained-up fierce in 2005,
          "for a program in which the agency routinely examined large volumes of
          Americans' e-mail messages without court warrants."
That program, code-named PINWALE, and the NSA's meta-data-mining spy op STELLAR
WIND, continue under Obama.

Indeed, The Atlantic told us at the time that PINWALE,
        "is actually an unclassified proprietary term used to refer to advanced data-
        mining software that the government uses."
But the seamless relationships amongst communications' giants such as Google and the secret
state doesn't stop there.

Even before Google sought an assist from the National Security Agency to secure its networks
after an alleged breech by China last year, in 2004 the firm had acquired Keyhole, Inc., an In-Q-
Tel funded start-up that developed 3-D-spy-in-the-sky images; Keyhole became the backbone
for what later evolved into Google Earth.

At the time of their initial investment, In-Q-Tel said that Keyhole's,
         "strategic relationship... means that the Intelligence Community can now benefit
         from the massive scalability and high performance of the Keyhole enterprise
In-Q-Tel's then-CEO, Gilman Louie, said that spy shop venture capitalists invested in the firm,
        "because it offers government and commercial users a new capability to
        radically enhance critical decision making. Through its ability to stream very
        large geospatial datasets over the Internet and private networks, Keyhole has
        created an entirely new way to interact with earth imagery and feature data."
Or, as seen on a daily basis in the AfPak "theatre" deliver exciting new ways to kill people.

Now that's innovation!

That was then, now the search giant and the CIA's investment arm are banking on products that
will take privacy intrusions to a whole new level.

A promotional offering by the up-and-comers in the predictive behavior marketplace, Recorded
Future - A White Paper on Temporal Analytics asserts that,
        "unlike traditional search engines which focus on text retrieval and leaves the
        analysis to the user, we strive to provide tools which assist in identifying and
        understanding historical developments, and which can also help formulate
        hypotheses about and give clues to likely future events. We have decided on
        the term 'temporal analytics' to describe the time oriented analysis tasks
        supported by our systems."
Big in the hyperbole department, Recorded Future claims to have developed an,
         "analytics engine, which goes beyond search, explicit link analysis and adds
         implicit link analysis, by looking at the 'invisible links' between documents that
         talk about the same, or related, entities and events. We do this by separating
         the documents and their content from what they talk about."
According to the would-be Big Brother enablers,
       "Recorded Future also analyzes the 'time and space dimension' of documents -
       references to when and where an event has taken place, or even when and
       where it will take place - since many documents actually refer to events
       expected to take place in the future."
Adding to the unadulterated creep factor, the technocratic grifters aver they're,
        "adding more components, e.g. sentiment analyses, which determine what
        attitude an author has towards his/her topic, and how strong that attitude is - the
        affective state of the author."
Strongly oppose America's imperial project to steal other people's resources in Afghanistan and
Iraq, or, crime of crimes, have the temerity to write or organize against it?

Step right this way, Recorded Future has their eye on you and will sell that information to the
highest bidder!

After all, as Mike Van Winkle, a California Anti-Terrorism Information Center shill infamously
told the Oakland Tribune back in 2003 after Oakland cops wounded scores of peacenik
longshoremen at an antiwar rally at the port:
          "You can make an easy kind of a link that, if you have a protest group protesting
        a war where the cause that's being fought against is international terrorism, you
        might have terrorism at that (protest). You can almost argue that a protest
        against that is a terrorist act."
And with Recorded Future's "sentiment analyses" such "links" will be even easier to fabricate.

Never mind that the prestigious National Academy of Science's National Research Council
issued a scathing 2008 report, Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A
Framework for Assessment, that debunked the utility of data-ming and link analysis as effective
counterterrorism tools.
        "Far more problematic," the NRC informs us, "are automated data-mining
        techniques that search databases for unusual patterns of activity not already
        known to be associated with terrorists."

        Since "so little is known about what patterns indicate terrorist activity" the report
        avers, dodgy techniques such as link analysis "are likely to generate huge
        numbers of false leads."
As for Recorded Future's over-hyped "sentiment analyses," the NRC debunked, one might even
say preemptively, the dodgy claims of our would-be precrime mavens.
        "The committee also examined behavioral surveillance techniques, which try to
        identify terrorists by observing behavior or measuring physiological states."
Their conclusion?
        "There is no scientific consensus on whether these techniques are ready for use
        at all in counterterrorism."
Damningly, the NRC asserted that such techniques,
      "have enormous potential for privacy violations because they will inevitably force
      targeted individuals to explain and justify their mental and emotional states."
Not that such inconvenient facts matter to Recorded Future or their paymasters in the so-called
intelligence community who after all, are in the driver's seat when the firm's knowledge products
"make predictions about the future."

After all, as Ahlberg and his merry band of privacy invaders inform us:
          "Our mission is not to help our customers find documents, but to enable them to
          understand what is happening in the world."
The better to get a leg up on the competition or know who to target.

The "Real You"
Not to be outdone by black world spy agencies, their outsourced corporate partners or the
futurist gurus who do their bidding, the high-tech publication Datamation, told us last month that
the precrime concept,
          "is coming very soon to the world of Human Resources (HR) and employee
Reporter Mike Elgan revealed that a,
       "Santa Barbara, Calif., startup called Social Intelligence data-mines the social
       networks to help companies decide if they really want to hire you."
Elgan averred that while background checks have historically searched for evidence of criminal
behavior on the part of prospective employees,
       "Social Intelligence is the first company that I'm aware of that systematically
       trolls social networks for evidence of bad character."
Similar to Recorded Future and dozens of other "predictive behavior" companies such as
Attensity and Visible Technologies, Social Intelligence deploys,
         "automation software that slogs through Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, YouTube,
         LinkedIn, blogs, and 'thousands of other sources,' the company develops a
         report on the 'real you' - not the carefully crafted you in your resume."
According to Datamation,
       "the company also offers a separate Social Intelligence Monitoring service to
       watch the personal activity of existing employees on an ongoing basis."
Such intrusive monitoring transforms the "workplace" into a 24/7 Orwellian panopticon from
which there is no hope of escape.

The service is sold as an exemplary means to "enforce company social media policies."

However, since,
      "criteria are company-defined, it's not clear whether it's possible to monitor
      personal activity."
Fear not, it is.

Social Intelligence, according to Elgan,
         "provides reporting that deemphasizes specific actions and emphasizes
         character. It's less about 'what did the employee do' and more about 'what kind
         of person is this employee?'"
In other words, it's all about the future; specifically, the grim world order that fear-mongering
corporations are rapidly bringing to fruition.

Datamation reports that "following the current trend lines," rooted in the flawed logic of
information derived from data-mining and link analysis,
        "social networking spiders and predictive analytics engines will be working night
        and day scanning the Internet and using that data to predict what every
        employee is likely to do in the future. This capability will simply be baked right in
        to HR software suites."
As with other aspects of daily life in post-constitutional America, executive decisions, ranging
from whether or not to hire or fire someone, cast them into a lawless gulag without trial, or even
kill them solely on the say-so of our War-Criminal-in-Chief, are the new house rules.

Like our faux progressive president, some HR bureaucrat will act as judge, jury and executioner,
making decisions that can - and have - wrecked lives.

Elgan tells us that unlike a criminal proceeding where you stand before the law accused of
wrongdoing and get to face your accuser,
        "you can't legally be thrown in jail for bad character, poor judgment, or
        expectations of what you might do in the future. You have to actually break the
        law, and they have to prove it."

         "Personnel actions aren't anything like this." You aren't afforded the means to
         "face your accuser."
In fact, based on whether or not you sucked-up to the boss, pissed-off some corporate toady, or
moved into the "suspect" category based on an algorithm, you don't have to actually violate
company rules in order to be fired "and they don't have to prove it."

Datamation tells us,
      "if the social network scanning, predictive analytics software of the future
        decides that you are going to do something in future that's inconsistent with the
        company's interests, you're fired."
And, Elgan avers, now that,
        "the tools are becoming monstrously sophisticated, efficient, powerful, far-
        reaching and invasive," the precrime "concept is coming to HR."
Big Brother is only a "ping" or mouse click away...

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                                        Loves You...
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                             Return to The End of The Internet?
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                                 National Security Agency


                  The Fake Second Coming
                                          By Christi Verismo.
                                               Part 10 of 16

   Mind Control And Surveillance From Pine Gap

   In Silent Partners - The UKUSA Agreement by Susan Bryce says there are about 48 years of
   SIGINT (satellite signal intelligence) shared by the UKUSA partners: US, Canada, UK, Australia,
   New Zealand, Japan, South Korea and the NATO nations. (Some also say Germany, Norway
   and Turkey are in too and also China on a limited basis)

   As well as communications interception and satellite spying there is an interest in undersea
   activities. Could it have something to do with the over 1,400 alien bases here on this planet
   including many undersea? The UKUSA pact has been gathering intelligence on the former
   Soviet empire for 40 years.

   Kim Philby leaked this to Moscow. Pine Gap, Nurrangar and Menwith Hill operate under this
   pact. Menwith Hill covers communications and phone calls between USA and Europe in UK.
   Signatories to UKUSA standardize intercept handling procedures and indoctrination oaths. The
   NSA which runs this controls over 2,000 electronic intercept stations, with 130,000 personnel
   around the world. The primary purpose of the NSA was started to decipher alien
   communications, language and establish dialogue.
In 1983 the NSA established a worldwide computer network linking 52 separate government
computer systems used throughout the world. All the information ends up at NSA's
Headquarters in Maryland. So it can plug into each phone call and message in USA, UK and
Australia using the US base, Pine Gap and the new installation at Geraldton in Western

Patrick Poole wrote an very complete analysis and here is a summary: Echelon based at Pine
Gap is the technological spy system intercepting all phone calls, faxes, emails and telexes in
the world mainly by satellite. Plus other satellites, microwaves signals, cellular and fiber-optic
cable communications traffic. Real time phone calls in USA could be listened to at an outpost of
Echelon at Menwith Hill in UK.

Commercial espionage can be beneficial to the companies that helped the NSA develop the
systems that power the Echelon network. This can also be used to push American
manufacturers out of deals in favor of US defense and intelligence contractors, who frequently
finance both political parties. The European Parliament is asking if this violates the sovereignty
and privacy of citizens in other countries.

Though UK does allow surveillance on its own citizens, Menwith Hill and Pine Gap cover US
citizens. Echelon stations are all over the globe, from Geraldton W. Australia, Waihopai New
Zealand, Ascension Island in the Atlantic, the Indian ocean atoll of Diego Garcia, Guam and the
Philippines in the Pacific, to South Africa, Misawa Japan to Leitrim Canada. Pine Gap, Menwith
Hill, Bad Aibling Germany, Colorado USA and Antarctica are main centres. No communications
signal escapes the electronic net.

The 2 primary downlink facilities for over 25 satellites acting as giant scoops picking up info
from all electronic communications are at Menwith Hill in North York Moors UK and Pine Gap.
Menwith Hill has 1,400 American NSA personnel and 350 UK Ministry of Defense staff on site.
Menwith Hill goes back to 1951 and received one of the first sophisticated IBM computers in
the early 1960's. The NSA took it over in 1966. British Telecom wires fibre-optic telephone
trunklines capable of carrying 100,000 calls simultaneously through Menwith Hill.

It has become a target for peace activists. Echelon decrypts, filters, examines and codifies
messages into selective categories for further analysis by intelligence from the various UKUSA
agencies. Menwith Hill SILKWORTH super-computer operates voice recognition and optical
character recognition and feeds them into data recognition engines.

Voice recognition programs convert talk into text messages for further analysis and even
individual voices can be targeted, so every call they make is transcribed. Each message is
given a 4 digit code as to its source e.g. 5535 for Japanese diplomatic traffic. Keywords are
kept up to date by Dictionary Managers. Messages are transmitted to each agency's
headquarters via a global computer system that acts as as the nervous system.

Patrick further exposes the Echelon information tracking outcome of spying on enemies, allies
and private citizens. Daily analysts review the previous day's translations and these are further
categorized into gists, summaries and reports. These are given classifications: Secret, More
Secret, Top Secret, Russian Intercepts and intelligence forwarded to non-UKUSA parties. Even
secret submarines are able to tap into undersea communications cables.

Though 30 other nations across the world also have eavesdropping networks, none compares
to Echelon. The French have attacked Echelon, but runs its own global spying "Frenchelon". A
Ph.D. physicist called "V" wrote that the second generation of Echelon called Echelon II is not a
US govt. funded project. It has a series of communications bases near the equator.

The leaders of this are a cabal from China, several individuals from Europe and a group in USA.
Its a highway for all e-business and will be used in conjunction with smart cards for one
currency. It will a data base designed for the DRAM semiconductor chips mass produced and
down to 0.1 microns. It has a real time transportation system and logistic tracking system, plus
a monitoring system for ICBM, aircraft, submarines and a control system for joining all financial
institutions together.

    1.   INSLAW developed the key software package for tracking and monitoring
    2.   IBM Computers and Chip manufacturing
    3.   Loral and GM H satellites
    4.   ATT long lines and fiber optics
    5.   LMT the major contractor for military information systems
    6.   LEH (Lehmanns Brothers) will be their banker and financial controller
    7.   GM the major civilian transporter

These 6 companies will be worth 4 trillion dollars and the Board of Directors and the
CEO/Chairmen have been careful not to break any laws to achieve this, including setting up
plants in China - Dr. Armstrong said to the Senate Judiciary committee "we work in the gray
area". Many deaths have occurred by people investigating the INSLAW monitoring technology,
which uses a backdoor in computer software programs to feed information back to an
intelligence agency.

Texe Marrs in his book Project L.U.C.I.D. writes that every person on the planet will be issued
a 'Smart" ID card to be monitored 24 hours day, 7 days a week by Central Gestapo consisting
of agencies made up of the FBI, KGB, CIA, DEA, DIA, NSA, IRS, EPA, OSHA, NCIC, USDA,
FDA, NRO, BATF, FINCEN, INS, DOJ, WTO, Europol, Interpol, Mossad and the MAB. He says
resistors will have microchip surgically implanted in their brains.
All manufactured goods will be marked with the number of the beast, 666, which is the ISO
9000 certification system. The Bilderbergers, secretive groups of about 125 of the richest and
most powerful industrialists and bankers on the earth, comprising black nobility and European
royalty in touch with the ETs that the CIA follows, (The Council of Nine) made the command
decision for ISO 9000.

100 countries have adopted it and it is fast becoming the sole requirement for conducting
commerce in all nations of the world. The NSA who controls L.U.C.I.D. giant computer network
correlates, deciphers and analyses data and reports from international banks, 32 directorates of
UN, the core of the Secret Societies, the Vatican and various agencies of 170 nations. Alice
Bailey's Lucis Trust is closely affiliated with UN leadership and it's membership includes Robert
McNamara, former Secretary of Defense and former head of World bank.

The primary goal of the Lucis Trust is a New World Order/One World Government presided
over by a world teacher holding "Office of Christ" for the Age. Bearing in mind that the Nazis,
Freemasons. UN leaders and many NewAge gurus follow Alice Bailey and the sideshoot
groups, so it all makes sense. The world army for UN is in sight, with total military control and
enforcement power for the whole planet.

All computers on earth, the entire information highway will be networked in to L.U.C.I.D. It will
be the planet's primary core, linking all networks and data systems. Those authorized will have
access to instantaneous data on individuals to track and control every move with the chip in the
cards, or embedded in the body. These cards are reprogrammable at hundreds of thousands of
scanner centers and have more than 5 gigabytes of data per individual of updated data.

Texe writes that scanners will identify you by the shape of your hand, foot, face or head,
fingerprints, blood type, human leukocytes antigen, DNA, iris scan and voice. Satellite cameras
which can take recognizable 35mm-type images of golf balls below, will be able to locate you
from the chip in the card, nobody being able to buy and sell without it.

DNA databanks have samples of blood from newborn babies since the 1960s as mandatory
state screening, plus the military and criminals have been databased. John St. Clair Akwei
writes in Texe's book, that the Signals Intelligence mission of the NSA has evolved into a
program of decoding EMF waves in the environment, for wirelessly tapping into computers and
tracking persons with the electrical currents in their bodies.

Everything in the environment with an electrical current in it has magnetic flux around it which
gives off EMF waves. The NSA/DOD has developed advanced digital equipment which can
remotely analyze all objects, whether manmade or organic, that have electrical activity. A
targets bioelectric field can be remotely detected, and monitored 24 hrs a day. With special
EMF equipment NSA cryptologists can remotely read evoked potentials (from EEGs) which can
be decoded into a person's brain states and thoughts.

The NSA records and decodes individual brain maps of hundreds and thousands of people.
The speech centers of the brain can be translated into the person's verbal thoughts and this
can be manipulated and simulated auditory hallucinations can be induced. Visual memory can
also be seen as how images from a person's brain on a video monitor.

NSA operatives can put images into someone's brain while they are in REM sleep for brain-
programming purposes. So currents thoughts, images and sounds of anyone can be decoded
read and changed by NSA's most powerful computers in the world.
Research for Star Wars satellite project, now operative at Pine Gap has been conducted under
UKUSA. This comprises a global network of satellites which contain powerful lasers, and beam
machines. Between 1982 and 1988 22 British defense scientists linked to UKUSA projects,
died in mysterious circumstances.

Some have said they were involved the mark of the beast, microchip implant work. Susan also
writes that when George Bush Sr. increased funds for Star Wars Gorbechev cooperated in
discussions about the development of a lunar base and joint mission to Mars! Were the
cosmospheres finally overcome?

It has been said before that Star Wars has been set up to protect the earth from alien invasion.
US (Cohen) asked Australia to increase its military spending to help in case a war is fought
between US and China with Star Wars operating from Pine Gap and the British facilities. China
is exploring space-based reconnaissance. Bearing in mind the many crashed saucers in China,
have they back engineered them yet? They didn't take long to copy the latest nuclear
technology from USA. Will Chinese flying disks be the next threat?

There have been many seen over China.

An Australian newspaper wrote in 1974 that US has been carrying out research into
electromagnetic propulsion (EMP) at Pine Gap since 1966 and that security about this project
has resulted in hypnotic and post hypnotic keys being implanted in personnel prior to their
acceptance into this project.

Dr. Gille writes that the Pine Gap employees working on the base, and especially those
earmarked for duty on electromagnetic propulsion projects, have undergone brainwashing and
even implantation of intracranial devices. The most powerful mind-control is still trauma-based
built on a foundation of multiple personalities which are dissociated personalities and parts of
the mind.

It appears that electronic mind-control is being overlaid on top of this. The victim's
consciousness is not able to think past the electronic mind-control which catches their
undivided attention, being too distracted to deal with the deeper issues of trauma-based mind-
control. Instructions can enter someone's mind through their implant.

At the NWO's major massive beast computer center in Alaska in the 1970's, an engineer who
was in charge of building and getting the center operational, revealed the site's capabilities.
They also had one in South Africa and one in Pine Gap. These three sites formed a triangle on
the globe, and couldn't be located anywhere else, due to the naturally occurring lines of force of
the planet.

Apparently these Beast Computer Centers consist of aisles and aisles of big state of the art
computers, each having several dozen people to run them. Even in the '70's, an operator could
speak into the computer and it would answer. If asked about anyone on the planet, it could
usually pull up all kinds of information e.g. how could you get that person to kill someone? or
how can I isolate this person?

All the people around that subject who could be manipulated would be revealed and a plan
given. It has been said Clinton consulted this super computer. The controllers can actually
control the world from a computer. They store vast amounts of personal information about
people's thought processes and thinking and it's possible that electronic surveillance is being
done to read the thoughts of people and computers store this information in some usable

People who invent and work at state of the art technology say this is old technology. Large
Neural computers that have artificial intelligence using neural processing like the human brain
are being used. A war could be created between any two nations by asking about a country
and then how to start one. There is a network of Cray-type computers, perhaps similar to the
EMASS system of Cray computers that E-Systems developed.

Such a system can store 5 trillion pages of text and work with that data base with lightening
speed. The Engineer operator of the Beast Computer said that this system was obsolete in
1973, which is why he revealed the information.

Al Bielek also said that the aliens gave the info to build Cray computers at Montauk, which
were use to create time portals. It was a computer that sent Edward and Duncan Cameron
back to 1943 to destroy the ship Eldridge. He says the radio frequency operating at Montauk
was 435 MHz which is the frequency for the entire universe. This frequency was used to create
time/space tunnels to Mars.

Extremely advanced technology was used by Dr John von Neumann and 3 scientists including
2 from the future to put earth on another timeline in 1963. Montauk has major timelines running
through it. Power stations are built on gridlines deliberately. There is evidence that technology
is being used to shift earth onto another timeline in 2003 which we'll cover later. Today's 9
Beast computers are much better at speech than the 3 Beast computers in 1973. They can
hear human voices, determine what language and answer in it.

These computers link directly to thousands of mind-controlled slaves and via various methods
almost instantly control the behavior them. Anchorage has a NSA listening post near the
HAARP project, whose signals travel on a field line to Pine Gap. The Beast Computer is also
linked there as well as satellite systems. HAARP uses 3 powerful transmitter sites in Alaska.

An anonymous former govt. source says the human brain, if it has a memex brain implant they
control, can interface with the Beast computer which acts as a vast repository of human
knowledge as well as answering questions to essentially all previously answered questions
instantaneously. If the human brain has some type of virtual reality holodeck attachment, the
computer can even walk the slave through a realistic setting indistinguishable from the real

He goes on to say that one victim has ELF & VLF waves of 435 and 1080 MHz signals targeted
on her. (435 is in the 400-450 MHz band which is the window to the human consciousness, and
1080 is in the 1000 to 1200 MHz band.) 435 MHz is converted to 1080 by interaction with the
high-atmosphere HAARP project.

HAARP can create time portals and time rifts also. Paul Baird wrote in his Nazis of the New
World Order article in the Exposure Magazine (Aust) that every single phone call, fax, email,
telex and computer data message can be intercepted and analyzed by Echelon worldwide.

The Echelon computers can scan ALL satellite, microwave, cellular and fiber-optic contacts for
keywords and phrases. He said that the CIA use it to protect their own drug running operations
and spy on their opponents together with their Mafia partners. Paul writes that the head of
NATO's non-lethal weapons initiative wants all humans implanted at birth. .

Paul Baird writes Govt. agencies can use infrasound laser weapons coming from remote
satellites to cause illness and pain to targeted individuals. Visual holograms and blurred vision
can be effected by satellite lasers aimed at tracked individuals. They can also use neurophones,
which is a device to convert sound to electrical impulses. A directional satellite laser or
microwave targets an individuals nervous system and it enters the brain as voice threats or

These can come from any direction and can be perceived as ghosts, God's voice, aliens, Satan
or laughing. Silent subliminal words can target people too, to make them think thoughts are
their own. Brain wave scanners can mind read by training a satellite onto someone's head and
scanning its magnetic field.

Patterns which show particular emotions can be read and more can be sent back to change the
emotional/psychological state. EEG results of computerized brainwave scanning can be
relayed to US govt. faculties, and the thoughts can be interpreted instantaneously, with a brain
wave vocabulary, developed from the CIA's LSD experiments. Remote torture or interrogation
can be carried out by staff at computers thousands of miles away.

Psychic phenomena and "coincidences" Paul writes can be arranged using brain-scanning
technologies. Could every citizen be brainwave scanned by Echelon at Pine Gap and thoughts
suppressed? Only those "in" with them would profit and only those who questioned nothing
would escape scrutiny. No military or federal law enforcement would be necessary.

More from Paul here.

Is this what the entity Maitreya said through Benjamin Creme would be used to replace law
enforcement world wide when the entity holding the "Office of the Christ" for the "Age" sits on
his global throne?

Back to Contents

Back to Pine Gap - Australian 'Area 51'

Back to The NSA - The Super Secret National Security Agency
                                            by James Casbolt
                                               St Ives, Cornwall
                                               9th October 2007
                                          from JamesCasbolt Website

The interview above gives details regarding the New World Order program to take control of the UK
before 2012.

This program is called Project Mannequin which I was directly involved in and is being run by the NSA
from various underground facilities cantered around London and Berkshire such as the AL/499 base
200ft below the town of Peasemore in Berkshire, the CLC-1 base under Westminster in London and
connected to the a large base under Parliament, the MONSOON-1 facility under RAF Lakenheath 90
miles north of London and the underground facility below the Porton Down bio-warfare facility in
Wiltshire as well as other facilities around the UK.

The details about Project Mannequin and connected sub-projects are on the interview but I have just
been given new intelligence regarding this agenda from a very reliable source who I trust completely.
The information is very disturbing and I make no apologies and pull no punches as you need to know
this for your future.

The huge child trafficking and Satanic ritual murder networks in the UK is heavily connected to Project
Mannequin and very evil factions in the intelligence community centered around the NSA, CIA and
British Intelligence. We know have over 25,000 children disappearing without a trace in the UK every
year and are never seen or heard of again.

This are classified figures and the intelligence community controlled mainstream media suppresses
these facts by not giving a voice to the parents of these children and focusing massively on cases of one
or two missing children a year, thereby taking the focus off the larger picture. Just last year I was in
Truro college and there posters up off missing youngsters on the walls.

These individuals had not even been mentioned on any news channels in the UK. My contact has
revealed to me that children who are now being kidnapped and taken to underground facilities such as
the AL/499, are being murdered in horrific ways and their brainwaves are being recorded into computers
at the time of death via a digital links through high-tech cranial implants installed into the children's

As brain-waves and radio-waves are basically the same thing, this horrific energy recorded by super-
computers is then being broadcast and sent out through televisions, radios, mobile phones and masts
across the country and is affecting the whole population through increased levels of crime, sexual and
child abuse, drug and alcohol abuse and a general lowering of people's morals as very human has kind
of telepathic receiver which is the pineal gland in the brain.

I personally witnessed children being murdered during my time in the AL/499 facility and in recent times
children's throats are being cut and the digital broadcast sent out from the recorded brainwaves at the
time of death which is stopping people in this country talking to each and sharing on a intimate level.
Children's hands are being cut off at some of these underground facilities and the frequencies being
sent out are stopping people performing day to day tasks as effectively and maintaining discipline in
their lives. You may what to recoil from this and deny it is happening but this is a fact and it is time to
wake up.

Barry King who is a close friend and was a Wackenhut security officer in 1979 at the AL/499 NASH
Berkshire base in 1979 told me that the NSA plan to have every person in the UK micro-chipped with
cranial implants during military abductions before 2009. Satanic factions in the NSA are working
overtime with military in this country with military abductions every night using the black triangle 'Firefly'
aircrafts which have been seen tested at Area 51 in the US and are discussed in detail in the interview.

I have just found out today that the analogue signals in televisions is being switched off in 2009 and
televisions will only work with a digital connection. OFF COURSE IT IS!! The NSA want everyone to be
in 'tune' with their digital pulses and connected up to the their super computers like 'The Beast' computer
located at Pine Gap in Australia through their cranial implants by 2009.

Last year around 1 in 25 people were implanted through various means discussed in the interview. Now
the figure is somewhere between 1 in 17 and increasing. The murder frequencies are being recorded
behind popular music, film and televisions in a ELF tone that sounds like a buzzing to psychics. When
decoded this is actually a screaming sound! Recorded brainwaves can even be stored on a small box
like device in a super concentrated form and worn on the belts or held by secret service assassins.

The box can be aimed at a person and a radio wave fired out that people can not see. This energy is
totally alien to most peoples nervous systems and the target will go into shock as the nervous system
shuts down and usually die. These groups are using these desperate tactics to block the huge
frequencies of of love and enlightenment that increases by the day as our planet moves closer to the
galactic centre as we approach 2012.

We live in dangerous and exciting times and need to come together in groups in compassion and
communication through such events as the Probe International conference in Blackpool to brake up
these frequencies.

In the crop circle below that appeared in the UK a few years, the following message was encoded in the
circle in digital binary code.
          "Beware the bearers of FALSE gifts and their BROKEN PROMISES. Much PAIN but still
          time. There is GOOD out there. We OPpose DECEPTION. Conduit CLOSING ( BELL
          SOUND )"
The dark factions in the secret societies are trying to close the conduit to this higher frequency love
energy through their digital signals.

Are you going to let them by believing the lies we are spoon fed by the mainstream or are you going to
wake up through the many alternative quality medias such as those on the internet and organizations
such as Probe International?

                                        John Kuhles interviewed...
                         James Casbolt MI6 on UntoldMysteries Radio

                              Return to Project Mannequin and James
                           Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                          Security Agency
                                                          by James Casbolt
                                                             (Spanish version)
                                                        from JamesCasbolt Website

James Casbolt is a former MI6 agent who worked in 'Black ops' drug trafficking operations in London between 1995 and 1999. He
comes from a line of intelligence people. His grandfather was naval intelligence, his father was MI6 who was also involved in 'Black ops'
and his uncle was an MI5 officer in Logistics. From Cornwall England, James wishes to make amends for his part in these operations and
blow the whistle on the crimes against Humanity that the intelligence agencies are involved in. MI6 and the CIA have cornered the
global drugs trade (which is worth at least £500 billion a year, this is more than the global oil trade) and are now bringing the majority
of illegal street drugs into America and Britain.

They are using this drug money to fund projects classified 'Above top secret' which include the building and maintaining of deep
underground military bases (DUMBS). There are now over 4000 of these bases worldwide and the average depth of these bases is four
and a quarter miles. Some are shallower and some are deeper. The bases are on average the size of a medium sized city and yes, he
says there are aliens in them.

James is connected to ex intelligence people who have worked in these underground bases and on other ET related projects. There are
vast numbers of children and adults disappearing around the world and ending up in these underground bases. As a former MI6 Agent
that has seen aliens first hand and has inside information that will shock even the most disbelieving person. Every person alive on the
planet today needs to be aware of this information for their futures.

       What Exactly Was Your Function at MI6 and How Did You Get Involved?

       My function at MI-6 was as a drug runner. I worked on covert drug trafficking operations in London and
       Brighton between 1995 and 1999. I worked with my father Peter Casbolt on national drug runs. My
       father was also an MI-6 agent. He was involved in much higher level international drug trafficking. He
       worked with the CIA and mafia in Rome in 1992 bringing cocaine and heroin into this country [Britain].

       He also owned a trucking company in Malaga, Spain in the mid 90‘s, which was a front for an MI-6
       cannabis trafficking operation. Speedboats would come from Morocco to the Costa del sol loaded with
       cannabis and then be put into the lorries. The lorries would sometimes be loaded with fruit and the drugs
       would be hidden underneath the fruit.

       As well as getting paid by MI-6, my father would be allowed to keep a small amount of the larger
       international drug shipments. My father and I sold the drugs that ‘fell off the back of the lorry‘ in this

       To give you an example of one of the drug operations I was involved in, we met an IRA contact in South
       London in the mid 90‘s. This man (whose identity I cannot reveal) took us to his flat and gave my father
       and I 4 kilos of cocaine. This flat was his ‘office‘ which he used for drug business and he didn‘t live there.
       My father and I then delivered the cocaine to another location in North London.

       My father was empowered to recruit other agents for the MI-6 drug trafficking and recruited me.
       However my family‘s involvement in the global intelligence community runs much deeper than running
       drugs for MI-6. Here we get into an even more complicated issue regarding multi-generational MK Ultra
       type mind control. I come from a line of British intelligence people.

       My Grandfather (on my Father‗s side) was naval intelligence, my father‘s brother was a MI-5 officer in
Logistics, his name is Brian Casbolt. My grandfather was also a high-ranking freemason and the whole
family were Mormons.

I have been experiencing abduction type scenarios from at least the age of five. For example, I have
seen small grey beings around my bed on many occasions since I was a child. At these times I felt
myself ‘floating‘ upwards but I was paralyzed and could do nothing about it. I have had needle wounds in
my arms and many other of the usual abduction type scenarios. I have photographic proof of strange
lights and laser beams in my bedroom, faces materializing in front of me, needle puncture wounds on
my arms and other things on my website. It turns out however that most of these abductions were
military abductions and not extra-terrestrial.

By working with professionals who specialize in de-programming mind control issues and also by
working with NSA personnel, I have been able to confirm that these abductions and my working with MI-
6 have all been part of a highly classified mind control, cloning and genetic enhancement program
known as Project Mannequin.

Project Mannequin was and is being run by the NSA from an underground facility in Peasmore,
Berkshire in the UK. I grew up in this area.

The NSA is using computer-generated life forms which look like the classic Grey alien. These are
basically robots that the military create for use in project Mannequin abductions in this country. They are
known as PLF‘s. PLF stands for programmable life forms. The technology was given to the NSA in
human/ET treaties which started back in the 1930‘s.

Two malevolent ET races that seem to be important in this are the Zetan greys and Draconian reptilians
from the Orion and Draconis star systems. NSA personnel who I have spoken to call the greys ‘Zetan
bio-robots‘ as they appear to be some kind of slave race created by and for a reptilian ET race from

I cover these beings and the treaties in detail on my website.

Project Mannequin is a program to create genetically enhanced assassins, espionage agents and
sleeper agents with PSI/psychic abilities. Most people are unaware of their part in the program because
of sophisticated memory erasure procedures. The NSA is looking for people of certain bloodlines and
these are mainly people of Celtic/Blueblood (aristocratic) genetics.

People with these genetics have a predisposition to paranormal ability as these cultures have practiced
paranormal abilities for generations. Therefore it is in the genetic memory of individuals with these
bloodlines. These individuals have an RH-negative blood factor. My father‘s mother was a French
aristocrat called Vera De Tillard. The De Tillard family goes back to the French royal family of the
French revolution. In the 1950‘s a bloodline study was started by the NSA based at Harwell laboratories
to find these children to be used in project Mannequin. However my family was targeted for mind control
before this.

From this study at Harwell labs project mannequin was then started by the NSA in 1972 at the
underground facility in Peasmore. This base also has entrances at Aldermaston and Greenham
common. My first memories of my involvement with the project were of being escorted down tunnels at
the age of 5 by military personnel.

I have since found out these were openings to the underground network in Greenham common. How I
got there I do not remember yet. I have witnessed scenes so terrifying in these facilities that I cannot
even begin to talk about them in a public interview. These included being shown non-human entities and
caged humans. Again I do not know if these entities were ET‘s or military/NSA genetically created
Over the years I have regularly been placed in what is known as a ‘trip seat‘ in underground facilities. A
trip seat looks like a dentist‘s chair and is used for accelerated learning utilizing drug-assisted hypnosis.
There is a large screen in front of the person and images are flashed extremely fast on the screen. The
images flash too fast for the eyes to see, however the subconscious mind takes it all in.

You are taught things like how to access PSI ability and briefed on different extra-terrestrial races and
their agendas as well as many other things. This information is stored in compartments in my mind that
the handlers of the project only had access to. That was until my memories started to come back at the
beginning of last year.

With the de-programming efforts I am slowly accessing more and more of this information. The drug that
was injected into me on the trip seat is called scopolamine. This is an accelerated learning drug. On one
of my AL sessions that included electroshock to the brain, a man was standing at the right hand side of
the seat and a guy in a coat was standing at the left side of the chair.

The man on the right said to me,
      ―If you forget everything I‘ve said to you, remember one thing. He will try and convince
      you pain is pleasure‖.
A strange tone started in my head and then the screen in front of me started flashing. I don‘t remember
anything after that. A man who claims he was a security officer at the Peasmore underground facility has
recently come forward and blown the whistle. He has gone public with diagrams of the trip seat and they
were identical to the ones I remembered.

I recovered the memories of the trip seat about six months before I was shown these diagrams. As I said
I am still remembering the events of project Mannequin and putting the pieces together. This is not easy
for me to write about. As I said, I‘m being helped by positive factions in the NSA who have provided me
with highly classified information on the project as well as microwave technology to regain my memories.

Doctors who specialize in de-programming mind control are helping me also.

We have uncovered at least five programs that have been installed into me that are classified under
Greek letters. For example, Alpha, delta, gamma, theta, omega. To give you an example of this,
the ‘theta‘ program is a PSI/telepathic program that enables me to physically see scalar/sound waves.
The most important technology the secret services use is scalar/sound wave based.

You can therefore imagine how important this ability would be to an espionage agent. I have photos in
my possession of me manipulating scalar waves. It is possible to capture them on digital camera. Other
Mannequin programs that have been installed into are known as ‘Janus/end-times‘ and ‘Lone wolf‘.
Janus is a ‘sleeping‘ program that activates when major New World order events happen like 9-11 and
the plan for coming martial law in America.

Janus is the two headed Roman god of change. I am actually in a race against time to be de-
programmed before the events like martial law in start to happen. If I am not de-programmed in time I
may be ‘used‘ by certain factions in the global intelligence community to advance their agenda‘s.

Lone wolf is a NSA program that keeps me from reaching out and getting help with mind control issues.
The Lone wolf program is very common to Project Mannequin and MK Ultra victims and I know of other
people who have had this program installed. I personally know other genetically enhanced men who
have had millions of pounds and dollars spent on their procedures.

Some of these men have not even been used yet and are ‘on ice‘ waiting for the Janus programs to
activate. I was recently sent intelligence regarding a nineteen-year-old man who has recently
disappeared after breaking his programming. It turns out he has many of the above-mentioned programs
installed in him including Lone wolf. Again these men are in a race against time to break free from the
mind control.

This is not easy though as when one layer of programming is uncovered another one is usually revealed
underneath it. It can take years of work to strip the layers away as so many programs are present. There
are also many different types of agents in project Mannequin. For instance you have a Type A and Type
B. Type A is a genetically enhanced human designed for combat with espionage capabilities. Type B is
designed for espionage with combat capabilities.

I am a Type B. The nineteen year old is a type A.

How heavy is state/intelligence service involvement in the global drug trade?
MI6 and the CIA have cornered the global drugs trade and are now bringing the majority of the street
drugs like cannabis, cocaine and heroin into Britain and America. This drug money is being used the
feed ‘The Octopus‘. The Octopus is intelligence speak for the global underground base system which is
mainly run by the NSA. There are over 4000 of these bases in different countries now which have been
built and funded with drug money.

The global drugs trade run by MI 6 and the CIA with more than a little help from organized crime
elements is worth at least £500 billion a year. This is more than the global oil trade. One of my CIA
contacts who I will refer to as ‘X1‘ was involved in the war involved in the now infamous CIA cocaine
trafficking ops at the Mena Arkansas airport.

He has photographs of bricks of cocaine and heroin being taken off Fed Ex planes. He has sent me
these and other photos through the post but much of my post is being intercepted and I am not receiving
it. We plan on meeting face to face in the future to exchange intelligence. X1 says there was a FBI
investigation into the Mena Arkansas drug trafficking in 1995 but the CIA came in and took the
investigation over.

He also says that he was taken on board a small jet for a ‘friendly ride‘. When they were flying over one
of the local sites the pilot told X1 to look out of the window. The pilot then banked sharply and X1 hit his
head on the window.

He started laughing and said,
        ―See how people get hurt when they see too much‖.

What caused you to leave MI6?
My father was my main contact into MI 6 and when he died I could not carry on in the drug trafficking. I
was a very low-level agent and just a ‗gofer‘ for my father really. He died in Doncaster prison in 2003
and was serving six months for possession of false passports.

Officially he died of liver failure.

My father was 53 when he died.

What have you discovered since leaving MI6?
I have been able to speak to many people in the global intelligence community since I have left MI 6 and
blown the whistle. These men are sick of the New World Order and have approached me because of my
website and appearing on different radio shows.

I think the most important information I have learned is the first hand accounts of people who have
worked in some of the underground bases and claim to have seen ET‘s.

Their stories are on my website.

How has this information been kept secret for so long?
The same people who are involved in the Octopus are controlling most of the mainstream media.

For example in an article I wrote last year called ‘MI-6 are the lords of the global trade‘ I expose the
name of the British intelligence man who was the Telegraph newspapers director in 1986. This man was
also the Bank of England director from 1987 to 1995.

The bank of England is a major British intelligence drug money laundering bank.

Do you know of any information pertaining to ‗false flag‘ terror (e.g. 9-11 or 7/7)?
I have been de-briefed by a man connected to MI-6 regarding what really happened on 7/7. However I
must get the green light from him before I make a public statement about this. I can comment on 9-11
though. As we know there have been reports about controlled demolition of the twin towers and people
claiming it was a bunker busting missile and not a plane that hit the pentagon.

There has been a huge amount of this kind of information in the alternative media and even in the
controlled mainstream media. However many people do not know that the missile that hit the pentagon
on 9-11, hit the naval intelligence section of the building. This was part of an internal war that is raging in
the global intelligence community regarding the ET presence on this planet.

There is a huge amount of in fighting going on and the situation is very complex. There are negative
intelligence and shadow government groups like ‘Aquarius‘ and the 33rd degree and above 'Illuminated'
Masonic degrees such as the Scottish Rite, York Rite, 33rd Degree of Zion and Nigerian Rite. Even
these malevolent organizations are fighting with each other over control of the planet.

According to an NSA contact, the NSA deals directly with 118 different ET races known as 'The Link'. I
have heard rumors in the intelligence community that there is an annual Link meeting at super secret
locations on this planet every year and that these meetings have been going for ten years now. I cannot
confirm this at the present time. However I can confirm that that there has been a quite campaign in the
US and other places in the last 5-10 years for the services of certain ex-military, ex-intelligence and
scientists by Link reps.

One of my friends who is a PHD bio-physic claims to have met many Link members and says that many
of these ex-military, ex-intelligence people get a third party seat at the annual link meting. I am not sure
if Aquarius is present at these meetings but I do know the organization is centered around intelligence
organizations such as MI 6 and the CIA.

On the other hand you have you have positive factions in these organizations involved in an internal
war. There is a very patriotic group centered around US naval intelligence known as ‘Comm 12‘. Comm
12 are working with positive ET‘s from such places as the Pleiades star system who want to help
Humanity but cannot yet land en-masse on the White house lawn for instance.
They are bound by galactic non-intervention laws and cannot disrupt a developing race‘s evolution.
When the population of a world develop themselves to a certain level of consciousness, the Pleiadians
and other benevolent ET races make their presence known on a planetary scale. The missile that hit the
naval intelligence section of the pentagon is an example of the internal war being played out by Aquarius
and Comm 12.

Negative government factions are basically causing chaos in the world with false flag terrorism, HAARP
engineered earthquakes, laboratory created diseases such as AIDS and Ebola and engineered wars to
bring about the official formation of a one world government. It is the Masonic motto ‘Order out of chaos‘
in our faces.

They create the chaos and bring about a New World Order.

The New World Order is not about money. It is about a covert take over of planet earth by malevolent
ET races to enable them to harvest the resources on this planet such as food, slave labour, genetic
material and minerals. Government factions that have sold out to the Zetan grey and Draconian reptilian
forces, for example, are paving a road to hell for this planet. They are now puppets for their puppet-
masters that have promised them certain powers and rewards when the official one world government is
in place.

A man called Phil Schneider worked for the UN and had one of the highest security clearances in the
world called a ‘Rhyolite 38‘. He claims he was invited to secret UN meeting in a underground base. Phil
said in this meeting the table was set out in the same manner as the UN building in new city but with one
main difference. This table had an upper level of seats.

According to Phil the UN members took their seats in the lower level chairs and then Tall grey ET‘s
walked in, took their seats on the upper level and dictated policy to the UN members. Phil was found
dead with a rubber hose wrapped around his neck not long after blowing the whistle. This declared
a ‘suicide‘. Phil was in a wheelchair at this point in his life.

How a man in a wheelchair could strangle himself to death with a rubber hose is beyond me!

What do you know about the shadow government?
My NSA contact ‘X5‘ who worked at the Los Alamos underground base says there is ET/shadow
government hierarchy in the Octopus.

X5 says that the hierarchy is as follows
            1. Sirian Anunnaki and Draconian reptilans - Supreme group leaders
            2. Tall Greys (Rigelian greys) - Section commanders
            3. Short greys (Zeta Reticulan Greys) - Drone workers
            4. Blue Kobolds- Drone workers (working with Zetan greys in heavy lifting,
                abductions etc)
            5. Human Illuminists and Committee 300 (33rd degree and above freemasons,
                once you reach the 33rd degree of Masonry you are initiated into the first level
                of the Illuminati)
            6. PLF‘s (programmable life forms) - military robots used for abductions etc.
When X5 worked at the Los Alamos base a world government Rhyolite 38 security clearance level 3
was required for access.

Although X5 claims this has changed drastically in the last ten years (Please note I referred to X5 as 'G'
in the past. A book called 'Agent buried alive' will be out this year published through Dandelion Books.

Many of the details about the issues in this article will be included in my book.


                                 James Casbolt Prequal to Bases 4
                                               October 15, 2007

                               Return to Project Mannequin and James
                            Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                           Security Agency

from FreewebsSAALM Website
recovered through WayBackMachine Website

The information contained on this mirror site is presented in no order but in as much as I could
successfully copy and upload.

This site and the files therein represent a time in my life when I was involved with a group called
S.A.A.L.M., (or Sa‟am?) which itself was working alongside and with several renegade elements inside
global security agencies such as the NSA, CIA, MI6 and MOSSAD.

During the time working within S.A.A.L.M., I was exposed to, amongst other things, accessing their
private intranet which dealt with information that the group wished to keep out of the public domain.

The Intranet was password protected and the S.A.A.L.M. members could log in from anywhere around
the globe and access numerous components of the site, such as briefing papers, announcements, and
various downloads. I have megabytes of this material ready for dissemination into the public domain
which will no doubt distress my former employees, and thus to avoid the obvious harassment that
would ensue, I choose to remain anonymous. (Please be patient as I am still going through the process
of decrypting much of the material which is time consuming).

I present this site more or less as it was before my disconnection from the S.A.A.L.M. (Supreme
Anunnaki Alliance of Lord Marduk) infrastructure.

Read the extensive information presented and judge for yourself. I have much more in my possession,
but in reality, it is a small part of the entire S.A.A.L.M. network and the staggering information it holds.

If you navigate to the section containing the documents on Accelerated Learning for example [which
instruct how certain Extraterrestrials can manipulate light to manifest real solid objects] you will
understand why this material is being kept in the hands of the few. These techniques, which appear
like magic to the average person on the street, are the secrets taught at the highest levels of
Freemasonry such as the 33rd degree Lodge of Zion, which is controlled by S.A.A.L.M..

Although there is no way of providing hard evidence, the quantity and quality of material on this site
speaks for itself and after you read through it you will be in no doubt as to the veracity of what has
been provided.

In recent months others have also verified the information that is presented here such as ex MI6
operative James Casbolt.

Why did I upload the site?

The S.A.A.L.M. group have until 2012 [Dec 22 ] to execute the primary phase of their agenda and
bring their Ruler - an ancient Anunnaki King called Lord Marduk into the public domain.

I believe Lord Marduk is in fact the real physical personage of the Antichrist, [and the King of Kings
prophesized in the infamous Protocols of Zion plan, which has been perfected through the ages
through Lord Marduk, his two sons and the global masonic apparatus].

I personally believe Marduk will use Accelerated Learning technology to manifest 'miracles' and amaze
the uneducated public exactly as prophesied according to scripture (see the books of Daniel and

My goal is to heighten public awareness about these and many other extremely important issues whilst
there is still a window of opportunity.

Public awareness is growing at an exciting pace, and the timing is perfect for the release of my
material which will be the straw that breaks the camels back. The cabal that is S.A.A.L.M. is comprised
of many people behind the scenes - some names you will recognize others will mean nothing to the
general public, although members through the European black nobility, the Vatican, and high ranking
members of the global military apparatus will recognize their names and code rankings in the site.

If the general public has any questions about this site and S.A.A.L.M. please email me at this address
and I will answer the questions as best as I can.
         "Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the
from FreewebsSAALM Website
recovered through WayBackMachine Website

        Dear Brothers
        As you know The S.A.A.L.M. group was compromised by
        a security breach recently.

        I have conferred with P1 and P2 and we are currently
        establishing a reviewed security protocol which should
        prohibit any type of attack or compromise in the future.

        This temporary email address is part of the renewed security protocol. If anyone
        receives unsolicited or "stray-duck" emails, please fwd them immediately to my new

        Re. electronic signature, do NOT worry about it now. We'll get to it once a few changes
        are made. Patience. This has never been done before, not quite in the way we're

        Re. Don't worry about ID, this will be done here at the shop, but we will have
        suggestions below.

        About TS/SCI, put full name down, including the W. Re. regs and laws, legal requires
        us to help you get the regs. You can get them off P21 directly; make a list of them and
        keyword S.A.A.L.M. or code as is known, and the titles and parts. Most direct way. I
        am not worried about the NDA.

        Agreed to it for protection against using HCI (high classif info) as we will have to on
    Item 1 defines what the type of info is, according to the PEO number, and what
       being give access to such info means.

    Item 2 says you are aware of what security is needed and why, and that you
       understand the basic procedure for sharing the information you have or
       generate with others: that is, only with members of the group and no one else,
       no exceptions.

    Item 3 warns against the potential danger of disclosure by direct or non-
       authorized means, that is, acting disconnected from the group for whatever
       personal belief(s) or reason(s). Then it goes on to say that if anyone else,
       outside the group, is to get any information you have or generate, that this
       would require a direct written permission to do so OR you have directly verified
       that this is authorized and that you can do so. This is one of the roles played
       by the first-among-equals - to protect us all from such potential screw-ups.

    Item 4 says you know that breach of this agreement will result in your being
       asked to leave the group. And that, depending upon what it is you did, any one
       of a series of parts and titles of CFR and some laws can apply and be used
       against you in a court of law. This is a dissuader of breaches of this

    Item 5 dissuades us from disclosing anyone from the association with
       S.A.A.L.M. punishable by death.

    Item 6 tell us that the agency will seek extreme termination with prejudice in the
       case of a breach of this agreement resulting in the disclosure of unauthorized
       information, beginning with extreme harassment in order to stop the

    Item 7 establishes clearly ownership of the information and here you need to
       read carefully to understand what it really says, for by invoking ownership by
       the Link (of which we are a part) we all also own the information. Internal regs
       will clarify this point as we go, internal meaning group generated.

    Item 8 says that you are bound by all items in this agreement until such time
       that one of the first-among-equals (most likely P4) releases you to do a limited
       release as part of something the group agrees to do, or is part and parcel of
       the overall mission. Otherwise, it reminds you that all parts of the agreement
       apply to you at all times.

    Item 9 is self-evident. Essentially, it says that if one item of this agreement
       cannot be enforced, all others remain in force and applicable.

    Item 10 says that you know that all the CFR sections listed, the congressional
       act mentioned, and the executive order listed in the item apply to your
       participation in S.A.A.L.M. and that you accept their coverage over your
       activities as part of the group. This is the part that basically states each of us
       are covered under these sections and other other applicable regulations and
       laws. And it says you recognize your responsibility in obtaining copies of all
       these regs and laws and that we can help you get them if you can't find or get
       them yourselves.
    Item 11 says you don't intend to lie or mislead when you sign this agreement, or
       any time after.
About any further information from you, it is not necessary at this time.

Likewise, whenever you are going to work on any S.A.A.L.M. stuff, contacting
S.A.A.L.M. agents, discussing Marduk and/or Anunnaki protocols, it is quite necessary
as keyboard stroking is quite readable from elsewhere. Will see that some level of
encryption be available to all members, working on that as we speak. Make sure you
are not exposed to the net, scalar technotronics, or to anyone else getting the better of

Let me know if you can't find items mentioned in agreement. Will then help. Do you
need anything else that I can do now or in next few days? I'm going to be unavailable
for a day or two, probably until Wed. Will take a rest trip to the mountains and the
sequoias for a day or two. Will take laptop with, but can't promise I will have signal
where I'm going...

Let the computer suggest a code name for you all: or choose a new one (to use in the
group) and XXX as your codesign (for A-33_Z information system registry name), as
there will only be one master list of all with all add-on names. Include CSs in text
somewhere on form, please.

Tell me today or tomorrow, if possible, if this is sufficient for you to send the forms
filled out back to me so I can get them on system before I leave. Know this, too, that
NOTHING given by members of the group to MIS-ACTION leaves the group's system;
this is NOT, repeat NOT, shared with any group outside. Sufficient authority internally
to set this up and operate it.

NDA is insurance that no one will get prosecuted for using HCI from time to time, and
to know that we are producing some unique stuff here. It is not so much guarding
against GOVOR, NGOS and others that we're concerned; it's the leakage to Link SIGs
inside the Link itself.

Look, there's exopolitics between them as there is between and among us.


Strategic Concept
All elements must now indeed begin to fit together and work together. The construction
of our scalar computer grid at Pine Gap, indicates the end status of our "information
field" that we know as soul or spirit embodied or indexed to one physical frame and
converted into usable information and data that can be applied to real time power.

Here is where allegory meets fact and turns into information. Read these words with
your mind‘s eye that can access the whole of you, for what you know as spirit in you is
the part that will understand, instruct, and guide you in this endeavor.

Be it known by One and All:
        the body is a bearer of information in and of itself, and within itself. It is
        Creation in and through which Source experiences Itself and Its
        creation. The perfect information field indexed to a body is already in
        human forms native to Earth. The perfect body hosts a perfect
information field predicated on 24 base aminoacids, not 20 as the
bodies of Earth humans currently are.

Current science and human penchant for the idea of immortality have
led scientists to a quest for human longevity by the suppression of
certain enzymes and the enhancement of neuropeptides, in a
biotechnological symphony of attempts. Yet, it is yet not realized that
Source as Creator has already programmed all DNA to reach and
achieve life forms of maximum feasible complex oscillating biological
life matrices.

This is a philharmonic quest for a biologic emancipation from
exclusive dependence on the planetary/star system context in which
the complex life form emerges. And much of the change the living
matrix undergoes is already in what so far we know as mind, which is
contained in Source as Creator, expressed as a biomind overfunction
that turns a biokind into a unity-support under the operation of a
dedicated biomind member, who acts as first-among-equals
switchboard of permutated interchange of and among all members of
the unity-support as biomind-overfunction.

This is a most accurate conceptual representation of what biokinds
must become, as all biominds must ultimately join the One Voice in
each galaxy that shall ultimately join all others in all galaxies as the
Voice in Source as Creator.

In less technical language, the human species on Earth is at the door
of a species-wide awakening to its whole membership-mind. This is
not a telepathic phenomenon, as it is often misunderstood and
portrayed in the literature, on the net, and in movies. Rather, it is an
energetic phenomenon that also involves the Earth.

Humans and their star-planet tandem are at the door of becoming a
biogeosystem, or intricately woven system where human biology,
Earth energetics, sun energetic cycles, and human biology awaken a
process of genetic changes already inscribed in our DNA and genes
(regardless of how much Ša.A.Mi. genetic material is in our DNA, or
what you have seen referred to as Anunnaki) that will take ten- to
twenty-thousand years to bring our biokind to par with other Link
members in terms of longevity.

Source is what you know as God in the role of Creator at Work.
Source is the Thought boundary to the seven superdomains, from and
through, which everything is. This is known as Unum – the sum total
of Creation. Source expresses in seven superdomains, each being
contained therein by the next, all contained therein by Source, like an
onion contains its precious core.

And core is the ratio of space/time in which our bodies are now, but of
which our information clouds are not. The Milky Way and all galaxies
in the universe are hosts to all Life manifestations from a perfect DNA
created and placed by Source in 4-spacetime – the spacetime ratio in
which life as we know it exists in three dimensions of space and three
expressions of time.
        The latter, time, is technically not a dimension in the same way space
        is; it is more an aspect, for there is vertical time (which is a series of
        time aspects of 12,960,000 infinities) and horizontal time (time aspects
        that are manifest locally, as local time in space/time locales or
        addresses in 4-spacetime).

THE EYE of Horus
This third and final S.A.A.L.M. document announces the EoH. It will be followed by
formal invitations to those who have replied and planning begin shortly on the setting
up of a a new Lodge which shall then interconnect all those who chose to become
S.A.A.L.M.- S.A.A.L.M. members.

Neither P1 nor I wish to exercise direct control over the group, except as participants
and specialized information source. The tasks for the group are specific to the three
functions mentioned in the first two releases. This third is intended to put everything
together, along with a substantial information base for each individual on each of the
first two functions to have and hold as basis for moving forward - as the page on which
each need to be on to move onward and forward.

This information is intended for group members, and group members only, until as a
group, ground rules arise as to how the information products developed from within the
group are to be made available to the public.

We, who conceived the idea of this group, intend it to be operated on the basis of fairly
basic rules of thumb - logical ground rules most everyone can agree to. Everyone
must also realize the importance of the group‘s intent and purpose, and weigh it
against the need to protect it so it may serve us all well in accomplishing the goals set
forth for its existence and operation.

We do not wish to compromise a plan conceived by Lord Marduk over 25,000 years

We need to begin with trust in each, each other, motivation that drives the group to
fulfill the functions established, and the motivations that drive each and everyone in
fulfilling the objectives agreed to by the goals which drove the formation of the group in
the first place. Much of what we propose to do with and through S.A.A.L.M. has never
been done in the public domain - ever.

And the attempts we know about have not worked for a variety of reasons. One of the
main ones, from our viewpoint, has been the lack of trust in the wisdom and reliance
on the native intelligence and experience of those participating in whatever the effort
was at the time.

Aside from the usual group rules for the operation of this group, additional ways of
handling information - products and their dissemination - would be have to be
developed and evolved as an organic group, with facilitation on the part of members
interested in seeing specific information items disseminated.

This would require awareness and understanding on the part of those driving forward
to do their bid with any one product of the time sequence and timing requirements
already set long ago for the performance of specific procedures and function cascades
between group onset on the net and the mid-third trimester of 2011.
All of this would be provided to S.A.A.L.M. members as eyes-only group documents to
be absorbed and filed for reference as securely as possible.

It is important for everyone to realize, understand and accept from the beginning that
this is not set up as something open to everyone. It is NOT. People may join by
invitation only, and only by agreement of the entire group that what the person being
considered possesses skills and experiences necessary to the functions and
objectives of the group. Thus, to a large extent, membership is utilitarian and driven by
the goals and objectives set by the group functions and desired outcomes.

We therefore propose that the S.A.A.L.M. lodge be formed by invitation only, that
invitees be asked to furnish the entire group with a curriculum vitae of their
background, accomplishments and experiences, writing samples of essays and/papers
written (including professional papers, reports, monographs, and books published
online or by publishing houses,) that the member promoting the invitation be
responsible for gathering all necessary information on the invitee, and submitting a
proposal for membership to all members by email, providing sufficient information to
members for each to determine in his or her own mind and heart the worthiness of the
proposal, the utility of the background and experiences of the invitee, and the function
invitee desires to perform in the group.

A first-among-equals serves the function of moderator in the internal debate on
whether or not the proposed member is extended the invitation to join, conducts
sounding surveys of the membership, submits questions to the prospect sent by the
membership, conducts membership consults over the net or by appointment, draws
closure on discussion by sounding surveys concerning readiness to vote, conducts the
final vote, declares consensus acceptance of the candidate and authorizes extension
of invitation to the member who proposed the candidate for membership.

If the invitee is or has been a member of a civilian or military intelligence organization,
this individual shall undergo a full vetting process involving his or her experiences and
associations while in such organization.

All members of the group, without exception, need to vote (up or down) on all
admissions to the group; we propose that admission criteria be circumscribed to
background and experiences pertinent to the group‘s needs and goals, verification and
reliability of the information provided, invitee disclosure of personal and professional
information, background and standing in his or her community, and such other criteria
deemed appropriate and necessary by the consensus of the membership.

We then propose that the group function by the principle of the first-among-
equals/consensus agreement. The operational definition of this principle is that the
group is neither hierarchical in structure, nor is it driven by power motives associated
with any one viewpoint or its hegemony within the group.

The first-among-equals are those who conceived, organized, and operationalized the
group at its inception, and continue on serving as functional information conduits,
facilitators, moderators and organic stimulants of viewpoints and worldviews to help
explain, clarify, extend, associate, and made accessible any information cumuli (or
information that combines and merges into ever higher orders of gnosive complexity
and abstraction) to the membership by virtue of previous access and exposure to
organic-enhancing means of improving optimal CNS/enteric intellectual performance.

The first among equals in the group are: P6 , P2 and P1.
     Of the three first-among-equals, the one ultimately responsible to the Link and to
     S.A.A.L.M for the accomplishment of the goals and objectives of S.A.A.L.M. is P33.
     The others – P13 and P15 – are the pillars of this group – the fifth element in a higher-
     order defensive complex that, without this group‘s performance of its functions and
     fulfillment of its goals, it would and could not work.

     More on the situation confronted by humankind as members of the Link have made
     guardian functions in certain institutional groups mentioned on this document and on
     the BRIEFING BOOK 1, for bona fide members admitted by the membership.

                                   Return to The Anunnaki
                              Return to Project Mannequin and
                                        James Casbolt
                         Return to Illuminati - Order of The Illumined
                                          Wise Men

                                        by James Casbolt
                                      from JamesCasbolt Website

It may be a revelation to many people that the global drug trade is controlled and run by the
intelligence agencies. In this global drug trade British intelligence reigns supreme.

As intelligence insiders know MI-5 and MI-6 control many of the other intelligence agencies in
the world (CIA, MOSSAD etc) in a vast web of intrigue and corruption that has its global power
base in the city of London, the square mile. My name is James Casbolt, and I worked for MI-6
in 'black ops' cocaine trafficking with the IRA and MOSSAD in London and Brighton between
1995 and 1999.

My father Peter Casbolt was also MI-6 and worked with the CIA and mafia in Rome, trafficking
cocaine into Britain. My experience was that the distinctions of all these groups became blurred
until in the end we were all one international group working together for the same goals. We
were puppets who had our strings pulled by global puppet masters based in the city of London.
Most levels of the intelligence agencies are not loyal to the people of the country they are based
in and see themselves as 'super national'.

It had been proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that the CIA has been bringing in most of the
drugs into America for the last fifty years (see ex LAPD officer Michael Rupert's 'From the
wilderness' website for proof).
The CIA operates under orders from British intelligence and was created by British intelligence
in 1947.

The CIA today is still loyal to the international bankers based in the city of London and the global
elite aristocratic families like the Rothschild's and the Windsor's. Since it was first started, MI-6
has always brought drugs into Britain. They do not bring 'some' of the drugs into Britain but I
would estimate MI-6 bring in around ninety percent of the drugs in.

They do this by pulling the strings of many organized crime and terrorist groups and these
groups like the IRA are full of MI-6 agents.

MI-6 bring in heroin from the middle east, cocaine from south America and cannabis from
morocco as well as other places. British intelligence also designed and created the drug LSD in
the 1950's through places like the Tavistock Institute in London. By the 1960's MI-5, MI-6 and
the CIA were using LSD as a weapon against the angry protestors of the sixties and turned them
into 'flower children' who were too tripped out to organize a revolution.

Dr Timothy Leary the LSD guru of the sixties was a CIA puppet. Funds and drugs for Leary's
research came from the CIA and Leary says that Cord Meyer, the CIA agent in charge of funding
the sixties LSD counter culture has "helped me to understand my political cultural role more

In 1998, I was sent 3000 LSD doses on blotting paper by MI-5 with pictures of the European
union flag on them. The MI-5 man who sent them told my father this was a government
'signature' and this LSD was called 'Europa'.

This global drugs trade controlled by British intelligence is worth at least 500 billion a year. This
is more than the global oil trade and the economy in Britain and America is totally dependent on
this drug money. Mafia crime boss John Gotti exposed the situation when asked in court if he
was involved in drug trafficking.

He replied "No we can't compete with the government".

I believe this was only a half truth because the mafia and the CIA are the same group at the
upper levels. In Britain, the MI-6 drug money is laundered through the Bank of England, Barclays
Bank and other household name companies. The drug money is passed from account to
account until its origins are lost in a huge web of transactions.

The drug money comes out 'cleaner' but not totally clean. Diamonds are then bought with this
money from the corrupt diamond business families like the Oppenheimers.

These diamonds are then sold and the drug money is clean. MI-6 and the CIA are also
responsible for the crack cocaine epidemic in Britain and America. In 1978, MI-6 and the CIA
were in south America researching the effects of the natives smoking 'basuco' cocaine paste.
This has the same effect as crack cocaine. They saw that the strength and addiction potential
was far greater than ordinary cocaine and created crack cocaine from the basuco formula.

MI-6 and the CIA then flooded Britain and America with crack.

Two years later, in 1980, Britain and America were starting to see the first signs of the crack
cocaine epidemic on the streets. On august 23, 1987, in a rural community south of Little Rock
in America, two teenage boys named Kevin Ives and Don Henry were murdered and
dismembered after witnessing a CIA cocaine drop that was part of a CIA drug trafficking
operation based at a small airport in Mena, Arkansas.

Bill Clinton was the governor of Arkansas at the time. Bill Clinton was involved with the CIA at
this time and $100 million worth of cocaine was coming through the Mena, Arkansas airport
each month.

For proof see the books 'Compromise' and 'Dope Inc'.

On my father's international MI-6 drug runs, whatever fell off the back of the lorry so to speak he
would keep and we would sell it in Britain. As long as my father was meeting the speedboats
from Morocco in the Costa del Sol and then moving the lorry loads of cannabis through their MI-
6, IRA lorry business into Britain every month, British intelligence were happy.

As long as my father was moving shipments of cocaine out of Rome every month, MI5 and MI6
were happy. If my father kept a bit to sell himself no one cared because there was enough drugs
and money to go round in this £500 billion a year global drugs trade. The ones who were really
paying were the people addicted. Who were paying with suffering.

But karma always catches up and both myself and my father became addicted to heroin in later
years and my father died addicted, and poor in prison under very strange circumstances. Today,
I am clean and drug-free and wish to help stop the untold suffering this global drugs trade

The intelligence agencies have always used addictive drugs as a weapon against the masses to
bring in their long term plan for a one world government, a one world police force designed to be
NATO and a micro chipped population known as the New World Order. As the population is in a
drug or alcohol-induced trance watching 'Coronation Street', the new world order is being crept
in behind them.

To properly expose this global intelligence run drugs trade we need to expose the key players in
this area:
            1. Tibor Rosenbaum, a MOSSAD agent and head of the Geneva based
                Banque du Credit international. This bank was the forerunner to the
                notorious Bank of Credit and Commerce international (BCCI) which is a
                major intelligence drug money laundering bank. 'Life' magazine exposed
                Rosenbaum's bank as a money launderer for the Meyer Lanksky
                American organized crime family and Tibor Rosenbaum funded and
                supported 'Permindex' the MI6 assassination unit which was at the heart
                of the John F. Kennedy assassination.

            2. Robert Vesco, sponsored by the Swiss branch of the Rothchilds and part
                of the American connection to the Medellin drug cartel in Colombia.

            3. Sir Francis de Guingand, former head of British intelligence, now living
                in south Africa (and every head of MI5 and MI6 has been involved in the
                drug world before and after him).

            4. Henry Keswick, chairman of Jardine Matheson which is one of the
                biggest drug trafficking operations in the world. His brother John
                Keswick is chairman of the bank of England.

            5. Sir Martin Wakefield Jacomb, Bank of England director from 1987 to
                1995, Barclays Bank Deputy Chairman in 1985, Telegraph newspapers
                director in 1986 (This is the reason why this can of worms doesn't get
                out in the mainstream media. The people who are perpetrating these
                crimes control most of the mainstream media. In America former
                director of the CIA William Casey was, before his death in 1987, head of
                the council of the media network ABC. Many insiders refer to ABC as
                'The CIA network.)

            6. George Bush, Snr, former President and former head of the CIA and
                America's leading drug baron who has fronted more wars on drugs than
                any other president. Which in reality is just a method to eliminate
                competition. A whole book could be written on George Bush's
                involvement in the global drug trade but it is well-covered in the book
                'Dark Alliance' by investigative journalist Gary Webb.
Gary Webb was found dead with two gunshot wounds to the back of his head with a revolver.
The case was declared a 'suicide'. You figure that out. Gary Webb as well as myself and other
investigators, found that much of this 'black ops' drug money is being used to fund projects
classified above top secret.

These projects include the building and maintaining of deep level underground bases in,
            Dulce in New Mexico
            Pine Gap in Australia
            Snowy mountains in Australia
            The Nyala range in Africa
            west of Kindu in Africa
            next to the Libyan border in Egypt
            Mount Blanc in Switzerland
            Narvik in Scandinavia
            Gottland island in Sweden,
...and many other places around the world (more about these underground bases in my next

The information on this global drugs trade run by the intelligence agencies desperately needs to
get out on a large scale.

Any information, comments or feedback to help me with my work would be greatly welcomed.

                                      Return to James
                                    Return to The Black
                                      Return to Temas /
                                  Return to The Elite's Drug
                                          by James Casbolt
                                        from JamesCasbolt Website

After the completion of my last article ‗MI6 are the lords of the global drug trade‘ I must now
present the full picture as to what the intelligence community drug trafficking money is being
used for.

I need to do this for many reasons. The truth must come out and I need to protect my family and
myself. If any of us were to come to a premature end it would only add more credibility to what I
am saying. Therefore by presenting the following I am protecting us.

Government harassment and surveillance of me has increased since going public with the last
article. I believe this has now become a ‘national security‘ issue. I have had my life threatened,
men situated in the hotel opposite my flat taking photographs of me using a high tech, long
range camera which uses a blue laser, my phone line and my girlfriends mother‘s phone line
tapped, my information hacked into and taken off multiple websites and e-mails from
government officials blocked.

I believe this is because I am leaking information on projects classified ‗above top secret‘ which I
will go into in detail in this article. The intelligence run drug trafficking is only classified ‗secret‘.

My name is James Casbolt and I worked in MI6 covert cocaine trafficking operations with the
IRA in London between 1995 and 1999. My father Peter Casbolt was also MI6 and worked with
the CIA and mafia in Rome in 1993 on covert cocaine and heroin trafficking operations.

The global drugs trade run by many factions of the global intelligence community co-operating
together (MI6, CIA, MOSSAD etc) is worth at least £500 billion a year. This is more than the
global oil trade. MI6 control many of the other intelligence agencies in the world. MI6 created the
CIA in 1947 and still control them today.

This ‗black ops‘ drug money or in classic Orwellian terms, MI6/CIA ‘non-appropriated funds‘ is
being used to fund government and military projects classified ‗Above top secret‘.

These operations include a huge worldwide UFO cover up and the building and maintaining of
deep underground military bases (D.U.M.B.S).

There are many of these bases worldwide but here is small list.
                    1. Dulce in New Mexico
                    2. Brecon Beacons in Wales
                    3. Los Alamos in Mexico
                    4. Pine Gap in Australia
                    5. The Snowy mountains in Australia
                    6. The Nyala range in Africa
                    7. West of Kindu in Africa
                    8. Next to the Libyan border in Egypt
                    9. Mount Blanc in Switzerland
                    10. Narvik in Scandinavia
                     11. Gottland island in Sweden and many other places
These projects are being run by a secret, unelected international governing body connected to
the U.N.

There are at least 1400 of these D.U.M.B.S worldwide. 131 in the US. With 2 underground
bases being built per year in the US at the moment. The average depth of the bases are four
and a quarter miles underground ( some shallower and some deeper ).

The bases are on average the size a medium sized city. Each DUMB base costs between 17
and 26 billion dollars to build which is funded by MI6/CIA drug money. Each underground base
employs 1,800 to 10,000 workers. A nuclear powered drill it used to dig underground. This drill
goes through rock at a tremendous rate and literally melts the rock away to form a smooth glass
like surface around the edges of the tunnels.

On May 20 I personally received information from a former member of the NSA (National
security agency) through a third party. I wish to protect this man‘s identity and so I will call him
‗G‘. This is the first time this information is being made public.

G was subcontracted by the NSA in the late 1980‘s and worked for the NSA until 1992. He was
a senior electrical engineer in the Los Alamos underground base in New Mexico. G also worked
at the Alamo Gordo DUMB in New Mexico and an underground base in Hawaii. He said the Los
Alamos base goes two miles underground and is the size of a small city.

Whilst there he witnessed rows of caged humans, tall grey aliens and a reptilian alien. G says
the NSA was very hard on all subcontractors and people were worked very hard under severe

According to G the US federal government, the USAF and the DOE (department of energy) run
the Hawaii DUMB he worked at. This base goes down two miles and stretches out into the
Pacific Ocean.

It was here that three very tall and muscular ‗Nordic‘ looking men (who according to G were
reptilian/human hybrids because their eyes would ‗shift‘ into having vertical slits for pupils)
chased him along the motorway there and threatened to kill him because he had overheard
them talking about some piece of high technology.

Understandably G has been emotionally scarred from these experiences and does not like
talking to people about them.

I was also told on May 23 from this source that in June there would be a huge amount of HAARP
engineered earthquakes on the west coast of America and that the DUMBS there had already
been evacuated and shut down. This was one hundred percent accurate because between the
21 and 28 of June there were at least 400 earthquakes on the West Coast of America.

I posted all this information on the God like productions forum on the net and within hours the
post was hacked into and removed.

By executive order the NSA is exempt from all laws which do not specifically name the NSA in
the text of the law, which basically means they can do whatever they want and are answerable
to no one.

This is because of its interaction with extra-terrestrial species and its twisted view that the people
are children and cannot handle the truth.

There is currently an internal war raging in the global intelligence community regarding the alien
agenda. This is between negative and positive factions. From my understanding one of the main
negative factions is a group centered around MI6 and the CIA called ‗Aquarius‗. This group is
covering up the truth, blatantly lying and discrediting or murdering anyone who gets too close to
exposing what is going on. There is also a positive group centered around naval intelligence
called ‘Comm 12‘ which is leaking accurate information regarding the alien agenda into the
public arena.

When the missile (not plane) hit the pentagon on 9-11, it hit the naval intelligence section of the
building. This was part of the internal war between Aquarius and Comm 12 being played out.

Aquarius has also enlisted the help of Hollywood and the mainstream media to twist the facts of
the alien agenda and blind the public to the truth. Sir Martin Wakefield Jacomb was director for
the telegraph newspapers in 1986.

He is also connected into MI6 and is involved with laundering MI6 drug money through the bank
of England. Jacomb was the director of the bank of England from 1987 to 1995. Former head of
the CIA William Casey was head of the council of the media network ABC. Many Insiders refer
to the ABC network as ‗The CIA network‘.

The grey and reptilian aliens working together with the military in the underground bases is
called MIEC (military industrial extra-terrestrial complex). This is a malevolent organization, as
you shall see with the following information. There are also benevolent ET‘s on this planet.

These groups are not part of the MIEC and are from:
                    the Pleiades
                    Andromeda
                    Lyra
                    Procyon
                    Tau Ceti
                    Sirius A
                    Ummo
These groups seem to work together in some kind of protective ‗federation‘.

On February 20, 1954 a delegation from these groups met with the Eisenhower administration in
an unsuccessful effort to reach an agreement on the US‘s thermonuclear weapons program. The
stumbling block to these negotiations was that these ET‘s were not willing to provide technology
that might have been used by the military-industrial factions of the Eisenhower administration.

These peace loving ‗human looking‘ beings refused to be co-opted into the emerging military
industrial extra terrestrial complex (MIEC) in the US, Britain, Russia and elsewhere on the

On July 11, 1934 the first treaty with the greys from Orion occurred aboard a naval ship in
Balboa. This was one of the most important events in human history because it thrust us into a
role we were not repaired for as regards to being a host to a malevolent extra-terrestrial race.

The US federal government disregarded the constitution of the United States by doing this and
not telling the people. It was here that the agreement was first made between the greys
representing the reptilians from Orion and representatives of the US intelligence community.

The treaty stated that in return for the greys providing high technology (anti-gravity, metals and
alloys, environment, free energy and medical technology) the government would allow the greys
to proceed unhindered with human abductions. This was only if a list of abductees was provided
to the government and the abductees returned unharmed with their memories of the events

In 1944 the second extension of the treaty was signed. I have very little details of this.

In May 1954 again under the Eisenhower administration the third extension of this treaty was
signed called ‗The Greada treaty‘. The greys and reptilians blatantly broke the terms of this
treaty as we shall see later in this information. The Greada treaty was agreed upon at the
Holloman air force base in New Mexico by the greys and the ‗Ultra‘ unit in the NSA.

The original document of this treaty and the ET materials from it can be found today at the NSA
facility called ‗Blue moon‘ underneath Kirkland air force base in New Mexico. The entrance to
this underground base is in the Manzano Mountains. Also at this location is the technological
base of the secretive department of energy (DOE). Today free energy devices developed from
grey and reptilian technology are being built for use in space at the DOE base.

On April 15 1964 two intelligence personnel met under ‗project Plato‘ with the greys in the New
Mexico desert to arrange a meeting on April 25 at Holloman air force base in New Mexico. This
meeting was to renew the treaty again in a psychological bid to buy time in order to solve the
problem of the greys and reptilians.

A truly nightmarish situation is now unfolding. Phil Schneider was a geologist, structural engineer
and underground tunneling expert for the US government and the UN. He participated in the
construction of many DUMBS in North America and other countries. Phil was murdered by the
CIA on January 17 1996 in his apartment in Wilsonville in Portland, Oregon.

In 1979 in Dulce New Mexico, Phil Schneider was drilling into the desert there to build an
auxiliary base in the southern end of Dulce on top of an already existing underground base
there. The already existing base had been built by the US government in the 1940‘s
under ‘operation blue note‘ but afterwards had been taken over by greys and reptilians.

Over a period of two days Phil and his team had drilled four holes in the desert that went down
several thousand feet.

One of the holes kept bringing up dirty dust, putrid odours and broken off machine bits that were
sent down the hole. Boring machines and lasers came back up damaged when they were sent
down there. A probe was then sent down that came back up totally missing. Eventually people
were sent down.

Phil was the first person to go. He was lowered down into the cave and when he got down there,
standing around ten feet away were two seven-foot greys. He became petrified but managed to
empty one clip from his pistol into the greys. As he was reloading one of the greys hit Phil with
some kind of particle beam weapon which gave him a very high dose of nuclear radiation
poisoning, similar to cobalt radiation but even worse.

Phil‘s lung was burnt out of him and he has a huge scar running down his chest which he
showed at his lectures which are available on video

                     Underground Bases and The New World Order
                               Phil Schneider - May 1995 Lecture

                                  Phil Schneider was a
                                  geologist, structural engineer,
                                  and underground tunneling
                                 expert who participated in the
                                 construction of many deep
                                 underground cities and bases
                                 in North America and abroad
                                 for the government.

                                 In May of 1995, suffering from
                                 terminal cancer, he began
                                 giving talks in Las Vegas
                                 describing in detail the
                                 underground cities, the
                                 government's secret deal with
                                 negative aliens, high alien
                                 technology being employed by
                                 the government-including
                                 "corbamite" (element 140),
                                 mining on the moon, FEMA
                                 and martial law, the coming
                                 New World Order takeover, the
                                 Alien/NWO genocide agenda
                                 to reduce the earth's
                                 population by 85% before
                                 2029, and a host of other
                                 stunning revelations.

                                 Phil Schneider was an
                                 extraordinarily brave man who
                                 knew that he was going to be
                                 killed because of the
                                 information he was revealing to
                                 the American public.
His fingers on his left hand were burnt off, his bones were burnt. He was basically cooked.

He was in radiation isolation therapy for 400 days plus. In the cave large metallic vats were
found filled with human body parts, generally glands. In the vats were high tech stirring devices
that stopped the blood coagulating.

In Aztec in New Mexico on the 13 February 1948 a crashed flying disk was retrieved by the US
military. The craft was 100 feet in diameter was made of a light metal resembling aluminum and
contained ET reptilian bodies. A large number of human body parts were also found on board
the craft.

The ‗above top secret‘ security lid was screwed down on this even tighter than Roswell to stop
mass panic.

The very next day after the crash (the craft was probably shot down by the military) the
government bought up the property from the local landowners. Witnesses in Aztec observed
covered military trucks going in and out of the area for days after the crash.

The craft was transported to Wright Patterson air force base. The disc incorporated large rings of
metal which revolved around a central stabilized cabin. There were no rivets, bolts, screws or
signs of wielding.

People in Aztec carefully guard their words as to the accounts of the crashed disk. The Aztec
citizens are still being monitored by the military to this day. One elderly woman said her husband
watched the military trucks going in and out of the crash area for days. She said she was very
nervous about the whole thing and didn't want to talk about any of it other than her husband
seeing the military vehicles. She was asked if she believed there had been a UFO crash.

Her response was,
        ―If something hadn‘t happened out there, how come the military rushed right in...
        why was the covered military trucks going in and out of the canyon... why did
        they deny being there... and why were they buying the near and surrounding
        land where the UFO supposedly crashed?
In Cambodia in 1972 at the height of the Vietnam war, a US special operations team out on
patrol came across a group of alien creatures loading various human body parts into large metal
containers and sealing them. A pitched battle ensued, which resulted in fatalities on both sides.
As the soldiers pulled back the aliens quickly retreated to their craft taking the body parts with

As usual a major cover-up was quickly enforced.

One of my contacts in Wales who I will call ‗D‘ to protect his identity, was approached by an elite
intelligence organization called ‗Group 5-8‘. This group was formed by Margaret Thatcher in the
1980‘s to work at the sights of crashed ET craft in Britain. This is the first time this information is
being made public.

Even though group 5-8 was formed by Margaret Thatcher it is a UN group. The group 5-8 man
called George showed my contact a UN identity card with UN holograms on it. George then
drove D to a clandestine meeting on a motorway services.

It was here that George showed D photographs of human mutilations they had found near the
heavily guarded Breaken beacon DUMB in Wales. These photos were taken at a sealed off area
where UFO activity had taken place.

The photos showed a girl of sixteen and a boy of twenty who had their genitals removed,
eyeballs removed, lips removed and directly half of their skin was missing. George said group 5-
8 regularly found camper vans around this area where the occupants had vanished.

D understandably had nightmares for weeks after this and was soon after followed by a high-
tech American utility van with blue lights underneath it. I believe this was a NSA van.

Days after this D had his life threatened over the phone. The call was anonymous but told him to
keep quite or his house would be burnt down with him in it. George then called D and told him
his life was in danger and to get the information out as soon as possible to protect himself. The
next day a gasman turned up pulled out his ID the moment the door was opened walked in and
checked the meter. When he left a fire broke out which nearly burnt down the house with D and
his wife in it. The house was wrecked and the fire brigade said the fire had mysteriously started
in the bin in the room where the gasman was.

After this D another man and myself were investigating reports of a DUMB and missing children
around the small village of Zennor in Cornwall. There had been many sightings of alien beings
on the cliffs there since the 1960‘s and many UFO sightings around the area and large amounts
of covert military activity. Some of the UFO‘s had disappeared into the ocean there according to

Two years ago a Devon and Cornwall police project classified ‘secret‘ had gone on. This was a
dig for the mass graves of children by the police. They had traced the reports of many missing
children to this area. This is classified information that D managed to get hold of from his
contacts. Once again this is the first time this information is being made public. From that I can
gather the police did not find any bodies and the digging area was walled off from the public.

I believe the police were looking in the wrong place because the activity seems to be coming
from underground. When the poet D.H Lawrence stayed at a small cottage in Zennor he heard
explosions coming from deep underground. And Aleister Crowley who was an MI6 agent spent
much time at Zennor.

As already stated MI6 and the CIA are heavily involved in the alien agenda and I believe Aleister
Crowley was up to his neck in it.

Aleister Crowley had performed many satanic rituals at a cottage in Zennor (there seems to be a
close connection with Satanism and the greys and reptilians).

At this cottage one night after Crowley left that a woman named Ka Cox died of a stroke and her
husband went insane and ended up in Bodmin mental asylum. The man said a reptilian being
had materialized in the house and I believe Ka Cox died of fright after seeing this. The police
files pertaining to her death were stolen from the police station after this.

Aleister Crowley was also at Montauk in New York when the project was in full swing and there
is a quantum energy grid line that runs from Montauk to Zennor and the Men An Tol ancient
stones in Cornwall.

After the fire at D‘s house everything had been quite for a couple of years. All of a sudden after
two days into our missing children investigation at Zennor, D had men outside his bedroom
window shining lights in. This is an intimidation tactic used by the intelligence agencies.

I have only scratched the surface of what is going on at Zennor as there is not room to go into it
all here. The bigger picture will be made public soon.

So what is going on with these human mutilations and missing people?. The truth of the matter
is that the greys and reptilians feed off the glandular secretions and hormones through a type of
osmosis. This is why major organs are taken from people. Your mind may want to go into denial
that this is happening but if you start digging you will find this is 100% true. On the Crowed skies
website there is video smuggled out of the Dulce underground facility that shows greys inside
vats absorbing these blood mixtures through their skin.

Researchers Bill Hamilton and Tal XXXXXX (AKA Jason Bishop) received reports from workers
at the Dulce DUMB who worked there in the mid 1970‘s when it was being jointly run by the CIA,
greys and reptilians. This was before the ET‘s completely took the base over and kicked the
humans out.

The workers said the Dulce facility goes down at least seven levels. Level six is privately
called ‘nightmare hall‘ amongst workers. They tell of bizarre experimentation and multi-legged
humans that look half human and half octopus, reptilian humanoids, furry creatures with hands
like humans that cry like a baby, and mimic human words.

Also a huge mixture of lizard humans in cages, several cages of winged humans, three and a
half to seven feet tall bat like creatures and gargoyle like beings. In level seven are thousands of
rows of human and human genetic mixtures in cold storage, humanoid embryo storage vats with
embryos in various stages of development.

Other workers said they witnessed scenes even more terrifying than this and refused to talk
about them.
One worker told Bill Hamilton,
       ―I frequently encountered humans in cages, usually dazed or drugged, but
       sometimes they cried and begged for help. We were told they were insane and
       involved in high-risk drug tests to cure insanity. We were told never to speak to
       them at all. At the beginning we believed the story. Finally in 1978 a small group
       of workers discovered the truth‖.
Thomas Castello was one of the security workers at the Dulce facility. Thomas worked seven
years for the Rand Corporation in California. He was transferred to Dulce in 1977. He estimated
there were more than 18000 short greys at Dulce and also saw tall reptilians.

Thomas knew of seven levels but said there could have been more. He said the aliens were on
levels five, six and seven. The lower you go the higher the security clearance is needed. The
only sign in English is above the tube shuttle system and says ‘To Los Alamos‘.

The tube shuttle travels at mach 2.7. Most signs at the Dulce facility are in the alien symbol
language and a universal system understood by humans and ET‘s. Thomas said the other
shuttle connections from Dulce went to Page Arizona, Area 51 Nevada, Taos Carlsbad, Datil
New Mexico, Colorado Springs and Creede Colorado. Thomas also said there is a vast number
of tube shuttle connections under the United States which extend into a global system of tunnels
to other underground bases in other countries.

Thomas Castello said that below the second level of the Dulce facility everyone is weighed
naked and given a uniform. Any change in weight is noted and if there is a change in weight of
three pounds or more the people are x-rayed. At the entrance to all sensitive areas are scales
and the persons weight must match with their ID card and code to gain entry.

Thomas Castello smuggled many things out of the Dulce facility before he escaped which
included twenty seven sheets of 8x10 photos of alien and genetic creatures in vats.

One silent surveillance camera video tape, which begins with showing computer banks then
vats, multi shots of nightmare hall, two shots of greys, one shot of the terminal sign saying ‘To
Los Alamos‘ and thirty seconds of the shuttle train arriving.

Twenty five pages of diagrams, chemical formulas, schematics and alien equipment.
             A copy of the new government/alien treaty with signatures.
             Two pages of original documents signed by Ronald Reagan (then
               governor of California). Each page has Ronald Reagan's signature plus
               other political signatures and four alien signatures.
             Thomas Castello‘s ‗flash gun‘ (a laser type weapon used by the security
               officers at Dulce).
             Thomas put the original set of these items in a sealed, one piece oxygen
               free heavy plastic box. Five sets of copies are in five different boxes in
               five different locations guarded by five different individuals known only
               to Thomas Castello.
I understand these individuals would be scared to leak this proof as Thomas Castello's wife and
child were kidnapped and then disappeared in Puerto Rico not long after this (now presumed

But if any of you are reading this then please contact me anonymously and we can arrange for
you to send me a copy. I will be able to get it out on a large scale. My e-mail address will be at
the end of this article.

This is part of an interview with Thomas Castello before he disappeared:
         ―I am saying there are aliens in several underground bases in this country and
        terrible things happen in those places. If I die before it is proven search for
        proof. Demand that the government admit it. If enough people demand it they
        will find a way to explain the base or at least explain why they must keep it
        secret. There are many people that work at Dulce that know me.

        I am challenging those co-workers to speak up anonymously. Send a letter to
        confirm what I have explained. In the name of the brave men, women, children
        and aliens that died trying to let the public know what is going on at the Dulce
        facility. Expose that horrid place before thousands more innocent people are
        tortured and die unspeakable deaths‖.
The Rand corporation which is involved in the construction of these underground bases has
released ‗The Roper report‘. This is now a third generation report that says according to their
research one in ten people have been abducted and implanted by the Greys and reptilians and
returned with their memories erased. This report has been sent out to one hundred and ten
thousand clinical psychiatrists in the US.

The Roper report also states that women are being raped by reptilian ET‘s as part of a ongoing
genetic program by them. As fantastic as this sounds it is backed up by some of the world‘s top
MD‘s like John Mack and many others. There are some ninety concerned psychiatric scientists
in the US who are trying to form an organization to prevent secrecy on this horrendous situation.

They say that because of the alien/government treaties this amounts to government sponsored
rape. According to the Roper report 99.3% of the abductees being used in this ongoing genetic
ET program are female and 0.7% are male.

I have personally seen intelligence documents of studies into the Grey and Reptilian problem
that show they are involved in genetic sabotage of the human race. The Grey and Reptilian alien
agenda is to slowly and covertly take over the planet in the next thirty years, reduce the
population and run the planet from underground using the surface population as food to be taken
when and how they wish. The British, Russian and US government is shooting down around one
Grey and Reptilian craft a month with particle beam weapons developed from Tesla technology.

The Russians have areas the size of football fields full of crashed ET craft. If that is not a full-
scale invasion I don‘t know what is.

The British, Russian and US government have become ‗blood brothers‘ and the best of friends
because of the alien agenda. The Russian and US cold war was feigned animosity and a sham
so these governments could develop nuclear weapon programs to counter the alien threat.

The cold war was a lie for the public to take the attention away from what the nuclear weapons
program was really being developed for, not against Russia but as a last resort against the
Greys and Reptilians.

The headquarters of the secret international governing body in charge of dealing with the ET
phenomenon is in Geneva, Switzerland. The ruling body is made up of representatives of the
governments involved as well as the executive members of the group known as the
Bilderbergers. As I have said the British, American and Russian governments are working very
closely together because of the Grey/Reptilian threat to the planet.

Although the situation is so horrendous that these governments have shattered into panicked
factions, some of which have ‘sold out‘ and are directly helping the Greys and Reptilians.

According to very credible US government insider William Cooper the most important meetings
of this secret international governing body are held by the policy committee on a nuclear
submarine beneath the polar ice caps.
The secrecy is such that this is the only method to make certain the meetings cannot be bugged
and is the only place they will discuss their biggest secrets.

It would be wrong and cruel of me to present his information without presenting the full picture.
The Greys and reptilians from Orion have been involved in an ancient war with the Benevolent
Pleiadians and other groups.

The Pleiadians are a very powerful group and are the guardians of this solar system. I personally
do not believe they will let the grey/reptilian agenda fully unfold. They have helped us in the past,
are helping us now and will help us in the future.

I know this because I have had many Para-normal ET contact experiences since childhood.
There is not room to go into detail here but is covered in the ‘Above top secret‘ presentation with
investigative journalist Dave Starbuck. Type ‘revelation audio visual-Dave star buck‘ into a
search engine to find.

I have very clear photographic evidence of benevolent Pleiadian ET‘s materializing in my house
and a box of ‗channelled‘ communications with these beings. These photographs will stand up to
a computer grain analysis test because they are all one hundred percent real. I also do not have
the knowledge or technology to fake them. One photo shows a very clear face materializing in
front of me. I also have post traumatic stress disorder from abductions and other contacts with
malevolent reptilian entities. Again these are covered in ‘Above top secret‘.

There is a massive number of missing children in Britain, America and other places connected to
these underground bases. The figure in Britain seems to be at least twenty thousand children
disappear without a trace every year. In a 1995 classified CIA, DIA (defense intelligence
agency) and FBI report, it stated that one hundred thousand children and one million adults
disappear and are never found in the US every year.

You may ask yourself how is this being covered up. As was mentioned at the beginning of the
article, the same group working with the greys and reptilians which is MI6, CIA and the MIEC,
own and control the mainstream media.

In 2001 Scotland Yard police revealed that it had been unable to find three hundred black boys
aged between four to seven that disappeared from London in a three-month period. The three
hundred boys were reported missing between July and September in 2001.

Journalist Yinka Sunmonu an expert in missing children told the BBC‘s Today program
―Children are here one day and gone the next‖.

In 1989 in Westchester, New York which was the site of numerous UFO overflights and reports
of human abductions at that time. Over three thousand missing children reports surfaced. After
extensive investigation by local police departments the children were not found at red light
districts or centers for run a ways. Researchers and law enforcement officials were baffled.

There is also the CIA ‗finders case‘. This involved negative factions of the CIA directly involved
in child kidnapping. This was revealed in a 1987 US customs report. Customs and police raided
a Washington DC warehouse which was used by the CIA. There they found a set of instructions
broadcast via a computer network which advised the CIA to move a huge amount of kidnapped
children that were originally being held at the warehouse (customs and police found large
amount of nappies and other things there) and to keep them moving across jurisdictions.

There were instructions on impregnation of female teenagers and also instructions on how to
avoid police detection. The destination for the children in the instructions was New Mexico.
The Albuquerque journal ran an article entitled ‘ Why New Mexico has so many more missing
children than comparable states remains a mystery‘.

Much of this activity is centered around New Mexico where the Dulce underground facility is.

One male survivor of the MI6/CIA mind control project Monarch described in ‘The illuminati
formula‘ by Fritz Springmeir, the china lake naval base at Ridgecrest in the California desert.
This anonymous man says batches of children numbering one, two and three thousand were
kept in cages piled up to the ceiling of large hangers. He says these cages are
called ‘woodpecker grids‘.

These are electrified and the children were tortured with electric shocks.

Children are today still being transported to china lake naval base by train, car and air. One of
the main delivery routes for children into China Lake is by plane from the Santa Rosa airstrip
near Bohemian grove. The Santa Rosa airstrip is supposed to be closed, yet planes take off
from there every night and do not put there lights on until they are hundreds of feet in the air.

The Nazi geneticist and mind control scientist Joseph Mengela ‗The angel of death‘ from the
Auschwitz concentration camp was brought to America after the war by MI6 and the OSS (which
became the CIA) in project paperclip. Many other leading Nazi mind control experts, rocket
scientists and geneticists were also brought to America and Britain after the war.

Joseph Mengela stayed at the China Lake base and the Tavistock Institute in London.

China Lake naval base is in the same as Lancaster, California. It was in Lancaster the mass
graves of mutilated children were discovered.

By the sheer amount of evidence the only conclusion I can come to is that certain sections of the
US and British government have sold us and our children out to malevolent ET‘s in backdoor
treaties. The situation is truly grim. Come on people, time to wake up! The new world order and
UN one world government is this rigid control structure to clamp the people of the world into a
totalitarian vice so they won‘t have to tell us about the aliens.

I also believe that certain sections of the intelligence community and the US and British
government are directly helping the Greys and Reptilians with their takeover agenda. Evidence
seems to point to the ET‘s promising these humans certain powers when this happens. The
name of the powerful secretive group ‗The Trilateral Commission‘ is taken from the Orion
Grey/Reptilian flag known as the Trilateral insignia. This shows how much trouble the Human
race is in.

There is now an apathy amongst the people towards world events that is deadly and contagious.
This is especially true of the people of Britain. We have truly become a nation of sheep.

I challenge you to shake off that apathy and challenge your government to tell you the truth.
Please send letters copies of this article to your local government officials and distribute it
amongst your friends and family. This information desperately needs to get out on a large scale
as possible but I cannot do this on my own, I need your help.

There is a huge amount of pressure on the governments to go public on the ET scenario, but
there is also a huge amount of pressure on them not to go public as well. We need to demand
our government officials tell us the truth about the ET scenario and if they do not we must
impeach them.
  If there are any government officials or intelligence personnel who still have a conscious and
  would like to provide me with information on any of the areas covered in this article or
  information on any other areas, please contact me at the e-mail addresses below.

  I will also be willing to meet you face to face.

                                    Return to Anomalous Underground
                                    Return to Vida en Nuestra Galaxia
                                     Return to Temas / Sociopolitica
                                         Return to James Casbolt

                                                by James Casbolt
                                             from RobKettenburg Website
                                                   Spanish version

 James Casbolt is a former MI6 agent who worked in 'Black ops' drug trafficking operations in London between
1995 and 1999. He comes from a line of intelligence people. His grandfather was naval intelligence, his father was
            MI6 who was also involved in 'Black ops' and his uncle was an MI5 officer in Logistics.

From Cornwall England, James wishes to make amends for his part in these operations and blow the whistle on the
 crimes against Humanity that the intelligence agencies are involved in. MI6 and the CIA have cornered the global
drugs trade (which is worth at least £500 billion a year, this is more than the global oil trade) and are now bringing
                            the majority of illegal street drugs into America and Britain.

    They are using this drug money to fund projects classified 'Above top secret' which include the building and
maintaining of deep underground military bases (DUMBS). There are now over 4000 of these bases worldwide and
the average depth of these bases is four and a quarter miles. Some are shallower and some are deeper. The bases
            are on average the size of a medium sized city and yes, he says there are aliens in them.

James is connected to ex intelligence people who have worked in these underground bases and on other ET related
  projects. There are vast numbers of children and adults disappearing around the world and ending up in these
underground bases. As a former MI6 Agent that has seen aliens first hand and has inside information that will shock
even the most disbelieving person. Every person alive on the planet today needs to be aware of this information for
                                                   their futures.

                                   “A true slave is the man who cannot
                                              speak his mind.”
                                             - Ancient Greek proverb

                                 “Immortality will be given to those who
                                  unravel the ignorance of their youth.”
                                                 - Ancient proverb

1. Chapter - Mannequin
2. Chapter - The Return Of The Watchers
3. Chapter - The Modern History Of Behavior Modification
4. Chapter - The River Of Love
5. Chapter - Born Into The Project
6. Chapter - The Sublime View
7. Chapter - Convergence of The Star Children
8. Chapter - Close Encounters at "Home"
9. Chapter - Psychosexual Mind Control
10. Chapter - Altars Combine

My name is James Michael Casbolt. The following is my life and testimony. I was born in London
in 1976. I was chosen for an intelligence agency mind control and genetic enhancement program
before my birth and was born into the program known as Project Mannequin. This project is one
of the most secret and classified projects in this country, and this is the first ever book written
about it.

I was born into the project because of rare genetic attributes that I posses, which the handlers of
the project are looking for – also, because of my family‘s involvement in the intelligence
community and the Illuminati. My family descends from the French royal family of the French
revolution on my father's side. My Grandfather was involved in naval intelligence in the Second
World War. His name was James Casbolt. He was also a high-ranking member of the Sindlesham
Grand Masonic lodge in Berkshire.

Berkshire is a major centre of activity in the U.K for what has come to be known as ―The New
World Order.‖

He was a Zionist Jew and also heavily involved with Rupert Murdoch and ran his own printing
company after the war. My uncle was an MI 5 operative in logistics - his name is Brain Casbolt -
and my father was a MI 6 operative; his name was Peter Casbolt. My father was also known
under many different aliases in the intelligence community.

My stepfather, Neil Pettet, was a high level executive of an aluminium metal company called Hi-
Mets (now called Service Metals). This company was based in Newbury, practically right on top of
the AL/499 facility. Neil had a military defense contract with the M.O.D and worked underground
at R.A.F. Welford connects underground to the AL/499. He also worked at Harwell genetics labs
in the area and Boscombe Down military unit in Wiltshire. Both these places are heavily
connected to Project Mannequin, as we shall see later in this book.

I also have a relation called Charles Casbolt. Charles had so many kills during dogfights in the
RAF during the time of the Second World War, there is a war hero website dedicated to him on
the internet. Google ―Charles Casbolt‖ to see this. My father was involved in international drug
trafficking operations bringing millions of pounds worth of illegal drugs into Britain from the 1960‘s

He worked with associates of MI 6 operative Howard Marks and operated in Rome, Spain, the
Middle East, and other places. MI6 and the CIA have become infamous for this, and the drug
money is known in secret service circles as ―non-appropriated funds.‖ This money funds covert
projects that need to be kept off certain official government records. Many of these issues, as well
as my involvement in Project Mannequin, will be made public for the first time in this book.

I have had constant death threats, and even intelligence people die in very suspicious
circumstances hours before arranged meetings with me; however, the mission of getting this
highly classified information to the public and exposing the people perpetuating the horrors of this
medical project is bigger than me and must be made public. The disregard for human life and
suffering compares with the Nazi scientists‘ genetic and mind control experimentation in World
War II.

Project Mannequin is a mind control and genetic manipulation program run by the National
Security Agency (NSA). Although the NSA is officially the United States government, they run
many covert ―black‖ projects in many countries around the world. The NSA is fast becoming the
world‘s most powerful secret service and is currently taking over much of the global intelligence
Project Mannequin was started in 1972 and is still being run from a 6-level underground facility
beneath the small town of Peasemore in Berkshire, a few miles from where I grew up. This
underground base is so secret that the local residents of Peasmore are not even aware it exists.

This NSA facility, known in intelligence circles as the AL/499 base, is located 200 feet below the

There are entrances to the facility at:
            Greenham common (known as ‗Bravo‘ entrance, which is now sealed off)
            Watchfield Military Science College (‗Delta‘ entrance)
            Harwell laboratories in Oxfordshire
            There are entrances to the base in Lambourne and Welford in Berkshire
The underground base at Lambourne is the ―Area 51‖ of the U.K. with many exotic, anti-gravity
aircraft stored there.

The project involves the kidnapping of targeted civilians and also certain intelligence and military
people. Some of the intelligence and military personnel have volunteered for the project, but many
have not. Almost all of the civilian ―guinea pigs‖ have not volunteered and have been used against
their wills. I was ―sold‖ into the project. Many of the civilians have also been used in the project
from young children.

The reason is to create programmed ―sleeper‖ agents using sophisticated electronic hardware-
based hypnosis. These individuals are programmed by the NSA to carry out future tasks, set by
the NSA, and become hit-men as adults. Sleepers are people who carry out a huge variety of pre-
programmed tasks with sometimes little awareness of the medical procedures in Project
Mannequin because of advanced memory erasure techniques.

A large part of the project focuses on creating espionage agents and assassins who have
undergone genetic enhancements, which will be discussed in greater detail in this book.

Project Mannequin is actually a type of ―school‖ I grew up in. I have been trained since the age of
five at the AL/499 and other military bases around the U.K. I carried out my first covert
assassination for the intelligence community when I was sixteen years old in Brighton. This may
sound unbelievable to many people, but a vast amount of evidence will be presented in this book.
Most people do not know what the intelligence community actually is. Forget about James Bond
movies; much of the secret service apparatus in the U.K and U.S is an occult, pedophile network
run by corrupt factions of the ―Illuminated‖ degrees of Freemasonry (33rd degree and above).

Everything in Project Mannequin is organized by the Jewish kabala occult system, using such
esoteric methods as numerology and archeometry (advanced remote viewing). Even the name
James Casbolt means ―valiant, decorated warrior of death and destruction‖ in Kabala numerology.
You can check this yourself on the kabala calculator available on the Internet.

My security number in Project Mannequin was X4566-2, and I was a commander of a 5-member
unit that consisted of four males and one female.

Even this was based around the kabala, as the five members each represented one of the five
elements- air, water, fire, earth, metal/spirit. Our assassination unit was part of a 15-member
―Delta‖ team, and the team was divided into three units. Each unit comprised of four males and
one female. I was known as Commander Michael Prince.

During my ―visits‖ to the AL/499 throughout my life, I was taken through the Greenham common
Bravo entrance most of the time. Sometimes other entrances were used. At the Alpha entrance in
Harwell laboratories, there is a security area in one of the buildings. This security area (A) is
guarded by two security officers who are both armed. At this area is an elevator that descends
200 feet to security area B. The elevator has two sections: One for personnel and guinea pigs and
one for vehicles. The second security area is larger and has four, and sometimes five, officers that
are all fully armed.

Area B has two highly secure blast doors that will seal off the tunnel to the AL/499 in the event of
an emergency. Security Area B has two vehicles in operation that travel back and forth from
Harwell to Peasmore. The security officers escort all guinea pigs to, from, and around the AL/499.
The medical subjects are drugged when they enter the facility.

My involvement with the intelligence community goes back years, as it was planned for, as a child
in Project Mannequin that I would be ―used‖ as an espionage agent when I grew up. By the time I
was eighteen, I was involved in advanced remote viewing programs at an underground facility in
London. By the time I was nineteen, I was involved in covert MI6 drug trafficking operations
working for my father.

This was in London between 1995 and 1999. My father, uncle, and grandfather also had mind
control issues, and the programming sites in this country where my father was programmed will
be discussed in this book.

Intelligence-run mind control operations are usually a multi-generational thing with each
generation more easily programmed, as the genetic memory of the horrific medical procedures
become more ingrained into the family‘s genetic makeup. In the 1950‘s, a genetic bloodline study
was started by the NSA based at Harwell Laboratories to find suitable candidates, especially
children, to be used in Project Mannequin. From this study, the project was started in 1972;
however, my family may have been targeted for mind control before the 1950's.

The NSA is very interested in creating genetically enhanced assassins and espionage agents
who have certain inborn genetic traits such as PSI/psychic ability. These genetic enhancement
methods are a continuation of the Nazi geneticists and mind control doctors in the Second World

As many people know, the Nazi‘s were heavily into the occult, and Hitler was trying to create his
―Uberman,‖ which is German for superman. This is a genetically enhanced soldier with
heightened senses, intelligence, strength, and paranormal abilities such as telepathy. All of this
will be covered in detail in chapter two.

The NSA is looking for people of certain bloodlines, and these people are mainly of
Celtic/blueblood (aristocratic) genetics. Individuals with these genetics have a predisposition to
paranormal/PSI ability, as these cultures have practiced psychic abilities for generations in
ancient rituals that have their modern expression in freemasonry; therefore, it is in the genetic
memory of people of these bloodlines, even if they have not practiced psychic ability themselves.

There are generations of high-level masonry in my family. Individuals of Celtic blueblood lines
have an RH-negative blood factor. This is a very rare blood type and makes up about 5% of the
population. RH-negative means oxygen is processed in the blood differently to people with RH-
positive blood. The amount of oxygen processed by the body makes all the difference in unusual
abilities. This is evident in arts like Tai chi and Yoga.

There are also deeper issues, which connect to the so-called ancient ―Nephilim‖ of the Bible.

My father‘s mother was a French aristocrat named Vera Tilard. There were generations of high
level Freemasonry in the De Tilard family. The family line then went through Scotland and into this
country. The Tilard‘s have a coat of arms that is handed through the generations to the eldest

Because of all this, my involvement with the global intelligence apparatus has been extensive. As
I began to untangle myself from the project, I was directly helped by renegade factions in British
Intelligence and the NSA, who want to see Mannequin shut down. I was given an UMBRA-1 (one
level above top secret) security clearance by this NSA faction and de-briefed on deeper aspects
of the program and things that changed me for life.

Because of what I was told and shown, I will never be the same again. Most of this will be detailed
in this book, and various official documents that have my name and number will also be included.
There are both positive and negative factions in the NSA and British Intelligence involved in an
internal war with each other. In fact, the whole global intelligence community has descended into
chaos with much infighting going on between rival factions, often in the same organizations.

I was also given some technology that was created by the NSA in the 1960‘s, which opens up
neural pathways in the brain to recover memories that have been suppressed in the mind control
projects. Amongst other things, I have been provided with highly classified documentation that
teaches how to control your own brain waves and master and take control of myself instead of the
project controlling me.

Brain wave control is a large part of Project Mannequin, and people breaking free of it need to be
able to control their own brain waves. These self-mastery methods I have taught are similar to
very advanced meditation, but using machines and advanced physics created by PHD bio-

I am now thirty one years old, and around this age, the neural pathways in the brain that hold
back memories of mind control procedures often begin to open up, and the victim begins to
remember in detail what happened to them in the facilities where the procedures occurred. Often,
a sleeper is killed before their 30th birthday because of this. This is known in intelligence circles
as ―being thrown from the Freedom train.‖

Freedom train is code speak for the vast numbers of civilian victims who are being used in the
many mind control projects in this country and abroad.

Specific ―programs‖ that hold instructions for tasks, and even enhanced abilities, are installed into
Project Mannequin victims‘ memories. In the project, you are taught things like how to access PSI
ability and how to ―tag‖ a room, a person, a vehicle etc., advanced combat, crowd control,
psychological warfare, torture and interrogation techniques, etc.

This information is stored in compartments in my mind that only the handlers of the project had
access to and could bring forth using hypnotic triggers.

That was until my memories started to come back in detail in 2006, and the amnesic barriers
around these compartments began to break down. With the right help and my de-programming
efforts, I am slowly accessing more and more of this information.

At least five Mannequin programs and a whole bunch of related sub-projects have been
uncovered in me. These have been installed into me and are classified under Greek letters, which
are also the name of specific brain waves. For example, Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma, Theta, and
Omega. The Theta program is a PSI/telepathy program that enables me to physically see Scalar
based radio sound waves. I can also manipulate these sound waves with my mind. The most
important technology the intelligence community uses is scalar/radio sound based. You can
therefore imagine how important this ability would be to an individual involved in espionage.

The brain has the ability to receive, give off, and manipulate radio waves.
If you hold a glass or a shell to your ear, the static-like hissing sound (like the sound of rushing
air) is the glass or shell acting as a container and ―capturing‖ the radio sound waves that the brain
is giving off. The brain has a telepathic receiver and transmitter that uses sound waves. In fact,
thoughts are simply scalar sound waves that most people cannot see but are very real.

Hence ―Tele‖pathy, ― Tele‖visions, and ―Tele‖phones.

I have photos that will be shown in this book of me manipulating scalar/radio waves. It is possible
to catch them on digital camera. Imagine my surprise last year when the parts of my brain that
hold PSI ability from the project started to integrate with my everyday personality.

I was seeing waves of light coming off people‘s heads, off of antennas on people‘s houses and
cars, and off of mobile phone masts. I thought I was going crazy until one of my friends explained
what they were and showed me how you can take pictures of these radio waves. It‘s a strange
thing to describe. Sound waves look like someone has dropped a pebble into a pond, and ripples
are coming out in circles and waves.

From my understanding, sound is the secret of life, and PHD scientists who work for the NSA
know this well. That is why advanced physics is kept so secret and out of the public domain.

There has recently been a film released called The Secret, which claims that a person can create
the reality around them using their thoughts.

When I saw the film, I immediately noticed this was just watered down physics the NSA had
taught me in the past. I have done things in the past year like getting my information out to
millions of people through radio shows, magazines, and the internet using the methods I was
taught by this positive cell in the NSA. They call this MPO (Manifest Production Observership) and
LERM (Light Encoded Reality Matrix).

Without getting into the technical nitty gritty, LERM relies on the integrated functioning of three
important organs in the body:
             the cortical brain complex (which includes the old reptilian, old
                 mammalian, and necrotic brains)
             the heart
             the visceral or enteric brain
LERM is taught to initiates of the highest levels of Freemasonry, as well as the NSA people. It is
fairly simple once you break it down, and people who understand it can manifest their desires into
reality extremely quickly.

This would seem like magic to the uninitiated, but so would have televisions and radio waves to
the someone a couple of hundred years ago. This secret technology is years more advanced than
anything in the public domain and is science that was developed at the Pine Gap underground
NSA in Australia, as well as other places. I will be putting some of these NSA physics documents
in this book, so you can learn how to do it as well, even though certain factions do not want this
information getting out.

These documents point towards pure consciousness existing as pure sound on a higher
frequency or dimension, but more on this later.

Other Mannequin programs that have been installed into me are known as ―Janus/End-times.‖
Janus is a sleeping program that activates when major events happen, like 9-11 and the coming
plan for martial law in America, which some researchers refer to as the New World Order.
Janus is the two-headed Roman god of change. I am actually against time to be de-programmed
before events like martial law in America start to happen. If I am not de-programmed in time, I
may be ―used‖ by certain factions in the global intelligence community to advance their agendas.

Private security firms are now being set up in the U.K, run by programmed operatives and
connected organized crime members, to run the country when the police cannot control the
chaos. Such firms as Noonan Security in Manchester run by Manchester crime lord Dominic
Noonan of the Noonan crime family. I am sorry for his recent loss when his brother was
murdered, but big things are planned for these ―militia‖ type groups. An ex secret service friend of
mine, who I will refer to as Carl, was even in the process of setting one up in Cornwall with ex-
hitmen on the payroll.

He asked me if I was interested and said he was recently in the Middle East securing funding from
the Zionists in Israel.

I know other genetically enhanced men who have had millions of pounds and dollars in
procedures spent on them. Some of their stories will be presented in this book. Some of these
individuals have not been ―used‖ out in the public yet and are ―on ice‖ waiting for their Janus
programs to activate. I was recently sent intelligence regarding a nineteen-year-old man who
recently disappeared in the U.S. after breaking his programming.

It turns out he has many of the above-mentioned NSA programs installed in him. I have read his
de-programming session reports, and he is among a growing number of people who have
approached me to get out of similar projects. I have hypnotic commands that have been installed
into me called Wernick commands. These were given to me in a drug and electro-shock state
when I was hypnotized in the project.

Some of these Wernicks commands, put in me by NSA doctors, are:
            ―This is not happening‖
            ―Never talk about this or people will think you are crazy‖
            ―If you talk about this people will hate you‖
            ―This is all a dream‖
            ―This is a movie‖
            ―If you start to remember you have a panic attack‖
            ―If you start to remember you will die‖
Mind control is just that: total mind control of an individual so they can be triggered into doing
ANYTHING the handlers instruct.

These programs can be activated using hypnotic triggers such as key words and phrases, and
patterns with certain and long radio waves that activate tiny microchips injected in the body. There
are photos of some of these chips in this book. The cranial implant I had in 1988 when I was
eleven years old was an old ―Tetra‖ series device. I have now been upgraded but was not told the
name of the piece of hardware.

As long as the hypnotic trigger is in the right sequence, the sleeper can be activated. Sleeper
agents can be activated for tasks over the phone, as well.

The following is a procedure used by Project Mannequin to set tasks and upload data into cranial
implants that victims of the projects have been installed with - this is done by computer at the
AL/499. Pre-programmed tasks for sleepers have been installed into the bases‘ security computer
years ago, as the project has a ―life plan‖ for individuals to advance its agenda.
This information was given to me by Barry King, a former AL/499 security officer.
            1. Base security computer finds individuals phone number, and dials.
            2. Assume the individual answers the phone... ―Hello‖
            3. Base computer then checks voiceprint, if matched, then continues.
            4. Electrical code signal is sent down the phone line to activate the microchip
                inside the individual‘s body. Once this happens, the person is hypnotized
                and in a trance. A code is then relayed over the phone. This is an
                example of a real Mannequin code: ―Lima, one, one, seven, two, bravo,
                mike, xxxx.‖
            5. The individual awaits further code and instructions.
            6. A second electrical signal is sent down the phone line, followed by the
                remaining code: ―The puppets are mobile, and it is we who pull the
            7. The individual is now fully primed and ready to either receive or send data
                and receive task details.
If someone else answers the phone and the base security computer does not recognize the
voiceprint of that person, then the call is terminated. If an answer phone is on again, the call is
immediately terminated.

As I said, you can be tasked to do anything, so it is very important to be de-programmed. This is
not easy, though, because when one layer of programming is uncovered, another one is usually
found underneath it. It can take years to strip away the layers, as so many programs are present.

The White Tiger program is a combat program that uses martial arts, and it automatically kicks in
if I feel threatened. I have been practicing martial arts since I was six years old, as my mother
would force me to go to Karate as a child. In Project Mannequin, if one family is being used, then
all of the other immediate family will be, too - to a lesser degree than the targeted person. This is
a security method, otherwise the close family would realize something is very wrong with the
targeted person and start to investigate.

I have a 9th Kyu grade in Shotakan Karate, a 6th Kup in Tae Kwon Do, and have years of
experience in boxing, kickboxing, and Kung fu through training at many different clubs in Reading
and Cornwall. I also fought a French kickboxing champion in Coventry in the 90‘s, which I have on
film and have got the better of highly ranked boxing and Judo champions in full contact sparring

In one sparring session in 1998 when I was twenty-one, I threw and solidly connected with four
punches in just over a second. I have this on videotape and will be releasing it along with other
footage on my website.

There are many different types of agents in Project Mannequin, with different types of abilities.
There is what is known as Type A and Type B, for example.
            Type A is a genetically enhanced human designed for combat with
                 espionage capabilities.
            Type B is designed for espionage with combat capabilities.
I am a Type B in the project.

One of the first memories I have of the base from childhood was as follows: (I was drugged at the
time and the memory is still very hazy.)

When we arrived, I was taken into lab and strapped into a seat that looked like a dentist‘s chair.
There was a large screen in front of me, and I was injected with another drug - I later found out
the name of the drug. It is an accelerated learning drug called Scopolamine. Another drug is also
used, called Dythenol C.
One man stood to the left of the chair, and another man stood to the right. They were both
dressed in lab coats.

The man on the right said to me,
      ―if you forget everything we‘ve told you, try and remember one thing: he‘ll try and
      convince you that pain feels like pleasure.‖
He pointed to the other man when he said this. Images then started to appear on the screen in
front of me, and I do not remember anything after that.

I managed to track down a man called Barry King, who was a former security guard at the AL/499
underground base, and went to visit him at his house in Essex. Barry showed me a diagram of
these programming seats, which the NSA refers to as ―Trip-seats.‖ A copy of Barry‘s trip-seat
diagram is in this book.

I had never heard the seat referred as this before I became familiar with this man. The diagram he
showed me was exactly as I remember the seat I was programmed in. There are computer banks
to the front and rear of the trip-seat and a control console in a room at the back and to the left of
the trip-seat. Two seats, which the programmers sit in, are in this room.

This security officer witnessed many of the strange things I saw in Project Mannequin. Not least,
small military ―bio-robots‖ that are part machine and part organic, known as PLF‘s (Programmable
Life Forms). These are short, grey-colored beings used for many in the project. The PLF‘s are
developed in 3 stages, and each stage has it‘s own section in the base.

There are up to 500 stored at any one time, and these are used in the AL/499 and also shipped to
various military bases in this country and overseas. The development between stages is rapid and
is approximately 3 months. Depending on what the PLF‘s are being used for, they have 3 fingers
and a thumb, and some have 4 fingers and a thumb. Again, sketches by Barry King are provided
in this book of the PLF‘s and their storage areas.

At many points in the project, I endured intense and horrific torture known as ―pain-pleasure
reversals.‖ This played a large part in the mind control and memory erasure procedures. This will
be discussed in greater detail, and the reasons for this outlined.

Because of this, I have parts of my mind that are ―buried alive‖ in my subconscious. This, along
with the fact that the procedures occurred underground, is the reason for the title of this book. The
memories that I have uncovered about my part in the project are only the tip of the iceberg.

However, with the time, effort, and working with the right professionals who specialize in de-
programming mind control, I will be able to put the pieces of my life back together.

My motivation for doing this is to eventually be part of shutting Project Mannequin down and
exposing the NSA personnel who are involved in this horrific mind control and genetic

I did not volunteer for this, and the people running the project, such as,
               Mr. Whitmore (former head of the project) codenamed ―Sentinel‖
               Mr. Samms (head of security)
               Mr. Hodge
               Dr. Pearson
               Dr. Perchowski
               Commander Clavius
             Commander Breaker, well as the new generation of scientists, doctors and torturers, will pay dearly.

Back to Contents

The reason this book is the first of its kind is because, along with my testimony, it includes official
letters of recommendation and verification from high-level operatives in the intelligence
community. One of these men is a member of the 33rd Degree of Zion Illuminati. He holds an
UMBRA-8 (eight levels above top secret) NSA and DOE (Department of Energy) security
clearance, which only five hundred people in the U.S. hold, and works in various military bases in

I am considered a military genius (their words not mine) by certain members of the intelligence
apparatus for my high level of accuracy in remote viewing vectors. I have recently completed RV
work for Lincoln (my Illuminati contact) and a section of British Intelligence.

My vector intension was set at two locations:
            1. NSA headquarters at Fort Meade, Maryland
            2. An underground facility in Oak Ridge, North Carolina
Both sessions were confirmed as accurate by the black-ops community and mentioned in the
letter by Lincoln.

Other recent RV sessions that received feedback as very accurate include:
           1. An underwater NATO facility off the coast of Corfu in Greece
           2. The ‗Chrysantheum‘ underground bio-genetics facility in Dulce, New
Even with Lincoln‘s high security clearance, he has come against a brick wall when attempting to
access my Project Mannequin files.

The personal details of my Mannequin files are so highly classified, the documents are ‗CLASS-8,‘
which means they cannot be accessed on the NSA database and must be collected or read on
paper by hand - the operative must have a need to know.

My files are stored in secure NSA facilities at Ashburton in Devon in the U.K., Fort Meade in
Maryland, and a facility in Utah. My Umbra files are stored at a facility in Linville, North Carolina.
The remote viewing session I vectored for British Intelligence was actually the secure vault at Fort
Meade, where the CLASS-8 files are stored.

This vault contains hardware so advanced it can detect remote viewers entering through tiny
fluctuations in air and then disable them with electro-magnetic/scalar waves. A small amount of
my files have been located by an NSA operative, whom I will refer to as ―Sylus,‖ and given to me
and the British Intelligence faction I am involved with.

This man is deeply embedded with Project Mannequin himself but cannot access over half of my
The people running the AL/499 facility in Berkshire and the connected underground bases are a
hard-line military regime that is ultimately a religious cult centered around the corrupt Zionists and
Rosicrucians. These places are religious centers where so-called ‗black magick‘ rites are
performed, ancient deities worshipped, and children trained and sacrificed.

As former Illuminati member Leo Zagami says, "Black Magick" (the control of electro-magnetic
energy for harm) is the oldest form of military technique known to man.

We are told in the mainstream media that children in ‗uncivilised‘ countries such as Burma, Africa,
and South America are forced to join the military and kill for their country. Well, guess what
people, this exact same situation happens right here in the U.K and the U.S. - you are just not told
about it.

This situation is slowly changing with people like Cathy O'Brian, Duncan O'Finioan, Andy Pero,
‗Svali‘, Cisco Wheeler, and others coming forward who were used by their governments for covert
operations and trained from a very young age. These people are all from America, however, and
the situation in this country is that Barry King and I are the only talking survivors of black projects
in the U.K.

I am considered the youngest talking survivor of mind control projects in modern history. To
understand Project Mannequin, we must get a basic understanding of the belief system of the
people running it. I will not attack the Rosicrucian and Zionists as a whole because I know many
great and noble men in these orders who have aided me in my cause to stop the horrors of the
program. I count these individuals as my kinsmen.

From my understanding, many of the secret religious orders of today (such as The Magi, The
Zoroastrians, The 33rd Degree of Zion, The White Lotus society, The Rosicrucians, etc) are
divided into two main factions. One is loyal in their beliefs to the so-called fallen angels, who were
loyal to the fallen angel Lucifer, at the time of the Great Flood mentioned in the Bible.

The Magi and Zoroastrians are known as the ‗Muslim Illuminati‘ and have centers in the U.K.,
such as 440 Alexandra Street, Harrow, Middlesex, HAZ 9TL, tel- 020 8866 0765. There are also
Muslim Illuminati centers in Rayners Lane in London. The Rosicrucian Illuminati have centers in
the U.K. at places such as the Francis Bacon Lodge in Peckham, London and their HQ, which is
at Greenwood Gate, Blackhill, Crowborough, TN6 1XE, tel- 01892 653197.

The White Lotus Society is known as the ‗Chinese Illuminati‘ and has over 250,000 assassins
working for them.

Former 32nd degree mason Benjamin Fulford has been in contact with me and offered me
protection by the White Lotus society if I came to the east; however, this is not viable at the
present time. Benjamin was threatened by ninjas working for the Western Illuminati when working
in Japan and came under the wing of the White Lotus society because of this.

There is now open war between the two factions. Google ‗Chinese secret society warns Illuminati‘
to understand this.

The fallen angels were known in Hebrew as ‗Irin,‘ meaning ‗those who watch‘. This is translated
into Greek as ‗Grigori,‘ meaning ‗Watchers‘. Other factions of these secret societies base their
teachings around more ‗Christian‘ principles and the ancient Book of Enoch. This ancient text
includes accounts of the watchers, and many of the early Christian church leaders used the work
from the first to the third centuries AD.

During the age of the ‗Church Fathers,‘ from the fourth century onward, the Book of Enoch started
to become suppressed. This led to the strange decision by St Augustine (AD 354-430) that the
Book of Enoch was too old (Ob nimian antiquitatem) to be included in scripture. Rabbi Simeon
Ben Jochai also worked toward the book being pushed underground when he declared that all are
cursed who believe angels are flesh and blood beings that physically came to earth. This is
exactly what they are, however. What we know as „angels‟ are extra-terrestrial beings, as anyone
investigating subjects mentioned in this book is starting to realize.

The belief in physical angels was declared as heresy, and the text did go underground and
straight into the hands of the secret societies. The benevolent sections of the Illuminati and other
secret societies are loyal in their beliefs to the angels of Yud-heh-vav-heh, which is one of the
Hebrew names of ‗God.‘

This is why the real secrets of freemasonry are taught at the 33rd degree. The Watchers
descended from other planets onto earth in ancient times onto Mt. Hermon just north of Dan/Kaish
in the Middle East. This mountain is on the 33rd degree latitude. When you reach the 33rd degree
of masonry, you enter the ‗Illuminati‘ degrees and are taught the ‗secrets of the angels.‘
Conspiracy theorists who say that the Illuminati and Freemasonry are responsible for all the evil
and corruption in the world do not know what they are talking about.

At the same time, I would say that corrupt factions in these groups are responsible for much of
world‘s problems.

Do the trials and initiations of Project Mannequin make an individual stronger and wiser?

The answer is yes - there is no doubt of this.

It also leaves the individual involved with a type of bloodlust that is very dangerous, and many
people involved in the project have ended up committing suicide and experiencing chronic drug
and alcohol addictions. Many have also developed depression and panic disorders later in life.
The use of children in the project is also unacceptable in my view. At this point, I have to ask
myself why I was tricked and forced to take part in high-level Rosicrucian rituals, such as the
‗three room atrium‘ initiation in 2006?

I will discuss this in more detail, but on contemplating this, I have come to the following

The Illuminists will argue that only individuals trained from childhood in certain ‗blood trials,‘ where
each level becomes more dangerous, can survive the military campaigns they will carry out as
adults. They say this is not just a matter of national security for any one country but the survival of
the human race. What is so horrific that a soldier must be trained from early childhood to endure?

The shocking answer is that Project Mannequin operatives will come face to face, sometimes
even in conflict situations, with malevolent and terrifying extra-terrestrial and extra-dimensional life
forms. These ‗xeno-breeds‘ are so terrifying to witness, the sight of one could kill or drive insane
most ordinary men. This may sound laughable to the uneducated civilian but is taken deadly
serious by those in the highest corridors of power.

This happened in the 1960‘s during the infamous ‗Dulce battle,‘ when scientists at the genetics
facility were taken hostage by reptilian-like extra-terrestrial life forms who had been working with
the U.S. Government underneath the New Mexico desert. The Special Forces teams who went in
for the attempted rescue had to be hypnotized and drugged to cope with the situation.

Keep an open mind, and read the following evidence. Arm yourself with the truth, as this situation
has now come to a head on this planet and will be in your face in the upcoming years.
As my friend Ronnie McMullen says,
        ―The truth stands by itself, all alone. The truth needs no help from anything or
        anyone to be absolute.‖
Some things are facts, and the following is the absolute truth:

In 1945, the infamous ‗Project Paperclip‘ was started. This program was run by British Intelligence
and the American organization called the OSS (Office of Strategic Services). Paperclip involved
bringing the leading Nazi scientists in mind control, genetic engineering, and other technological
areas to America and Britain after the Second World War. The CIA was created two years after
this in the American National Security act of 1947 to handle the massive number of mind control,
cloning, and other covert projects that were born from Paperclip.

The NSA is the sister organization to the CIA and is now a more powerful entity. 1947 was also
the year of the Roswell crash and when Israel was formed. A year later in 1948, a genetic
bloodline study was started in Britain to locate gifted children to be used for espionage by the
intelligence community. This was called ‗Project Anvil‘ but changed its name to ‗Project Oaktree‘
in the 1950‘s.

Oaktree was under the command of the NSA by this time and was being run from Harwell
genetics laboratories in Oxfordshire. It was connected to all the major hospitals in the U.K. and
was connected to the Mannequin program that I was born into. Mannequin was started in 1972 at
the Peasemore base near where I grew up in Tilehurst, Berkshire.

Project Oaktree was actually set up to locate the descendants of the ‗Tribe of Dan,‘ which is the
so-called ‗Lost Tribe of Israel‘. These middle-eastern people were of white skin, and the
descendants are not actually lost but kept secret. Some people may have heard of the ‗British
Israelites,‘ and Gordon Brown is heavily into this school of thought.

The Tribe of Dan travelled from Dan (‗Kaish‘ in Hebrew) just below Mt Hermon and went up into
Greece around the time of the Exodus. In Greece, they were known as the Spartans. From
Greece they travelled to France where they were the Merovingian Priest-Kings and other French
Royal lines. From France they travelled to Scotland, Ireland and America.

They were known as the ‗Tuatha De Danann‘ in Ireland and Celtic clans, such as the ‗Campbells‘
in Scotland.

They were worshippers of the Goddess of energy, such as Astarte and Ishtar and were heavily
into animal shamanism, such as bird and snake symbology. The eagle is one of their symbols,
and the eagle on the American coat of arms and the NSA symbol represents the Tribe of Dan.

The owl is also another of their symbols, which represents the ‗angel‘ Ishtar.

This is a very holy bloodline with powerful PSI abilities. The Luciferian religions believe that by
abusing children and people of this bloodline, they are directly attacking God.

The Watchers had good and evil amongst them. Archangel Michael is named as a physical
watcher in the Middle East in the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The battle between the ‗Sons of Light‘ and the ‗Sons of Darkness‘ is mentioned in this work. This
battle still rages today. Some say Project Oaktree was ultimately looking for the human
descendants of the Watchers. We have to ask ourselves why are the 12 tribes of Israel so
important, and who physically ‗seeded‘ these bloodlines.
The answers we are given by the religious institutes of the world, such as ―They are God‟s chosen
people,‖ will not suffice anymore. People ask why are they called the Watchers.

The answer seems to be because of their ability to project their consciousness out of the body
and perform an ancient form of advanced remote viewing.

Back to Contents

By the 1970‘s, a huge number of mind control projects in Britain and America were underway, as
they became rampant and started to affect many areas of society.

During the Second World War, the Nazis were involved in creating genetically enhanced soldiers
and spies with Psyonic and psychic ability, such as telepathy and telekinesis. They were known
as ―Ubermen,‖ which is German for supermen. They were basing their ―new man‖ on a race of
warrior Pleiadian humanoids they had come into contact with from Aldebaran.

The German scientists developed a technique at the concentration camps known as trauma-
based mind control. They discovered that if you could systematically traumatize an individual,
particularly before the age of five, their mind would shatter into different parts, which the German
doctors called ―alters.‖ When the torture or terror becomes so intolerable, a person‘s mind will
dissociate itself from the pain and the alter will be created.

These alters can then be programmed by the torturer to carry out almost any task. From my
understanding, the limit is reached when operatives are ordered to kill their own children.

Old occult books were researched, such as the Egyptian Book of the Dead and the

The Nazi scientists also discovered that when an individual was traumatized and tortured, they
developed almost superhuman abilities, such as huge pain tolerance, photographic memory, and
PSI abilities. The ancient rites of Satanism were often used, and these rituals usually involved
snakes. Through my own experiences and talking to other survivors, a common theme is coming
up time and time again: being bitten by poisonous snakes in rituals to transmute the poison and
enhance the immune system (American Indian shamans also practiced this).

Much of the project involved being taken to the point of death and then revived. Cathy O'Brien, in
her book Trance Formation of America, calls some of the CIA programming centers ―near death
training centers.‖

The snake rituals often finish with the participant being ―buried alive with their fear.‖ This involves
being put in a coffin with a number of large snakes and then being buried in the ground and left
there for hours. When dug up, the subject has ―gone beyond fear,‖ according to the handlers. I‘m
still trying to work out if this is true, as I have no fear of very dangerous things but have massive
panic attacks at small insignificant things.

This is an ancient technique that was used in Egypt and many other places: a child would be
picked as a candidate for a certain mystery school. Some of these mystery schools used more
compassionate training methods, but all of them involved facing fears and danger at the upper
levels. I was always taken through a ―3 Room Atrium‖ ritual in Project Mannequin.

I had to learn what was actually happening in later years through study of the Rosicrucian

The ancient and modern shamans were taken into three rooms:
            1. In the first room, they were asked questions by the master, such as,
                      ―Do you wish to know the mystery of your being?‖

            2. The initiate said ―yes,‖ and they were then taken into the second room.
            4. In this room they were shown such magikal secrets as ancient artifacts.

            5. In the third room they had to pass a dangerous test, such as fighting
                another mystery school member or a wild animal.
Certain cultures, such as the Celtic people, practiced PSI phenomena for generations in ancient

Modern individuals and families of these old bloodlines made the most suitable candidates for
trauma-based mind control because, although they may not have practiced PSI abilities
themselves, these abilities were still in the person‘s genetic memory from their ancestors. This
discovery, combined with trauma-based mind control and the latest advancements in military
technology, made a very powerful recipe for the creation of an Uberman.

The implications of this for groups that wish to control the world are obvious.

Heinrich Himmler and the Special Projects unit of the SS ordered a Nazi research program into
Northern European families. The families targeted for this research program were the ones who
had practiced multi-generational rites of Freemasonry, occultism, and Satanism. Josef Mengele,
the infamous ―Angel of Death‖ from the Auswitz concentration camp, stayed at the Tavistock mind
control institute in London when British Intelligence brought him here after the Second World War.

One of the main projects at the Tavistock Institute was to find the breaking point of human beings.
In trauma-based mind control, a Mengele Grid is programmed into the victim using torture and
other methods. The victim‘s mind would then break into 169 fragments or alter personalities. A
type of electro-magnetic grid would be incorporated into the brain, and this would affect brain
waves. With the use of cranial implants, an artificial alpha wave transmission could be sustained
in horrific situations. This would enable the operative to stay completely calm in intense situations.

Each alter holds memories of the specific mind control procedure and is unaware of the existence
of the other alters because of amnesic walls between them. Certain medical symptoms of this
procedure have become known today as MPD (Multiple Personality Disorder) or DID (Dissociative
Identity Disorder).

In mind control cases, each alter or personality can be programmed for a specific task or ability
and then called forward using hypnotic triggers. This is done by the handlers of the relevant mind
control project to activate the ability and complete the task. These alters are also programmed
with post-hypnotic suggestion to forget the task afterward. Only the handlers of the mind control
project can call forth the different alters, as only they know the correct hypnotic codes, triggers,
and keys to do this.

If the mind control victim is a ―sleeper‖ (a civilian who lives in the a public community), even the
closest family members of the person will have no idea that they are DID. In rare cases, an
individual will realize their mind has been tampered with in one of the vast numbers of
government mind control projects and seek help to de-program their alters.

This is possible with hard work and the right kind of professional help.

The True Origins of Trauma-Based Mind Control
Now the next question is, where did the Nazis acquire this super advanced technology? Here we
get into an even more sensitive area and go deeper down the rabbit hole.

Over the years, many victims of these mind control projects and government personnel have
reported witnessing different types of what can only be described as non-human creatures in
various underground facilities around the world. I certainly saw very strange things when I spent
time at Peasmore and other underground bases. I‘ve lost count of the number of testimonies I‘ve
been told from intelligence people who have worked in various underground facilities and
witnessed non-human creatures.

This begs the question, are these creatures some kind of strange human-animal hybrid or other
military genetic creations that were carried on from the Nazi genetic manipulation work? Or, are
they extra-terrestrial beings from different planets and star systems? The simple answer is both.
My colleagues and I have witnessed and communicated with these beings up close and personal.

For a greater understanding of the ET situation on this planet, it is important to understand that
the upper levels of the Germen Nazi government, the US government, and the British government
were not only aware of ETs at the time of the Second World War, but were actively working
alongside them - this had been going even before the Second World War in the 1930's.

The following is a brief summary of the modern history of government involvement with ETs.

Extra-terrestrials and Government Treaties
On July 11th, 1934, the first treaty between the beings, which have become known as the Small
Greys (approximately three and a half foot grey beings with large wrap-around eyes from the
Orion star system) and the US federal government, under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt,
occurred aboard a naval ship at the port city of Balboa, Panama.

This was one of the most important events in human history because it thrust us into a role we
were not prepared for as regards becoming host to a malevolent, extraterrestrial race.

Although there are benevolent ―Zetan‖‘ Greys, these entities did not have humanity‘s best
interests at heart.

The US government completely disregarded the Constitution of the United States by doing this
and not telling the American people. It was here that the agreement was first made between the
Greys (who were actually representing a race of reptilian-like beings from the Draconis star
system) and representatives of the US intelligence community.

The treaty stated that in return for the Greys providing high technology, the US federal
government would allow the Greys to proceed unhindered with human abductions for use in an
ongoing ET genetic program. The Americans stated they would only agree to the terms if a list of
abductees was provided to the government and the abductees returned unharmed with their
memories of the event erased. The Greys provided anti-gravity devices, metals and alloys,
environment, free energy, and medical technology in return for this.
These Greys basically said they would provide this hardware in exchange for being allowed to
infiltrate human society on all levels. This they did and started to replace important world leaders
with clones under their control.

Seven years after this treaty, in 1941, the Greys approached the German government and Hitler.
A treaty was then arranged with the Nazis.

The Greys offered mind control and other technologies to the Germans, and in return wanted
human subjects to conduct their genetic experiments on. The information I have is that Hitler told
the Greys they were not to touch the German Aryan people but could do what they wanted with
the people in the concentration camps. In the last century, Germany and America have been the
main areas of Grey and reptilian invasion, as you can see by the vast amounts of people going
missing in America lately.

This is why the Nazis were so involved with cloning technology and experimentation on twins.

Approximately twenty people in the US and Germany at the time would have been directly
involved in the Grey/human treaties. The information was kept on a strictly need-to-know basis
within the governments and secret services. Little has changed regarding Grey, government, and
concentration camp issues. We now have the Grey, Draco reptilian, and government sell-outs in
Britain and America who are torturing test subjects as we speak, installed into underground
concentration camps.

Many missing people end up in these facilities and are used as slave labour and test subjects.
There is a large underground concentration camp under Salisbury plain in Wiltshire. Most of these
evil places are built on sacred land, such as Stonehenge, to distort the vortex centers. I went to
this facility in 2006 (taken there by a Delta special forces team by plane) and witnessed some of
these martial law experiments.

One of my former NSA/DOE contacts was named Dean Warwick (who died on stage in
suspicious circumstances at the Probe International conference in Blackpool). Dean worked at the
Los Alamos and Alamo Gordo underground facilities in the New Mexico desert. Dean also worked
at an underground facility in Hawaii. He saw Greys and reptilians walking around at the Los
Alamos facility and also witnessed human test subjects in cages there.

Employees at these facilities go through a process known as ―desensitization‖ before they are
allowed in the high security areas, where they may come across ETs and disturbing tests going
on. In desensitization, the employees are injected with such drugs as Scopolamine (an
accelerated learning drug) and shown video footage of ETs and horrific scenes of torture and
death to enable them to withstand the things they will see.

It is mostly the short Greys that employees of underground bases will come across, as the Draco
reptilians keep themselves away from human interaction most of the time.

Sometimes, however, an employee will wander down a wrong corridor and see a reptilian - this
happened to Dean Warwick, Barry King, and Lincoln.

Dean was subcontracted by the NSA in the late 1980's and worked for them until 1992. He was a
senior electrical engineer at the Los Alamos facility. He told me there are now over 4000
underground bases worldwide and many of them have ETs in the high security lower levels. X5
also said the underground concentration camps in America and Britain are known as D4 facilities
(deep underground military prisons).
The major bases worldwide are mainly under the control of the NSA and are classified D1- Deep
underground military bases, D2- Deep underwater military bases, D3- Deep under mountain
military bases, and D4- Deep underground military prisons (although Lincoln informs me these
classifications have now been changed). The Grey and Draco reptilian ETs working together with
the upper levels of different countries‘ governments is known by intelligence insiders as MIEC
(Military Industrial Extra-terrestrial Complex).

Another NSA contact, X3, told me that a global Masonic apparatus above the 33rd degree is
controlling upper levels of many governments of the world. The 33rd degree is officially the
highest Masonic degree, but in reality, there are many degrees above this. This Masonic degree
is the first real level of trust, and most Freemasons never get above the lower Blue degrees.

You are either born into a certain bloodline, or you do something that sets you apart from Joe
public and are brought into the Elite inner circle. On level 33, a mason often gets access to the
highly classified areas of the MIEC. This Masonic degree is known as the first level of

George Bush Sr. is reported to be above the 42nd degree and is deeply entrenched in the MIEC.
Insiders also refer to the MIEC as ―The Octopus.‖

The Octopus Spreads Its Tentacles
As the MIEC began to expand in the early forties, the second extension of the 1934 Grey and US
government treaty was signed in 1944. This treaty was renewed every ten years from 1934 to
1964 and the treaties still are being renewed today. Lincoln has just recently visited the
Chrysantheum bio-genetics facility in Dulce, New Mexico, as a new archive system is being set up

A scientist who has worked there since the 1970‘s informed him that a new treaty has just been
signed. If people want to know the name, email me and remind me to ask Lincoln. I will then
attempt to put this information into the public domain. Dr. Dan Burisch of Area 51 informed the
public that one of the more recent treaties goes by the code name of ‗TAU‘ with a specific number
after the word.

I was given permission in writing by a rep of Majestic to approach Dr. Burisch face to face in Las
Vegas to discuss a bio-warfare test I saw conducted on civilians at the Wiltshire underground
facility. The rep informed me it was inappropriate to discuss this over email. At the present time
(15th August 2008) I still have not made contact with Dan, although I would like to at some point.
There was also a meeting between Majestic and Lincoln in North Carolina and permission was
given for him to work with me.

After 1944 much infighting and chaos broke out in the human government factions of the MIEC.

Factions that were loyal to the people of the planet were battling it out with factions that didn't care
about the people and just wanted as much technology as they could get there hands on. As well
as assassinations and cover-ups, the most important part of the battlefield was information
warfare. Positive MIEC factions would leak information into the public about the true ET situation,
and then negative factions would come behind them and cover it up with damage containment
and psychological warfare programs for the public, known as ―chickenfeed.‖

Chickenfeed still goes today and has become more complex and confusing. Without ―wires‖ (intel
speak for inside connections), it is almost impossible to know what is really going in the world.
The NSA is all over the Internet. They are buying up independent journalists, who are not part of
controlled mainstream media, to spread their disinformation campaigns.
Hollywood is a major vehicle for this, and the protocol seems to be this: any details of covert
projects leaked out are made into a film or included in sections of films so the uneducated public
dismisses all the information as science fiction. Hollywood and NBC producer Bob Kiviat has
been in touch with me, and I have helped him with his upcoming documentary about a colleague
of mine named Simon Anderson/John Lenard Walson.

A friend of the actor Dan Akroyd has helped me with some of the information in this book. This
man is a member of the U.S intelligence community and has helped Dan write film scripts. He is
interested in developing a film script based on my life, but nothing is set in stone when it comes to
Hollywood. A colleague of mine named Anthony Pike has also been in touch with Gordon Novel.

Gordon is involved with actor Bruce Willis on a new film project called Kingdom Comes. Gordon is
heavily connected to the CIA and is the director of the RAAM group based in Las Vegas. I am
currently waiting to hear from him. We have been told there was a falling out between RAAM and
Majestic, but with all factions currently ―sitting around the table‖ for talks, maybe this can be
resolved. Lets act like gentlemen and see what can be worked out.

Before we go into greater detail regarding the treaties, let‘s talk more about suppression of real
information. Let‘s take, for instance, the infamous GLP (God Like Productions) public Internet
forum. This site has millions of users, but it is controlled by ―moderators‖ at the Tavistock Institute.

There is basically a large room full of computer intel geeks at the facility on Tabernacle Street in
London; they control the flow of information here. I‘ve posted sensitive information there and had
my mother‘s address in St. Ives put on the thread with indirect threats on her life. I‘ve also had
some intel guy with a conscience give me a list of my father‘s European drug trafficking routes
when he was alive.

Add to this, there have been unmarked black helicopters pretending to dive-bomb my flat two
hours after posting RV techniques there.

That was good for a laugh!

By 1944, the Grey/human treaty was showing signs of stress, as it was discovered that greys
were abducting more people than they were putting on the government lists.

In May 1954, under the Eisenhower administration, the third extension of the Grey and US
government treaty was signed - the Grenada Treaty.

The Orion Greys and Draco Reptilians blatantly broke the terms, as we shall see later in the book.
The Grenada Treaty was agreed upon under the Holloman air force base in New Mexico by the
Greys and the ULTRA unit of the NSA. The name of the facility under Holloman AFB was code
named DANDELION, although this may have changed now.

The ULTRA unit was one of the most elite and super secret of the NSA factions at the time and
was ran by Project Paperclip Nazis who were part of the NSA after 1945. All ULTRA members
were cloned humans.

The original documents of this treaty and the original ET materials from it can be found today in
the NSA facility called Blue Moon. Blue is code word meaning extra-terrestrial related. Blue moon
is an underground facility beneath Kirkland air force base in New Mexico. The entrance to the
base is in the Manzano Mountains.
Inside Blue Moon is the technological headquarters of the very secretive DOE, which Lincoln and
Dean Warwick work[ed] for. Today, the DOE at Blue Moon is building free energy devices,
developed from Grey and Draco reptilian technology, for use in space. Many advanced space-
based weapons have been built, as well.

MIEC insider Dr. Bill Deagle was told by the director of the US space command that they control
every cubic centimeter of space between here and Mars. The director also told Bill that they have
weapons that would make George Lucas drool if he knew about them. Trillions of dollars have
been spent on this technology over the decades since the first modern Grey and Human treaties
were started.

Bill Deagle points out this is not just one government administration or the trans-national
corporations involved in these areas. He says we are dealing with malevolent evil on a galactic
level. Dr. Bill told me over the phone that he worked with employees of underground facilities in
the US who were suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder because of witnessing ET/human
hybrids and other horrors in these bases.

He was also asked to join the 33rd degree illuminated Masonic levels of the MIEC. He is
considered a dangerous man who knows too much by these groups and was approached by a
Frenchman, code named Pindar, after Bill's daughter was born. Bill told me Pindar looked to be in
his late fifties with a very professional manner. He wore an expensive suit, had manicured nails,
and seemed to disappear when he walked off down the street after Bill refused to become part of
the organization.

Technology exists called Thermoptic Camouflage that can render a secret service man invisible to
the naked eye. It is small device that can be worn on the belt and activated at will. A secret
service man can also be put through a Thermoptic field and will become invisible to the naked eye
for over forty-eight hours. There is no need to carry the Thermoptic hardware around if you are
put through the field; however, after the forty-eight hours is up, the agent starts to phase back into
sight and becomes violently ill for a short time.

An American woman who lived in Nevada contacted me last year and told me she had hired a
private detective because of black government type cars regularly circling her house, parking
outside, and following her when she was driving. One night, she was driving along a desert
highway and one of the black cars started to follow her again.

She managed to lose it by hitting the gas and sharply turning into a quiet side road.

She turned the engine off and got out of the car to wait until the car following her had driven off.
This woman then told me she heard footsteps crunching on the gravel toward her, but she could
see no one there. She said she felt something next to her, and an invisible hand then grabbed her

She panicked and jumped back into her car and drove off.

Military advancements and Project Plato
With each ET/human treaty, the governments were becoming more advanced, and there were
now groups of people that were literally thousands of years more advanced than the civilian
population. For every one year that goes by, since the start of these treaties, military technology
advances by over fifty years.

I heard it best from Phil Schneider, who said that every now and then, the public gets a new
computer or some other piece of technology from the MIEC, but these are just little trinkets similar
to when the early white American settlers would give beads to the Indians.

On April 15th, 1964, two US intelligence personnel met under Project Plato with the Greys in the
New Mexico desert to arrange a meeting on April 25th at Holloman air force base in New Mexico.
This meeting was to renew the treaty that had started in 1934 again and was a psychological bid
to buy time in order to solve the problem of the Greys and Draco reptilians.

The upper levels of US intelligence now believed the Greys and Dracos had this planet time-
tabled for invasion and takeover between the years 2000 and 2030.

I have come across huge amounts of evidence that many Greys and Draco reptilians may have
actually been on this planet (installed underground) since at least the time of ancient Babylon.
They may have been covertly subverting the human surface population over a long period of time
in preparation for the return of the fearsome Draco Prime overlords from Alpha Draconis.

Around 1887, several disc-shaped craft were observed in the sky.

In 1887, US president Grover Cleveland created a secret committee to investigate these objects;
he secretly funded the five-member group. Grover Cleveland was the only US president to serve
two non-consecutive terms. He was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States from 1885-
1889 and 1893-1897. A team run by the five-member group called ―The Suits,‖ as they wore black
suits, questioned many eyewitnesses.

Members of the press were contacted and asked not to report the sightings to the public. John G.
Carlisle (Speaker of the House) headed the five-man committee and the advised the President
not to release the information until the facts were understood. The more information they
gathered, the more they realized this was a job too big for the small committee.

Benjamin Harrison became the 23rd President, and John Carlisle retired as Speaker of the House
to devote his time to the strange disc craft. The secret committee then became a secret division of
the US government called the Central Group. The Central group's headquarters was set up in
tunnels below Washington D.C. code named ―The Land of Nod.‖

Most of the Federal Government did not know about the Central Group.

At this time, England began seeing strange flying craft. In 1896, the English skies were full of
―glowing orbs‖ that criss-crossed the sky in the day and night. Queen Victoria appointed a secret
group to investigate these flying objects, and secret studies in England led to contact with the
Central Group in the US. They quickly joined forces and became the United Nations Intelligence
and Tactics Agency for Aerial Phenomenon or Central UNIT–AAP, also known as UNITAAP or

UNITAP was divided into four sections. Their symbol became a red cross within a circle, which
was associated with the planet Mars. In 1933, Central UNIT-AAP was officially shorted to the
code name Central UNIT.

Later, this name was leaked in England, and a cover story was created involving various science
fiction stories to cover the real activities of UNIT.

After this time during the ET and Human treaties, UNIT took control of the central core of the
National Security Council (NSC), NSA, CIA and ONI (Office of Naval Intelligence). Other study
groups were then hired to get deeper into the flying disc matter, such the Jason Scholar Group,
Project Rand, and Page Research.
   These groups were connected to MAJIC (Majestic Agency for Joint Intelligence Command), also
   known as Majestic.

   MAJIC security codes were MAJIC UMBRA, CRITICAL, AND ULTRA. ULTRA was above top
   secret. There is talk of introducing new code words for classification systems. Lincoln has heard

   In 1951, there was a Majestic meeting in Paris, France, in which the organization expanded to
   take in other countries. The cover was MJ (Magnetic Journey) studies.

   Majestic was also known as MJ-12.

   They met with key powers in 12 countries:
                      1. the US
                      2. England
                      3. France
                      4. Germany
                      5. Canada
                      6. Denmark
                      7. Russia
                      8. Sweden
                      9. Norway
                      10. Poland
                      11. Greenland
                      12. Colombia (with links to other countries in South and
                          Central America)
   Back to Contents

Project Nanmu and Hale Bopp
At the time of the 1934 Grey and US Government/UNIT treaty in Panama, UNIT was involved in the
secret infiltration of reptilian ETs into the western US joint underground bases. Many of these bases
were hidden underneath Indian reservations, and the primary bases were in Nevada, Arizona, New
Mexico and Utah.

From this point on, the reptilian beings came to this planet in force every thirteen years: 1934, 1947,
1960, 1973, 1986, 1999, 2012 (many of my contacts claim this may be the date of the final Draco
reptilian invasion, but I cannot be certain about this). In 1986, the white-colored Draco Prime arrived into
our solar system in the Draconian ―Planetoid,‖ which we know on Earth as the Hale-Bopp comet.

The Draco Prime, travelling from the planet Typhon in the Draconis star system, was checking on how
the take-over of Earth, which they call Sol-3, was coming along.
Hale-Bopp kept making course alterations because it was under intelligent control and was
photographed with an object behind it, which was a Draco Prime mother ship. Hale-Bopp incited a great
degree of panic in the human population because we are telepathic beings who can ―feel‖ danger. This
was notable in the mass suicide of the followers of the Heavens Gate cult that was reported in the
mainstream media.

They said Hale Bopp was being followed by an alien spacecraft.

I was told by an NSA contact, whom I‘ll refer to as X3, that the Heavens Gate cult was under US
intelligence trauma-based mind control and that Admiral Bobby Ray Inman ordered the triggering of
Omega alters in the cult members. A lot of people in the intelligence community are not going to be
happy about me naming old Bobby Ray, but the truth is all coming out now.

Omega is a self-destruct, suicide alter that can be triggered in a mind control victim. The reasons for
doing this seem to be to discredit all the talk about an alien spacecraft behind Hale Bopp and to make it
seem like religious hysteria. X3 told me there were mind control programmers in the Heavens Gate cult
who were ex-NSA and some of the best programmers in the business.

They must have been very advanced programmers because some of the cultists who committed suicide
at their mansion in San Diego in 1997 had been ―persuaded‖ to go through castration beforehand.

They were also heavily into Yoga, Chi Gung mediation, and had an outstanding diet. X3 says because
of this, they had made telepathic contact with the Draco mother ship behind the Hale Bopp comet. He
also said that admiral Bobby Ray Inman had ordered a Hotshot (intel speak for a scalar weapon attack
to activate sleeping mind control programs in people), and a white van pulled up outside the mansion
with NSA agents inside who were armed with frequency generators to remotely trigger the Heavens
Gate sleepers.

The following information comes from a US intelligence community contact, X13, who is the friend of
Dan Akroyd. He says the Heavens Gate people were connected to DARPA (Defence Advanced
Research Projects Agency) and a government group that currently controls the internet, called SAIC.

Several of the cult members were involved in advanced computer projects, and others created websites.

Beverly Hills computer businessman (and former car thief) Nick Matzorkis employed about a dozen cult
members to design World Wide Web sites. Nick Matzorkis was one of the men who found the bodies at
the mansion. He went on to help raise $54 million in an internet venture called US Then he
founded a company in China with his partner, none other than Nicholas Rockefeller.

Their company was called Global Agora and is one of the first US companies to have been launched in

The Heavens Gate group started an underground housing complex. They built part of it and were then
―disrupted‖ so they would be forced to relocate to a place where they could be monitored more
effectively. X13 also claims that Bobby Inman‘s hit men suicided the cult members to discredit the
reports of an ET ship behind Hale Bopp and also because the Heavens Gate people had encryption
programs that would make it impossible for the intelligence community to spy on internet users.

Bobby Ray Inman was ex-director of the CIA, former head of the NSA, a retired four-star admiral in the
Navy, and one-time Clinton nominee for Secretary of Defense. A website with information about Bobby
Inman‘s connection to the cult member deaths recently disappeared off the internet.

Sam Koutchesfahani, an Iranian immigrant, was the man who is reported to have rented the multi-
million dollar mansion in San Diego to the Heavens Gate group. The cultists put together a movie script
about the return of the Draco reptilians to Earth. The NSA did not want this movie made, and this fact
contributed to Bobby Inman‘s decision.

The Rockefeller family is connected to this tragedy and is interested in reptilian stories for means of
control. Years before, the Rockefeller family was involved in the October 30th, 1938 Mercury Radio
Network‘s War of the Worlds broadcast.

Orson Well‘s broadcast was no mere show business stunt but a experiment in fear. The broadcast was
a psychological warfare test to test the public‘s reactions to ET news. The reaction from the broadcast
was mass panic and one man committed suicide.

A grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to Princeton University helped create the Princeton office of
radio research. The director was Paul Lazerfield, an Austrian Jewish émigré and social psychologist.
He teamed with two associates: psychologist Hadley Cantrell and CBS researcher Fred Stanton, who
was a PhD in psychology and who eventually became the network president.

One of the men who found the bodies of the 39 cultists arrayed in neat rows on a balmy afternoon, Nick
Matzorkis, became instantly famous.

Soon, he sold the rights to the story of the Heavens Gate group to the Hollywood entertainment
company, for which he and some and some of the dead cultists worked. A probation officer saw him on
national TV after this and recognized him as a wanted felon who out skipped out on his sentence - he
was jailed and returned to Cleveland.

Nick Matzorkis sold production of story of the cultist deaths to Adnan Kashoggi‘s Genesis subsidiaries.

Professor Courtney Brown, a tenured political science professor at Emory University in Atlanta, author
of Cosmic Voyage, and president and owner of Farsight Institute, a company specializing in scientific
remote viewing, appeared on Art Bell‘s radio show. Brown said their remote viewers had found the
mysterious companion to Hale Bopp to be larger than Earth, hollow, and under intelligent control - a kind
of planetary spaceship hitching a ride on a comet or hiding behind it. Brown stated there was ET life on
Mars and that the civilization there was dying, so the ETs started an underground colony in New Mexico.

Brown appeared again on Art Bell‘s program along with his assistant, Prudence Calabrese. Brown told
listeners that a well-known astrophysicist at a top-ten university sent Brown information confirming
Farsight‘s remote viewing results.

Calabrese today heads a commercial venture called Transdimensional Systems in San Diego. She
claims to have been part of the CIA‘s effort to learn more about the Soviets through remote viewing and
ESP in a CIA Project Channanle through Stanford Research Institute in California. Calabrese and her 14
employees are currently working with San Diego FBI, assisting in remote viewing of dangerous

On 26th March 2007, after X13 finished briefing me on the Heavens Gate information, he said he sat
down and turned on the TV. When he switched the TV on, the words ―Heavens Gate‖ came on the
screen. X13 turned the sound up, and it was a CNN program called Anderson Cooper 360.

Cooper said,
       "The largest mass suicide, 39 members of the Heavens Gate cult, occurred 10 years
       ago today."
How is that for coincidence?

In reality, there is no such thing as higher consciousness giving us signs when we have found the truth.
Anderson Cooper went on to interview ―Rio‖ Diangelo (real name Richard Ford). He was known inside
the Heavens Gate cult as ―Neody.‖ Rio found the bodies and videotaped them before calling 911 to
report the deaths.

He was a member of the cult from 1994 to 1997. He left the group four weeks before the 39 members
committed suicide with a cocktail of drugs, after coming to believe that a spaceship would be taking
them to heaven. Diangelo discovered the bodies on March 26th after he received two videotapes that
described the cult members‘ intentions.

He wrote a book about his experience called Beyond Human Mind - The Soul Evolution of Heavens

In a Newsweek interview, Diangelo also said Heavens Gate cult leader Marshall Herff Applewhite was
frightened by the 1993 police siege of the branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas and thought
the FBI was stalking his group. Diangelo said the cultists thought there was no gender at the next level,
so they adopted an androgynous look and shunned sex.

Once Applewhite got castrated, five other cultists did the same. The 39 members were found dead at
their rented mansion in Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego, California. The victims ranged in age from 26 to
72. Among the victims was Thomas Nichols, brother of Michelle Nichols, who starred in the original Star
Trek TV show.

The suicide victims ingested lethal levels of Phenobarbital. On Tuesday, 25th March, Diangelo received
a videotape from the 39 members, which included 18 women and 21 men, saying farewell and
announcing their intent "to shed their physical containers" and be lifted up to an ET ship reported to be
following the Hale Bopp comet. Many professionals observed and photographed an object 2000
kilometers behind the comet until January 10th.

The object, Draco ship, behind the comet became known as the ―Saturn-Like Object‖ or SLO.

The following morning on Wednesday, March 26th, Diangelo told Nick Matzorkis about the tape and
expressed fears that the group may have committed suicide. The two men drove to San Diego and
arrived at about 11am. Diangelo then entered the home, and after viewing the dead, did not phone the
San Diego county sheriff's dept. Only when he left the mansion did he call the police at 1:34pm.

Diangelo returned to L.A. with Matzorkis, and they closely listened to the news radio but did not hear
anything about what he reported to the police. Diangelo then called the Beverly Hills police department
at 3pm, and they referred him to the San Diego sheriff‘s office. They said they knew nothing.

Arriving at the scene at 3.30pm were deputy sheriff Robert Brunk and deputy sheriff Laura Gacek. From
the moment the officers pulled up, Brunk said he knew something was wrong. The drapes were pulled,
the windows were pulled, and the outdoor lights were burning in the sunshine. Brunk found the front
door locked, the windows closed, and a side door unlocked.

The Heavens Gate leader Marshall Herff Applewhite had links to 19th century occultists Madame
Blavatsky and novelist Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. The Heavens Gate
mansion at 18241 Colina Norte is just down the street from the San Diego River. This was a favorite
spot of Mrs. Katherine A. Tingley, a disciple of Madame Blavatsky.

Mrs. Tingley moved to San Diego in 1896 and founded an ashram of the Theosophical Society at Point
Loma. The centre opened February 25th, 1897 with a ceremony attended by several prominent people
in San Diego, including the mayor. Like the Heavens Gate group, the Theosophical Society was in
telepathic contact with extra-terrestrial beings, and like Aplewhite, Mrs. Tingley believed a major
cataclysm would sink most of California and end western civilization.
She predicted San Diego would survive to become the capital of an island nation called Nuevo

In 1907, Samuel Langhorne Clemens (a.k.a. Mark Twain) wrote a short story called Extract from Captain
Stormfield's Trip to Heaven, in which the hero leaves Earth for ―an extended excursion among the
heavenly bodies‖ on the tail of a comet. In the story, the hero has his passport on him, plus five dollars
and three 25 cent pieces for the fare. Many of the Heavens Gate victims had their passports on their
persons and $5.75 in their hands.

Also, the New Age term, Evolutionary Level Above Human (ELAH) spells HALE backwards.

The Heavens Gate group made a film script and gave it to Alex Papas, head of Way Out Pictures. They
wrote the script while renting Papa's house on Mummy Mountain in Paradise Valley in Phoenix. When
the cult members learned he was a producer, they turned the script over to him, along with $3,400 in

When Alex Papas was asked by a journalist if all of this was slightly apocalyptic, he replied,
      "Are you kidding? It's the flavour of the day… It's a very Shakespearean type of story."
      Papas said, "Good vs. evil, a big battle."
Without giving away the ending, he promised the script would be perfect for Hollywood.
        "Good wins in the end," he said.
Titled Beyond Human: Return of the Next Level, Papas said,
        "The screenplay came in a bit wordy, what with all the talk of aliens tromping around
        Earth trying to find humans suitable to zap up to the Orion nebula. It was also crowded
        with characters. The original draft featured more than 100 speaking parts. But the
        authors were willing to modify their script and bring it down to a more manageable level.
        But it is something very, very valid. The allure, of course, is that while most viewers
        would regard the film as snazzy science fiction, the author's swore it was the strait up

        ―They died believing they were the chosen few hitching that spaceship ride to the next
        level of human evolution," said Danielle Forlano.
While the Heaven's Gate members apparently poured most of their creative energy into the screenplay
they gave Papas, they also drafted the outline for another movie.

This one‘s a sweeping history of Earth's encounters with alien beings as observed by wise and
mysterious orbs.
        "It's very bizarre," said Forlano, who read the script for the second movie. "They'll talk
        about the reptilians and Greys and orbs all arguing about ownership rights to Pluto."
The first Heaven's Gate media spinoff may be a half serious, half snide documentary based on video
footage of the cult members discussing their philosophy at Boise state University in Idaho. Freelance
producer Sergio Myers plans to market the 90-minute tape through his company Rising Sun. He
founded a UFO group called ―Believers of the Unknown.‖

Asked if he was worried about recruiting people to Heaven's Gate through the tape, he responded,
        "I do, I do. But it's business.‖
Many of my peers in global intelligence who know what is going on regarding the ET situation have told
me I am being irresponsible by making all of this information public.

They claim the public cannot handle the truth. I do not believe this and want to stop treating the public
like children. I wish to inform and educate them so they can make informed choices for themselves as
the great Earth changes and upheavals are starting to occur.
The malevolent Dracos are not pleasant. There may be compassionate beings among them, but there is
a large section of them that are thoroughly evil and dangerous. This worrying news is balanced out by
the fact that there are also many benevolent ETs from various star systems who are here to help us and
have been involved in an ancient war with the Dracos.

The Dracos are real beings; however, the intelligence community is involved in a psychological
operation to make the people of the world fear all reptilian ETs.

The Dracos are omnivores and move across planets like locust for the natural resources, including food,
which in this case is us. There will be huge supporting evidence in this book showing they are using us
for food. Dracos have two hearts, are between 7 to 12 feet tall, and have the strength of 8 to 16 men.
They are hard to kill, have psychic and technological skills in battle that are thousands of years ahead of
ours, they‘re cold-blooded, and have no remorse or compassion.

There are different colored Draco, but the Draco Prime are white in color and seem to be the royalty or
elite of the group.

They are seen far less by humans in underground facilities and abductions. The various colored Draco
have wings, while the reptilians lower on the hierarchy, seen more often by humans, do not. The wings
are made of long, tiny bone spines or ribs that protrude out of their backs. The ribs are adjoined by flaps
of leathery, blackish-brown skin, and the wings are usually in a retracted position.

Beings matching the description of the Draco have been seen flying using their wings. This was reported
in the multiple sightings of Draco-like creatures in the town of Point Pleasant, on which the book The
Mothman Prophecies, was based. In several contacts, people have seen reptilian beings wearing capes
draped over their shoulders and down their backs. The capes may be a piece of clothing specifically
designed for covering the Dracos‘ wings, or their retracted, dark leathery flaps might appear to be a
fabric-like material going across and down the shoulders and back.

What strikes the eyewitnesses the most about the physical appearance of a Draco being is the horns.

The horns are usually short. They are conical in shape and extend four to five inches away from the
skull. Some reports describe low bony ridges back along there conical shaped heads. These ridges
appear midway between the brow and the top of their heads. They appear to have a much more athletic
build than the other reptilian beings. Their upper torsos are extremely lean, and their neck muscles splay
out from the base of their jaws to their shoulder blades.

If the Dracos are able to fly to using their wings, as some people have reported, the physical demands of
flight would result in some muscle groups being more developed than others.

Certain individuals claiming to have had Draco encounters say they have seen ones with white powdery
scales approach and give instruction to the winged Dracos, who are a greenish-brown in color. The
white Dracos are the Draco Prime. In every one of these cases, the greenish-brown beings appeared to
be highly respectful and submissive to the Draco with white scales. This reaction suggests the Draco
hierarchy is a caste system dependent on skin color and possibly other unknown genetic traits.

The Greys have also demonstrated similar respect for the Draco Prime in contact reports.

This situation is so bizarre and gets even more so as we go deeper into highly classified areas. I have
been told by my NSA contact, X3, there are at least 118 different extra-terrestrial races, that the NSA
knows about, involved in the affairs of this planet.
The NSA refers to this ET grouping under such titles as The Link and others.

There are the benevolent ETs visiting this planet from star sectors such as the Pleiades, Andromeda,
Lyra, Tau Ceti, Sirius A, and Ummo, which have been referred to by contactees and secret service
personnel as The Galactic Confederation of Worlds.

Here we are going into complicated Star Wars-type Exopolitics. However, there are benevolent factions
of Orion Greys and Draco Reptilians and evil factions of Pleiadians, for example.

This is obvious, as in any race there are good and evil elements. I wanted to just make this distinction
clear because in the so-called New Age movement, there is almost a religious type of obsession with
New Age advocates claiming all reptilians are negative and all Pleiadians are here to save us from them.
There have also been Human/ET treaties with these compassionate races, and their motivations and
actions in these areas seem to prove their intentions.

In 1934, a group of Pleiadians (Tall Humanoid beings with blond hair and blue eyes) approached the US
government, under the Roosevelt administration, in an effort to work out an eventual military
disarmament arrangement. The US government refused, so the Pleiadians approached Hitler and the
Nazis instead. I believe by this time, the Draco reptilians had taken control of much of the upper levels of
the US federal government, and the human puppets would not give up their military weapons. Part of the
covert reptilian agenda is to massively reduce the world‘s population by wars to reduce resistance, if and
when the time comes, to the final Draco invasion.

The Pleiadians worked out a treaty with Hitler and the Nazis that in exchange for technology the Nazis
would not attack the Jewish people.

The Pleiadians tried to stop all of this, and their treaty with the Nazis held together until around 1941. I
cannot get a very clear picture of what happened after this, as the information is so tightly
compartmentalized. It is also hard to see through the massive amounts of propaganda that came out
after the Second World War.

There was a plan to repopulate the Jewish community from Germany to Madagascar, but this didn't
happen because the Madagascans wanted no part of it.
The Nazis developed their advanced saucer-shaped aircraft from the Pleiadian technology after the
Pleiadians purposely c