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ECHELON Surveillance Program by Patrick S Poole 1999

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ECHELON Surveillance Program by Patrick S Poole 1999 Powered By Docstoc
					                                             by Patrick S. Poole
                                                   1999/2000


Executive Summary
In the greatest surveillance effort ever established, the US National Security Agency (NSA) has created
a global spy system, codename ECHELON, which captures and analyzes virtually every phone call, fax,
email and telex message sent anywhere in the world.

ECHELON is controlled by the NSA and is operated in conjunction with the Government
Communications Head Quarters (GCHQ) of England, the Communications Security Establishment
(CSE) of Canada, the Australian Defense Security Directorate (DSD), and the General Communications
Security Bureau (GCSB) of New Zealand.

These organizations are bound together under a secret 1948 agreement, UKUSA, whose terms and text
remain under wraps even today.

The ECHELON system is fairly simple in design: position intercept stations all over the world to capture
all satellite, microwave, cellular and fiber-optic communications traffic, and then process this information
through the massive computer capabilities of the NSA, including advanced voice recognition and optical
character recognition (OCR) programs, and look for code words or phrases (known as the ECHELON
―Dictionary‖) that will prompt the computers to flag the message for recording and transcribing for future
analysis.

Intelligence analysts at each of the respective ―listening stations‖ maintain separate keyword lists for
them to analyze any conversation or document flagged by the system, which is then forwarded to the
respective intelligence agency headquarters that requested the intercept.

But apart from directing their ears towards terrorists and rogue states, ECHELON is also being used for
purposes well outside its original mission. The regular discovery of domestic surveillance targeted at
American civilians for reasons of ―unpopular‖ political affiliation or for no probable cause at all in violation
of the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the Constitution – are consistently impeded by very
elaborate and complex legal arguments and privilege claims by the intelligence agencies and the US
government.

The guardians and caretakers of our liberties, our duly elected political representatives, give scarce
attention to these activities, let alone the abuses that occur under their watch.

Among the activities that the ECHELON targets are:
       Political spying:
       Since the close of World War II, the US intelligence agencies have developed a
       consistent record of trampling the rights and liberties of the American people.

        Even after the investigations into the domestic and political surveillance activities of the
        agencies that followed in the wake of the Watergate fiasco, the NSA continues to target
        the political activity of ―unpopular‖ political groups and our duly elected representatives.
        One whistleblower charged in a 1988 Cleveland Plain Dealer interview that, while she
        was stationed at the Menwith Hill facility in the 1980s, she heard real-time intercepts of
        South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond.

        A former Maryland Congressman, Michael Barnes, claimed in a 1995 Baltimore Sun
        article that under the Reagan Administration his phone calls were regularly intercepted,
        which he discovered only after reporters had been passed transcripts of his
        conversations by the White House. One of the most shocking revelations came to light
        after several GCHQ officials became concerned about the targeting of peaceful political
        groups and told the London Observer in 1992 that the ECHELON dictionaries targeted
        Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and even Christian ministries.

        Commercial espionage:
        Since the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe, the intelligence agencies have
        searched for a new justification for their surveillance capability in order to protect their
        prominence and their bloated budgets. Their solution was to redefine the notion of
        national security to include economic, commercial and corporate concerns. An office
        was created within the Department of Commerce, the Office of Intelligence Liaison, to
        forward intercepted materials to major US corporations.

        In many cases, the beneficiaries of this commercial espionage effort are the very
        companies that helped the NSA develop the systems that power the ECHELON
        network. This incestuous relationship is so strong that sometimes this intelligence
        information is used to push other American manufacturers out of deals in favor of these
        mammoth US defense and intelligence contractors, who frequently are the source of
        major cash contributions to both political parties.
While signals intelligence technology was helpful in containing and eventually defeating the Soviet
Empire during the Cold War, what was once designed to target a select list of communist countries and
terrorist states is now indiscriminately directed against virtually every citizen in the world.

The European Parliament is now asking whether the ECHELON communications interceptions violate
the sovereignty and privacy of citizens in other countries. In some cases, such as the NSA‘s Menwith
Hill station in England, surveillance is conducted against citizens on their own soil and with the full
knowledge and cooperation of their government.

This report suggests that Congress pick up its long-neglected role as watchdog of the Constitutional
rights and liberties of the American people, instead of its current role as lap dog to the US intelligence
agencies. Congressional hearings ought to be held, similar to the Church and Rockefeller Committee
hearings held in the mid-1970s, to find out to what extent the ECHELON system targets the personal,
political, religious, and commercial communications of American citizens. The late Senator Frank
Church warned that the technology and capability embodied in the ECHELON system represented a
direct threat to the liberties of the American people.

Left unchecked, ECHELON could be used by either the political elite or the intelligence agencies
themselves as a tool to subvert the civil protections of Constitution and to destroy representative
government in the United States.
Introduction
The culmination of the Cold War conflict
brought home hard realities for many
military and intelligence agencies who were
dependent upon the confrontation for
massive budgets and little civilian oversight.
World War II Allied political and military
alliances had quickly become intelligence
alliances in the shadow of the Iron Curtain
that descended upon Eastern Europe after
the war.

But for some intelligence agencies the end
of the Cold War just meant a shift in mission
and focus, not a loss of manpower or
financial resources. One such US
governmental organization is the National
Security Agency (NSA).

Despite the disintegration of Communism in the former Soviet Union and throughout Eastern Europe,
the secretive NSA continues to grow at an exponential rate in terms of budget, manpower and spying
abilities. Other countries have noticed the rapid growth of NSA resources and facilities around the world,
and have decried the extensive spying upon their citizens by the US.

A preliminary report released by the European Parliament in January 1998 detailed research conducted
by independent researchers that uncovered a massive US spy technology network that routinely
monitors telephone, fax and email information on citizens all over the world, but particularly in the
European Union (EU) and Japan.

                                                         <1>
Titled ―An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control,‖ this report, issued by the Scientific and
Technological Options Assessment (STOA) committee of the European Parliament, caused a
tremendous stir in the establishment press in Europe. At least one major US media outlet, The New
            <2>
York Times, covered the issuance of the report as well.

The STOA report also exposed a festering sore spot between the US and our EU allies. The widespread
surveillance of citizens in EU countries by the NSA has been known and discussed by European
journalists since 1981. The name of the system in question is ECHELON, and it is one of the most
secretive spy systems in existence.

ECHELON is actually a vast network of electronic spy stations located around the world and maintained
by five countries: the US, England, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. These countries, bound
together in a still-secret agreement called UKUSA, spy on each other‘s citizens by intercepting and
gathering electronic signals of almost every telephone call, fax transmission and email message
transmitted around the world daily. These signals are fed through the massive supercomputers of the
NSA to look for certain keywords called the ECHELON ―dictionaries.‖

Most of the details of this mammoth spy system and the UKUSA agreement that supports it remain a
mystery. What is known of ECHELON is the result of the efforts of journalists and researchers around
the world who have labored for decades to uncover the operations of our government‘s most secret
systems.

The 1996 publication of New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager‘s book, Secret Power: New Zealand’s Role
                                 <3>
in the International Spy Network, provided the most detailed look at the system and inflamed interest
in ECHELON as well as the debate regarding its propriety.

This paper examines the expanse of the ECHELON system along with the intelligence agreements and
exchanges that support it. The operation of ECHELON serves the NSA‘s goal of spying on the citizens
of other countries while also allowing them to circumvent the prohibition on spying on US citizens.
ECHELON is not only a gross violation of our Constitution, but it violates the good will of our European
allies and threatens the privacy of innocent civilians around the world.

The existence and expansion of ECHELON is a foreboding omen regarding the future of our
Constitutional liberties.

If a government agency can willingly violate the most basic components of the Bill of Rights without so
much as Congressional oversight and approval, we have reverted from a republican form of government
to tyranny.




The Parties
The success of the Allied military effort in World War II was due in no small part to successes in
gathering enemy intelligence information and cracking those military and diplomatic messages. In
addition, the Allied forces were able to create codes and encryption devices that effectively concealed
sensitive information from prying Axis Power eyes. These coordinated signal intelligence (SIGINT)
programs kept Allied information secure and left the enemies vulnerable.

But at the close of the conflict, a new threatening power – the Soviet Union – was beginning to provoke
the Cold War by enslaving Eastern Europe. These signal intelligence agencies now had a new enemy
toward which to turn their electronic eyes and ears to ensure that the balance of power could be
maintained. The volleys of electronic hardware and espionage that would follow for forty years would be
the breeding ground of the ECHELON spy system.

The diplomatic foundation that was the genesis of ECHELON is the UKUSA agreement. The agreement
has its roots in the BRUSA COMINT (communications intelligence) alliance formed in the early days of
                                                                                      <4>
World War II and ratified on May 17, 1943 by the United Kingdom and the United States. The
Commonwealth SIGINT Organization formed in 1946-47 brought together the UK, Canada, Australia
                                                 <5>
and New Zealand post-war intelligence agencies.

Forged in 1947 between the US and UK, the still-secret UKUSA agreement defined the relations
between the SIGINT departments of those various governments. Direct agreements between the US
and these agencies also define the intricate relationship that these organizations engage in.

Foremost among those agencies is the US National Security Agency (NSA), which represents the
American interest. The NSA is designated as the ―First Party to the Treaty.‖ The Government
Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) signed the UKUSA agreement on behalf of the UK and its
Commonwealth SIGINT partners.

This brought Australia‘s Defense Signals Directorate (DSD), the Canadian Communications Security
Establishment (CSE) and New Zealand‘s Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) into
the arrangement. While these agencies are bound by additional direct agreements with the US and each
other, these four countries are considered the ―Second Parties to the (UKUSA) Treaty.‖

Third Party members include Germany, Japan, Norway, South Korea and Turkey. There are sources
                                                                              <6>
that indicate China may be included in this group on a limited basis as well.
National Security Agency (US)
The prime mover in the UKUSA arrangement is undeniably the National Security Agency (NSA). The
majority of funds for joint projects and facilities (discussed below) as well as the direction for intelligence
gathering operations are issued primarily through the NSA.

The participating agencies frequently exchange personnel, divide up intelligence collection tasks and
establish common guidelines for classifying and protecting shared information. However, the NSA
utilizes its role as the largest spy agency in the world to have its international intelligence partners do its
bidding.

President Harry Truman established the NSA in 1952 with a presidential directive that remains classified
to this day. The US government did not acknowledge the existence of the NSA until 1957. Its original
mission was to conduct the signal intelligence (SIGINT) and communications security (COMSEC) for the
US. President Ronald Reagan added the tasks of information systems security and operations security
training in 1984 and 1988 respectively. A 1986 law charged the NSA with supporting combat operations
                               <7>
for the Department of Defense.

Headquartered at Fort George Meade, located between Washington D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland, the
NSA boasts the most enviable array of intelligence equipment and personnel in the world. The NSA is
the largest global employer of mathematicians, featuring the best teams of code-makers and code-
breakers ever assembled. The latter‘s job is to crack the encryption codes of foreign and domestic
electronic communications, forwarding the revealed messages to their enormous team of skilled
linguists to review and analyze the messages in over 100 languages. The NSA is also responsible for
creating the encryption codes that protect the US government‘s communications.

In its role as gang leader for UKUSA, the NSA is primarily involved with creating new surveillance and
codebreaking technology, directing the other cooperating agencies to their targets, and providing them
with training and tools to intercept, process and analyze enormous amounts of signals intelligence.

By possessing what is arguably the most technologically advanced communications, computer and
codebreaking equipment of any government agency in the world, the NSA serves as a competent and
capable taskmaster for UKUSA.




The ECHELON Network
The vast network created by the UKUSA community stretches across the globe and into the reaches of
space. Land-based intercept stations, intelligence ships sailing the seven seas and top-secret satellites
whirling twenty thousand miles overhead all combine to empower the NSA and its UKUSA allies with
access to the entire global communications network. Very few signals escape its electronic grasp.

Having divided the world up among the UKUSA parties, each agency directs its electronic "vacuum-
cleaner" equipment towards the heavens and the ground to search for the most minute communications
signals that traverse the system‘s immense path.
              the NSA facilities in the US cover the communications signals of both American
                 continents
              the GCHQ in Britain is responsible for Europe, Africa and Russia west of the Ural
                 Mountains
              the DSD in Australia assists in SIGINT collection in Southeastern Asia and the
                 Southwest Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean areas
             the GSCB in New Zealand is responsible for Southern Pacific Ocean collections,
               particularly the South Pacific island nations group
             the CSE in Canada handles interception of additional northern Russian, northern
                                                           <8>
               European and American communications.



The Facilities
The backbone of the ECHELON network is the massive listening and reception stations directed at the
Intelsat and Inmarsat satellites that are responsible for the vast majority of phone and fax
communications traffic within and between countries and continents. The twenty Intelsat satellites follow
                                                                      <9>
a geo-stationary orbit locked onto a particular point on the Equator.

These satellites carry primarily civilian traffic, but they do additionally carry diplomatic and governmental
communications that are of particular interest to the UKUSA parties.

Originally, only two stations were responsible for Intelsat intercepts: Morwenstow in England and
Yakima in the state of Washington. However, when the Intelsat 5 series was replaced with the Intelsat
701 and 703 satellites, which had much more precise transmission beams that prohibited reception of
Southern Hemisphere signals from the Yakima base in the Northern Hemisphere, additional facilities
                                                  <10>
were constructed in Australia and New Zealand.

Today, the Morwenstow station directs its ears towards the Intelsats traversing the atmosphere above
the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and transmitting to Europe, Africa and western parts of Asia. The Yakima
station, located on the grounds of the Yakima Firing Station, targets Pacific Ocean communications in
the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Far East.

Another NSA facility at Sugar Grove, West Virginia, covers traffic for the whole of North and South
America. A DSD station at Geraldton, Australia, and the Waihopai, New Zealand GCSB facility cover
Asia, the South Pacific countries and the Pacific Ocean. An additional station on Ascension Island in the
Atlantic Ocean between Brazil and Angola is suspected of covering the Atlantic Intelsat‘s Southern
                               <11>
Hemisphere communications.

Non-Intelsat satellites are monitored from these same stations, as well as from bases in Menwith Hill,
England; Shoal Bay, Australia; Leitrim, Canada; Bad Aibling, Germany, and Misawa, Japan. These
                                                                  <12>
satellites typically carry Russian and regional communications.        It is known that the Shoal Bay facility
targets a series of Indonesian satellites and that the Leitrim station intercepts communications from Latin
                                                                                       <13>
American satellites, including the Mexican telephone company‘s Morelos satellite.

Several dozen other radio listening posts operated by the UKUSA allies dot the globe as well, located at
military bases on foreign soil and remote spy posts. These stations played a critical role in the time prior
to the development of satellite communications because much of the world‘s communications traffic was
transmitted on radio frequency bands.

Particularly in the high-frequency (HF) range, radio communications continue to serve an important
purpose despite the widespread use of satellite technology because their signals can be transmitted to
military ships and aircraft across the globe. Shorter range very high-frequencies (VHF) and ultra high-
frequencies (UHF) are also used for tactical military communications within national borders.

Major radio facilities in the UKUSA network include Tangimoana, New Zealand; Bamaga, Australia, and
                                                                      <14>
the joint NSA/GCHQ facility at the Indian Ocean atoll of Diego Garcia.
                                                         UK facilities

         A separate high frequency direction finding (HFDF) network intercepts communications signals for the
         unique purpose of locating the position of ships and aircraft. While these stations are not actually
         involved in the analysis of messages, they play a critical role in monitoring the movements of mobile
         military targets.

         The Canadian CSE figures prominently in the HFDF UKUSA network, codenamed CLASSIC
         BULLSEYE and hosting a major portion of the Atlantic and Pacific stations that monitored Soviet ship
         and submarine movements during the Cold War. Stations from Kingston and Leitrim (Ontario) to Gander
         (Newfoundland) on the Atlantic side, to Alert (Northwest Territories) located at the northernmost tip of
         Canada on the Arctic Ocean that listens to the Russian submarine bases at Petropavlovsk and
         Vladivostok, and finally to Masset (British Columbia) in the Pacific -- monitor shipping and flight lanes
                                         <15>
         under the direction of the NSA.      .

         The CSE also maintains a small contingent at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, which
         probably monitors Latin American communications targets.

         Another major support for the ECHELON system is the US spy satellite network and its corresponding
         reception bases scattered about the UKUSA empire. These space-based electronic communications
         "vacuum cleaners" pick up radio, microwave and cell phone traffic on the ground. They were launched
         by the NSA in cooperation with its sister spy agencies, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and
         the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

         The Ferret series of satellites in the 1960s; the Canyon, Rhyolite and Aquacade satellites in the 1970s;
         and the Chalet, Vortex, Magnum, Orion, and Jumpseat series of satellites in the 1980s, have given way
         to the new and improved Mercury, Mentor and Trumpet satellites during the 1990s.


                                    Table I. US Spy Satellites in Current Use

               Satellite                  No.        Orbit               Manufacturer                Purpose
           Advanced KH-11                  3       200 miles         Lockheed Martin     5-inch resolution spy photographs
       LaCrosse Radar Imaging              2     200-400 miles       Lockheed Martin 3 to 10-foot resolution spy photographs
             Orion/Vortex                  3      22,300 miles              TRW                Telecom surveillance
               Trumpet                     2    200-22,300 miles            Boeing        Surveillance of cellular phones
               Parsae                      3       600 miles                TRW                 Ocean surveillance
        Satellite Data Systems             2    200-22,300 miles           Hughes                   Data Relay
       Defense Support Program            4+      22,300 miles           TRW/Aerojet           Missile early warning
Defense Meteorological Support Program     2       500 miles         Lockheed Martin    Meteorology, nuclear blast detection
                                                              <16>
                                              Source: MSNBC


These surveillance satellites act as giant scoops picking up electronic communications, cell phone
conversations and various radio transmissions. The downlink stations that control the operations and
targeting of these satellites are under the exclusive control of the United States, despite their location on
foreign military bases.

The two primary downlink facilities are at Menwith Hill, England, and Pine Gap, Australia.




Inside Menwith Hill
The Menwith Hill facility is located in North Yorkshire near Harrogate, England.

The important role that Menwith Hill plays in the ECHELON system was recognized by the recent
European Parliament STOA report:
       Within Europe, all email, telephone and fax communications are routinely intercepted by
       the United States National Security Agency, transferring all target information from the
       European mainland via the strategic hub of London then by satellite to Fort Meade in
                                                                                        <17>
       Maryland via the crucial hub at Menwith Hill in the North York Moors of the UK.
The existence and importance of the facility was first brought to light by British journalist and researcher
Duncan Campbell in 1980.<18> Today, it is the largest spy station in the world, with over twenty-five
satellite receiving stations and 1,400 American NSA personnel working with 350 UK Ministry of Defense
staff on site.

After revelations that the facility was coordinating surveillance for the vast majority of the European
continent, the base has become a target for regular protests organized by local peace activists. It has
also become the target of intense criticism by European government officials who are concerned about
the vast network of civilian surveillance and economic espionage conducted from the station by the
    <19>
US.

The beginnings of Menwith Hill go back to December 1951, when the US Air Force and British War
Office signed a lease for land that had been purchased by the British government. The NSA took over
the lease of the base in 1966, and they have continued to build up the facility ever since. Up until the
mid-1970s, Menwith Hill was used for intercepting International Leased Carrier (ILC) and Non-
Diplomatic Communications (NDC).

Having received one of the first sophisticated IBM computers in the early 1960s, Menwith Hill was also
used to sort through the voluminous unenciphered telex communications, which consisted of
international messages, telegrams and telephone calls from the government, business and civilian
                                                                       <20>
sectors looking for anything of political, military or economic value.

The addition of the first satellite intercept station at Menwith Hill in 1974 raised the base‘s prominence in
intelligence gathering. Eight large satellite communications dishes were installed during that phase of
construction.

                                                            <21>
Several satellite-gathering systems now dot the facility:

     STEEPLEBUSH – Completed in 1984, this $160 million system expanded the satellite
       surveillance capability and mission of the spy station beyond the bounds of the installation that
       began in 1974.
     RUNWAY – Running east and west across the facility, this system receives signals from the
       second-generation geosynchronous Vortex satellites, and gathers miscellaneous
       communications traffic from Europe, Asia and the former Soviet Union. The information is then
       forwarded to the Menwith Hill computer systems for processing. RUNWAY may have recently
       been replaced or complemented by another system, RUTLEY.

     PUSHER – An HFDF system that covers the HF frequency range between 3 MHz and 30 MHz
       (radio transmissions from CB radios, walkie-talkies, and other radio devices). Military, embassy,
       maritime and air flight communications are the main target of PUSHER.

     MOONPENNY – Uncovered by British journalist Duncan Campbell in the 1980s, this system is
       targeted at the communication relay satellites belonging to other countries, as well as the
       Atlantic and Indian Ocean Intelsat satellites.

     KNOBSTICKS I and II – The purpose of these antennae arrays are unknown, but they probably
       target military and diplomatic traffic throughout Europe.

     GT-6 – A new system installed at the end of 1996, GT-6 is believed to be the receiver for the
       third generation of geosynchronous satellites termed Advanced Orion or Advanced Vortex. A
       new polar orbit satellite called Advanced Jumpseat may be monitored from here as well.

     STEEPLEBUSH II – An expansion of the 1984 STEEPLEBUSH system, this computer system
       processes information collected from the RUNWAY receivers gathering traffic from the Vortex
       satellites.

     SILKWORTH – Constructed by Lockheed Corporation, the main computer system for Menwith
         Hill processes most of the information received by the various reception systems.
One shocking revelation about Menwith Hill came to light in 1997 during the trial of two women peace
campaigners appealing their convictions for trespassing at the facility. In documents and testimony
submitted by British Telecomm in the case, R.G. Morris, head of Emergency Planning for British
Telecomm, revealed that at least three major domestic fiber-optic telephone trunk lines – each capable
                                                                              <22>
of carrying 100,000 calls simultaneously – were wired through Menwith Hill.

This allows the NSA to tap into the very heart of the British Telecomm network.

Judge Jonathan Crabtree rebuked British Telecomm for his revelations and prohibited Mr. Morris from
giving any further testimony in the case for ―national security‖ reasons. According to Duncan Campbell,
the secret spying alliance between Menwith Hill and British Telecomm began in 1975 with a coaxial
connection to the British Telecomm microwave facility at Hunter‘s Stone, four miles away from Menwith
                                            <23>
Hill – a connection maintained even today.

Additional systems (TROUTMAN, ULTRAPURE, TOTALISER, SILVERWEED, RUCKUS, et. al.)
complete the monumental SIGINT collection efforts at Menwith Hill.

Directing its electronic vacuum cleaners towards unsuspecting communications satellites in the skies,
receiving signals gathered by satellites that scoop up the most minute signals on the ground, listening in
on the radio communications throughout the air, or plugging into the ground-based telecommunications
network, Menwith Hill, alongside its sister stations at Pine Gap, Australia, and Bad Aibling, Germany,
represents the comprehensive effort of the NSA and its UKUSA allies to make sure that no
communications signal escapes its electronic net.




The ECHELON Dictionaries
The extraordinary ability of ECHELON to intercept most of the communications traffic in the world is
breathtaking in its scope. And yet the power of ECHELON resides in its ability to decrypt, filter, examine
and codify these messages into selective categories for further analysis by intelligence agents from the
various UKUSA agencies.

As the electronic signals are brought into the station, they are fed through the massive computer
systems, such as Menwith Hill‘s SILKWORTH, where voice recognition, optical character recognition
(OCR) and data information engines get to work on the messages.

These programs and computers transcend state-of-the-art; in many cases, they are well into the future.
MAGISTRAND is part of the Menwith Hill SILKWORTH super-computer system that drives the powerful
                         <24>
keyword search programs.

One tool used to sort through the text of messages, PATHFINDER (manufactured by the UK company,
Memex),<**Be sure to read footnote for update 25 **> sifts through large databases of text-based
documents and messages looking for keywords and phrases based on complex algorithmic criteria.
Voice recognition programs convert conversations into text messages for further analysis. One highly
advanced system, VOICECAST, can target an individual‘s voice pattern, so that every call that person
makes is transcribed for future analysis.

Processing millions of messages every hour, the ECHELON systems churn away 24 hours a day, 7
days a week, looking for targeted keyword series, phone and fax numbers, and specified voiceprints. It
is important to note that very few messages and phone calls are actually transcribed and recorded by
the system.

The vast majority are filtered out after they are read or listened to by the system. Only those messages
that produce keyword ―hits‖ are tagged for future analysis. Again, it is not just the ability to collect the
electronic signals that gives ECHELON its power; it is the tools and technology that are able to whittle
down the messages to only those that are important to the intelligence agencies.

Each station maintains a list of keywords (the ―Dictionary‖) designated by each of the participating
intelligence agencies. A Dictionary Manager from each of the respective agencies is responsible for
                                                                                                         <26>
adding, deleting or changing the keyword search criteria for their dictionaries at each of the stations.

Each of these station dictionaries are given codewords, such as COWBOY for the Yakima facility and
                                      <27>
FLINTLOCK for the Waihopai facility.       These codewords play a crucial identification role for the
analysts who eventually look at the intercepted messages.

Each message flagged by the ECHELON dictionaries as meeting the specified criteria is sorted by a
four-digit code representing the source or subject of the message (such as 5535 for Japanese
                                                                                             <28>
diplomatic traffic, or 8182 for communications about distribution of encryption technology,)      as well as
the date, time and station codeword.

Also included in the message headers are the codenames for the intended agency: ALPHA-ALPHA
(GCHQ), ECHO-ECHO (DSD), INDIA-INDIA (GCSB), UNIFORM-UNIFORM (CSE), and OSCAR-
OSCAR (NSA). These messages are then transmitted to each agency‘s headquarters via a global
                              <29>
computer system, PLATFORM,         that acts as the information nervous system for the UKUSA stations
and agencies.

Every day, analysts located at the various intelligence agencies review the previous day‘s product. As it
is analyzed, decrypted and translated, it can be compiled into the different types of analysis: reports,
which are direct and complete translations of intercepted messages; ―gists,‖ which give basic information
on a series of messages within a given category; and summaries, which are compilations from both
                     <30>
reports and gists.

These are then given classifications: MORAY (secret), SPOKE (more secret than MORAY), UMBRA
(top secret), GAMMA (Russian intercepts) and DRUID (intelligence forwarded to non-UKUSA parties).

This analysis product is the raison d‘être of the entire ECHELON system. It is also the lifeblood of the
UKUSA alliance.




The Problem
The ECHELON system is the product of the Cold War conflict, an extended battle replete with
heightened tensions that teetered on the brink of annihilation and the diminished hostilities of détente
and glasnost. Vicious cycles of mistrust and paranoia between the United States and the Soviet Empire
fed the intelligence agencies to the point that, with the fall of communism throughout Eastern Europe,
the intelligence establishment began to grasp for a mission that justified its bloated existence.

But the rise of post-modern warfare – terrorism – gave the establishment all the justification it needed to
develop even greater ability to spy on our enemies, our allies and our own citizens. ECHELON is the
result of those efforts. The satellites that fly thousands of miles overhead and yet can spy out the most
minute details on the ground; the secret submarines that troll the ocean floors that are able to tap into
                                      <31>
undersea communications cables;            and all power the efficient UKUSA signals intelligence machine.

There is a concerted effort by the heads of intelligence agencies, federal law enforcement officials and
congressional representatives to defend the capabilities of ECHELON. Their persuasive arguments
point to the tragedies seen in the bombings in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center in New York
City.

The vulnerability of Americans abroad, as recently seen in the bombing of the American embassies in
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya, emphasizes the necessity of monitoring those forces
around the world that would use senseless violence and terror as political weapons against the US and
its allies.

Intelligence victories add credibility to the arguments that defend such a pervasive surveillance system.
The discovery of missile sites in Cuba in 1962, the capture of the Achille Lauro terrorists in 1995, the
discovery of Libyan involvement in the bombing of a Berlin discotheque that killed one American
(resulting in the 1996 bombing of Tripoli) and countless other incidents that have been averted (which
are now covered by the silence of indoctrination vows and top-secret classifications) all point to the need
for comprehensive signals intelligence gathering for the national security of the United States.

But despite the real threats and dangers to the peace and protection of American citizens at home and
abroad, our Constitution is quite explicit in limiting the scope and powers of government. A fundamental
foundation of free societies is that when controversies arise over the assumption of power by the state,
power never defaults to the government, nor are powers granted without an extraordinary, explicit and
compelling public interest.

As the late Supreme Court Justice William Brennan pointed out:
         The concept of military necessity is seductively broad, and has a dangerous plasticity.
         Because they invariably have the visage of overriding importance, there is always a
         temptation to invoke security ―necessities‖ to justify an encroachment upon civil liberties.
         For that reason, the military-security argument must be approached with a healthy
         skepticism: Its very gravity counsels that courts be cautious when military necessity is
                                                                                     <32>
         invoked by the Government to justify a trespass on [Constitutional] rights.
Despite the necessity of confronting terrorism and the many benefits that are provided by the massive
surveillance efforts embodied by ECHELON, there is a dark and dangerous side of these activities that
is concealed by the cloak of secrecy surrounding the intelligence operations of the United States.

The discovery of domestic surveillance targeting American civilians for reasons of ―unpopular‖ political
affiliation – or for no probable cause at all – in violation of the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the
Constitution is regularly impeded by very elaborate and complex legal arguments and privilege claims by
the intelligence agencies and the US government.

The guardians and caretakers of our liberties – our duly elected political representatives – give scarce
attention to the activities, let alone the abuses, that occur under their watch. As pointed out below, our
elected officials frequently become targets of ECHELON themselves, chilling any effort to check this
unbridled power.

In addition, the shift in priorities resulting from the demise of the Soviet Empire and the necessity to
justify intelligence capabilities resulted in a redefinition of ―national security interests‖ to include
espionage committed on behalf of powerful American companies.

This quiet collusion between political and private interests typically involves the very same companies
that are involved in developing the technology that empowers ECHELON and the intelligence agencies.




Domestic and Political Spying
When considering the use of ECHELON on American soil, the pathetic historical record of NSA and CIA
domestic activities in regards to the Constitutional liberties and privacy rights of American citizens
provides an excellent guidepost for what may occur now with the ECHELON system.

Since the creation of the NSA by President Truman, its spying capability has frequently been used to
monitor the activities of an unsuspecting public.




Project SHAMROCK
In 1945 Project SHAMROCK was initiated to obtain copies of all telegraphic information exiting or
entering the United States. With the full cooperation of RCA, ITT and Western Union (representing
almost all of the telegraphic traffic in the US at the time), the NSA‘s predecessor and later the NSA itself
were provided with daily microfilm copies of all incoming, outgoing and transiting telegraphs.

This system changed dramatically when the cable companies began providing magnetic computer tapes
to the agency that enabled the agency to run all the messages through its HARVEST computer to look
for particular keywords, locations, senders or addressees.

Project SHAMROCK became so successful that the in 1966 NSA and CIA set up a front company in
lower Manhattan (where the offices of the telegraph companies were located) under the codename
LPMEDLEY. At the height of Project SHAMROCK, 150,000 messages a month were printed and
                        <33>
analyzed by NSA agents.

NSA Director Lew Allen brought Project SHAMROCK to a crashing halt in May 1975 as congressional
critics began to rip open the program‘s shroud of secrecy.
The testimony of both the representatives from the cable companies and of Director Allen at the
hearings prompted Senate Intelligence Committee chairman Sen. Frank Church to conclude that Project
SHAMROCK was ―probably the largest government interception program affecting Americans ever
             <34>
undertaken.‖




Project MINARET
A sister project to Project SHAMROCK, Project MINARET involved the creation of ―watch lists‖ by each
of the intelligence agencies and the FBI of those accused of ―subversive‖ domestic activities. The watch
lists included such notables as Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Jane Fonda, Joan Baez and Dr.
Benjamin Spock.
                                                                <35>
After the Supreme Court handed down its 1972 Keith decision,        which held that -- while the President
could act to protect the country from unlawful and subversive activity designed to overthrow the
government -- that same power did not extend to include warrantless electronic surveillance of domestic
                                                            <36>
organizations, pressure came to bear on Project MINARET.

Attorney General Elliot Petersen shut down Project MINARET as soon as its activities were revealed to
the Justice Department, despite the fact that the FBI (an agency under the Justice Department‘s
authority) was actively involved with the NSA and other intelligence agencies in creating the watch lists.

Operating between 1967 and 1973, over 5,925 foreigners and 1,690 organizations and US citizens were
included on the Project MINARET watch lists. Despite extensive efforts to conceal the NSA‘s
involvement in Project MINARET, NSA Director Lew Allen testified before the Senate Intelligence
                                                                                              <37>
Committee in 1975 that the NSA had issued over 3,900 reports on the watch-listed Americans.
Additionally, the NSA Office of Security Services maintained reports on at least 75,000 Americans
between 1952 and 1974.

This list included the names of anyone that was mentioned in a NSA message intercept.




Operation CHAOS
While the NSA was busy snooping on US citizens through Projects SHAMROCK and MINARET, the CIA
got into the domestic spying act by initiating Operation CHAOS.

President Lyndon Johnson authorized the creation of the CIA‘s Domestic Operations Division (DOD),
whose purpose was to,
       ―exercise centralized responsibility for direction, support, and coordination of
       clandestine operations activities within the United States….‖
When Johnson ordered CIA Director John McCone to use the DOD to analyze the growing college
student protests of the Administration‘s policy towards Vietnam, two new units were set up to target anti-
war protestors and organizations: Project RESISTANCE, which worked with college administrators,
campus security and local police to identify anti-war activists and political dissidents; and Project
MERRIMAC, which monitored any demonstrations being conducted in the Washington D.C. area.

The CIA then began monitoring student activists and infiltrating anti-war organizations by working with
local police departments to pull off burglaries, illegal entries (black bag jobs), interrogations and
                         <38>
electronic surveillance.
After President Nixon came to office in 1969, all of these domestic surveillance activities were
consolidated into Operation CHAOS. After the revelation of two former CIA agents‘ involvement in the
                                                                                         <39>
Watergate break-in, the publication of an article about CHAOS in the New York Times           and the
growing concern about distancing itself from illegal domestic spying activities, the CIA shut down
Operation CHAOS.

But during the life of the project, the Church Committee and the Commission on CIA Activities Within the
United States (the Rockefeller Commission) revealed that the CIA had compiled files on over 13,000
                                                                           <40>
individuals, including 7,000 US citizens and 1,000 domestic organizations.




The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC)
In response to the discovery of such a comprehensive effort by previous administrations and the
intelligence agencies, Congress passed legislation (the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of
       <41>
1978)       that created a top-secret court to hear applications for electronic surveillance from the FBI and
NSA to provide some check on the domestic activities of the agencies. In 1995, Congress granted the
court additional power to authorize surreptitious entries. In all of these actions, Congressional intent was
to provide a check on the domestic surveillance abuses mentioned above.

The seven-member court, comprised of federal District Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court
Chief Justice, sits in secret in a sealed room on the top floor of the Department of Justice building.
Public information about the court‘s hearings is scarce; each year the Attorney General is required by
law to transmit to Congress a report detailing the number of applications each year and the number
granted. With over 10,000 applications submitted to the FISC during the past twenty years, the court has
only rejected one application (and that rejection was at the request of the Reagan Administration, which
had submitted the application).

While the FISC was established to be the watchdog for the Constitutional rights of the American people
against domestic surveillance, it quickly became the lap dog of the intelligence agencies. Surveillance
requests that would never receive a hearing in a state or federal court are routinely approved by the
FISC. This has allowed the FBI to use the process to conduct surveillance to obtain evidence in
circumvention of the US Constitution, and the evidence is then used in subsequent criminal trials.

But the process established by Congress and the courts ensures that information regarding the cause or
extent of the surveillance order is withheld from defense attorneys because of the classified nature of
           <42>
the court.

Despite Congress‘s initial intent for the FISC, it is doubtful that domestic surveillance by means of
ECHELON comes under any scrutiny by the court.




Political Uses of ECHELON and UKUSA
Several incidents of domestic spying involving ECHELON have emerged from the secrecy of the
UKUSA relationship. What these brief glimpses inside the intelligence world reveal is that, despite the
best of intentions by elected representatives, presidents and prime ministers, the temptation to use
ECHELON as a tool of political advancement and repression proves too strong.

Former Canadian spy Mike Frost recounts how former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher made a
request in February 1983 to have two ministers from her own government monitored when she
suspected them of disloyalty.
In an effort to avoid the legal difficulties involved with domestic spying on high governmental officials, the
GCHQ liaison in Ottawa made a request to CSE for them to conduct the three-week-long surveillance
mission at British taxpayer expense. Frost‘s CSE boss, Frank Bowman, traveled to London to do the job
himself. After the mission was over, Bowman was instructed to hand over the tapes to a GCHQ official
                        <43>
at their headquarters.

Using the UKUSA alliance as legal cover is seductively easy.

As Spyworld co-author Michel Gratton puts it,
       The Thatcher episode certainly shows that GCHQ, like NSA, found ways to put itself
       above the law and did not hesitate to get directly involved in helping a specific politician
       for her personal political benefit…. [T]he decision to proceed with the London caper was
       probably not put forward for approval to many people up the bureaucratic ladder. It was
       something CSE figured they would get away with easily, so checking with the higher-
                                                         <44>
       ups would only complicate things unnecessarily.
Frost also told of how he was asked in 1975 to spy on an unlikely target – Prime Minister Pierre
Trudeau‘s wife, Margaret Trudeau. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police‘s (RCMP) Security Service
division was concerned that the Prime Minister‘s wife was buying and using marijuana, so they
contacted the CSE to do the dirty work. Months of surveillance in cooperation with the Security Service
turned up nothing of note.

Frost was concerned that there were political motivations behind the RCMP‘s request:
        ―She was in no way suspected of espionage. Why was the RCMP so adamant about
        this? Were they trying to get at Pierre Trudeau for some reason or just protect him? Or
                                                                      <45>
        were they working under orders from their political masters?‖
The NSA frequently gets into the political spying act as well.

Nixon presidential aide John Ehrlichman revealed in his published memoirs, Witness to Power: The
Nixon Years, that Henry Kissinger used the NSA to intercept the messages of then-Secretary of State
William P. Rogers, which Kissinger used to convince President Nixon of Rogers‘ incompetence.
Kissinger also found himself on the receiving end of the NSA‘s global net. Word of Kissinger‘s secret
diplomatic dealings with foreign governments would reach the ears of other Nixon administration
officials, incensing Kissinger.

As former NSA Deputy Director William Colby pointed out,
       ―Kissinger would get sore as hell…because he wanted to keep it politically secret until it
                             <46>
       was ready to launch.‖
However, elected representatives have also become targets of spying by the intelligence agencies. In
1988, a former Lockheed software manager who was responsible for a dozen VAX computers that
powered the ECHELON computers at Menwith Hill, Margaret Newsham, came forth with the stunning
revelation that she had actually heard the NSA‘s real time interception of phone conversations involving
South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond.

Newsham was fired from Lockheed after she filed a whistleblower lawsuit alleging that the company was
engaged in flagrant waste and abuse. After a top secret meeting in April 1988 with then-chairman of the
House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Rep. Louis Stokes, Capitol Hill staffers familiar with
                                                              <47>
the meeting leaked the story to the Cleveland Plain Dealer.        While Sen. Thurmond was reluctant to
pressure for a thorough investigation into the matter, his office revealed at the time that the office had
                                                                        <48>
previously received reports that the Senator was a target of the NSA.

After the news reports an investigation into the matter discovered that there were no controls or
                                                                              <49>
questioning over who could enter target names into the Menwith Hill system.
The NSA, under orders from the Reagan administration, also targeted Maryland Congressman Michael
Barnes. Phone calls he placed to Nicaraguan officials were intercepted and recorded, including a
conversation he had with the Foreign Minister of Nicaragua protesting the implementation of martial law
in that country.

Barnes found out about the NSA‘s spying after White House officials leaked transcripts of his
conversations to reporters. CIA Director William Casey, later implicated in the Iran-Contra affair, showed
Barnes a Nicaraguan embassy cable that reported a meeting between embassy staff and one of Barnes‘
aides. The aide had been there on a professional call regarding an international affairs issue, and Casey
asked for Barnes to fire the aide. Barnes replied that it was perfectly legal and legitimate for his staff to
meet with foreign diplomats.

Says Barnes,
       ―I was aware that NSA monitored international calls, that it was a standard part of
       intelligence gathering. But to use it for domestic political purposes is absolutely
                                         <50>
       outrageous and probably illegal.‖
Another former chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee has also expressed his concerns about
the NSA‘s domestic targeting.
       ―It has always worried me. What if that is used on American citizens?‖ queried former
       Arizona Senator Dennis DeConcini. ―It is chilling. Are they listening to my private
                                        <51>
       conversations on my telephone?‖
Seemingly non-controversial organizations have ended up in the fixed gaze of ECHELON, as several
former GCHQ officials confidentially told the London Observer in June 1992. Among the targeted
organizations they named were Amnesty International, Greenpeace and Christian Aid, an American
missions organization that works with indigenous pastors engaged in ministry work in countries closed to
                            <52>
Western, Christian workers.

In another story published by the London Observer, a former employee of the British Joint Intelligence
Committee, Robin Robison, admitted that Margaret Thatcher had personally ordered the
communications interception of the parent company of the Observer, Lonrho, after the Observer had
published a 1989 expose charging bribes had been paid to Thatcher‘s son, Mark, in a multi-billion dollar
British arms deal with Saudi Arabia.

Despite facing severe penalties for violating his indoctrination vows, Robison admitted that he had
                                                                              <53>
personally delivered intercepted Lonrho messages to Mrs. Thatcher‘s office.

It should hardly be surprising that ECHELON ends up being used by elected and bureaucratic officials to
their political advantage or by the intelligence agencies themselves for the purpose of sustaining their
privileged surveillance powers and bloated budgets. The availability of such invasive technology
practically begs for abuse, although it does not justify its use to those ends. But what is most frightening
is the targeting of such ―subversives‖ as those who expose corrupt government activity, protect human
rights from government encroachments, challenge corporate polluters, or promote the gospel of Christ.

That the vast intelligence powers of the United States should be arrayed against legitimate and peaceful
organizations is demonstrative not of the desire to monitor, but of the desire to control.




Commercial spying
With the rapid erosion of the Soviet Empire in the early 1990s, Western intelligence agencies were
anxious to redefine their mission to justify the scope of their global surveillance system. Some of the
agencies‘ closest corporate friends quickly gave them an option – commercial espionage.

By redefining the term ―national security‖ to include spying on foreign competitors of prominent US
corporations, the signals intelligence game has gotten ugly. And it very well may have prompted the
recent scrutiny by the European Union that ECHELON has endured.

While UKUSA agencies have pursued economic and commercial information on behalf of their countries
with renewed vigor after the passing of communism in Eastern Europe, the NSA practice of spying on
behalf of US companies has a long history.

Gerald Burke, who served as Executive Director of President Nixon‘s Foreign Intelligence Advisory
Board, notes commercial espionage was endorsed by the US government as early as 1970:
        ―By and large, we recommended that henceforth economic intelligence be considered a
        function of the national security, enjoying a priority equivalent to diplomatic, military, and
                                     <54>
        technological intelligence.‖
To accommodate the need for information regarding international commercial deals, the intelligence
agencies set up a small, unpublicized department within the Department of Commerce, the Office of
Intelligence Liaison.

This office receives intelligence reports from the US intelligence agencies about pending international
deals that it discreetly forwards to companies that request it or may have an interest in the information.
Immediately after coming to office in January 1993, President Clinton added to the corporate espionage
machine by creating the National Economic Council, which feeds intelligence to ―select‖ companies to
enhance US competitiveness.

The capabilities of ECHELON to spy on foreign companies is nothing new, but the Clinton administration
has raised its use to an art:
        In 1990 the German magazine Der Speigel revealed that the NSA had intercepted
        messages about an impending $200 million deal between Indonesia and the Japanese
        satellite manufacturer NEC Corp. After President Bush intervened in the negotiations on
        behalf of American manufacturers, the contract was split between NEC and AT&T.

        In 1994, the CIA and NSA intercepted phone calls between Brazilian officials and the
        French firm Thomson-CSF about a radar system that the Brazilians wanted to
        purchase. A US firm, Raytheon, was a competitor as well, and reports prepared from
                                               <55>
        intercepts were forwarded to Raytheon.
In September 1993, President Clinton asked the CIA to spy on Japanese auto manufacturers that were
designing zero-emission cars and to forward that information to the Big Three US car manufacturers:
                                   <56>
Ford, General Motors and Chrysler.

In 1995, the New York Times reported that the NSA and the CIA‘s Tokyo station were involved in
providing detailed information to US Trade Representative Mickey Kantor‘s team of negotiators in
                                                          <57>
Geneva facing Japanese car companies in a trade dispute.       Recently, a Japanese newspaper,
Mainichi, accused the NSA of continuing to monitor the communications of Japanese companies on
                                <58>
behalf of American companies.

Insight Magazine reported in a series of articles in 1997 that President Clinton ordered the NSA and FBI
to mount a massive surveillance operation at the 1993 Asian/Pacific Economic Conference (APEC)
hosted in Seattle. One intelligence source for the story related that over 300 hotel rooms had been
bugged for the event, which was designed to obtain information regarding oil and hydro-electric deals
pending in Vietnam that were passed on to high level Democratic Party contributors competing for the
           <59>
contracts.
But foreign companies were not the only losers: when Vietnam expressed interest in purchasing two
used 737 freighter aircraft from an American businessman, the deal was scuttled after Commerce
                                                                                 <60>
Secretary Ron Brown arranged favorable financing for two new 737s from Boeing.

But the US is not the only partner of the UKUSA relationship that engages in such activity. British Prime
Minister Margaret Thatcher ordered the GCHQ to monitor the activities of international media mogul
                                                 <61>
Robert Maxwell on behalf of the Bank of England.

Former CSE linguist and analyst Jane Shorten claimed that she had seen intercepts from Mexican trade
representatives during the 1992-1993 NAFTA trade negotiations, as well as 1991 South Korean Foreign
Ministry intercepts dealing with the construction of three Canadian CANDU nuclear reactors for the
                              <62>
Koreans in a $6 billion deal.      Shorten‘s revelation prompted Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Sheila
Copps to launch a probe into the allegations after the Mexicans lodged a protest.

But every spy agency eventually gets beat at their own game. Mike Frost relates in Spyworld how an
accidental cell phone intercept in 1981 of the American Ambassador to Canada discussing a pending
grain deal that the US was about to sign with China provided Canada with the American negotiating
strategy for the deal. The information was used to outbid the US, resulting in a three year, $2.5 billion
contract for the Canadian Wheat Board. CSE out-spooked the NSA again a year later when Canada
                                              <63>
snagged a $50 million wheat sale to Mexico.

Another disturbing trend regarding the present commercial use of ECHELON is the incestuous
relationship that exists between the intelligence agencies and the US corporations that develop the
technology that fuels their spy systems.

Many of the companies that receive the most important commercial intercepts – Lockheed, Boeing,
Loral, TRW and Raytheon – are actively involved in the manufacturing and operation of many of the spy
systems that comprise ECHELON. The collusion between intelligence agencies and their contractors is
frightening in the chilling effect it has on creating any foreign or even domestic competition.

But just as important is that it is a gross misuse of taxpayer-financed resources and an abuse of the
intelligence agencies‘ capabilities.




The Warning
While the UKUSA relationship is a product of Cold War political and military tensions, ECHELON is
                          th
purely a product of the 20 Century – the century of statism.

The modern drive toward the assumption of state power has turned legitimate national security agencies
and apparati into pawns in a manipulative game where the stakes are no less than the survival of the
Constitution. The systems developed prior to ECHELON were designed to confront the expansionist
goals of the Soviet Empire – something the West was forced out of necessity to do.

But as Glyn Ford, European Parliament representative for Manchester, England, and the driving force
behind the European investigation of ECHELON, has pointed out:
        ―The difficulty is that the technology has now become so elaborate that what was
                                                                    <64>
        originally a small client list has become the whole world.‖
What began as a noble alliance to contain and defeat the forces of communism has turned into a carte
blanche to disregard the rights and liberties of the American people and the population of the free world.

As has been demonstrated time and again, the NSA has been persistent in subverting not just the intent
of the law in regards to the prohibition of domestic spying, but the letter as well. The laws that were
created to constrain the intelligence agencies from infringing on our liberties are frequently flaunted, re-
interpreted and revised according to the bidding and wishes of political spymasters in Washington D.C.
Old habits die hard, it seems.

As stated above, there is a need for such sophisticated surveillance technology. Unfortunately, the world
is filled with criminals, drug lords, terrorists and dictators that threaten the peace and security of many
nations. The thought that ECHELON can be used to eliminate or control these international thugs is
heartening. But defenders of ECHELON argue that the rare intelligence victories over these forces of
darkness and death give wholesale justification to indiscriminate surveillance of the entire world and
every member of it. But more complicated issues than that remain.

The shameless and illegal targeting of political opponents, business competitors, dissidents and even
Christian ministries stands as a testament that if America is to remain free, we must bind these
intelligence systems and those that operate them with the heavy chains of transparency and
accountability to our elected officials.

But the fact that the ECHELON apparatus can be quickly turned around on those same officials in order
to maintain some advantage for the intelligence agencies indicates that these agencies are not presently
under the control of our elected representatives.

That Congress is not aware of or able to curtail these abuses of power is a frightening harbinger of what
may come here in the United States. The European Parliament has begun the debate over what
ECHELON is, how it is being used and how free countries should use such a system. Congress should
join that same debate with the understanding that consequences of ignoring or failing to address these
issues could foster the demise of our republican form of government. Such is the threat, as Senator
Frank Church warned the American people over twenty years ago.

At the same time, that capability at any time could be turned around on the American people and no
American would have any privacy left, such [is] the capability to monitor everything: telephone
conversations, telegrams, it doesn‘t matter.

There would be no place to hide. If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took
charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the
government could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back, because
the most careful effort to combine together in resistance to the government, no matter how privately it
was done, is within the reach of the government to know. Such is the capability of this technology…

I don‘t want to see this country ever go across the bridge. I know the capacity that is there to make
tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this
technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never cross over that abyss.

                                                   <65>
That is the abyss from which there is no return.



Endnotes
        1. Steve Wright, An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control, European Parliament:
        Scientific and Technologies Options Assessment, Luxembourg, January 6, 1998.
        2. Bruno Giussani, ―European Study Paints a Chilling Portrait of Technology‘s Uses,"
        The New York Times, February 24, 1998.
        3. Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton Publishing, 1996.
        4. Desmond Ball and Jeffrey Richelson, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation
        Between the UKUSA Countries, (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1985) pp. 137-8.
        5. Ibid., 142-143.
6. Secret Power, p. 40. See note 3.
7. National Security Agency, About the NSA.
8. The Ties that Bind, p. 143.
9. The coverage area of the various Intelsat satellites can be found at the Intelsat
website at: http://www.intelsat.com/cmc/connect/globlmap.htm
10. Secret Power, p. 28.
11. Ibid., p. 35.
12. Ibid.
13. Marco Campagna, Un Systeme De Surveillance Mondial, Cahiers de Television
(CTV-France), June 1998; Peter Hum, "I Spy," The Ottawa Citizen, May 10, 1997.
14. Secret Power, pp. 35-36, 150; Ties That Bind, pp. 204-207.
15. Mike Frost and Michel Graton, Spyworld: How C.S.E. Spies on Canadians and the
World (Toronto: Seal/McClelland-Bantam, 1995), p. 35
16. Robert Windrem, "Spy Satellites Enter New Dimension," MSNBC and NBC News,
August 8, 1998.
17. An Appraisal of Technology of Political Control, p. 19.
18. Duncan Campbell and Linda Melvern, ―America‘s Big Ear on Europe,‖ New
Statesman, July 18, 1980, pp. 10-14.
19. Simon Davies, ―EU Simmers Over Menwith Listening Post,‖ London Telegraph, July
16, 1998.
20. Nicholas Rufford, ―Spy Station F83,‖ The Sunday (London) Times, May 31, 1998.
21. Duncan Campell, "Somebody‘s Listening," The New Statesman, August 12, 1988,
pp. 10-12; ―The Hill,‖ Dispatches, BBC Channel 4, October 6, 1993 (transcript provided
by Duncan Campbell); Loring Wirbel, ―Space – Intelligence Technology‘s Embattled
Frontier,‖ Electronic Engineering Times, April 22, 1997; Nicholas Rufford, ―Cracking the
Menwith Codes,‖ The Sunday (London) Times, May 31, 1998.
22. Duncan Campbell, BT Condemned for Listing Cables to US SIGINT Station,
September 4, 1997.
23. Ibid.; Spy Station F83.
24. Mentioned in Dispatches: The Hill.
25. An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control, p. 19. Memex maintains a website
describing their defense and intelligence products and contracts:
http://www.memex.co.uk/prod/intelligence/comm.html **UPDATE: The information
originally included is incorrect. The Pathfinder software is manufactured by the US
company, Presearch Inc. (http://www.presearch.com). Memex is the commercial search
engine that acts as the database and retrieval mechanism. (Email to the author date
12.29.99 from Pete Graner, Senior Scientist, Information Technology Group, Presearch
Inc.)
26. Secret Power, p. 49.
27. Ibid., pp. 165-166.
28. Ibid., p. 44
29. James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America‘s
Most Secret Intelligence Organization, (New York: Penguin Books, 1983), pp. 138-139.
30. Secret Power, p. 45.
31. Ties That Bind, pp. 223-224.
32. Brown v. Glines, 444 U.S. 348 (1980).
33. Puzzle Palace, p. 314, 459.
34. External Collection Program: U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Intelligence,
Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence and the Rights of Americans,
Final Report, Book III, April 23, 1976, p. 765.
35. United States v. United States District Court, 407 U.S. 297 (1972)
36. Puzzle Palace, pp. 370-373.
37. Puzzle Palace, p. 381.
38. Morton Halperin, Jerry Berman, et. al., The Lawless State (Penguin: New York,
1976) p. 146..
39. Seymour Hersh, ―Huge CIA Operation Reported in U.S. Against Antiwar Forces,‖
New York Times (December 22, 1974), p. 1.
40. The Lawless State, p. 153; US Commission on CIA Activites within the United
States, Report to the President (US Government Printing Office: Washington DC, 1975),
p. 144n3.
41. 50 USC Sec. 1801, et. seq.
42. For more information on the FISC, see this author‘s essay ―Inside America‘s Secret
Court: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court,‖ The Privacy Papers, No. 2
(Washington D.C.: Free Congress Foundation, 1998).
43. Spyworld, pp. 234-238.
44. Ibid., p. 238.
45. Ibid., pp. 93-97.
46. Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, ―Catching Americans in NSA‘s Net,‖ Baltimore Sun,
December 12, 1995.
47. Keith C. Epstein and John S. Long, ―Security Agency Accused of Monitoring U.S.
Calls,‖ Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 1, 1988, pp. 1A, 10A.
48. Pete Carey, ―NSA Accused of Forbidden Phone Taps,‖ San Jose Mercury News,
July 2, 1988, p. 1A.
49. Somebody‘s Listening, p. 11.
50. Catching Americans in NSA‘s Net.
51. Ibid.
52. John Merritt, ―UK: GCHQ Spies on Charities and Companies – Fearful
Whistleblowers Tell of Massive Routine Abuse,‖ Observer (London), June 18, 1992.
53. Hugh O‘Shaughnessy, ―Thatcher Ordered Lonrho Phone-Tap Over Harrods Affairs,‖
Observer (London), June 28, 1992; cited in Secret Power, p. 54.
54. Dispatches: The Hill, op. cit.
55. Tom Bowman and Scott Shane, ―Battling High-Tech Warriors,‖ Baltimore Sun,
December 15, 1995.
56. Robert Dreyfuss, ―Company Spies,‖ Mother Jones, May/June 1994.
57. Cited in Bruce Livesey, ―Trolling for Secrets: Economic Espionage is the New Niche
for Government Spies,‖ Financial Post (Canada), February 28, 1998.
58. U.S. Spy Agency Helped U.S. Companies Win Business Overseas, Nikkei English
News, September 21, 1998.
59. Timothy W. Maier, ―Did Clinton Bug Conclave for Cash,‖ Insight, September 15,
1997. The three article series is online at:
http://www.insightmag.com/investiga/apecindex.html
60. Timothy W. Maier, ―Snoops, Sex and Videotape,‖ Insight, September 29, 1997.
61. Matthew Fletcher, ―Cook Faces Quiz on Big Brother Spy Net,‖ Financial Mail
(England), March 1, 1998.
62. Trolling for Secrets, op. cit.
63. Spyworld, pp. 224-227.
64. Lucille Redmond, ―Suddenly There Came a Tapping…‖, The Sunday Business Post
(Ireland), March 9, 1998.
65. National Broadcasting Company, ―Meet the Press‖ (Washington D.C.: Merkle Press,
1975), transcript of August 17, 1975, p. 6; quoted in Puzzle Palace, p. 477.
                             Return to La Red Echelon
                                                by Nicky Hager
                             This article is reprinted from CAQ (CovertAction Quarterly)
                                                    from JYA Website


                     IN THE LATE 1980’S, IN A DECISION IT PROBABLY REGRETS, THE
                      U.S. PROMPTED NEW ZEALAND TO JOIN A NEW AND HIGHLY
                             SECRET GLOBAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM. HAGER’S
                     INVESTIGATION INTO IT AND HIS DISCOVERY OF THE ECHELON
                      DICTIONARY HAS REVEALED ONE OF THE WORLD’S BIGGEST,
                       MOST CLOSELY HELD INTELLIGENCE PROJECTS. THE SYSTEM
                      ALLOWS SPY AGENCIES TO MONITOR MOST OF THE WORLD’S
                           TELEPHONE, E-MAIL, AND TELEX COMMUNICATIONS.


For 40 years, New Zealand‘s largest intelligence agency, the Government Communications Security
Bureau (GCSB) the nation‘s equivalent of the US National Security Agency (NSA) had been helping its
Western allies to spy on countries throughout the Pacific region, without the knowledge of the New
Zealand public or many of its highest elected officials.

What the NSA did not know is that by the late 1980s, various intelligence staff had decided these
activities had been too secret for too long, and were providing me with interviews and documents
exposing New Zealand‘s intelligence activities. Eventually, more than 50 people who work or have
worked in intelligence and related fields agreed to be interviewed.

The activities they described made it possible to document, from the South Pacific, some alliance-wide
systems and projects which have been kept secret elsewhere. Of these, by far the most important is
ECHELON.

Designed and coordinated by NSA, the ECHELON system is used to intercept ordinary e-mail, fax,
telex, and telephone communications carried over the world‘s telecommunications networks.

Unlike many of the electronic spy systems developed during the Cold War, ECHELON is designed
primarily for non-military targets: governments, organizations, businesses, and individuals in virtually
every country. It potentially affects every person communicating between (and sometimes within)
countries anywhere in the world.

It is, of course, not a new idea that intelligence organizations tap into e-mail and other public
telecommunications networks. What was new in the material leaked by the New Zealand intelligence
staff was precise information on where the spying is done, how the system works, its capabilities and
shortcomings, and many details such as the codenames.

The ECHELON system is not designed to eavesdrop on a particular individual‘s e-mail or fax link.
Rather, the system works by indiscriminately intercepting very large quantities of communications and
using computers to identify and extract messages of interest from the mass of unwanted ones. A chain
of secret interception facilities has been established around the world to tap into all the major
components of the international telecommunications networks.

Some monitor communications satellites, others land-based communications networks, and others radio
communications. ECHELON links together all these facilities, providing the US and its allies with the
ability to intercept a large proportion of the communications on the planet.

The computers at each station in the ECHELON network automatically search through the millions of
messages intercepted for ones containing pre-programmed keywords. Keywords include all the names,
localities, subjects, and so on that might be mentioned. Every word of every message intercepted at
each station gets automatically searched whether or not a specific telephone number or e-mail address
is on the list.

The thousands of simultaneous messages are read in "real time" as they pour into the station, hour after
hour, day after day, as the computer finds intelligence needles in telecommunications haystacks.




SOMEONE IS LISTENING
The computers in stations around the globe are known, within the network, as the ECHELON
Dictionaries.

Computers that can automatically search through traffic for keywords have existed since at least the
1970s, but the ECHELON system was designed by NSA to interconnect all these computers and allow
the stations to function as components of an integrated whole.

The NSA and GCSB are bound together under the five-nation UKUSA signals intelligence agreement.
The other three partners all with equally obscure names are the Government Communications
Headquarters (GCHQ) in Britain, the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) in Canada, and the
Defense Signals Directorate (DSD) in Australia.

The alliance, which grew from cooperative efforts during World War II to intercept radio transmissions,
was formalized into the UKUSA agreement in 1948 and aimed primarily against the USSR.

The five UKUSA agencies are today the largest intelligence organizations in their respective countries.
With much of the world‘s business occurring by fax, e-mail, and phone, spying on these communications
receives the bulk of intelligence resources. For decades before the introduction of the ECHELON
system, the UKUSA allies did intelligence collection operations for each other, but each agency usually
processed and analyzed the intercept from its own stations.

Under ECHELON, a particular station‘s Dictionary computer contains not only its parent agency‘s
chosen keywords, but also has lists entered in for other agencies. In New Zealand‘s satellite interception
station at Waihopai (in the South Island), for example, the computer has separate search lists for the
NSA, GCHQ, DSD, and CSE in addition to its own.

Whenever the Dictionary encounters a message containing one of the agencies‘ keywords, it
automatically picks it and sends it directly to the headquarters of the agency concerned. No one in New
Zealand screens, or even sees, the intelligence collected by the New Zealand station for the foreign
agencies. Thus, the stations of the junior UKUSA allies function for the NSA no differently than if they
were overtly NSA-run bases located on their soil.

The first component of the ECHELON network are stations specifically targeted on the international
telecommunications satellites (Intelsats) used by the telephone companies of most countries. A ring of
Intelsats is positioned around the world, stationary above the equator, each serving as a relay station for
tens of thousands of simultaneous phone calls, fax, and e-mail. Five UKUSA stations have been
established to intercept the communications carried by the Intelsats.

The British GCHQ station is located at the top of high cliffs above the sea at Morwenstow in Cornwall.
Satellite dishes beside sprawling operations buildings point toward Intelsats above the Atlantic, Europe,
and, inclined almost to the horizon, the Indian Ocean.
An NSA station at Sugar Grove, located 250 kilometers southwest of Washington, DC, in the mountains
of West Virginia, covers Atlantic Intelsats transmitting down toward North and South America. Another
NSA station is in Washington State, 200 kilometers southwest of Seattle, inside the Army‘s Yakima
Firing Center.

Its satellite dishes point out toward the Pacific Intelsats and to the east.




The job of intercepting Pacific Intelsat communications that cannot be intercepted at Yakima went to
New Zealand and Australia.

Their South Pacific location helps to ensure global interception. New Zealand provides the station at
Waihopai and Australia supplies the Geraldton station in West Australia (which targets both Pacific and
Indian Ocean Intelsats).

Each of the five stations‘ Dictionary computers has a codename to distinguish it from others in the
network. The Yakima station, for instance, located in desert country between the Saddle Mountains and
Rattlesnake Hills, has the COWBOY Dictionary, while the Waihopai station has the FLINTLOCK
Dictionary. These codenames are recorded at the beginning of every intercepted message, before it is
transmitted around the ECHELON network, allowing analysts to recognize at which station the
interception occurred.

New Zealand intelligence staff has been closely involved with the NSA‘s Yakima station since 1981,
when NSA pushed the GCSB to contribute to a project targeting Japanese embassy communications.

Since then, all five UKUSA agencies have been responsible for monitoring diplomatic cables from all
Japanese posts within the same segments of the globe they are assigned for general UKUSA
monitoring.

Until New Zealand‘s integration into ECHELON with the opening of the Waihopai station in 1989, its
share of the Japanese communications was intercepted at Yakima and sent unprocessed to the GCSB
headquarters in Wellington for decryption, translation, and writing into UKUSA-format intelligence
reports (the NSA provides the codebreaking programs).
"COMMUNICATION" THROUGH SATELLITES
The next component of the ECHELON system intercepts a range of satellite communications not carried
by Intelsat.

In addition to the UKUSA stations targeting Intelsat satellites, there are another five or more stations
homing in on Russian and other regional communications satellites. These stations are Menwith Hill in
northern England; Shoal Bay, outside Darwin in northern Australia (which targets Indonesian satellites);
Leitrim, just south of Ottawa in Canada (which appears to intercept Latin American satellites); Bad
Aibling in Germany; and Misawa in northern Japan.

A group of facilities that tap directly into land-based telecommunications systems is the final element of
the ECHELON system.

Besides satellite and radio, the other main method of transmitting large quantities of public, business,
and government communications is a combination of water cables under the oceans and microwave
networks over land. Heavy cables, laid across seabeds between countries, account for much of the
world‘s international communications. After they come out of the water and join land-based microwave
networks they are very vulnerable to interception.

The microwave networks are made up of chains of microwave towers relaying messages from hilltop to
hilltop (always in line of sight) across the countryside.

These networks shunt large quantities of communications across a country. Interception of them gives
access to international undersea communications (once they surface) and to international
communication trunk lines across continents. They are also an obvious target for large-scale
interception of domestic communications.

Because the facilities required to intercept radio and satellite communications use large aerials and
dishes that are difficult to hide for too long, that network is reasonably well documented. But all that is
required to intercept land-based communication networks is a building situated along the microwave
route or a hidden cable running underground from the legitimate network into some anonymous building,
possibly far removed. Although it sounds technically very difficult, microwave interception from space by
                                            4
United States spy satellites also occurs.

The worldwide network of facilities to intercept these communications is largely undocumented, and
because New Zealand‘s GCSB does not participate in this type of interception, my inside sources could
not help either.




NO ONE IS SAFE FROM A MICROWAVE
A 1994 expos of the Canadian UKUSA agency, Spyworld, co-authored by one of its former staff, Mike
Frost, gave the first insights into how a lot of foreign microwave interception is done (see p. 18).

It described UKUSA "embassy collection" operations, where sophisticated receivers and processors are
secretly transported to their countries‘ overseas embassies in diplomatic bags and used to monitor
various communications in foreign capitals.
Since most countries‘ microwave networks converge on the capital city, embassy buildings can be an
                                                                                                           6
ideal site. Protected by diplomatic privilege, they allow interception in the heart of the target country.

The Canadian embassy collection was requested by the NSA to fill gaps in the American and British
embassy collection operations, which were still occurring in many capitals around the world when Frost
left the CSE in 1990. Separate sources in Australia have revealed that the DSD also engages in
embassy collection.

On the territory of UKUSA nations, the interception of land-based telecommunications appears to be
done at special secret intelligence facilities. The US, UK, and Canada are geographically well placed to
intercept the large amounts of the world‘s communications that cross their territories.

The only public reference to the Dictionary system anywhere in the world was in relation to one of these
facilities, run by the GCHQ in central London.

In 1991, a former British GCHQ official spoke anonymously to Granada Television‘s World in Action
about the agency‘s abuses of power. He told the program about an anonymous red brick building at 8
Palmer Street where GCHQ secretly intercepts every telex which passes into, out of, or through London,
feeding them into powerful computers with a program known as "Dictionary."

The operation, he explained, is staffed by carefully vetted British Telecom people:
       "It‘s nothing to do with national security. It‘s because it‘s not legal to take every single
       telex. And they take everything: the embassies, all the business deals, even the
       birthday greetings, they take everything. They feed it into the Dictionary."
What the documentary did not reveal is that Dictionary is not just a British system; it is UKUSA-wide.

Similarly, British researcher Duncan Campbell has described how the US Menwith Hill station in Britain
taps directly into the British Telecom microwave network, which has actually been designed with several
major microwave links converging on an isolated tower connected underground into the station.

The NSA Menwith Hill station, with 22 satellite terminals and more than 4.9 acres of buildings, is
undoubtedly the largest and most powerful in the UKUSA network. Located in northern England, several
thousand kilometers from the Persian Gulf, it was awarded the NSA‘s "Station of the Year" prize for
1991 after its role in the Gulf War.

Menwith Hill assists in the interception of microwave communications in another way as well, by serving
as a ground station for US electronic spy satellites. These intercept microwave trunk lines and short
range communications such as military radios and walkie talkies.

Other ground stations where the satellites‘ information is fed into the global network are Pine Gap, run
by the CIA near Alice Springs in central Australia and the Bad Aibling station in Germany.

Among them, the various stations and operations making up the ECHELON network tap into all the main
components of the world‘s telecommunications networks. All of them, including a separate network of
stations that intercepts long distance radio communications, have their own Dictionary computers
connected into ECHELON.

In the early 1990s, opponents of the Menwith Hill station obtained large quantities of internal documents
from the facility. Among the papers was a reference to an NSA computer system called Platform. The
integration of all the UKUSA station computers into ECHELON probably occurred with the introduction of
this system in the early 1980s.

James Bamford wrote at that time about a new worldwide NSA computer network codenamed
Platform,
        "which will tie together 52 separate computer systems used throughout the world. Focal
        point, or 'host environment,‘ for the massive network will be the NSA headquarters at
        Fort Meade. Among those included in Platform will be the British SIGINT organization,
        GCHQ."



LOOKING IN THE DICTIONARY
The Dictionary computers are connected via highly encrypted UKUSA communications that link back to
computer data bases in the five agency headquarters.

This is where all the intercepted messages selected by the Dictionaries end up. Each morning the
specially "indoctrinated" signals intelligence analysts in Washington, Ottawa, Cheltenham, Canberra,
and Wellington log on at their computer terminals and enter the Dictionary system.

After keying in their security passwords, they reach a directory that lists the different categories of
intercept available in the data bases, each with a four-digit code. For instance, 1911 might be Japanese
diplomatic cables from Latin America (handled by the Canadian CSE), 3848 might be political
communications from and about Nigeria, and 8182 might be any messages about distribution of
encryption technology.

They select their subject category, get a "search result" showing how many messages have been
caught in the ECHELON net on that subject, and then the day‘s work begins.

Analysts scroll through screen after screen of intercepted faxes, e-mail messages, etc. and, whenever a
message appears worth reporting on, they select it from the rest to work on.

If it is not in English, it is translated and then written into the standard format of intelligence reports
produced anywhere within the UKUSA network either in entirety as a "report," or as a summary or "gist."




INFORMATION CONTROL
A highly organized system has been developed to control what is being searched for by each station
and who can have access to it.

This is at the heart of ECHELON operations and works as follows.

The individual station‘s Dictionary computers do not simply have a long list of keywords to search for.
And they do not send all the information into some huge database that participating agencies can dip
into as they wish. It is much more controlled.

The search lists are organized into the same categories, referred to by the four digit numbers. Each
agency decides its own categories according to its responsibilities for producing intelligence for the
network.

For GCSB, this means South Pacific governments, Japanese diplomatic, Russian Antarctic activities,
and so on.

The agency then works out about 10 to 50 keywords for selection in each category. The keywords
include such things as names of people, ships, organizations, country names, and subject names. They
also include the known telex and fax numbers and Internet addresses of any individuals, businesses,
organizations, and government offices that are targets. These are generally written as part of the
message text and so are easily recognized by the Dictionary computers.

The agencies also specify combinations of keywords to help sift out communications of interest. For
example, they might search for diplomatic cables containing both the words "Santiago" and "aid," or
cables containing the word "Santiago" but not "consul" (to avoid the masses of routine consular
communications).

It is these sets of words and numbers (and combinations), under a particular category, that get placed in
the Dictionary computers. (Staff in the five agencies called Dictionary Managers enter and update the
keyword search lists for each agency.)

The whole system, devised by the NSA, has been adopted completely by the other agencies. The
Dictionary computers search through all the incoming messages and, whenever they encounter one with
any of the agencies‘ keywords, they select it.

At the same time, the computer automatically notes technical details such as the time and place of
interception on the piece of intercept so that analysts reading it, in whichever agency it is going to, know
where it came from, and what it is. Finally, the computer writes the four-digit code (for the category with
the keywords in that message) at the bottom of the message‘s text. This is important.

It means that when all the intercepted messages end up together in the database at one of the agency
headquarters, the messages on a particular subject can be located again. Later, when the analyst using
the Dictionary system selects the four- digit code for the category he or she wants, the computer simply
searches through all the messages in the database for the ones which have been tagged with that
number.

This system is very effective for controlling which agencies can get what from the global network
because each agency only gets the intelligence out of the ECHELON system from its own numbers.

It does not have any access to the raw intelligence coming out of the system to the other agencies. For
example, although most of the GCSB‘s intelligence production is primarily to serve the UKUSA alliance,
New Zealand does not have access to the whole ECHELON network.

The access it does have is strictly controlled.

A New Zealand intelligence officer explained:
       "The agencies can all apply for numbers on each other‘s Dictionaries. The hardest to
       deal with are the Americans. ... [There are] more hoops to jump through, unless it is in
       their interest, in which case they‘ll do it for you."
There is only one agency which, by virtue of its size and role within the alliance, will have access to the
full potential of the ECHELON system the agency that set it up. What is the system used for?

Anyone listening to official "discussion" of intelligence could be forgiven for thinking that, since the end
of the Cold War, the key targets of the massive UKUSA intelligence machine are terrorism, weapons
proliferation, and economic intelligence. The idea that economic intelligence has become very important,
in particular, has been carefully cultivated by intelligence agencies intent on preserving their post-Cold
War budgets. It has become an article of faith in much discussion of intelligence.

However, I have found no evidence that these are now the primary concerns of organizations such as
NSA.
QUICKER INTELLIGENCE, SAME MISSION
A different story emerges after examining very detailed information I have been given about the
intelligence New Zealand collects for the UKUSA allies and detailed descriptions of what is in the yards-
deep intelligence reports New Zealand receives from its four allies each week.

There is quite a lot of intelligence collected about potential terrorists, and there is quite a lot of economic
intelligence, notably intensive monitoring of all the countries participating in GATT negotiations.

But by far, the main priorities of the intelligence alliance continue to be political and military intelligence
to assist the larger allies to pursue their interests around the world. Anyone and anything the particular
governments are concerned about can become a target.

With capabilities so secret and so powerful, almost anything goes. For example, in June 1992, a group
of current "highly placed intelligence operatives" from the British GCHQ spoke to the London Observer:
        "We feel we can no longer remain silent regarding that which we regard to be gross
        malpractice and negligence within the establishment in which we operate."
They gave as examples GCHQ interception of three charitable organizations, including Amnesty
International and Christian Aid.

As the Observer reported:
        "At any time GCHQ is able to home in on their communications for a routine target
        request," the GCHQ source said. In the case of phone taps the procedure is known as
        Mantis.
With telexes it is called Mayfly.

By keying in a code relating to Third World aid, the source was able to demonstrate telex "fixes" on the
three organizations.
        "It is then possible to key in a trigger word which enables us to home in on the telex
        communications whenever that word appears," he said. "And we can read a pre-
        determined number of characters either side of the keyword."
Without actually naming it, this was a fairly precise description of how the ECHELON Dictionary system
works.

Again, what was not revealed in the publicity was that this is a UKUSA-wide system. The design of
ECHELON means that the interception of these organizations could have occurred anywhere in the
network, at any station where the GCHQ had requested that the four-digit code covering Third World aid
be placed.

Note that these GCHQ officers mentioned that the system was being used for telephone calls. In New
Zealand, ECHELON is used only to intercept written communications: fax, e-mail, and telex. The reason,
according to intelligence staff, is that the agency does not have the staff to analyze large quantities of
telephone conversations.

Mike Frost‘s expos of Canadian "embassy collection" operations described the NSA computers they
used, called Oratory, that can "listen" to telephone calls and recognize when keywords are spoken. Just
as we can recognize words spoken in all the different tones and accents we encounter, so too,
according to Frost, can these computers.
Telephone calls containing keywords are automatically extracted from the masses of other calls and
recorded digitally on magnetic tapes for analysts back at agency headquarters. However, high volume
voice recognition computers will be technically difficult to perfect, and my New Zealand-based sources
could not confirm that this capability exists.

But, if or when it is perfected, the implications would be immense.

It would mean that the UKUSA agencies could use machines to search through all the international
telephone calls in the world, in the same way that they do written messages. If this equipment exists for
use in embassy collection, it will presumably be used in all the stations throughout the ECHELON
network. It is yet to be confirmed how extensively telephone communications are being targeted by the
ECHELON stations for the other agencies.

The easiest pickings for the ECHELON system are the individuals, organizations, and governments that
do not use encryption. In New Zealand‘s area, for example, it has proved especially useful against
already vulnerable South Pacific nations which do not use any coding, even for government
communications (all these communications of New Zealand‘s neighbors are supplied, unscreened, to its
UKUSA allies).

As a result of the revelations in my book, there is currently a project under way in the Pacific to promote
and supply publicly available encryption software to vulnerable organizations such as democracy
movements in countries with repressive governments. This is one practical way of curbing illegitimate
uses of the ECHELON capabilities.

One final comment. All the newspapers, commentators, and "well placed sources" told the public that
New Zealand was cut off from US intelligence in the mid-1980s. That was entirely untrue. The
intelligence supply to New Zealand did not stop, and instead, the decade since has been a period of
increased integration of New Zealand into the US system.

Virtually everything the equipment, manuals, ways of operating, jargon, codes, and so on, used in the
GCSB continues to be imported entirely from the larger allies (in practice, usually the NSA).

As with the Australian and Canadian agencies, most of the priorities continue to come from the US, too.

The main thing that protects these agencies from change is their secrecy.

On the day my book arrived in the book shops, without prior publicity, there was an all-day meeting of
the intelligence bureaucrats in the prime minister‘s department trying to decide if they could prevent it
from being distributed. They eventually concluded, sensibly, that the political costs were too high. It is
understandable that they were so agitated.

Throughout my research, I have faced official denials or governments refusing to comment on publicity
about intelligence activities. Given the pervasive atmosphere of secrecy and stonewalling, it is always
hard for the public to judge what is fact, what is speculation, and what is paranoia.

Thus, in uncovering New Zealand‘s role in the NSA-led alliance, my aim was to provide so much detail
about the operations the technical systems, the daily work of individual staff members, and even the
rooms in which they work inside intelligence facilities that readers could feel confident that they were
getting close to the truth.

I hope the information leaked by intelligence staff in New Zealand about UKUSA and its systems such
as ECHELON will help lead to change.

                                         Return to The Echelon
                           Network
         Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                        Security Agency




                            by Yorkshire CND
                            from YorkShire Website


  "No-one concerned about civil liberties can ignore Menwith Hill. Despite
many attempts to get answers to questions, it is quite clear that Menwith Hill
   is not accountable to MPs and therefore not accountable to the British
                                  people."
                                                             Alice Mahon MP

                Contents
            Menwith Hill Site
            Introduction
            History
            Interception
            Echelon
            Political Espionage
            Commercial Espionage
            The European Parliament Investigates
            Missile Defense - The Stars War Role
            Role of Menwith Hill in War - SIGINT and War
              Fighting
            The Campaign of Opposition
            Notes and References
            Links
                   Return to The Echelon Network
Menwith Hill Site




                                                  click image to enlarge
                                         It’s the most secret US base in Britain
                                   It’s unaccountable, unlawful and undemocratic
                               It’s integral to US plans to fight in and through space
                              It’s the world’s largest spy base and it’s getting bigger

The Menwith Hill spy base near Harrogate in North Yorkshire, England, is the largest electronic
monitoring station in the world. Run by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States, it is
one of a global network of Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) bases, which monitors the world‘s
communications and relays information to NSA HQ at Fort Meade in Maryland, USA.

The NSA was set up by Presidential decree in 1952 without any debate in the US Congress. Until a few
years ago, the existence of the NSA was a secret and its charter and any mention of its duties are still
classified. The American people know very little about it - and they know even less about Menwith Hill.



                Map of the Base area (from streetmap.com - arrow points to main gate)

Aerial photo of the base (from multimap.com)
 Go Back



 Introduction
 MENWITH HILL - is listening … International telecommunications, including private telephone
   calls, faxes and e-mails are intercepted from the UK, Europe, Middle-East, North Africa and the
   former Soviet Union. These are monitored looking for ‘key words‘, searching for military,
   diplomatic and commercial information useful to the United States. In 1997 a European
   Parliament report made it clear that civil liberties are threatened by the work of the NSA at
   Menwith Hill. Information collected at Menwith Hill goes directly to Fort Meade, Maryland in the
   United States. The British government is given selected information on a ‘need-to-know‘ basis
   via GCHQ, Cheltenham, who also have some employees working at Menwith Hill.
 MENWITH HILL - integral part of US star wars plans … There are no missiles at Menwith Hill
   but the base plays a crucial role in any global conflict. It received an award for the part it played
   in ‘desert Storm during the Gulf War in 1991. Menwith Hill‘s ongoing expansion means it is now
   able to transmit and receive communications and photographic images from space. This will
   help US Space Command in its mission to see and hear everything on the planet and enable
   laser weapons to be able to reach anywhere on the earth within a target of about six feet. It will
   also play a crucial part in US plans for a missile defence system by relaying the information
   gathered by the Space-Based Infra-Red satellite systems back to the US.

 MENWITH HILL - ask no questions, get no answers … The American authorities largely
   refuse to answer questions, give out information or allow reporters, MPs or MEPs on to the
   base. Answers are refused to many of the questions that MPs ask about Menwith Hill in the
   House of Commons.

 MENWITH HILL - keeps on growing … The number of radomes (giant golfballs which cover
   the satellite dishes) continues to increase. In 2002 there were 30 radomes as well as large
   numbers of buildings and aerials, an 8‘ high security fence, infra-red CCTV cameras and coils
   of razor wire around the base. Menwith Hill lies within, but officially excluded from, an Area of
   Outstanding Beauty. Although a token planning application has to be submitted for
   developments at the base, the local authority has no power to refuse permission or impose
   conditions.




 MENWITH HILL - The Campaign to close it … From the beginning, many people have worked
   to close the base. There have been vigils, demonstrations, peace camps, non-violent
   blockades and actions inside the base, letters to the press and radio and TV coverage. Action
         through the courts has successfully challenged the military land byelaws at the base. The
         Campaign for the Accountability of American Bases (CAAB) evolved from the original mixed
         campaign and since 1993 there has also been a women-only camp outside the base on the
         A59. There is a regular Quaker meeting for worship on the first Saturday of every month and
         Yorkshire Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has also organized large demonstrations
         outside the base as well as producing flyers and briefing papers on the base and lobbying
         decision-makers.
We will continue to protest against Menwith Hill‘s lack of accountability; its promotion of the arms trade
and war; its violation of local, national and international law; its abuse of democracy and civil liberties;
and its crucial role in US plans to dominate earth and space with nuclear and military technology.

Go Back



Some History




                                        Photo by Craig Stennett for CAAB

The Menwith Hill spy base (previously referred to as the 13th USASA Field Station), near Harrogate in
North Yorkshire, England (see below maps), is not a US missile base, an Early Warning Station or a
decoy to divert attention from nearby Forest Moor Royal Navy Communications Base.

Neither is it run by extra-terrestrials zapping earthlings with low frequency radio waves to control their
minds, nor is it a breeding ground for ‘killer bees‘ - although all these suggestions have been made at
some time or another by various visitors who see the large white balls spread over the Yorkshire Dales.




Menwith Hill is actually the largest electronic monitoring station in the world. It is one of a global
network of Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) bases run by the US National Security Agency (NSA) , which
monitors the world‘s communications and relays information to NSA HQ at Fort Meade in Maryland,
USA.

The NSA was set up by Presidential decree in 1952 without any debate in the US Congress. Until a
few years ago, the existence of the NSA was a secret and its charter and any mention of its duties are
still classified. It does have a Web site however, in which it describes itself as being "responsible for the
signals intelligence and communications security activities of the US government".
In the year 2000 Menwith Hill employed more than 1,800 personnel. A recent parliamentary question
[1]
    revealed that, as of 26 April 2000 , there were 415 US military, 989 US civilians (from defense
                                    [2]
contractors like Lockheed Martin ), 5 UK military and 392 UK civilian personnel (excluding those from
the UK‘s Government Communications Headquarters - GCHQ) employed there. The numbers of
GCHQ staff "were withheld under exemption 1 of the Code of Practice on Access to Government
Information." Work goes on there round the clock inside buildings some of which are "hardened" and/or
electronically shielded. Communications are intercepted and analyzed mainly from Europe, Russia, the
Middle East and North Africa.

Currently, the base is under the American command of Colonel Randolph Roberts. Squadron Leader
Humphrey Vincent is the Senior RAF officer; known as the RAF Liaison Officer (there is one token
commander allocated to all ‘RAF‘ - USAF - bases) he is a token presence although according to the
Ministry of Defense (MoD) he is responsible for "general oversight" of the base.

The land at Menwith Hill is owned, in lieu of the Crown, by the British Ministry of Defense, who allow
the US government to use it. The US Armed Forces and British War Office signed an initial agreement
concerning the land on 11 December 1951. The agreement provided for the land to be acquired and
stipulated that the US could,
         "remain in occupation until this agreement, unless otherwise excepted, is either
         terminated or modified."
The ‘security of tenure‘ agreement was renewed every 21 years until 1997 when it was not renewed as
it was deemed by the UK government not to be necessary. In 1954 the War Department compulsorily
purchased Nessfield House and Farm and the land at Rushfield Farm [the house and yard on the
South-west corner of the base are still privately owned and the MoD leases the farm land back to the
farmer] and construction work started on Field Station 8613 in 1955 . From 1 January 1957 it was
               th
named the 13 USASA (US Army Security Agency) Field Station and the name Menwith Hill (meaning
                    th
"stoney field" in 14 century English) became operational in 1959 . It now covers over 560 acres of
land.
The base is guarded by UK Ministry of Defense Police who are paid for and under the operational
control of the Americans and is now enclosed by an alarmed security fence topped with razor wire and
with CCTV cameras mounted at regular intervals along it. Inside are two large operations blocks and
many satellite dishes inside white radomes (‘golf balls‘). Initially operations focused on monitoring
international cable and microwave communications passing through Britain. In the 1960s Menwith Hill
was one of the first sites in the world to receive early IBM computers, which the NSA used to scrutinize
intercepted but unenciphered telex messages. Since then:
         "… Menwith Hill has sifted the private international messages, telegrams, and
         telephone calls of citizens, corporations or governments to select information of
         political, military or economic value to the United States… Officially it is a US
         Department of Defense communications station. … The British Ministry of Defense
         describes it as a "communications relay centre." Like all good cover stories, this has a
         strong element of truth to it. The real question is: whose communications system …
         [until 1974] Menwith Hill’s Sigint specialty is evidently the interception of International
         Leased Carrier signals, the international communications links run by civil agencies -
         the Post, Telegraph and Telephone ministries of eastern and western European
         countries, and US corporations like ITT and RCA ... " [3].




                       Steeplebush II Building - Photo by Craig Stennett (phone 0468-464784)
The NSA took over Menwith Hill in 1966 . In the 1960s coaxial cables were run from the base to the
nearby Hunters Stones Post Office tower which is part of the UK microwave network carrying long-
                                                                                      [4]
distance telephone calls. This link was equivalent to at least 32,000 telephone lines and was
upgraded in 1992 when a connection was made to the telephone network by BT installing fibre optic
                                                                                    [5]
cables that can carry the equivalent of over 100,000 simultaneous telephone calls .

                                                                                                            [6]
The high capacity link with Hunters Stones was employed in 1975 when satellite interception began .
BT state that the cables were connected directly to the US via undersea cable, and did not link to other
parts of the British system. The station commander around that time (Albert Braeuninger) described the
link as,
         "purely a communications link. We only use Hunters Stones power as a customer of
                           [7]
         the Post Office."
In 1984, a $25 million extension to Menwith Hill Station known as
STEEPLEBUSH was completed. New communications facilities
and buildings for STEEPLEBUSH were constructed worth £7.4
million. The expansion plan included a 50,000 square foot
extension to the Operations Building and new generators to
provide 5 Megawatts of electricity.

The purpose of the new construction was to cater for an ‘expanded
mission‘ of satellite surveillance and to provide a new (satellite)
earth terminal system to support the classified systems at the site.
With another $132 million being spent on special monitoring
equipment, this section of the Menwith Hill base alone cost almost
$160 million dollars. The THISTLE building (40,000 sq ft and $8.3
million) was added later in 1988 .

In 1993 an 83,000 square foot building (STEEPLEBUSH II -
controlling the receivers GT6 and GT7) was also added. Costing
$26 million, there are indications that this building is ‘hardened‘.
Later still CASTLEMAINE was added which controls the receivers
GT8 & GT9, known as GRAPNEL , which forms the European
                                                                       Menwith Hill Base from satellite picture
Ground Relay link for the Space Based Infra Red System (SBIRS)          and plan of security fence supplied by
of satellites.                                                            Harrogate Planning Office - details
                                                                       supplied by Anne Lee and described by
                                                                                Duncan Campbell [8].
Menwith Hill received an award for its part in "Desert Storm"
during the Gulf War - a fact revealed in the in-house magazine "Station Break" which reported that the
Chief of Station, William E. Kennedy, had collected a ‘Director’s Unit Award‘ for support to the ‘Desert
Shield/Desert Storm‘ operation.

In 1998 a 3m high heavy-duty weld-mesh security fence, with a razor wire overhang and ‘anti-tank trap‘
was erected around the Operations Area and Antenna Field. Other systems present at MHS and
shown in the figure above include:
     Man Tech International - technical support for Ops provided by Loral ‘Dustpan‘ before Loral
        Space Systems Inc merged with Lockheed-Martin. Man agement Tech nology runs the
        MOSAIC contract (Menwith Ops Systems Analysis & Interface Connection) which includes
        antenna maintenance and also PMEL (Precision Measurement Engineering Laboratories).

     SATCOM - Satellite Communications for the US Armed Forces Communications, run by the US
                 th
       Army‘s 128 Signal Company - has 3 radomes on the west side of the base but is not part of
       the Menwith Hill command structure.

     Over 100 antenna masts in Rhombic arrays; Pusher HFDF (High-Frequency Direction Finding)
       circular antennae and log-periodic aerials.
     Jetsams - codename for 6 diesel generators producing 10.6 MegaWatts. Battery chargers
       connected to Jetsams are used to charge the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for the
       operational electronic equipment.




Go Back



Interception [9]
The main operational activity of Menwith Hill is the collection of signals intelligence (SIGINT) from
national and international communications systems for the USA. All telecommunications traffic to and
from Europe and passing through Britain can be intercepted at the base, including private telephone
calls, faxes, emails and other communications. Much of the information is collected, processed and
relayed back to the United States automatically.

Long distance national and international communications are conveyed by cables, microwave radio
links, and satellites. All forms of modern communications: telephony, television, fax, computer links and
the Internet are carried in this way. Companies such as BT install and provide high capacity national
and international links used for these purposes and each is subject to interception. Some long distance
communications are still conveyed by traditional high frequency (HF) radio systems. Except for
domestic mobile radio systems, this traffic is predominantly but not exclusively military.

A great deal of this information comes from spy satellites. The importance of MHS to US intelligence
activities has recently been emphasized by the closure of other UK stations run by the NSA, and by its
new designation as a Regional Sigint Operations Centre (RSOC) which is responsible for running
remote, automated intelligence-gathering sites.

Menwith Hill was first established to intercept traditional radio signals, but this is now only a small part
of its activities which are conducted under two systems - RUNWAY OPERATIONS and SPECIAL
OPERATIONS. The primary targets are Europe, northern Africa and western Asia, because satellites
positioned to provide communications in these regions are not visible from the United States - but they
are from Menwith Hill.
                     Menwith Hill Base from satellite picture and plan of security fence
supplied by Harrogate Planning Office - details supplied by Anne Lee and described by Duncan Campbell [8].

1.- The RUNWAY OPERATIONS (RO) system - radomes GT1 - GT7 on the map.
Established in 1979 , this system (now called OPERATIONS & PLANS - OP ) uses
specially designed satellites stationed over certain target areas to intercept long
distance microwave radio communications. Using satellites positioned over the
Equator, RUNWAY intercepts radio relay links between cities in Eurasia and relays
them back to Menwith Hill. SILKWORTH is the name for the computer collection and
processing equipment housed in 36D.

Menwith Hill controls satellites positioned over the equator over target areas to
intercept long distance microwave radio communications between cities in Eurasia.
Operators at Menwith Hill can monitor messages and conversations passing between
companies and individuals within, say, Jordan or the Ukraine. Other international
messages and conversations from different starting places, but being conveyed along
the same route, can also be intercepted. Satellites can be directed to intercept
particular links and relay the information back to Earth where they are sorted and
processed at Menwith Hill. Those signals that satisfy specific criteria are selected and
passed on. All forms of communications are intercepted and processed.

RUNWAY runs east and west across the south edge of Menwith and is used to receive
information from the geosynchronous VORTEX satellites. The first of these satellites,
originally named CHALET , was launched in June 1978. In 1982, the NSA obtained
approval and funding to expand to operate four VORTEX satellites simultaneously.
The STEEPLEBUSH operations centre was constructed to process the data and is
connected to GT1- GT4 while GT5 connects to THISTLE (in a project called
MAGISTRAND ) and GT6 to STEEPLEBUSH II (as project RUTLEY which links to a
new network of Sigint satellites launched in 1994 and 1995 ).

After publication of the name VORTEX in 1987 the satellites were renamed
MERCURY. Around 1988 the UK abandoned plans to orbit its own Sigint Satellite
(ZIRCON - exposed by Duncan Campbell in 1987) and instead purchased for around
£500 million some capacity on the MERCURY satellite constellation which staff from
GCHQ at Menwith assist in tasking and operating.




Not many Sigint satellite details have come to light since 1990 , although systems will
have been expanded. Ground links were constructed at Menwith Hill for a new network
of Sigint satellites (RUTLEY) launched in 1994 and 1995 . In 1998 the NRO
announced plans to combine the three separate classes of Sigint satellites into an
Integrated Overhead Sigint Architecture (IOSA) in order to:
         "improve Sigint performance and avoid costs by consolidating
         systems, utilizing ... new satellite and data processing technologies"
         [10]
             .
Each satellite and processing facility costs about $1 billion.

2.- The SPECIAL OPERATIONS (SO) (MOONPENNY/SPRINKLER) system - is the
unauthorized reception of ordinary satellite communications used by other countries.
        Now called COLLECTION PROCESSING (CP) , it consists of interception terminals
        (designated by letters - A, B, etc) placed so as to intercept the signals broadcast to the
        earth‘s surface by national or international communication satellites (COMmunications
        INTelligence - COMINT ). These may include satellites launched by single nations,
        such as Russia or Israel, or by groups of nations, such as ARABSAT , or by the
        international community as a whole (INTELSAT). Because the ordinary function of
        these satellites is to broadcast their signals to earth, no special equipment needs to be
        placed in space to intercept them.

        SO‘s main targets were originally the collection of data from the former Soviet Union
        and Eastern European countries. However, since the end of the Cold War SO has in
        addition focused on Europe and the Middle East.

        With the help of its partners the NSA aims to collect, examine and process all
        international (and many national) communications. Statements made in 1992 by
        former Director Vice Admiral William Studeman indicate that the NSA collected about
        2 million intercepted messages per hour. Of these, all but about 13,000 an hour were
        discarded and of these about 2,000 met forwarding criteria, of which about 20 are
        selected by analysts, who then write 2 reports for further distribution. Therefore, in
        1992 17.5 billion messages a year could have been intercepted, of which some 17.5
                                                    [11]
        million may have been studied for analysis .
A third Operational Directorate called CTAR (Collect, Transcript, Analysis & Recording) also exists.
This system (now known as EP - Exploitation & Product) uses data from RUNWAY and MOONPENNY
and has three sections:
             CTAR 1 to cover Russia etc.
             CTAR 2 for "ROW" - the Rest Of the World (with a special sub-section MENA for
                Middle East Nations)
             CTAR 3 for WATCH - possibly the ECHELON system
An investigating European Union Committee in 2001 received evidence that the ECHELON system
gives 55,000 British and American operatives access to data gathered by 120 spy satellites worldwide.
        "Every minute of every day, the system is capable of processing three million
        electronic communications"
Go Back



ECHELON [12]
Prior to extensive automation, sorting of messages was carried out by reference to a list of targets,
known as a "watch list". In the last decade, this list has evolved into a system called project ECHELON
which was developed and operated on behalf of the United States and its partners in the UKUSA
intelligence alliance (Britain, Australia, Canada and New Zealand)

In this system computers, known as DICTIONARY are used to select messages which may include
combinations of specific names, dates, places, subjects etc. DICTIONARY automatically searches
through intercepted messages looking for particular subjects and people from target lists. Those
matching particular criteria are sent for further processing by analysts. Key words for message
interception are numerically coded and include diplomatic messages as well as regional
communications.
                                                                                        [13]
ECHELON was first revealed by Duncan Campbell in 1988 in a New Statesman article            and
                                                    [14]
detailed in "Secret Power" by Nicky Hagar in 1996 . The existence of the Echelon system has been
officially confirmed in a report commissioned by the Civil Liberties Committee of the European
             [15]
Parliament .
                                                                                        [16]
                        From "The Spy in your Server" by Duncan Campbell, August 2000

Of course, the US is not the only country to electronically eavesdrop, in the UK the newly opened
Government Technical Assistance Centre (GTAC ) is operating from inside MI5‘s headquarters at
Thames House, Millbank. Here, codes used for private email or to protect files on personal computers
are broken. It will also receive and hold private keys under the RIP (Regulation of Investigatory
             [17]
Powers) Act .

Go Back



POLITICAL ESPIONAGE
The American authorities largely refuse to answer questions about the activities of Menwith Hill, give
out information or allow reporters, MPs or MEPs into the base. Meaningful answers to many of the
questions that MPs ask about Menwith Hill in the House of Commons are not forthcoming. Many MPs
have asked them in the past, including Alice Mahon, Max Madden (Bradford West) and Norman
Baker (Lewis).

"Codes of Access to Government Information" exemptions are frequently used as a reason for not
giving full answers. Among the most prolific questioners of the status and role of Menwith Hill was Bob
                                                                                                     [18]
Cryer, who was MP for Bradford South until his tragic death in 1994. His final speech to the House ,
in an adjournment debate, was a succinct rendering of the questions at the heart of the campaign.
Questions continue to be asked in the House of Commons but satisfactory answers are very rare.
Margaret Newsham helped to design the ECHELON system and has recently described her work in
                                                      [19]
an interview with Ekstra Bladet in December 1999 . She said:
         "We are spying on our own citizens and the rest of the world - even our European
         allies. If I say ‘Amnesty‘ or ‘Margaret Newsham‘, it is intercepted, analyzed,
         coordinated, forwarded and registered - if it is of interest to the intelligence agencies."
Mike Frost, who worked for Canadian intelligence from 1972 until 1992, alleged in February 2000 that,
when she was prime minister, Margaret Thatcher used the Echelon network to spy on two cabinet
                  [20]
ministers in 1983 .
        "(Thatcher) had two ministers that she said, ‘they weren‘t on side,‘... so my boss went
        to London and did intercept traffic from those two ministers," Frost was quoted as
                                                          [21]
        saying in the excerpts released by "60 Minutes."
She was able to circumvent domestic laws against spying on citizens by asking another Echelon
member to do it for her.

Recent articles in the media (for example "Global Spy Network Revealed" by Andrew Bomford of the
      [23]                                                                                         [22]
BBC        and "Critics Question NSA Reading Habits" by Vernon Loeb of the Washington Post )
                                                                                          [24]
indicate that concern over the activities at Menwith Hill is growing. In a recent article      James
Bamford suggests that the rapid development of technology (as shown by, for example "New
                                                [25]
Technology for the NSA" by Suelette Dreyfus          has meant that new laws may be required to ensure
proper control over these activities.

A recent US report called for an "undisclosed amount" for upgrades to Menwith Hill but at the same
time insisted that the NSA be made to account for its methods of intercepting electronic
communications. Commenting on the report House, Rep. Porter Goss (R-Fla.) said:
         "We direct...the NSA to report in detail on the legal standards that it employs for the
         interception of communications."
Rep. Sanford Bishop Jr. (D-Ga.) said that although NSA is facing,
       "tremendous challenges coping with the explosive development of commercial
       communications and computer technology...[the agency] has not demonstrated much
                                              [26]
       prowess in coping with the challenge."
And things of course continue to move on - in a recent interview, Duncan Campbell has suggested
that,
        "The code name Echelon is only part of the entire system, and everything seems to
                                                                                   [27]
        indicate that they have switched codes. Last I heard it was ‘Magistrand‘."
Go Back



COMMERCIAL ESPIONAGE
In 1990 the German newsmagazine Der Spiegel claimed that the NSA intercepted messages about a
pending $200-million telecommunications deal between Indonesia and the Japanese satellite
manufacturer NEC Corp. George Bush, then the U.S. president, is said to have intervened on the
basis of the intelligence intercept and to have convinced the Indonesians to split the contract between
NEC and US - owned AT&T.

In May 2000, Robert Windrem, investigative producer for NBC News in New York reported on newly
unearthed documents that appear to confirm reports that Echelon was used for commercial espionage
[42]
    . The United States admits that it regularly tracks bribery attempts by foreign companies in
competition with US firms for overseas contracts - and uses that information to help US companies win
those contracts.




                                      Photo by Craig Stennett for CAAB

Duncan Campbell said the latest documents show that the United States and its allies in the British
Commonwealth are concerned more about contracts than uncovering bribery.
      "It‘s all well and good that they uncover bribery by European companies, but their
      response is extralegal. Why not make it public and prosecute it. The U.S. appears to
      be saying, ‘If it‘s terrorism, evidence is turned over and people are prosecuted. If it‘s a
                                                    [43]
      commercial interest, we do it differently."
Duncan Campbell has also revealed U.S. documents that show how the intelligence is carried out by
exploiting the vulnerability of corporate communications to electronic interception.
         "It is the new Cold War. The United States intelligence agencies, facing downsizing
         after the fall of the Berlin wall, have found themselves a new role spying on foreign
                                                                       [44]
         firms to help American business in global markets," he said .
Brian Gladwell, a British former NATO computer expert commented,
        "The analogy I use is where we were 250 years ago with pirates on the high seas.
        Governments never admitted they sponsored piracy, yet they all did behind the
        scenes. If we now look at cyberspace we have state-sponsored information piracy. We
        can‘t have a global e-commerce until governments like the US stop state-sponsored
                                          [45]
        theft of commercial information."
In 1993 and 1994 it was reported that the U.S. intelligence community helped U.S. firms win $16.5
billion in overseas contracts by alerting the governments in Third World countries that ministers and
                             [46]
others were "on the take".        Among the U.S. companies that have benefited are Raytheon, Boeing
and Hughes Network Systems. The intelligence community has clamped down on the release of such
data since then. The 1993 review showed that between 1986 and 1992 spy agencies,
          "had identified about 250 cases of aggressive lobbying by foreign governments on
          behalf of their domestic industries that are competing against U.S. firms for business
                      [47]
          overseas."
In January 1994 the then French Prime Minister Edouard Balladur flew to Riyadh to conclude a $6bn
deal for arms, airliners and maintenance, including sales of the European Airbus. He flew home empty-
handed. The Baltimore Sun reported that,
         "from a commercial communications satellite, NSA lifted all the faxes and phone-calls
         between the European consortium Airbus, the Saudi national airline and the Saudi
         government. The agency found that Airbus agents were offering bribes to a Saudi
         official. It passed the information to US officials pressing the bid of Boeing Co."
                                                                                   [48]
Clinton‘s government intervened with the Saudis and the contract went to Boeing.

In fact in 1994 President Clinton signed $40bn of business agreements between Indonesia and US
firms on one day. Among these was a $2.6bn power plant at Paiton, Java. At the time the contract was
signed, the US knew one of President Suharto‘s daughters had been cut in on the deal, and was given
a stake in the project worth more than $150m.

Also in 1994, the NSA intercepted phone-calls between France‘s Thomson-CSF and Brazil concerning
SIVAM, a $1.4bn surveillance system for the Amazon rain forest. The company was alleged to have
bribed members of the Brazilian government selection panel. The contract was awarded to the US
Raytheon Corporation - which announced:
         "the Department of Commerce worked very hard in support of US industry on this
         project".
This is just one of hundreds of "success" stories listed by the US Government‘s "Advocacy Center" who
brag about beating UK, European or Japanese competitors. In the first 17 months of the Clinton
administration, 72 cases of unfair competition were identified and acted on. A February 1995 National
Security Strategy statement noted,
         "collection and analysis can help level the economic playing field by identifying threats
         to U.S. companies from foreign intelligence services and unfair trading practices."
The US have beaten British competitors to power generation, engineering and telecommunications
projects in the Philippines, Malawi, Peru, Tunisia and the Lebanon. In India, the CIA tracked British
moves to clinch a deal to build a 700MW power station near Bombay. In January 1995 , the $400m
contract was awarded to the US companies Enron, GE and Bechtel. Also in 1995 , General Electric
Power Systems won a $120m bid to build a plant in Tunisia. The Advocacy Center boasted that,
        "they beat intense competition from French, German, Italian and British firms for the
        project."
In July 1995 a general discussion of "specialized technical operations" was given in a report to the US
Congress. The report from the CIA‘s National Counter Intelligence Center noted "because they are so
easily accessed and intercepted, corporate telecommunications - particularly international
telecommunications - provide a highly vulnerable and lucrative source for anyone interested in
obtaining trade secrets or competitive information." It continued:
         "Because of the increased usage of these links for bulk computer transmission and
         electronic mail, intelligence collectors find telecommunications intercepts cost-
        effective."
CIA officials say they focus primarily on overseas companies that bribe foreign officials to win a
contract. However, evidence exists that U.S. intelligence is not limited itself to gathering information on
criminal activities like bribery, but has also been on the lookout for any activities viewed as
"aggressive." Among the activities of foreign companies tracked by U.S. intelligence were,
         "lobbying," "linking financial aid to contract awards" and "the use of insider information
                                                    [49]
         and disinformation against U.S. firms."
In February 2000, a French intelligence report accused U.S. secret agents of working with computer
giant Microsoft to develop software allowing Washington to spy on computer users around the world. It
claims that the National Security Agency helped install secret programs on Microsoft software,
                                      [50]
currently in use of 90% of computers .

Go Back



The EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT Investigates
                                                 The 1999 report "Assessing the Technologies of
                                                                    [28]
                                                 Political Control"      commissioned by the Civil Liberties
                                                 Committee of the European Parliament, and considered
                                                 by the committee of the office of Science and
                                                 Technology Assessment (STOA) in Luxembourg states:
                                                 "Within Europe all email telephone and fax
                                                 communications are routinely intercepted by the
                                                 United States National Security Agency
                                                 transferring all target information from the
                                                 European mainland via the strategic hub of
                                                 London then by satellite to Fort Meade in
                                                 Maryland via the crucial hub at Menwith Hill".
                                                 The report confirms the existence of the Echelon system
                                                 and calls for an investigation into the activities of the
                                                 NSA at Menwith Hill. A driving force behind the report
                                                 was Glyn Ford, Labour MEP for Greater Manchester
                                                 East.

                                                 A follow up report for STOA entitled "The state of the art
                                                 in Communications Intelligence (COMINT) of automated
                                                 processing for intelligence purposes of intercepted
                                                 broadband multi-language leased or common carrier
                                                 systems, and its applicability to COMINT targeting and
                                                 selection, including speech recognition" by Duncan
                                                             [29]
                                                 Campbell         describes the ECHELON system and the
state of the art in COMINT in great detail.

French politicians and lawyers have frequently accused the US and Britain of using electronic
intelligence networks to win business away from foreign rivals [30]. However, France runs a worldwide
electronic intelligence system of its own - known as "Frenchelon", based at Domme, near Sarlat in the
Dordogne, and including an eavesdropping station in New Caledonia in the Pacific.

David Bowe, MEP for Cleveland and Richmond, is quoted in the Jan 5-11 1998 edition of "The Big
Issue" as saying,
        "The section on surveillance confirms my belief that American intelligence gathering
        operations present a serious threat to British and European political sovereignty, civil
        liberties and commercial interests. Peace campaigners and civil liberties champions
        have not been imagining a disturbing, all-seeing presence in our midst - there is one."
Bowe continues to call on the European Parliament to oppose moves by the US to make all private
messages sent via the Internet accessible to the NSA.




                      Yorkshire MEPs Tom Murphy, Mike McGowan, David Bowe and Barry Seal
                      join other Yorkshire campaigners in chains for a symbolic demonstration
                           on American Independence Day outside the Base at Menwith Hill


In March 2000 the Green/EFA Group in the European Parliament presented a list of 172 signatures of
MEPs of all political groups supporting the establishment of a Parliamentary Inquiry Committee on
Echelon, an espionage system operated by the USA, the UK and other countries. Parliament‘s rules of
                                                                              [31]
procedure require at least 157 signatures (25% of MEPs) for such a demand .

Heidi Hautala, Co-President of the Green/EFA Group said,
       "Two years ago, Commissioner Bangemann simply denied the existence of an
       interception system such as Echelon, and his successor Frits Bolkestein is continuing
       to do so. But the Parliament‘s STOA Report on Echelon and the subsequent hearing
       organized by the Civil Rights Committee have given enough evidence that this system
       exists and works. We call upon the EU Commission and the Council to show more
       transparency in this question and to help to shed light on the legal grey zone in which
       telecommunication interception is practiced."
This proposal was at first rejected by the major political groups in Parliament. Instead, on 5 July 2000
the European Parliament decided to set up a temporary committee and appointed 36 MEPs to lead a
                                        [32]
year-long investigation into Echelon [ . A temporary committee is not restricted to dealing only with
matters relating to community law (as a committee of enquiry would be) and can investigate to see if
the rights of European citizens are adequately protected and determine whether European industry is
put at risk by the global interception of communications. The committee was due to meet 7 times
between July-September 2000 and in October 2000 Ilka Schröder, a Green Party member of the
                                                                                           [33]
temporary committee from Berlin, filed criminal complaints in Germany against Echelon .

Members of the EP panel decided to visit the United States in May 2001 on a fact-finding mission to
include discussions with various U.S. politicians and intelligence officials. Not surprisingly, no-one in
the United States Government would admit that ECHELON even existed. The NSA, the CIA, the State
Department and the Department of Commerce refused to talk to the committee. The MEPs cut their
                                                  [34]
visit short, returning home angry and frustrated.
                                                                                                [35]
The first draft of the report, prepared by Gerhard Schmidt, was published in early June 2001  but the
MEPs admitted they had been unable to find conclusive proof of industrial espionage. They considered
the threat to privacy posed by ECHELON to be more disturbing and James Bamford is quoted as
saying that,
        "the real issue is whether Echelon is doing away with individual privacy - a basic
        human right" [36].
The report concludes the system cannot be extensive as it is based only on the worldwide interception
of satellite communications, only a small part of the total communications made around the globe. The
report decided that ECHELON had access to a limited proportion of radio and cable communications.
However, privacy groups claim that Britain, the US and their Echelon partners, were developing
eavesdropping systems to cope with the explosion in communications on email and the internet. In
addition, evidence submitted showed that the ECHELON system gives 55,000 British and American
operatives access to data gathered by 120 spy satellites worldwide. Every minute of every day, the
system is capable of processing three million electronic communications.

Also, Nicky Hager has expressed fears that the US is moving to directly tap into undersea fibre-optic
cables. The US Navy recently launched a $2.5 billion Seawolf-class attack submarine (the "USS Jimmy
Carter"). The 106.7m, 9297-tonne nuclear-powered submarine is the third of a class capable of diving
to 800m, deploying minisubs and remote-controlled underwater vehicles and attaching tapping devices
                                                            [37]
directly to cables lying at the bottom of the world‘s oceans .

Duncan Campbell supplied four important submissions to the Committee on "Interception Capabilities -
Impact and Exploitation". These were commissioned by the Committee in December 2000 to update
and extend the previous 1999 EP report, "Interception Capabilities 2000". They cover the use of
communications intelligence (COMINT) for economic purposes, legal and human rights issues, and
recent political and technological developments. These submissions were presented to Brussels on 22
and 23 January 2001 . The fourth study, on new political and technical developments, was presented in
                         [38]
the form of a slideshow .

                                                                [39]
The first paper summarizes the role of ECHELON in COMINT            and points out that very few media
                                                                                     [40]
reports have provided original new information about Echelon. The second paper            on the "COMINT
impact on international trade" describes in detail how, since 1992 , Europe could have sustained
significant employment and financial loss as a result of the U.S. government‘s use of ECHELON.
Estimates of the damage vary from $13 billion to $145 billion but the exact figure will never be known. It
refers to various annexes which describe (among other things) the work of the U.S. Trade Promotion
                                                                              [41]
Coordinating Committee (TPCC) and the Advocacy Center. The third paper             reveals how Britain
protects the rights of Americans, Canadians and Australians against interception that would not comply
with their own domestic law, while offering no protection of any kind to other Europeans.

The Echelon committee stated that,
       "possible threats to privacy and to businesses posed by a system of the ECHELON
       type arise not only from the fact that is a particularly powerful monitoring system, but
       also that it operates in a largely legislation-free area."
It called for the development and promotion of European "user-friendly open-source encryption
software" - it wanted "encryption to become the norm". The report also called for,
          "a common level of protection against intelligence operations based on the highest
          level which exists in any member state".
The Committee was particularly critical of the situation in the UK and some other member states where
there is no parliamentary oversight of surveillance. It said that national governments should set up,
         "specific, formally structured monitoring committees responsible for supervising and
         scrutinizing the activities of the intelligence services",
...and called for the European Parliament to hold an international congress for NGOs from Europe, the
USA and other countries to provide a forum on the protection of privacy against telecommunications
surveillance.

Go Back
The STAR WARS Role
The Campaign for the Accountability of American Bases
         [52]
(CAAB)        have continually monitored the planning
applications made by the Ministry of Defense Land
Agent (Defence Estates‘ Organisation, Catterick
Garrison - on behalf of the US Government) for
Menwith Hill to Harrogate Council for over 10 years.

Planning applications are submitted to Harrogate
Council for information only, they have no power of
veto. It may, however (if it receives sufficient objections)
initiate proceedings which may lead to a public enquiry.
In 1996 CAAB learned that a significant development
was to take place at MHS. Some time later they found a
press release tucked away in a file for two radomes,
which said:
          "HMG [Her Majesty‘s Government] and the
          United States Government are pleased to
          announce that the European Relay Ground
          Station (RGS-E) for the new Space Based Infra-
                                                                           From the Guardian [51]
          Red System (SBIRS) will be established at RAF
          Menwith Hill. The RGS-E will provide additional relay capability of SBIRS, and its
          establishment at RAF Menwith Hill will capitalize on the existing infrastructure. HMG
          welcomes the opportunity to strengthen US/UK co-operation in this field.

        SBIRS is the world-wide satellite-based system providing early warning of ballistic
        missile launches. It has been developed to upgrade the ageing US Defense Support
        Program (DSP) satellite system. Construction will include a one-storey 10,000 square
        feet concrete and steel building adjacent to and architecturally blending with the existing
        building. Up to four new radomes approximately 60 feet in height and similar to the
        existing radomes will also be required. Local planning consent will be sought in the
        usual way."
                                            Menwith Hill would soon be the home for the European
                                            Relay Ground Station for the New Space Based Infra Red
                                                   [53]
                                            System .

                                            This system is part of the US plan to adopt "Son of Star Wars"
                                            [54]
                                                . The radomes for the Space Based Infra Red System
                                                       [55]
                                            (SBIRS)         are now built. General Howell M. Estes III
                                            (Commander in Chief, North American Aerospace Defense
                                            Command and US Space Command and Air Force Space
                                            Command, Commander) has said in a speech urging the US
                                                                                              [56]
                                            Congress to "help fulfill the promise of space"        that:
                                            "Our SBIRS system consolidates DoD‘s non-imaging
                                            infrared systems that fulfill national security needs in
                                            areas of missile warning, missile defense, technical
                                            intelligence and battlespace characterization. It
                                            consists of high and low components. We need to get
                                            SBIRS High on-orbit first as a replacement for the
        Defense Support Program (DSP). We‘re going to put four satellites up to replace four
        DSPs.

        This will improve our location identification and tracking capabilities by better identifying
        the missile launch point, impact point and azimuth. It will also give us another level of
        refinement in those areas as we work the missile defense issue. The advantage of
        SBIRS Low is that it can track "cold bodies" in space.

        SBIRS Low is important for the ballistic missile defense systems. With SBIRS High, you
        can only track infrared signatures which means the rocket motor has to be burning.
        These systems will significantly improve our ability to provide much more precise launch
        and impact point of theater missiles to forces in a theater of operations. They are key to
        our ability to cue systems that we‘ll use for active defense as part of both theater and
        national missile defense."
                                                                                                                  [57]
In December 1998 the Star Wars role of MHS was further exposed on television by Richard Sadler
and in October 1999 Lindis Percy of the Campaign for the Accountability of American Bases made an
application for a Writ to stop this construction. The Writ (later a Claim) was issued by the High Court
against four defendants:
              Colonel Clyde D Harthcock - American base Commander at MHS at that time
              Secretary of State for Defence - he is in possession of the land
              Defence Land Agents - deals with all planning applications for American ‘clients‘
                  and oversees building etc
              Squadron Leader Humphrey Vincent - RAF Liaison officer.




                                                                                                           [52]
          SBIRS dishes and radomes (project GRAPNEL) at Menwith Hill (photos by Craig Stennett for CAAB)
The American Base Commander successfully claimed immunity from UK court proceedings under the
"Visiting Forces Act". The other defendants contested that the claim be struck out on the grounds
of ‘Abuse of Process of the Court‘. However, the High Court decided the Claim should be heard.
                                          Eventually however, President Clinton‘s decision on 1
                                          September 2000 to leave the fate of the NMD programme to
                                                                                                     [58]
                                          his successor, forced CAAB to withdraw the writ after all .
                                          The First Defendant is now claiming £16,173.06p costs and
                                          the 2/3/4 Defendants are claiming £11,000 costs against
                                          Lindis. However, CAAB will still continue with this action, and
                                          Fylingdales was later included in the Claim as another base to
                                                                                 [59]
                                          be used as part of ‘Son of Star Wars‘ .

                                           On 18 January 2000, Ann Cryer (Bob Cryer‘s widow) now
                                           also a Member of Parliament, made a speech in the House of
                                           Commons that highlighted the US Space Command‘s vision
                                                                     [60]
                                           to be "Masters of Space" . Now - with the election of
                                           George W Bush to the US presidency and the appointment
                                           of Dennis Rumsfeld as Secretary of Defense - the US
                                           development of a Star Wars (or National Missile Defense)
                                           programme is almost certain. Menwith Hill‘s role in these
                                           plans is well recognized - the debate and protest continues
[61]
   .
                         [98]
Two radomes for SBIRS         were in fact built even before the US gave notice to withdraw from the Anti-
Ballistic Missile Treaty with Russia. However, the SBIRS High infrared detection system has become
one of the US Defense Department‘s biggest white elephants - the SBIRS-High Increment 1 software
was finally installed at Buckley Air Force Base in Aurora, Colo., almost two years late, but the satellites
themselves are plagued with problems involving the infrared detection system.

In 2002 the name for SBIRS Low infrared tracking system was changed to:
                                                            [99]
        "The Space-Based Tracking and Surveillance System‖
There is no doubt that, through its communication, relaying and eavesdropping capabilities, Menwith
plays an important role in helping the US military in its plans to dominate and control space, despite the
effects on International Treaties (such as the ABM Treaty, the Outer Space Treaty and the Non
Proliferation Treaty) and the mistrust and concern expressed by people and their governments all over
           [62]
the world .

Go Back



SIGINT and War Fighting
Major General Judd Blaisdell, director of space operations and integration at the Pentagon has
described how the US Air Force is using space to enhance its intelligence, surveillance and
reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities:
        ―During Operation Iraqi Freedom, various ISR assets provided information to the
        combined air operations centers, allowing them to make rapid battlefield decisions,
                                                                     [100]
        putting coalition forces inside the enemy‘s decision cycle.‖
The US military has described space-based intelligence collection as a ―key force-multiplier for future
military operations‖. The close linkage between space-based intelligence collection and military
operations was clearly spelt out in congressional testimony a few years ago by the then Director of the
National Reconnaissance Office:
         "In the future, US forces will rely upon space systems for global awareness of threats,
        swift orchestration of military operations, and precision use of smart weapons. ... Our
        goal is to detect, track and target anything of significance worldwide and to get the right
        information to the right people at the right time."
The objective is to enable the US military to deliver "precise military firepower anywhere in the world,
day or night, in all weather".

Intelligence collection is the foundation for war planning. Together with high-resolution satellite imagery,
signals intelligence played a vital role in identifying military targets in Iraq. Signals intelligence was used
to identify key Iraqi military command, control, communications and intelligence facilities that became
priority targets for the US offensive.

Australian personnel at Pine Gap and UK personnel at Menwith Hill were intimately involved in these
processes.


SIGINT and The Gulf War [101]
The importance of the monitoring and collection of SIGINT during times of ‗international tension‘ is
obvious and Menwith Hill station received an award for its support to US naval operations in the Persian
Gulf from 1987 to 1988. In 1991, a further award was given for support of the Iraqi war operations,
                                 [102]
Desert Storm and Desert Shield.

SIGINT provided one of the first indicators of Iraqi intentions in Kuwait:
       "A Soviet-built TALL KING radar that abruptly resumed operation Sunday morning, July
       29, in southern Iraq gave US analysts their first substantive warning that the Iraqi
       invasion of Kuwait was likely."
                                                                                                      [103]
The 350 mile range radar had been out of service for a number of months prior to the invasion.

An intensive signals intelligence campaign mounted in the later part of August 1990 was expected to
provide 12 to 24 hours advance notice of an Iraqi attack. In October it was reported that:
        "US electronic listening posts - including AWACS, intelligence ships, and ground
        stations - have been somewhat successful in monitoring Iraqi military communications.
        But much of the Iraqi army has been using underground cables to communicate
        between Baghdad and Kuwait. The secure communications have made it difficult to
        determine Iraqi military intentions... the Iraqis took steps to secure their communications
        several years ago after a US newspaper disclosed details of a US electronic
                                                   [104]
        eavesdropping operation against Iraq."
Later in October:
         "electronic intelligence operations in the region detected the first characteristic signs of
         Hawk radar operation at a special test site for air defense equipment near Baghdad.
         The radar emanations indicated that Iraq is ‘playing around‘ with the weapons systems,
         as one official put it, but still remains weeks to months away from actually deploying
                 [105]
         them."
And:
        "US intelligence collected in November (revealed) that a Soviet military officer was
        overheard giving orders on an Iraqi military radio channel in Kuwait. The US intercept,
        picked up in southern Kuwait, sounded like a Soviet officer directing an Iraqi tank
        battalion... The information was collected by the US National Security Agency and
        reported secretly within the US government. A subsequent intelligence report said
        Britain‘s electronic intelligence agency disputed the veracity of the intercepted
                                                                            [106]
        communication and said the report was ‘under further analysis‘."
Signals intelligence systems also provided warning of impending Iraqi Scud missile launches. The
missile launchers:
        "have a radar …. used to track a balloon sent into the upper atmosphere just before
                                                                                          [107]
        launch to help compute high altitude winds and increase accuracy of the missile."
Also, one way of assessing the effectiveness of bomb damage is to monitor the amount of radio traffic
              [108]
after attack.

In early February 1991 it was reported that:
         "for the first time, some Guard units have broken radio silence, enabling US intelligence
                                                                          [109]
         to study their codes and deduce that they are under pressure."
A little while later it was reported that:
          "many Iraqi troops are being forced to communicate outside of secure networks on
          regular VHF radio channels, which are far easier for allied intelligence gatherers to
          intercept... such open communication could allow allied special forces teams to infiltrate
                                                                                      [110]
          Iraq‘s airwaves with false battle orders designed to confuse Iraqi troops."
Also in early February, it was reported that Soviet advisors were providing the Iraqi,
         "military with information about the times US spy satellites pass overhead... The
         information on the Soviet action was gathered from what the sources described as
         an ‘extremely sensitive source,‘ a term often use to describe communications
                      [111]
         intercepts."
SIGINT was also central to efforts to attack Iraqi leadership assets, including Saddam Hussein himself.
       "Saddam has changed his daily routine and movements as a result of disclosures that
                                                                                            [112]
       US air forces had targeted him, his family, his mistress and members of his family."
SIGINT was instrumental in the identification of the Amiriya bomb shelter in Baghdad which was alleged
to have sent signals from the shelter to a remote antenna via cable in order to avoid disclosing the
          [113]
location.       Despite there being limited photographic coverage, apparently "intercepts of military
communications from the shelter were monitored" close to the actual bombing which killed hundreds of
civilians on 12 February 1991. However, a,
         "Pentagon official, who asked not to be named, suggested that the installation was not
         broadcasting its messages by antenna. Rather, this official implied, that the center used
         buried communications lines to transmit its messages, which were later relayed to
                               [114]
         forces in the field."
Following the controversy that surrounded the bombing, "some political leaders pushed to release
                                         [1]
intercepted radio signals from the site," but this never happened.

American skepticism concerning Iraq‘s offer on15 February to withdraw from Kuwait, subject to a
number of conditions, was reinforced by signals intelligence.
       "... radio intercepts overheard no orders going out from Baghdad telling Iraqi
                                                   [116]
       commanders the war is nearing an end...‖
Another use of SIGINT is highlighted when:
       "Days before the start of the ground war, the forces began dropping 15,000
       pound ‘Daisy Cutter‘ bombs on Iraqi troops from the back of C-130 transport planes....
       Terrified Iraqis were certain that the devastating explosion signaled the beginning of the
       ground war, and turned on their air-defense radars all along the boarder. American
       pilots pinpointed many air-defense installations they never new existed. Says one
       Pentagon official, ‘We were able to ‘paint‘ every radar electronically and knock them
              [117]
       out.‘"
According to Professor Des Ball of the Australian National University, during the Gulf War satellites
controlled by Menwith Hll‘s sister base at Pine Gap intercepted Iraqi communications and radar signals.
These satellites monitored critical communications channels within Iraq, including those used by the
Iraqi military high command.

The close linkage between space-based intelligence collection and military operations was clearly spelt
out in congressional testimony four years ago by the then Director of the National Reconnaissance
Office:
          "In the future, US forces will rely upon space systems for global awareness of threats,
          swift orchestration of military operations, and precision use of smart weapons. ... Our
          goal is to detect, track and target anything of significance worldwide and to get the right
          information to the right people at the right time."
The objective then is to enable the US military to deliver "precise military firepower anywhere in the
                                      [118]
world, day or night, in all weather".


The War in Iraq
Even before the war in Iraq began SIGINT was playing a role. A memo leaked to the Observer in
February 2003 claimed that delegations at the UN Security Council were being electronically bugged as
                                                                        [119]
part of the US government‘s efforts to win a second resolution on Iraq.

Satellite systems were a key component to the execution of the war on Iraq. During the war the US
military was using 10 times the satellite capacity that it used in 1991.

Nine days before the start of the war in 2003 a new US Defense Satellite Communications System was
installed in space to connect ground forces, ships, planes, the Pentagon, the White House, the State
Department and the U.S. Space Command.

Over 50 military satellites supported the US and UK war effort. 27 Global Positioning System satellites
were available to help determine the exact location of special operations teams and of targets. Around
24 satellites were employed to channel communications and commands and to give warning of missile
attack and there were also weather forecasting, TV and other systems in operation. A February 2000
                                                                                         [120]
flight of the space shuttle Endeavor used radar to produce a 3-D map of targets in Iraq.

The director of space operations for the US Air Force, Maj. Gen. Judd Blaisdell, has estimated that
33,600 people at 36 sites around the world are involved in space-war activities.

There were problems with the technology. At least 2 Tomahawk missiles missed their targets and
landed in Saudi Arabia and Turkey by mistake, but also the availability of radio bandwidth (the range of
frequencies that can be used) was found to be insufficient.
                 nd                                             th
On Tuesday 22 April 2003 the US Air Force set up the 614 Space Intelligence Squadron at
Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. In a short formal ceremony the commander, Lt Col Earl White
made the following statement:
       "Everybody in the world has been watching this Iraq war, and the Gulf War before that,"
       said Lt. Col. White in an interview after the ceremony. "And they know what space does
       for the U.S. military. That is a key enabler. Without space, we‘re back to World War II.
       Anyone who wants to take on the United States knows they‘ve got to handle us in
                [121]
       space."
Also, Maj. Kurt Gaudette, director of operations for the new squadron was reported as stating that:
        "All smart bombs, and smart weapons, were controlled by GPS (Global Positioning
        System)‖
And John Pike, director of globalsecurity.org was quoted as saying:
       "The latest war with Iraq was the space war that the 1991 Gulf War previewed. Space
                                                    [122]
       systems are the key to U.S. military power."
Menwith Hill had an important role as an interceptor of and a conduit for intelligence and command
information in the Gulf war and the War on Iraq and its activities are likely to continue to expand as the
US develops more space based war fighting systems.

Go Back
The CAMPAIGN of OPPOSITION




                           An early protest - Yorkshire Campaigners call for independence
                                    from the NSA at a demonstration on American
                                          Independence Day at Menwith Hill

Opposition to the base has been active since the 1950s . Most of what we know about the base has
been put together from various sources by Duncan Campbell. One important source of information has
been that obtained from within the base by peace campaigners and from their continuous observation
and vigilance. There have also been demonstrations, peace camps, non-violent blockades, trespass,
questions in parliament, letters to the press and radio and TV coverage. And the protests continue.


Peace Camps

                                     A mixed gender weekend peace camp was originally set-up by Otley
                                     Peace Action Group (OPAG - played a major role in raising public
                                     awareness and protest at MHS in the 1980s) on 29 April 1983 . At
                                     least 10 other weekend mixed peace camps were held at MHS by
                                     other local peace groups.

                                     This eventually led to the setting up of the permanent mixed peace
                                     camp in July 1984 , which existed for three and a half years until
                                     1987. The campers provided a focal point for disseminating
                                     information about the base to members of the public. They held
                                     numerous demonstrations and entered the base on many occasions.
                                     There were many arrests and appearances in court. Local peace
                                     groups produced many leaflets about the base. OPAG supported the
                                     mixed peace camp and did a weekly food run. Many people were
                                     regularly supported by OPAG in court. Public meetings and actions
                                                                        [63]
                                     at the base were also organized.

                                    In 1993 Helen John (from Greenham Common Women‘s Peace
Camp) helped establish a monthly weekend peace camp outside Menwith Hill, on the NW corner
(‘Windy Corner‘) of the base, near the Main Gate [64]. A spectacular silver moonbow on the night of 30
January 1994 inspired the name ‘Moonbow Corner‘ for a second campsite on the more visible SE corner
of the base alongside the major A59 road. In May 1994 a ten day "Amazon Festival" was attended by
over 100 women - despite the rain there were many excursions onto the base. On the last day the sun
shone and 6 women stayed on to set up the full-time "Womenwith Hill" peace camp.

Frequent arrests for fence cutting, slogan painting inside the base, blockades and a visible protest
outside together with lots of local, national and international media attention, meant that an eviction was
inevitable. The acquisition of a large mobile home and the laying of gravel paths and flower beds further
demonstrated the women‘s resolve to stay, consequently the North Yorkshire County Council (NYCC)
Highways‘ Authority obtained a County Court Possession Order for Moonbow Corner and the Camp was
evicted on 18 April 1995 . 7 women chained to vans were arrested (although all charges against them
were later dropped) and mounds of earth & rocks were dumped to prevent re-occupation. However the
women had already anticipated the eviction and had moved onto a lay-by ¼ mile to the east.

The Kettlesing Head lay-by on the A59 proved to be an even better site for visitors to call and park. The
camp grew to 10 caravans, becoming well established with plenty of local and international support.
There were dozens of arrests for blockading and 33 women awaited trial for trespassing contrary to the
byelaws. 18 peace camp women have served prison sentences for actions at the base and many more
have been detained.

The Legal Department of the NYCC started proceedings to recover its land and prevent the
establishment of any other peace camps by the women peace protesters on 26 November 1997 . On the
grounds that the Women‘s Peace Camp constituted a danger to the public by being a distraction to
motorists using the A59 highway, and that the camp was an unlawful incursion onto land belonging to
the Highways Authority.




                           Menwith Hill Women’s Peace Camp - (pictures from Anne Lee)

On 22 June 1998 , at the High Court in Leeds, Mr Justice Hooper found the camp to be unlawful and
injuncted three women, Anne Lee, Helen John and Jenny Gaiawyn not to reside overnight on the site,
nor in the vicinity of Menwith Hill. The Highways Authority went back to the High Court on 29 October
1998 to seek a Possession Order for the lay-by land. The hearing was adjourned to allow for new
Human Rights legislation to be taken into consideration. The judge ordered that the camp site be
cleared of all but one token caravan. The women complied with the High Court Order & removed nine
                                                               [65]
caravans & all equipment from the site on 27 November 1998 .

At the hearing on 5 February 1999 it became evident during cross-examination that the NYCC had
withheld documentary evidence of its collusion with Menwith Hill Station. Mr Justice Hooper ordered the
disclosure of all relevant correspondence. Documents thus disclosed revealed that the eviction of the
Women‘s Peace Camp had been instigated by the Menwith Hill authorities.
Squadron Leader Ted Sumner, RAF (acting as Liaison Officer for the US National Security Agency) met
with Mike Masterman from the NYCC Environmental Management Department (of which the Highways
Authority is part) on 23 September 1996 . At that meeting Menwith Hill‘s complaints against the camp
were discussed, as were ideas on how to evict the peace camp without appearing to involve the station
authorities. If the NSA were seen to be interfering with the right of UK citizens to demonstrate, would be
embarrassing and politically damaging.

The women continue to maintain that their right to protest in the way they choose, by living outside the
base, is enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights (embodied in The Human Rights Act
1998) and by recent legal precedents. The judge recognised that they have a serious and credible
cause and on 14 July 1999 allowed the women the right to occupy the lay-by with an Alternative
Information Centre during the day (from 7am to 11pm every day) but not to stay over night. The women
                                                                                         [66]
are currently raising funds for a vehicle and they still keep up a regular presence there . More details
                                                                            [67]
of their campaign can be found through newsletters and on the internet.

One way of challenging the legality of the base (and gaining publicity about what goes on there) is
through the courts. Court actions (involving fence cutting and trespass in particular) have been used
repeatedly by campaigners to bring important issues to light.


Military Land Byelaws
On 19 February 1996 Menwith Hill was designated ‘RAF‘ Menwith Hill
in order to validate the military byelaws which apply to UK military
bases under the Military Lands Act of 1892. Apparently
         "This was simply an administrative change to bring the base
         into line with other RAF sites made available by the Ministry of
                                                     [68]
         Defence to the United States Government" .
The Military Land Byelaws were first brought in as a reaction to the
protest against Cruise missiles at Greenham Common in April 1985 by
the then Secretary of State for Defence, Michael Heseltine. The
intention was to make trespass a criminal offence and therefore
arrestable and so women could be criminalised to stop their actions of
resistance.

Over the years many hundreds of women were arrested, detained,
convicted and imprisoned under these byelaws. On 12 July 1990 ,
after a four year journey through the courts, starting with the Newbury
Magistrates and ending in the House of Lords, the byelaws were held
to be ‘ultra vires‘ - outside of the Minister‘s powers - and, so, ‘ab initio‘
- from the beginning. The Greenham byelaws were adjudged
to ‘interfere with the rights of common‘ and so did not affect the status
of the byelaws at similar bases.

The HMS Forest Moor and Menwith Hill Station byelaws came into force in 1986 and the first challenge
to Menwith Hill in the courts arose out of a number of arrests made under the military byelaws. The case
against Lindis Percy and John Bugg was heard at Ripon Magistrates‘ Court in 1991 . The ruling by Mr J.
        [69]
Barry        (the Stipendary Magistrate) that the onus of proof of the validity of the byelaws was on the
Prosecution not the Defence, was appealed to the High Court by the Director of Public Prosecutions.
                                                                                              [70]
The High Court appeal was heard on 31 July 1992 and the Judgment by Woolf and Pill                 held for the
first time that the byelaws at HMS Forest Moor and Menwith Hill Station were invalid.

Later, as a result of the ruling, some people had their convictions quashed, and costs were awarded at
York Crown Court. The Woolf and Pill Judgement enabled many people to enter MHS without risk of
arrest during the three years it took before new byelaws were drafted. In July 1991 the Ministry of
Defence Police at MHS stopped arresting under the byelaws and trespass again reverted back to a civil
offence.

In the mean-time, in 1991 , the Secretary of State for Defence (then Tom King) tried to sue Lindis Percy
for trespass and claimed damages for £11,600 for ‘wasting police time‘ at Menwith Hill. This was the first
injunction at Menwith and started as a temporary injunction and lasted for five years before being made
permanent in 1996 .

On 28 August 1991 Mr. Justice Cresswell transferred the case from the High Court, where the plaintiffs
had started it, to the Harrogate County Court, and from there it was transferred to York (as the facilities
                                                                             [71]
at Harrogate were inadequate). Eventually it was heard by Judge Crabtree          in York County Court in
July 1993 . Judge Crabtree ruled reluctantly (after an application made by the Secretary of State for
Defence) that the case should be sent back to the High Court. In his ruling Judge Crabtree said that if
Ms Percy was right in her defence it would have meant that all the agreements and arrangements
between the US and British Governments would have to be renegotiated.

When the case eventually came to the High Court in March 1995 , Malcolm Rifkind put on a Public
                              [72]
Interest Immunity Certificate , to prevent documents obtained from inside MHS (to prove that the NSA
was in occupation) from being submitted and the case had to be conceded. However, a number of
documents disclosed as a consequence of this action revealed the history of how a small group of
people in London made the decision to hand over vast areas of land to the US visiting forces in the late
                                                         [73]
40s /early 50s (the "NATO Status of Forces Agreement").       It was also revealed that the land was
compulsorily purchased at the request of the US. Among the secret documents disclosed were details of
the ‘security of tenure‘ agreement which allowed the Americans use of the land for 21 years renewable
every 21 years on request of the USAF. There were also details of how bases should be referred to
as ‘RAF‘ and not USAF.

The byelaws story became tangled when Lindis Percy, John Bugg and Rachel Greaves brought out a
Writ against 66 Ministry of Defence Police officers and others for unlawful arrest and detention under the
1986 invalid byelaws. John Bugg died in 1993 after meticulous and significant work challenging military
land byelaws. Lindis Percy and Rachel Greaves lost the case after the MOD successfully challenged the
Woolf and Pill ruling, which resulted in the 1986 byelaws being declared valid again. An appeal to the
House of Lords by Lindis Percy and Rachel Greaves against this ruling could not be pursued because
legal aid was denied. This resulted in the somewhat farcical situation whereby the people who had had
their convictions quashed should have technically been found guilty again!

In a written answer to Max Madden MP on 24 October 1994 the numbers of people arrested, charged,
convicted and acquitted of offences relating to military byelaws was stated to be as follows:

                                        1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
                            Arrested    245 641 619 151 30           21    3
                            Charged     175 108 88       11    6     5     -
                            Convicted 87      35    49   5     4     3     -
                            Acquitted 11      -     16   -     -     -     -

The Secretary of State for Defense also stated that court judgments,
       "have indicated that there are defects in the military lands byelaws at HMS Forest Moor,
       Menwith Hill, RAF Alconbury and Greenham Common. Byelaw notices are no longer
       displayed at these establishments."
Although the 1986 byelaws were reinstated by the High Court in 1993 the Ministry of Defence Police
were reluctant to use them. The Secretary of State for Defence, Michael Portillo, signed new byelaws
on 19 January 1996 when the station became ‘RAF‘ Menwith Hill and Squadron Leader Edward Sumner
was appointed "RAF Commander". The new byelaws came into effect on 19 February 1996 and the day
after Lindis Percy was arrested and charged under them. 5 days later Helen John and Anne Lee (two
women from the Women‘s Peace Camp) entered the base and called at the home of the US Base
Commander, Colonel G Dickson Gribble.

They refused to leave and were arrested for trespass, contrary to the new byelaws. The women argued
that the byelaws signed by Mr Portillo were made in "bad faith" - that he had enacted them in order to
protect and cover up the unlawful operations at Menwith Hill; that the base was not and is not a RAF
base; that the NSA breaks UK laws such as the Interception of Communications Act (1985 ) and The
Outer Space Treaty (1967 ) and that Mr Portillo must have been aware of these facts before enacting
the byelaws.




On 4 September 1996 at Harrogate Magistrates‘ Court they were convicted by Stipendary Magistrate Mr
Neville White and sentenced to 2 years conditional discharge. The defendants appealed to the Crown
Court and obtained witness summonses for the Prime Minister (John Major), the Secretary of State for
Defense (Michael Portillo), the Home Secretary (Michael Howard), the ex-Secretary of State for Defence
(Malcolm Rifkind), the US Base Commander, the "RAF Commander" and the chief executives of British
Telecomm, Mercury Communications and Vodaphone. However, none of these actually ever appeared
in person.

                                                           [74]
Eventually, on Friday 5 September 1997 Judge Crabtree          at York Crown Court upheld the appeal and
judged the military byelaws invalid because they took in land which was not being using for military
purposes. Evidence extrapolated by Duncan Campbell from BT‘s letter to the court, showed that the
base is now capable of sending back to the US two million intercepts per hour, this could be a fraction of
the total number of intercepts made - only those thought to be of further interest are passed on. The
judge accepted that probably the Interceptions of Telecommunications Act was being violated, as it is
unlikely that the Home Secretary can issue two million warrants per hour! The judge also condemned BT
for revealing confidential arrangements made with the NSA for the connection in 1992 of 3 (now 4)
digital optical fibre cables - capable of carrying more than 100,000 telephone calls and other messages -
to Menwith Hill.

However, the judge was also of the opinion that, even if the US and UK were involved in "dishonest
                                                      [75]
activities, they should be allowed to remain secret."

In the same court case Tony Benn MP (formerly Secretary of State for Energy and responsible for the
UK Nuclear Power programme) testified that Britain is under contract to the US to buy nuclear weapons
on the condition that bases like Menwith are allowed to operate from here and on condition that the US
controls and has access to all British intelligence operations.

The Ministry of Defense appealed against the 1997 Crabtree decision and this appeal was upheld on 22
                                                                           [76]
January 1999 in the High Court, London, by Judges Buxton and Collins . They should have sent the
original Appeal against MHS byelaws convictions by Anne Lee and Helen John (Menwith Women‘s
                                                                                                     [77]
Camp) back to the Crown Court to be dismissed and to have both women‘s convictions re-instated .
After losing in the High Court, the two women notified the Ministry of Defence lawyers that they did not
intend to appeal to the House of Lords, but wished to introduce a new line of argument in the lower
courts (to examine the powers granted to the Defence Secretary under the Military Lands Act, 1892 - it
would be an abuse of process to use an Act of Parliament for a purpose for which it was not intended).

Following the Crabtree ruling, in April 1998 , Lindis Percy was found to be 9 times in breach of the
                                                                          [78]
terms of her permanent injunction at Menwith Hill by Judge Carnwath            in the High Court for the
unlawful use of the footpath i.e. taking down the declared invalid byelaws signs. Referring to the earlier
ruling of Judge Crabtree, Judge Carnwath said, "I cannot conclude that her stance was wholly
untenable." He also said,
         "What cannot be constitutionally acceptable, in my view, is for the Executive to proceed
         as though it were simply free to disregard a decision of a competent court with which it
         does not agree ...", he went on to say, "... there was no legal justification for the
         retention of the byelaw notices; it is an abuse of that power, and therefore unlawful, to
         put up or maintain notices of bye-laws which are known to be invalid."
Judge Carnwath reimposed a six month suspended prison sentence over one year as from that date.

Despite this, byelaws notices were still put up around the base. This did not stop the action against the
byelaws, however. In 1999 Lindis Percy was found ‘in contempt of court‘ for being in breach of her
permanent injunction at Menwith Hill and sent to prison for 9 months for continuing to pursue her actions
against the byelaws. After her release from prison at the end of July she continued to challenge the
byelaws by walking on a corner of the base.

In September 1999 the Crown Prosecution Service discontinued all outstanding pre-appeal byelaws
charges (74 cases against 35 women). Although there have been a number of arrests for breach of the
byelaws by several women (who are attempting to challenge their validity in the courts), the Crown
Prosecutor has refused to pursue them to trial. In March 2000 , the Crown Prosecutor stated,
        "I am not prepared to prosecute you for the purposes of providing a test case under the
                     [79]
        byelaws …"          .
So, now on the one hand the Ministry of Defence Police (MDP) insist that the byelaws are valid and in
force - on the other hand they are refusing to charge peaceful ‘trespassers‘ who are in breach of them.
There seems to be a deliberate policy by the MDP to prevent cases coming to court, thereby denying
the citizen the right to challenge the validity of the byelaws again.


July 4th - Independence from America Day Protests




                                (picture by Steve Riding from Yorkshire Evening Post 5/7/00)

Former CND chair Buce Kent flanked by Chrisitne Dean and Lindis Percy at the Menwith Hill base
                                                            th             th
during the "Independence FROM America" protest on July 4 2000. July 4 demonstrations organized
by the Campaign for the Accountability of American Bases (CAAB) have become an annual event at
Menwith Hill - see reports for 1999 , 2000 , 2001 and 2002 also see details for the 2003 demonstration .

On 13 December 2000 (the night George W Bush was confirmed as President) Anni Rainbow and
Lindis Percy were arrested for obstructing cars leaving Menwith Hill at the Main entrance. One month
later Lindis was also charged with a ‘racially motivated‘ offence under the Crime and Disorder Act for
allegedly ‘trailing the US flag on the ground - forcing an American to drive over the flag‘. She was also
charged with a similar offence under the Public Order Act (minus the ‘racial‘ element). However, ten
days before the trial was due the Crown Prosecution Service discontinued the ‘racially aggravated‘
charge. After a three day trial, on 27 April 2001 , Anni and Lindis were found not guilty of ‘obstruction of
the highway‘. Peter Nuttall, the District Judge, ruled that they were not on the public highway as the area
was judged to be part of the ‘applicable area‘ of the Military Land byelaws and they were therefore on
private land.

Lindis was also cleared of the Public Order Act offence and the court heard that Ministry of Defence
Police had sent emails to US personnel on the base asking if they had found it insulting that she had
stood in front of traffic holding a US flag with ‘STOP STAR WARS‘ written on it. Rajiv Menon (acting for
Lindis) said that the prosecution was based on evidence from three American zealots and stated "We
would not be here if it was not for a highly politically motivated prosecution - some might say with the
support of the American military". In his ruling the District Judge said "We do have rights as citizens and
they include the right to protest. Nobody could say that this was other than peaceful protest".
However, in a strange twist of justice - on 18 May 2001 Lindis was found guilty of obstruction and an
offence under the Public order Act for holding the same peaceful witness and protest (using the US flag
with ‘STOP STAR WARS‘ on it) at the Deep and Near Space Tracking Facility at Feltwell, Norfolk on 16
December 2000 [80]. The District Judge (Patrick Heley) ruled that there was no breach of the Human
Rights Convention (Article 10 and 11). He made it clear that there was a balance to be made between
the right to protest and the rights of the Americans to be protected from insult and abuse of their symbol.
Lindis was fined £200 for the Public Order offence, £100 for ‘obstruction of the highway‘ and ordered to
pay £250 costs. Lindis had also expressed criticism of the decision of the court and how his ruling
effectively decided in future what symbols would be acceptable in any peaceful protest. As a result she
was later fined £250 for being ‘in contempt of court‘. She will be appealing the decisions of Patrick Heley
[81]
    .

The byelaws cases have provided an unprecedented opportunity to expose the connivance of the UK
State Legislative/Executive/ Judicial structures with the Pentagon in support of US bases in the UK.

On 24 February 1999 Menwith Hill was featured on Channel 4 Television in the UK by the comedian and
                                             [82]
political activist/commentator Mark Thomas . The show included a balloon ride over Menwith by Mark
and his team and an overt "surveillance" of the American Embassy in London. Mark Thomas was also
master of ceremonies on 26 October 1998 when Privacy International presented the first ‘Big Brother
Lifetime Achievement‘ award to Menwith Hill. At the same event Lindis Percy of CAAB was awarded
the ‘Winston Lifetime Achievement‘ for her continued campaigning against Menwith Hill and similar
                   [83]
bases in the UK .




                     4th March 200 demonstration at Menwith Hill - pictures from CAAB web-site [84]


Demonstrations and protest actions at the base continue. A Quaker Meeting for Worship is held
                                 [85]
bimonthly and hosted by CAAB          who also maintain an annual 4 July Independence from America Day
         [86]
Protest . On 4 March 2000 , CAAB and Yorkshire CND organized a national demonstration at
                                                                                  [87]
Menwith Hill to draw attention to its role as a part of the US "Star Wars" system      and on 7 October
2000 a demonstration was held there by CAAB as one of the 63 actions in 16 countries which formed
the "International Day of Protest against the Militarisation of Space" organized by the Global Network
                                                   [88]
Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space.

On 19 June 2000 (the 3rd anniversary of the US Department of Defense submission of plans for SBIRS)
Anne Lee, Helen John and Angie Zelter from the Women’s Peace Campaign were arrested by MoD
police after breaking into the base (through the new high-security, alarmed perimeter fence erected to
protect the new developments) to highlight the vulnerability of the base to terrorist attacks and to oppose
                                     [89]
the use of the base for "Star Wars" .

In August 2000 Anne Lee had her bail varied to allow her to take a local government watchdog to see
the rare orchids growing at the base and she filed a complaint against the local council, accusing them
of being negligent over conservation of the orchids. This site has always been known as an area which
contained fauna and flora of special scientific interest - a wetland site - and the fight to preserve the rare
flowers had been going on since the 1980s when Hazel Costello of OPAG contacted Harrogate
Naturalist Society to preserve the site. Anne Lee had raised the issue of the preservation of the orchids
             [90]
in July 1998 .

In fact, the construction of the perimeter security fence towards the end of 1999 had been held up for
nearly a year while an expert on orchids from the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh (Dr Richard
                                                                                 [91]
Bateman) inspected and assessed the flowers in bloom in a corner of the base . The MOD (on behalf
of the Americans) were forced to reroute the fence-line so as to avoid damaging the orchid reserve.

The trial of Helen John, Anne Lee and Angie Zelter took place on 30, 31 October and 15 December
2000 . The defendants admitted their action, stating that it was justified because the fence has been
erected to protect Echelon & Star Wars and that, if the owners of the fence (the UK government, i.e. the
British people) were aware of the crimes it is designed to conceal, they would approve of the
defendants‘ act. The women were able to present evidence to justify their action - this included showing
the TV programmes ("The Hill" produced by Duncan Campbell in 1993 and "Uncle Sam’s
Eavesdroppers" produced by Richard Sadler in 1998 ) and a great deal of recently published material.




                              Picture from Wharfedale Newspapers, June 22 2000 [92]


In summing up, District Judge Browne stated that it was incumbent on the defendant to prove that this
was their state of mind at the time the act was committed - however, the ‘burden of proof‘ is on the
prosecution to prove otherwise. The judge ordered a re-trial and on 3 May 2001 all three were found
                                                                                                     [93]
guilty District Judge Alderson said she would insist on a custodial sentence for the £962 of damage
and the women were in fact sentenced on 21 May.

Helen John and Anne Lee were given three and two months imprisonment respectively. Angie Zleter
was not sentenced as she was not present in court and a warrant was issued for her arrest. At that time
Helen John had declared herself an independent candidate in the General Election standing against
Tony Blair in his Sedgefield constituency on a "No Star Wars" platform. The sentences were unusually
harsh as in cases of this kind the English and Scottish courts would normally impose a fine relating to
the amount of damage. If peace protesters refuse to pay on grounds of conscience, the courts would
then sentence them to a term of imprisonment which, in England, would be two weeks for damage under
      [94]
£500 .

Judge Alderson said she believes that the women believe they acted in the best interests of society,
and to protect society but they had broken the law and she was giving a harsh sentence because she
wanted to deter Helen, who had 32 previous convictions, and Anne, who had four. However, both
women said they would go on campaigning at the base - in fact Helen was amused by the idea that a
                                                                                    [95]
prison sentence would serve as a deterrent when such an important issue was at stake .

In 2000 the Women‘s Peace Camp also referred a large catalogue of complaints about the base to the
Local Government Ombusdsman. Included in the submission was material to evidence that the ‘Star
Wars‘ developments were going ahead without the approval of the UK Parliament, that ECHELON
activities contravened national and international laws and that considerable environmental damage had
been effected by the base (including a detrimental impact on the Orchid Reserve). However, the
Ombudsman stated that she had no authority to deal with any of these complaints and recommended
that a case against the Ministry of Defense be taken to the Parliamentary Ombudsman. This is further
confirmation that there is no official oversight of any of Menwith Hill‘s activities.

In May 2001 a small international demonstration (along the road outside the main base - much restricted
                                                     [96]
due to the foot and mouth epidemic around that time)      was held as part of the Global Network Against
Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space Conference against Star Wars and its Annual General Meeting,
which was hosted by Yorkshire CND in Leeds. The Conference included speakers and workshops on
                                                             [97]
Menwith Hill and its role in Star Wars and also on Echelon .




                         Peace protesters blockaded the base for 5 hours on 24 October 2002.

Despite being given Aggravated Trespass notices, no arrests were made and the protesters left with
their locks and banners in hand.

The protesters blocked the only two working entrances to the base and, whilst the police managed to
open a small farm gate to allow some traffic in, vehicles had to cross two fields in order to enter the base
proper. Only essential staff were allowed in to the base today – all contractors were turned away.

The non-violent blockade by an independent group of protesters was an attempt to shut down the base
as it prepared for the war on Iraq war. The blockade aims to disrupt work to pinpoint potential targets in
Iraq currently taking place within the base.

Menwith Hill‘s main entrance was closed off at the time for ‘essential maintenance work‘ by concrete
blocks and razor wire. Using D-locks, Tripods and chains the protesters blocked the two side entrance
gates (Nessfield gate and Steeplebush gate on the B road off the A59) being used whilst the repairs
take place. By blocking the entrances just before the next staff change-over the protesters stopped the
work of the base in very real, practical terms, and in doing so, stopped the base‘s war preparations.
See report and item from ‘The Guardian‘ .

On 12 December 2002 the Women’s Peace Campaign organized a "Embrace the Base" women only
demonstration to remember and celebrate the empowerment of the 30,000 women who demonstrated
against the USA‘s Cruise Missiles at Greenham Common in the same day in 1982.

On 22 March 2003 over a thousand people joined a ‘Foil the Base‘ protest against the bases
involvement in the war on Iraq. Despite a massive police presence many people entered the base and
there were 12 arrests (most released without charge).
On 4 July 2003 about 400 people joined a ‘Gatecrasher‘s Ball‘ demonstration calling for "Independence
From America" protest against the bases involvement in the war on Iraq. Despite a massive police
presence many people entered the base and there were 12 arrests (most released without charge).
Mark Thomas was Master of Ceremonies once more suitably dressed for a Ball.
Unfortunately there was a heavy police presence and some unpleasant scenes - see ‘CAAB report .


Weekly Demonstrations
The Campaign for the Accountability of American Bases (CAAB) continue to hold weekly
demonstrations on a Tuesday from 7-9pm outside the base in all weathers and throughout the year.

Go Back




   NOTES & REFERENCES:
       1. 12 May 2000 - Written Answer to Question by Norman Baker MP.
       2. "The Morning Star", April 10, 2001, reports that Lockheed Martin (who are developing the
            Space Based Infra Red System for the US Star Wars programme) are accused of
            defrauding the Pentagon of $60 m.
3. From: "The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier" by Duncan Campbell, pub Michael Joseph,
     London 1984.
4. "Phone Tappers and the Security State" by Duncan Campbell, pp 54-55, New Statesman,
     1981
5. See "BT condemned for listing cables to US sigint station", by Duncan Campbell, 4 Sept
     1997 at www.gn.apc.org/duncan/menwith.htm and also Questions by Max Madden MP
     and Bob Cryer MP in House of Commons - Hansard for 18, 20 Nov 1991 and 16 Jun
     and 9 Jul 1992.
6. "The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier" by Duncan Campbell, pub Michael Joseph, London
     1984.
7. See "Phone Tappers and the Security State" by Duncan Campbell, pp 54-55, New
     Statesman, 1981
8. In "The Hill" broadcast by Channel 4 as part of the "Dispatches" documentary series,
     October 1993.
9. "Interception Capabilities 2000 - The state of the art in Communications Intelligence
     (COMINT) of automated processing for intelligence purposes of intercepted broadband
     multi-language leased or common carrier systems, and its applicability to COMINT
     targeting and selection, including speech recognition" by Duncan Campbell -
     www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/ic2000/ic2000.htm.
10. "Space collection", in The US Intelligence Community (fourth edition), Jeffrey Richelson,
     Westview, Boulder, Colorado, 1999.
11. Duncan Campbell, evidence given to York Crown Court for the appeal of Helen John
     and Anne Lee, 5 September, 1997.
12. See: the international campaign against Echelon Global System: EchelonWatch -
     www.aclu.org/echelonwatch/index.html.
13. "They've got it taped - Somebody's listening" by Duncan Campbell, New Statesman
     article of 12 August 1988 - www.gn.apc.org/duncan/echelon-dc.htm.
14. "Secret Power" by Nicky Hager - www.fas.org/irp/eprint/sp/sp_c2.htm - see
     also"Exposing the Global Surveillance System" by Nicky Hager in CovertAction
     Quarterly - on the discovery of the Echelon Dictionary, used at Menwith Hill -
     http://caq.com/CAQ/CAQ59GlobalSnoop.html.
15. The European Parliament STOA report "An Appraisal of Technologies of Political
     Control" - 6 January 1998 can be found at: http://mprofaca.cronet.com/atpc2.html.
16. "The spy in your server", by Duncan Campbell, Guardian Online, 10 August 2000,
     www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/online/story/0,3605,352394,00.html.
17. Ibid.
18. Bob Cryer's final speech to the House of Commons:
     www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/bobcryer.htm.
19. "Echelon was my baby", interview with Ekstra Bladet, 21 Dec 1999, can be found on
     www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon1.htm.
20. "The new space invaders", 21 Feb 2000, see:
     www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspce/articles/echelon6.htm and "Thatcher linked to spy
     orders on ministers" press report from 24th February 2000 -
     http://www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/ford.htm
21. "60 Minutes on Echelon - Transcript" - 27 Feb 2000, see:
     www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon9.htm.
22. "Global spy network revealed, Listening in to your phone calls and reading your emails",
     by Andrew Bomford, 2 Nov 1999, see:
     www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon0.htm.
23. "Critics Questioning NSA Reading Habits - Politicians Ask if Agency Sweeps In Private
     Data" - by Vernon Loeb, Washington Post Staff Writer, 13 Nov 1999 -
     www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon4.htm.
24. "Loud and Clear - The most secret of secret agencies operates under outdated laws" by
     James Bamford, 14 Nov 1999 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echel2.htm.
25. "New Technology for the NSA" by Suelette Dreyfus, The Independent (UK), 15 Nov
    1999 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echel.htm.
26. See: "Intelligence Bill Targets NSA, Echelon Upgrades" by Daniel Verton, 20 Nov 1999 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon.htm.
27. "They Spy on Ordinary People" interview with Duncan Campbell by Bo Elkjær and
    Kenan Seeberg, 21 Dec 1999 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon3.htm.
28. European Parliament STOA report "An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control" -
    6th January 1998 - see: http://mprofaca.cronet.com/atpc2.html.
29. "The state of the art in Communications Intelligence (COMINT) … " by Duncan Campbell
    - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/ic2000/ic2000.htm.
30. See: "France attacks Britain over Echelon" by Richard Barry and Will Knight, 13 Oct
    2000 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon3.htm and "France blasts
    Britain over Echelon" 15 Oct 2000 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon6.htm.
31. See "EU assembly set to launch "spy" system inquiry" by Yves Clarisse, 27 March 2000
    - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon10.htm and "EU Commission and EU
    Council to be questioned on Echelon spy system", 28 March 2000 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon11.htm.
32. See: "Info update on right to privacy within the European Union" - 22 June 2000 (6
    items) - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/euro.htm.
33. "German MEP files complaints against 'Echelon'", by Rick Perera, 19 Oct 2000 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon8.htm.
34. "Echelon: Spying Chain's Cover Blown" by Alan Perrott, Independent, 7 June 2001 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon20.htm.
35. A copy of the draft (780 kB PDF file), dated 18 May 2001, is posted at:
    www.fas.org/irp/program/process/prechelon_en.pdf.
36. See: "Worldwide spying network revealed" by Stuart Millar, Richard Norton-Taylor and
    Ian Black, The Guardian - 26 May 2001 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon19.htm.
37. "Echelon: Spying Chain's Cover Blown" by Alan Perrott, Independent, 7 June 2001 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon20.htm.
38. "ECHELON Violates Human Rights Treaties", From: Nizkor Int. Human Rights Team,
    Derechos Human Rights, Serpaj Europe - 10 June 2001 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon22.htm.
39. Posted at: http://www.heise.de/tp/deutsch/special/ech/7747/1.html.
40. Posted at: www.heise.de/tp/deutsch/special/ech/7752/1.html.
41. Posted at: www.heise.de/tp/deutsch/special/ech/7748/1.html.
42. "US Steps Up Commercial Spying, Washington gives companies an advantage in
    information", by Robert Windrem, 7 May 2000 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/spying.htm.
43. Ibid.
44. "The new Cold War: How America spies on us for its oldest friend - the Dollar" by
    Duncan Campbell and Paul Lashmar, The Independent on Sunday - 2 July 2000,
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon12.htm.
45. Ibid.
46. Ibid.
47. Ibid.
48. See also "From Data Tapping to Missile Tracking - Star Wars Strikes Back" by Duncan
    Campbell, The Guardian, 2 December 1998 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/swars.htm.
49. "Former CIA Director Says US Economic Spying Targets "European Bribery" by Duncan
    Campbell, 12 March 2000, www/gn/apc/org/cndyorks/yspace/articles/bribery.htm.
50. "US secret agents work at Microsoft: French intelligence", Sydney Morning Herald 18
    Feb 2000 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/msoft.htm.
51. "From Data Tapping to Missile Tracking - Star Wars Strikes Back" by Duncan Campbell,
    The Guardian, 3 Dec 1998 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/swars.htm.
52. See www.caab.org.uk, and
    "Constructing SBIRS at Menwith in pictures" -
    http://www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/sbirs.htm.
53. See: "US Bases in this country are being used to protect America, not Britain - They're
    not defending our realm" Comment & Analysis by Richard Norton-Taylor, the
    Guardian,18 November 1999 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/articles/writ2.htm and "The
    Secret of Menwith Hill", Channel 4 News, by Justin Rowlatt, Broadcast, 7 Dec, 1999 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/channel4.htm.
54. See for example "US builds 'son of star wars' at RAF base" by Jonathon Carr-Brown -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/writ3.htm, and "You thought the nuclear arms
    race was over? Think again", The Independent on Sunday 21 Nov 1999 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/writ4.htm.
55. More details on SBIRS at the Federation of American Scientists web site -
    www.fas.org/spp/military/program/warning/sbir.htm or the SBIRS home page -
    http://www.losangeles.af.mil/SMC/MT/sbirs.htm.
56. See: www.spacecom.af.mil/usspace/speeches.htm.
57. "Uncle Sam's Eavesdroppers" by Richard Sadler, a film for BBC North's Close Up North,
    was broadcast in the north of England on 3 December on BBC2, see also: "From Data
    Tapping to Missile Tracking - Star Wars Strikes Back" by Duncan Campbell, The
    Guardian 3 Dec 1998 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/swars.htm.
58. See CAAB Newsletter No. 15, Nov 2000 -
    www.gn.apc.org/caab/newsletters/cab15inf.htm#sbirs.
59. For up to date information see CAAB Newsletters and web-site - wwwcaab.org.uk.
60. See: www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/acryer.htm.
61. See: "Secret Target - Son of Star Wars Puts Yorkshire in Front Line" By Helen
    Hutchison, Yorkshire Evening Post, 2 Feb 2001 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/starget.htm.
62. More details on this issue from the Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power
    in Space - www.space4peace.org.
63. Christine Dean - a founder member of OPAG - holds very interesting and
    comprehensive archives of the protest at MHS up to the demise of OPAG in 1992/3.
64. Details of the Women's Peace Camp are taken from articles supplied by Anne Lee,
    some of which are posted on the internet at
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpc/wpcmhs.htm.
65. The camp was evicted on August 18th 1999 - see press release of 14 July 1999 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/eviction.htm.
66. Regular gatherings are organized by the Women's Campaign - see
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpc/wpcmhs.htm.
67. Ibid.
68. Minister for Armed Forces (Mr Soames) in a written answer to a question put by Max
    Madden MP, House of Commons Hansard, 13 May 1996.
69. The full Judgment can be viewed at: www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/judge/barry.htm.
70. Full Judgment at: www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/judge/woolf.htm.
71. Full Judgment at: www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/judge/crabt1.htm.
72. See "Rifkind bans disclosures on spy base" by Richard Norton-Taylor, The Guardian, 13
    March, 1995 - the Certificate can be viewed at:
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/judge/rifkind.htm.
73. See also "The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier" by Duncan Campbell, pub Michael Joseph,
    London 1984.
74. Full Judgment at: www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/crabt.htm.
75. See: www.gn.apc.org/duncan/menwith.htm.
76. Full Judgment at www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/buxton-collins.htm.
77. See: "Cleared - but now Convicted", Yorkshire, Evening Post 23 Jan 1999 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/fmhs/wpc/wpcinfo.htm#news6 and other items on
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpc/wpcmhs.htm.
78. Full Judgment at: www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/judge/carnwath.htm.
79. In a letter of 9 March to Anne Lee - for a copy see
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpc/wpcps.htm.
80. See CAAB Newsletter 16 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/newsletters/cab16.htm.
81. See also: "Peer backs right to stage flag protests", Eastern Daily Press, 22 May 2001 -
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/articles/miller.htm and "Fighting apathy can land you in a
    show trial" by David Hare, Daily Telegraph, 22 May 2001 -
    www.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/showtrial.htm.
82. See www.menwithhill.com.
83. See www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/Newsletters/CAAB8INF.HTM#bigb
84. See report and more pictures at www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/m4report.htm.
85. For details see CAAB newsletters or web-site www.caab.org,uk.
86. See report on 4 July 2000 demonstration at
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/articles/july400.htm.
87. See report on www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/m4/report.htm.
88. See reports on www.globenet.free-online.co.uk/gnoct7.htm.
89. See press release at www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/disalarmed.htm.
90. See "Peace Campaigners Fight to Save Flowers", Yorkshire Evening Post 25 July 1998
    and "Duo's struggle for base orchids", Yorkshire Evening Post, August 17 2000 - at
    www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpc/yep17800.htm.
91. See www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpc/orchids.htm.
92. See article at www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpc/wa22600.htm.
93. See www.gn.apc.org/yorkscnd/yspace/articles/radarprotests.htm.
94. See BBC report and press releases by Menwith Hill Women's Peace Campaign and
    Trident Ploughshares "Harsh Prison Sentence for Blair Opposition Candidate" at
    www.gn.apc.org/yorkscnd/news/articles/helenjohn.htm.
95. Ibid.
96. See report at www.globenet.free-online.co.uk/reports/gn01.htm.
97. For details of the conference, including papers presented, see www.peacevision.org.uk.
98. More details on SBIRS at the Federation of American Scientists web site -
    http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/warning/sbir.htm
99. ―US ‗negation‘ policy in space raises concerns abroad‖ by Loring Wirbel, EETimes, May
    22, 2003
100.       Reported in ―Space is the Ultimate High Ground‖ by A.J. Boser, Air Force News,
    June 4 2003
101.       For more information on this see the web-site of Federation of American
    Scientists - http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/operate/ds/signals.htm#N_9_ -
    accessed July 1 2003
102.       ―The Justice Game", Geoffrey Robertson, Chapter 5, Chatto and Windus, London,
    1998. The MHS in-house magazine ―Station Break‖ reported that the Chief of Station at
    the time, William E. Kennedy, had collected a ‗Director‘s Unit Award‘ for support to the
    ‗Desert Shield/Desert Storm‘ operation.
103.       "Invasion Tip," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 August 1990, page 15.
104.       Gertz, Bill, "US Breathes Easier as it Spots Iraq's Jamming Gear," The
    Washington Times, 9 October 1990, page A8.
105.       Smith, Jeffrey, "Iraqis Learning to Use Captured US Missiles," The Washington
    Post, 21 October 1990, page A1, A28
106.       Gertz, Bill, "Russian Voices Directing Iraqis," The Washington Times, 13 February
    1991, page 1.
107.       "Scud Launch Procedures May Hold Key to Defeat of Mobile Missiles," Aerospace
    Daily, 28 January 1991, page 149-150.
108.       "The Battle Damage Assessment Challenge," Aviation Week & Space
    Technology, 4 February 1991, page 9.
109.       Mossberg, Walter, "US Aides Await Bomb Damage Report In Considering Early
    Ground Offensive," The Wall Street Journal, 4 February 1991, page A12.
   110.       Moore, Molly, "Bombing Damage Hard to Assess," The Washington Post, 7
       February 1991, page A21
   111.       Gertz, Bill, "Soviets Giving Aid to Iraqis, US Says," The Washington Times, 4
       February 1991
   112.       Tyler, Patrick, "US Strength in Gulf May Rise by 100,000," The Washington Post,
       26 October 1990, page A1, A32. The source of this information is not disclosed, but
       signals intelligence satellites are used to collect just this type of information - it is not
       clear what other intelligence source could do this.
   113.       Barry, John, "What Really Happened," Newsweek, 25 February 1991, page 20.
   114.       Gordon, Michael, "US Calls Target a Command Center," The New York Times, 14
       February 1991, page 17.
   115.       "Washington Wire," The Wall Street Journal, 15 February 1991, page 1.
   116.       Cody, Edward, "Allied Test Joint Land, Sea, Air Assaults," The Washington Post,
       17 February 1991, page A29, A30.
   117.       Mathews, Tom, et al,"The Secret History of the War," Newsweek, 18 March 1991,
       page 28-39
   118.       ―Australia‘s Secret War‖, by Philip Dorling, The Diplomat, Oct-Nov 2002
   119.       As reported in The Daily Times, March 4, 2003
   120.       As reported in the Colorado Springs Gazette, 13 April 2003
   121.       As reported in the Santa Barbara News of 23 April 2003
   122.       ―Without space, we‘re back to World War II‖, by Nora Wallace, Santa Barbara
       News, 23 April 2003
   123.       For information on future actions & events contact:
       Yorkshire CND - +44 (0)1274-730795 - www.yorkshirecnd.org.uk;
       CAAB - +44 (0)1943-466405 - www.caab.org.uk and/or
       The Women's Peace Campaign -+44 (0)1943-466825 -
       www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/wpcmhs.htm.

Go Back


                                        LINKS:
Campaigning
    Yorkshire Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament - www.yorkshirecnd.org.uk.
    Campaign for the Accountability of American Bases - www.caab.org.uk.
    Women's Peace Camp(aign) - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/wpc/wpcmhs.htm.
    Protestors' view of the base, items on police, cameras, fences etc.
      www.menwithhill.ukf.net.
    Global Internet Liberty Campaign - GILC - www.gilc.org/.
    Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Liberties (UK) Campaign - www.cyber-rights.org.

About the NSA & Echelon
    The National Security Agency Web site - www.nsa.gov:8080.
    What the Intelligence Reform Project of the Federation of American Scientists has to say
       about the NSA - www.fas.org/irp/nsa/index.html
    "The Puzzle Palace" the original expose by James Bamford: Chapters 8-10,
       jya.com/pp08.htm, http://jya.com/pp09.htm; jya.com/pp10.htm.
    International campaign against Echelon Global System: EchelonWatch -
       www.aclu.org/echelonwatch/.
   UKUSA cooperation - Intelligence Online report -
      www.blythe.org/Intelligence/readme/brits-usa.int45.
   "Making history" - the original source for the 1988 first Echelon report. Statement by
      Duncan Campbell - http://cryptome.org/echelon-mndc.htm.
   "Somebody's listening" by Duncan Campbell, New Statesman article of 12th August 1988
      - www.gn.apc.org/duncan/echelon-dc.htm.
   "Exposing the Global Surveillance System" by Nicky Hager in Covert Action Quarterly -
      the discovery of the ECHELON DICTIONARY, used at Menwith -
      htp://caq.com/CAQ/CAQ59GlobalSnoop.html
   "Secret Power" by Nicky Hager - www.fas.org/irp/eprint/sp/sp_c2.htm.
   "Echelon was my baby" - Interview with Margaret Newsham who helped to design
      ECHELON system - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon1.htm.

Espionage/secrecy
   Report on International Status of Privacy: "Privacy and Human Rights 1999". Electronic
      Privacy Information Center, Washington, DC, USA. Privacy International London, UK -
      www.privacyinternational.org/survey/.
   "Cryptography and Liberty 1999: An international Survey of Encryption Policy". Electronic
      Privacy Information Center Washington, DC -
      http://www2.epic.org/reports/crypto1999.html#_Toc450793110.
   "They spy on ordinary people" - interview with Duncan Campbell on 21st December 1999
      - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon3.htm.
   "Desperately seeking signals" by Jeffrey Richelson, from The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
      - April 2000. - www.bullatomsci.org/issues/2000/ma00/ma00richelson.html.
   "US Steps Up Commercial Spying - Washington gives companies an advantage in
      information" by Robert Windrem, investigative producer for NBC News 7th May 2000 -
      http://msnbc.com/news/403435.asp?cp1=1.
   "The new Cold War: How America spies on us for its oldest friend - the Dollar" by Duncan
      Campbell and Paul Lashmar, from The Independent on Sunday 2nd July 2000,
      Exclusive: Documents shed light on US policy of covert surveillance of British and
      European industry - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/echelon12.htm.
   Foundation for Information Policy Research, FIPR, www.fipr.org.

"Son of Star Wars" Role
   "From Data Tapping to Missile Tracking Star Wars Strikes Back" by Duncan Campbell,
      Dec 2 1998 article from "The Guardian" -
      www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/swars.htm.
   Constructing SBIRS at Menwith in pictures - from CAAB web-site -
      www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/caab/sbirs.htm.
   "US builds 'son of star wars' at RAF base" by Jonathan Carr-Brown, The Independent on
      Sunday - 21st November 1999 - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/yspace/articles/writ3.htm.
   Space Based Infra Red System home page -
      http://www.losangeles.af.mil/SMC/MT/sbirs.htm.
   Federation of American Scientists pages on SBIRS -
      www.fas.org/spp/military/program/warning/sbir.htm.

UK & European Parliaments
   "Menwith Hill in Parliament" - compiled by the Federation of American Scientists -
     www.fas.org/irp/facility/menwith/index.html.
    The Last Speech to the House of Commons by Bob Cryer M.P. - an excellent background
       to the base - www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/bobcryer.htm.
    Regulation of Investigatory Powers Bill - Text of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers
       Bill passed by the Commons and introduced to theLords on 9th May 2000 -
       www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199900/ldbills/061/2000061.htm.
    Global Internet Liberty Campaign Member Statement on "Human Rights and the Internet"
       - Prepared for a one day briefing session for Members of the European Parliament, 27th
       January 1998, in Brussels - www.ozemail.com.au/~mbaker/europ-hr.html.
    A follow up report - "Interception Capabilities 2000 - The state of the art in
       Communications Intelligence (COMINT)" by Duncan Campbell -
       www.cndyorks.gn.apc.org/mhs/ic2000/ic2000.htm.
    Echelon: Development of surveillance technology and risk of abuse of economic
       information - STOA reports - PDF Files - October 1999 - European Parliament
       [ENG/ING] - www.europarl.eu.int/dg4/stoa/en/publi/default.htm.
    Information on the EU Temporary Committee on Echelon from Cyber-Rights & Cyber-
       Liberties (UK) - www.cyber-rights.org/interception/echelon/.
    Report for European Parliament: "Interception Capabilities - Impact and Exploitation 2001"
       (780 kB PDF file): http://www.fas.org/irp/program/process/prechelon_en.pdf.
    "ECHELON and its role in COMINT" by Duncan Campbell:
       http://www.heise.de/tp/deutsch/special/ech/7747/1.html.
    "COMINT impact on international trade" by Duncan Campbell:
       http://www.heise.de/tp/deutsch/special/ech/7752/1.html.
    "COMINT, privacy and human rights" by Duncan Campbell:
       http://www.heise.de/tp/deutsch/special/ech/7748/1.html.

By-Laws Judgments
    Woolf-Pill Judgment '92 - Greaves & Bugg and Percy & Bugg successfully challenge
      byelaws at Alconbury, Forest Moor and Menwith Hill, 1992.
    Crabtree Judgment '93 - Lindis Percy vs Secretary of State for Defence, 1993.
    Crabtree Judgment '97 - Regina vs Helen John and Anne Lee, 1997.
    Balcombe-Collins Judgment - Lindis Percy vs The Director of Public Prosecutions, 1994.
    Carnworth Judgment - Secretary of State for Defence and Ministry of Defence vs Lindis
      Percy, 1998.
    BT condemned for listing cables to US sigint station - Some of Duncan Campbell's
      evidence to the Helen John and Anne Lee Bye Laws Case.

Go Back




                                       by Nicky Hager
                                                    Secret Power
                                  New Zealand’s Role in the International Spy Network
                                                      Chapter 2
                                    from FederationOfAmericanScientists Website


Ten years later, on Saturday, 15 January 1994, technicians in satellite earth stations around the Pacific
were busy tuning their equipment to a new satellite. The first of the new generation of Intelsat 7 series
satellites, it had been launched several weeks before, from the European Kourou air base in French
Guyana, and then maneuvered into position far out in space above the Equator at 174 degrees east,
due north of New Zealand above Kiribati.

                                     The 20 Intelsat (International Telecommunications Satellite
                                     Organization) satellites that ring the world above the Equator carry
                                     most of the world‘s satellite-relayed international phone calls and
                                     messages such as faxes, e-mail and telexes. The new satellite,
                                     Intelsat 701, replaced the 10-year-old Intelsat 510 in the same
                                     position. The changeover occurred at 10 pm New Zealand time that
                                     summer evening.

                                     At the GCSB‘s station at Waihopai, near Blenheim in the north of the
                                     South Island, the radio officer staff were just as busy that evening,
                                     setting their special equipment to intercept the communications which
                                     the technicians in legitimate satellite earth stations would send and
                                     receive via the new satellite.

                                     These specially trained radio officers, who learned their skills at the
                                     Tangimoana station, usually work day shifts, but on 15 January 1994
                                     they worked around the clock, tuning the station‘s receivers to the
                                     frequency bands the GCSB wanted to intercept, selecting the specific
                                     channels within each band that would yield the types of messages
                                     sought within the UKUSA network and then testing that the high-tech
                                     intelligence collection system was working smoothly.

That satellite changeover was a very significant event for the Waihopai station and the GCSB. Although
it would always be only a small component of the global network, this was the moment when the station
came into its own.

There have been various guesses and hints over the years about what the Waihopai station was set up
to monitor -- "sources" in one newspaper said foreign warship movements; a "senior Telecom executive"
told another newspaper it was most likely "other countries" military communications" -- but, outside a
small group of intelligence staff, no one could do more than theorize. Waihopai was established
specifically to target the international satellite traffic carried by Intelsat satellites in the Pacific region and
its target in the mid-1990s is the Intelsat 701 that came into service in January 1994, and is the primary
satellite for the Pacific region.

Intelsat satellites carry most of the satellite traffic of interest to intelligence organizations in the South
Pacific: diplomatic communications between embassies and their home capitals, all manner of
government and military communications, a wide range of business communications, communications of
international organizations and political organizations and the personal communications of people living
throughout the Pacific. The Intelsat 7 satellites can carry an immense number of communications
simultaneously. Where the previous Intelsat 5s could carry 12,000 individual phone or fax circuits at
once, the Intelsat 7s can carry 90,000. All "written" messages are currently exploited by the GCSB. The
other UKUSA agencies monitor phone calls as well.

The key to interception of satellite communications is powerful computers that search through these
masses of messages for ones of interest. The intercept stations take in millions of messages intended
for the legitimate earth stations served by the satellite and then use computers to search for pre-
programmed addresses and keywords. In this way they select out manageable numbers (hundreds or
thousands) of messages to be searched through and read by intelligence analysis staff.

Until the Intelsat 701 satellite replaced the older 5 series, all the communications intercepted at
Waihopai could already be got from two existing UKUSA stations covering the Pacific. But, unlike their
predecessors, this new generation of Intelsat 7s had more precise beams transmitting communications
down to the southern hemisphere. The existing northern hemisphere-based stations were no longer able
to pick up all the southern communications, which is why new stations were required.

Eleven months later, on 3 December 1994, the other old Intelsat satellite above the Pacific was replaced
by Intelsat 703. Since then Waihopai and its sister station in Australia constructed at the same time have
been the main source of southern hemisphere Pacific satellite communications for the UKUSA
network.

Many people are vaguely aware that a lot of spying occurs, maybe even on them, but how do we judge if
it is ubiquitous or not a worry at all? Is someone listening every time we pick up the telephone? Are all
our Internet or fax messages being pored over continuously by shadowy figures somewhere in a
windowless building? There is almost never any solid information with which to judge what is realistic
concern and what is silly paranoia.

What follows explains as precisely as possible -- and for the first time in public -- how the worldwide
system works, just how immense and powerful it is and what it can and cannot do. The electronic spies
are not ubiquitous, but the paranoia is not unfounded.

The global system has a highly secret codename -- ECHELON. It is by far the most significant system of
which the GCSB is a part, and many of the GCSB‘s daily operations are based around it. The
intelligence agencies will be shocked to see it named and described for the first time in print. Each
station in the ECHELON network has computers that automatically search through the millions of
intercepted messages for ones containing pre-programmed keywords or fax, telex and e-mail
addresses. For the frequencies and channels selected at a station, every word of every message is
automatically searched (they do not need your specific telephone number or Internet address on the
list).

All the different computers in the network are known, within the UKUSA agencies, as the ECHELON
Dictionaries. Computers that can search for keywords have existed since at least the 1970s, but the
ECHELON system has been designed to interconnect all these computers and allow the stations to
function as components of an integrated whole. Before this, the UKUSA allies did intelligence collection
operations for each other, but each agency usually processed and analyzed the intercept from its own
stations. Mostly, finished reports rather than raw intercept were exchanged.

Under the ECHELON system, a particular station‘s Dictionary computer contains not only its parent
agency‘s chosen keywords, but also a list for each of the other four agencies. For example, the
Waihopai computer has separate search lists for the NSA, GCHQ, DSD and CSE in addition to its own.
So each station collects all the telephone calls, faxes, telexes, Internet messages and other electronic
communications that its computers have been pre-programmed to select for all the allies and
automatically sends this intelligence to them.

This means that the New Zealand stations are used by the overseas agencies for their automatic
collecting -- while New Zealand does not even know what is being intercepted from the New Zealand
sites for the allies. In return, New Zealand gets tightly controlled access to a few parts of the system.

When analysts at the agency headquarters in Washington, Ottawa, Cheltenham and Canberra look
through the mass of intercepted satellite communications produced by this system, it is only in the
technical data recorded at the top of each intercept that they can see whether it was intercepted at
Waihopai or at one of the other stations in the network. Likewise, GCSB staff talk of the other agencies‘
stations merely as the various "satellite links" into the integrated system. The GCSB computers, the
stations, the headquarters operations and, indeed, the GCSB itself function almost entirely as
components of this integrated system.

In addition to satellite communications, the ECHELON system covers a range of other interception
                                                                                                    <1>
activities, described later. All these operations involve collection of communications intelligence, as
opposed to other types of signals intelligence such as electronic intelligence, which is about the
technical characteristics of other countries‘ radar and weapon systems.

Interception of international satellite communications began in the early 1970s, only a few years after the
first civilian communications satellites were launched. At this time the Intelsat satellites, located over the
Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, simply beamed all their messages down to the entire hemisphere
within their view.

Throughout the 1970s only two stations were required to monitor all the Intelsat communications in the
world: a GCHQ station in the south-west of England had two dishes, one each for the Atlantic and Indian
Ocean Intelsats, and an NSA station in the western United States had a single dish covering the Pacific
Intelsat.

The English station is at Morwenstow, at the edge of high cliffs above the sea at Sharpnose Point in
Cornwall. Opened in 1972-73, shortly after the introduction of new Intelsat 4 satellites, the Morwenstow
station was a joint British-American venture, set up using United States-supplied computers and
communications equipment, and was located only 110 kilometers from the legitimate British Telecom
satellite station at Goonhilly to the south. In the 1970s the Goonhilly dishes were inclined identically
                                                          <2>
towards the same Atlantic and Indian Ocean satellites.

The Pacific Intelsat satellite was targeted by an NSA station built on a high basalt tableland inside the
100,000-hectare United States Army Yakima Firing Centre, in Washington State in the north-west United
States, 200 kilometers south-west of Seattle. Also established in the early 1970s, the Yakima Research
Station initially consisted of a long operations building and the single large dish. In 1982, a visiting
journalist noted that the dish was pointing west, out above the Pacific to the third of the three Intelsat
           <3>
positions.

Yakima is located between the Saddle Mountains and Rattlesnake Hills, in a desert of canyons, dunes
and sheer rock cliffs, where the only vegetation is grass. The Army leases the land to ranchers who herd
their cattle in the shadow of the dishes. When visited in mid-1995 the Yakima station had five dish
antennae, three facing westwards over the Pacific Ocean and two, including the original large 1970s
dish, facing eastwards. Besides the original operations building there were several newer buildings, the
largest of them two-storey, concrete and windowless.

Two of the west-facing dishes are targeted on the main Pacific Intelsat satellites; the Yakima station
has been monitoring Pacific Intelsat communications for the NSA ever since it opened. The orientation
of the two east-facing dishes suggests that they may be targeted on the Atlantic Intelsats, intercepting
communications relayed towards North and South America. One or both may provide the link between
the station and the NSA headquarters in Washington.

The fifth dish at the station is smaller than the rest and faces to the west. Given its size and orientation,
it appears to be the UKUSA site for monitoring the Inmarsat-2 satellite that provides mobile satellite
communications in the Pacific Ocean area. If so, this is the station that would, for example, have been
monitoring Greenpeace communications during the nuclear testing protests in the waters around
Moruroa Atoll in 1995.

The GCSB has had important links with the Yakima station since 1981, when the GCSB took over a
special, highly secret area of intelligence analysis for the UKUSA network. Telexes intercepted using
Yakima‘s single dish were first sorted by the Yakima computers, and then subjects allocated to New
Zealand were sent to the GCSB for analysis. The Yakima station had been using Dictionary-type
computers for this searching work for many years before the full ECHELON system was operating.

Between them, the Morwenstow and Yakima stations covered all Intelsat interception during the 1970s.
But a new generation of Intelsat satellites launched from the late 1970s required a new configuration of
spy stations. The Intelsat 4A and 5 series satellites differed from earlier ones in that they did not transmit
only to the whole of the side of the world within their view; they now also had "east and west
                                                    <4>
hemispheric" beams that transmitted separately. For example, Intelsat 510, which operated above the
Pacific until its replacement in December 1994, had one "global" beam covering the whole region, but all
the other transmissions went either to the east or to the west Pacific. Yakima was not within the
"footprint" of any hemispheric beams covering Australasia, South East Asia and East Asia, making
interception of these signals difficult or impossible.

These changes to Intelsat design meant that the UKUSA alliance required at least two new stations to
maintain its global coverage. Again the GCHQ provided one and the NSA one. A new NSA station on
the east coast of the United States would cover Atlantic Intelsat traffic beamed down towards North and
South America (Morwenstow covered the eastern Atlantic), and a GCHQ station in Hong Kong would
cover both the western hemisphere of the Pacific Intelsats and the eastern hemisphere of the Indian
Ocean Intelsats.

The site chosen for the new NSA station was hidden in the forested South Fork Valley in the mountains
of West Virginia, about 250 kilometers south-west from Washington DC, on the edge of the George
Washington National Forest, near the small settlement of Sugar Grove. The site had been used in the
1950s and early 1960s for a failed attempt to spy on Russian radio communications and radars by
means of reflections from the moon. The current satellite interception station was developed during the
late 1970s, when a collection of new satellite dishes (from 10 to 45 meters in diameter) and the new
windowless Raymond E. Linn Operations Building were constructed. It also incorporated a two-storey
                                                                                            <5>
underground operations building already at the site. It started full operations about 1980.

Like Morwenstow and Yakima, Sugar Grove is only 100 kilometers from an international satellite
communications earth station, making it easy to intercept any "spot" beams directed down to the
legitimate stations. In this case it is the Etam earth station, the main link in the United States with the
Intelsat satellites above the Atlantic Ocean.

The other new station, in Hong Kong, was constructed by the GCHQ also in the late 1970s. The station,
which has since been dismantled, was perched above the sea on the south side of Hong Kong Island,
across Stanley Bay from the British Stanley Fort military base and right next to high-rise apartments and
luxury housing. In crowded Hong Kong the station‘s anonymity was assured simply because there are
so many satellite dishes scattered over the island. What helped to give away this one was the sign, on
the entrance to an exclusive housing enclave across the bay, saying that taking photographs is strictly
forbidden. When one of the Indian guards on the gate was asked why it was forbidden to take photos of
a housing area, he pointed across the bay and said in serious tones, "Communications facility -- very,
very secret".

The Hong Kong station had several satellite dishes and buildings, including a large windowless concrete
building (similar to the ones at Yakima and Sugar Grove) and a collection of administration and
operations buildings running down the hill into the base from the gates. Intelsat communications
                                                                                       <6>
intercepted at the station were seen regularly by GCSB operations staff in Wellington.

When visited in August 1994, the station fitted the requirements of the Intelsat monitoring network. It had
one dish pointing up east towards the Pacific Intelsats, another towards the Indian Ocean Intelsats and a
third, for the station‘s own communications, pointing up to a United States Defense Satellite
Communications System satellite above the Pacific. Other dishes had perhaps already been removed.
Dismantling of the station began in 1994 -- to ensure it was removed well before the 1997 changeover to
Chinese control of Hong Kong -- and the station‘s staff left in November that year. News reports said
that the antennae and equipment were being shipped to the DSD-run Shoal Bay station in Northern
Australia, where they would be used for intercepting Chinese communications.

It is not known how the Hong Kong station has been replaced in the global network. One of the
Australian DSD stations -- either Geraldton or Shoal Bay -- may have taken over some of its work, or it is
possible that another north-east Asian UKUSA station moved into the role. For example, there were
developments at the NSA‘s Misawa station in northern Japan in the 1980s that would fit well with the
                                       <7>
need for expanded Intelsat monitoring.

Throughout the 1980s a series of new dishes was also installed at the Morwenstow station, to keep up
with expansion of the Intelsat network. In 1980 it still required only the two original dishes, but by the
early 1990s it had nine satellite dishes: two inclined towards the two main Indian Ocean Intelsats, three
towards Atlantic Ocean Intelsats, three towards positions above Europe or the Middle East and one dish
covered by a radome.

The Morwenstow, Yakima, Sugar Grove and Hong Kong stations were able to provide worldwide
interception of the international communications carried by Intelsat throughout the 1980s. The
arrangement within the UKUSA alliance was that, while the NSA and GCHQ ran the four stations, each
of the five allies (including the GCSB) had responsibility for analyzing some particular types of the traffic
intercepted at these stations.

Then, in the late 1980s, another phase of development occurred. It may have been prompted by
approaching closure of the Hong Kong station, but a more likely explanation is that, as we have seen,
technological advances in the target Intelsat satellites again required expansion of the network.

Two UKUSA countries were available to provide southern hemisphere coverage: Australia and New
Zealand. One of the new southern hemisphere stations would be the GCSB‘s Waihopai station and the
other would be at Geraldton in West Australia. (Both stations are described in detail later.) The new
stations were operating by 1994 when the new Intelsat 7s began to be introduced. Waihopai had
opened in 1989, with a single dish, initially covering one of the older generation of Intelsat satellites.

The positioning of the Geraldton station on Australia‘s extreme west coast was clearly to allow it to cover
the Indian Ocean Intelsats (they all lie within 60 degrees of the station, which allows good reception).
Geraldton opened in 1993, with four dishes, covering the two main Indian Ocean Intelsats (at 60
degrees and 63 degrees) and possibly a new Asia-Pacific Intelsat introduced in 1992. It also covers the
second of the two Pacific Intelsats, Intelsat 703.

The logic of the system suggests that, at the same time as the Waihopai and Geraldton stations were
added to the network, a seventh, as yet undiscovered, station may have been installed in the South
Atlantic. This station, probably located on Ascension Island, would complete the 1990s network by
intercepting the Atlantic Intelsats‘ southern hemisphere communications.

New GCSB operations staff attend training sessions that cover the ECHELON system, showing how
the GCSB fits into the system and including maps showing the network of UKUSA stations around the
world. The sessions include briefings on the Intelsat and the maritime Inmarsat satellites -- their
locations, how they work, what kinds of communications they carry and the technical aspects of their
vulnerability to spying. This is because these are primary targets for the UKUSA alliance in the Pacific.

But the interception of communications relayed by Intelsat and Inmarsat is only one component of the
global spying network coordinated by the ECHELON system. Other elements include: radio listening
posts, including the GCSB‘s Tangimoana station; interception stations targeted on other types of
communications satellites; overhead signals intelligence collectors (spy satellites) like those controlled
from the Pine Gap facility in Australia; and secret facilities that tap directly into land-based
telecommunications networks.
What Waihopai, Morwenstow and the other stations do for satellite communications, another whole
network of intercept stations like Tangimoana, developed since the 1940s, does for radio.

There are several dozen radio interception stations run by the UKUSA allies and located throughout the
world. Many developed in the early years of the Cold War and, before satellite communications became
widespread in the 1980s, were the main ground signals intelligence stations targeting Soviet
communications. Some stations were also used against regional targets. In the Pacific, for example,
ones with New Zealand staff were used to target groups and governments opposed by Britain and the
United States through a series of conflicts and wars in South East Asia.

A recent new radio interception station is the Australian DSD station near Bamaga in northern
Queensland, at the tip of Cape York. It was set up in 1988 particularly to monitor radio communications
associated with the conflict between Papua New Guinea and the secessionist movement in Bougainville.
GCSB staff are also aware of Australian intercept staff posted in the early 1990s to the recently opened
Tindal Air Force base in northern Australia, suggesting that an even newer -- as yet undisclosed -- DSD
intercept station may have been established there.

Most of this network of stations target long-range high frequency (HF) radio. A powerful HF radio
transmitter can transmit right around the world, which is why HF radio has been a major means of
international communications and is still widely used by military forces and by ships and aircraft. Other
stations target short-range communications -- very high frequency and ultra high frequency radio (VHF
and UHF) -- which, among other things, are used extensively for tactical military communications within
a country.

There is a wide variety of these radio interception operations. Some are very large, with hundreds of
staff; others are small -- a few staff hidden inside a foreign embassy bristling with radio aerials on the
roof; others (like the Bamaga station) are unstaffed, with the signals automatically relayed to other
stations. Because of the peculiarities of radio waves, sometimes stations far from the target can pick up
communications that closer ones cannot.

Each station in this network -- including the GCSB‘s Tangimoana station -- has a Dictionary computer
like those in the satellite intercept stations. These search and select from the communications
intercepted, in particular radio telexes, which are still widely used, and make these available to the
UKUSA allies through the ECHELON system.

The UKUSA network of HF stations in the Pacific includes the GCSB‘s Tangimoana station (and before
it one at Waiouru), five or more DSD stations in Australia, a CSE station in British Columbia, and NSA
stations in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Japan, Guam, Kwajalein and the Philippines. The NSA is currently
contracting its network of overseas HF stations as part of post-Cold War rationalisation. This contraction
process includes, in Britain, the closure of the major Chicksands and Edzell stations.

The next component of the ECHELON system covers interception of a range of satellite communications
not carried by Intelsat. In addition to the six or so UKUSA stations targeting Intelsat satellites, there are
another five or more stations targeting Russian and other regional communications satellites. These
stations are located in Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany and Japan. All of these stations are part of
the ECHELON Dictionary system. It appears that the GCHQ‘s Morwenstow station, as well as
monitoring Intelsat, also targets some regional communications satellites.

United States spy satellites, designed to intercept communications from orbit above the earth, are also
likely to be connected into the ECHELON system. These satellites either move in orbits that criss-cross
the earth or, like the Intelsats, sit above the Equator in geostationary orbit. They have antennae that can
scoop up very large quantities of radio communications from the areas below.

The main ground stations for these satellites, where they feed back the information they have gathered
into the global network, are Pine Gap, run by the CIA near Alice Springs in central Australia, and the
NSA-directed Menwith Hill and Bad Aibling stations, in England and Germany respectively. These
satellites can intercept microwave trunk lines and short-range communications such as military radios
and walkie-talkies. Both of these transmit only line of sight and so, unlike HF radio, cannot be
intercepted from faraway ground stations.

The final element of the ECHELON system are facilities that tap directly into land-based
telecommunications systems, completing a near total coverage of the world‘s communications. Besides
satellite and radio, the other main method of transmitting large quantities of public, business and
government communications is a combination of undersea cables across the oceans and microwave
networks over land. Heavy cables, laid across the seabed between countries, account for a large
proportion of the world‘s international communications. After they emerge from the water and join land-
based microwave networks, they are very vulnerable to interception.

The microwave networks are made up of chains of microwave towers relaying messages from hilltop
to hilltop (always in line of sight) across the countryside. These networks shunt large quantities of
communications across a country. Intercepting them gives access to international undersea
communications (once they surface) and to international communication trunk lines across continents.
They are also an obvious target for large-scale interception of domestic communications.

Because the facilities required to intercept radio and satellite communications -- large aerials and dishes
-- are difficult to hide for too long, that network is reasonably well documented. But all that is required to
intercept land-based communication networks is a building situated along the microwave route or a
hidden cable running underground from the legitimate network. For this reason the worldwide network of
facilities to intercept these communications is still mostly undocumented.

Microwave communications are intercepted in two ways: by ground stations, located near to and tapping
into the microwave routes, and by satellites. Because of the curvature of the earth, a signals intelligence
satellite out in space can even be directly in the line of a microwave transmission. Although it sounds
technically very difficult, microwave interception from space by United States spy satellites does occur.

A 1994 expos of the Canadian UKUSA agency called Spyworld, co-authored by a previous staff
member, Mike Frost, gave the first insights into how much microwave interception is done. It described
UKUSA "embassy collection" operations, where sophisticated receivers and processors are secretly
transported to their countries‘ overseas embassies in diplomatic bags and used to monitor all manner of
communications in the foreign capitals.

Since most countries‘ microwave networks converge on the capital city, embassy buildings are an ideal
site for microwave interception. Protected by diplomatic privilege, embassies allow the interception to
                                           <13>
occur from right within the target country.     Frost said the operations particularly target microwave
communications, but also other communications including car telephones and short-range radio
transmissions.

According to Frost, Canadian embassy collection began in 1971 following pressure from the NSA. The
NSA provided the equipment (on indefinite loan), trained the staff, told them what types of transmissions
to look for on particular frequencies and at particular times of day and gave them a search list of NSA
keywords. All the intelligence collected was sent to the NSA for analysis. The Canadian embassy
collection was requested by the NSA to fill gaps in the United States and British embassy collection
operations, which were still occurring in many capitals around the world when Frost left the CSE in 1990.

Separate sources in Australia have revealed that the DSD also engages in embassy collection. Leaks in
the 1980s described installation of "extraordinarily sophisticated intercept equipment, known as
Reprieve in Australia‘s High Commission in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea and in the embassies in
Indonesia and Thailand. The operations are said to take a whole room of the embassy buildings and to
                                                    <14>
be able to listen to local telephone calls at will.      There is good reason to assume that these
operations, too, were prompted by and supported with equipment and technical advice from the NSA
and GCHQ.

Of course, when the microwave route is across one of the UKUSA countries‘ territory it is much easier to
arrange interception. For example, it is likely that there is a GCHQ operation intercepting, and feeding
through Dictionary computers, all the trans-Atlantic undersea cable communications that come ashore in
Cornwall.

There are also definitely United States and possibly Canadian facilities for this type of interception. By
far the most important of these is the NSA-directed Menwith Hill station in Britain. With its 22 satellite
terminals and over 2 hectares of buildings, Menwith Hill is undoubtedly the largest station in the UKUSA
network. In 1992 some 1200 United States personnel were based there. British researcher Duncan
Campbell has described how Menwith Hill taps directly into the British Telecom microwave network,
which has actually been designed with several major microwave links converging on an isolated tower
connected underground into the station. The station also intercepts satellite and radio communications
and is a ground station for the electronic eavesdropping satellites. Each of Menwith Hill‘s powerful
interception and processing systems presumably has its own Dictionary computers connected into the
ECHELON system.

Menwith Hill, sitting in northern England, several thousand kilometres from the Persian Gulf, was
awarded the NSA‘s Station of the Year prize for 1991 following its role in the Gulf War. It is a station
which affects people throughout the world.

In the early 1980s James Bamford uncovered some information about a worldwide NSA computer
system codenamed Platform which, he wrote,
         "will tie together fifty-two separate computer systems used throughout the world. Focal
         point, or 'host environment', for the massive network will be the NSA headquarters at
         Fort Meade. Among those included in Platform will be the British SIGINT organization,
         GCHQ.
There is little doubt that Platform is the system that links all the major UKUSA station computers in the
ECHELON system. Because it involves computer-to-computer communications, the GCSB and perhaps
DSD were only able to be integrated into the system in the 1990s when the intelligence and military
organizations in the two countries changed over to new computer-based communications systems.

The worldwide developments, of which construction of the Waihopai station was part, were coordinated
by the NSA as Project P415. Although most of the details remained hidden, the existence of this highly
secret project targeting civilian communications was publicized in August 1988 in an article by Duncan
Campbell. He described how the UKUSA countries were
        "soon to embark on a massive, billion-dollar expansion of their global electronic
        surveillance system‘, with "new stations and monitoring centres ... to be built around the
        world and a chain of new satellites launched‘.
The satellite interception stations reported to be involved in P415 included the NSA’s Menwith Hill
station, the GCHQ‘s Morwenstow and Hong Kong stations and the Waihopai and Geraldton stations in
the South Pacific. Other countries involved, presumably via the NSA, were said to be Japan, West
Germany and, surprisingly, the People‘s Republic of China.
         "Both new and existing surveillance systems are highly computerised," Campbell
         explained. "They rely on near total interception of international commercial and satellite
         communications in order to locate the telephone and other target messages of target
                         <18>
         individuals....
There were two components to the P415 development, the first being the new stations required to
maintain worldwide interception. More striking, though, was the expansion of the NSA‘s ECHELON
system, which now links all the Dictionary computers of all the participating countries.

The ECHELON system has created an awesome spying capacity for the United States, allowing it to
monitor continuously most of the world‘s communications. It is an important component of its power and
influence in the post-Cold War world order, and advances in computer processing technology continue
to increase this capacity.

The NSA pushed for the creation of the system and has the supreme position within it. It has subsidized
the allies by providing the sophisticated computer programmes used in the system, it undertakes the
bulk of the interception operations and, in return, it can be assumed to have full access to all the allies‘
capabilities.

Since the ECHELON system was extended to cover New Zealand in the late 1980s, the GCSB‘s
Waihopai and Tangimoana stations -- and indeed all the British, Canadian and Australian stations too --
can be seen as elements of a United States system and as serving that system. The GCSB stations
provide some information for New Zealand government agencies, but the primary logic of these stations
is as parts of the global network.

On 2 December 1987, when Prime Minister David Lange announced plans to build the Waihopai
station, he issued a press statement explaining that the station would provide greater independence in
intelligence matters: "For years there has been concern about our dependence on others for intelligence
-- being hooked up to the network of others and all that implies. This government is committed to
standing on its own two feet."

Lange believed the statement. Even as Prime Minister, no one had told him about the ECHELON
Dictionary system and the way that the Waihopai station would fit into it. The government was not
being told the truth by officials about New Zealand‘s most important intelligence facility and was not
being told at all about ECHELON, New Zealand‘s most important tie into the United States intelligence
system. The Waihopai station could hardly have been more "hooked up to the network of others", and to
all that is implied by that connection.
              1. The generally accepted definition of communications intelligence is "technical
                   and intelligence information derived from foreign communications by someone
                   other than the intended recipient. It does not include foreign press, propaganda
                   or public broadcasts." It generally refers to external intelligence and so does not
                   usually include governments spying on their own people.
              2. Duncan Campbell, The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier, Michael Joseph Ltd, London,
                   1984, p.167.
              3. Rick Anderson, Seattle Times, 19 September 1982, p.1.
              4. M. Long, World Satellite Almanac, second edition, Howard W. Sams &
                   Company, Indianapolis, 1987, pp. 206-208, 457-460.
              5. James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace, Sidgwick & Guildford, London, 1983,
                   pp.167-171.
              6. The station may not have been initially targeted on Intelsat. Some photos of the
                   station taken by Des Ball in June 1983 show the two interception dishes facing
                   directly skywards, meaning either that they were temporarily not being used or
                   that they were targeted at that time on satellites above East Asia (in the early
                   1980s there were no Intelsats there).
              7. A US$29 million project codenamed LADYLOVE at the station, for completion in
                   mid-1982, involved an "interim deployment" construction of one dish and a "new
                   operational electronic system" housed initially in equipment vans. A US$21
                   million "major new collection and processing complex with associated antenna
                   systems" followed in 1987.
              8. Ascension Island is a 20-square kilometre British territory, situated halfway
                   between Brazil and Angola in the middle of the South Atlantic. It has a major
                   radio interception station with joint GCHQ/NSA staffing, a base for US anti-
                   submarine Orion aircraft, six separate radar and optical tracking stations for US
                   strategic missile tests and its large US-built airfield was the main support base
                   for the Falklands War (Richelson and Ball, The Ties that Bind, Allen & Unwin,
            Boston, 1985, pp. 194, 201 and 220; Duncan Campbell, New Statesman,
            "Report reveals island base, 21 May 1985).
        9. Mary Louise O‘Callaghan, Melbourne Age, "PNG to investigate Australian spy
            claim", 26 November 1991, p.1.
        10. For a full description of these "overhead" systems, see Jeffrey T. Richelson,
            The US Intelligence Community, Ballinger, Cambridge, 1989.
        11. Information from Jeffrey Richelson.
        12. Mike Frost and Michel Gratton, Spyworld, 1994, Doubleday, Toronto. The book
            describes in detail how and where these operations occurred.
        13. Mike Frost helped to arrange a series of these operations, including
            investigating the microwave routes through some cities while assessing the
            suitability of the local Canadian embassy.
        14. Brian Toohey and Marion Wilkinson, The Book of Leaks, Angus & Robertson,
            Sydney, 1987, p.139.
        15. Archie Hamilton, Minister of State for the Armed Forces, Written Answers to
            Questions, British Parliament record for 9 June 1992, p.97.
        16. Duncan Campbell, op. cit., p.168.
        17. James Bamford, op. cit., p.102. Internal Menwith Hill station papers from the
            early 1990s still referred to a computer-based communications system called
            Platform.
        18. Duncan Campbell, New Statesman, "They‘ve got it taped‘, 12 August 1988,
            pp.10-12.


Captions
    1. The Waihopai station - part of a super-secret global system called ECHELON -
    automatically intercepts satellite communications for the foreign allies. The Labour
    government that approved the station was not told about these links. (Photo:
    Marlborough Express)




    2. One of two dishes at a British spy station in Cornwall that between them intercepted
    all Atlantic and Indian Ocean satellite phone and telex until the early 1980s. (Photo:
Duncan Campbell)




3. Six UKUSA stations target the Intelsat satellites used to relay most satellite phone
calls, internet, e-mail, faxes and telexes around the world. They are part of a network of
secret stations and spy satellites which, between them, intercept most of the
communications on the planet.
4. The controversial Pine Gap base in central Australia is a major ground station for
United States electronic spy satellites. It has kept expanding after the Cold War; today
there are 12 "golf balls". It plays a key roll in United States military strategies.




5. Canada‘s Leitrim station, just north of Ottawa, appears to be used to intercept Latin
American satellites.
                                   ’Secret Power’
                                      Excerpts
                                    from "Secret Power" by
                                        Nicky Hager 1996
                                      from EchelonOnLine
                                            Website


P8-9

It was with some apprehension that I learned Nicky Hager was researching the activity
of our intelligence community. He has long been a pain in the establishment‘s neck.
There are many things in the book with which I am familiar. I couldn‘t tell him which was
which. Nor can I tell you. But it is an outrage that I and other ministers were told so little
[yea NSA] and this raises the question of to whom those concerned saw themselves
ultimately responsible.

David Lange, Prime Minister of New Zealand 1984-89

P9

Another aspect of the Second World War that carried over into the Cold War era was
the close co-operation between five countries - the United States, the United Kingdom,
Canada, Australia and New Zealand - formalized with the UKUSA Security Agreement
of 1948.

Although the treaty has never been made public, it has become clear that it provided not
only for a division of collecting tasks and sharing of the product, but for common
guidelines for the classification and protection of the intelligence collected as well as for
personnel security.
P20

New Zealand Prime Minister Robert Muldoon, on June 12 1984, admitted the GCSB
(New Zealand’s Government Communications Security Bureau) liaised closely with
Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States - the closest the
government has ever come to talking about the secret five-nation signals intelligence
alliance of which the GCSB is part.

P108

The New Zealand analysts have a high level of contact with the overseas agencies,
including overseas staff training, postings and exchanges. In the early 1990s the GCSB
began conducting its own training courses, teaching them the special procedures and
regulations governing the production of signals intelligence reports for the UKUSA
network.

It is at these courses where the analysts are told about the UKUSA agreement, which is
described by senior staff as the ‘foundation stone‘ of all the arrangements with
the ‘partner‘ agencies.

P110

The GCSB introduces the new trainees to the world of codebreaking by advising them
to read two of the greatest exposes of signals intelligence: James Bamford‘s ‘The
Puzzle Palace‘ and David Kahn‘s ‘The Code Breakers‘.

P22

In 1984, Glen Singleton of the NSA was formally appointed GCSB‘s Deputy Director of
Policy and Plans. Having an American inside the GCSB serving as a foreign liaison
officer would be one thing: allowing an officer from another country to direct policy and
planning seems extraordinary.

[ Unless you think of the NSA as the New World Order. ]

P28-29

Intelsat 7s can carry 90,000 individual phone or fax circuits at once. All ‘written‘
messages are currently exploited by the GCSB. The other UKUSA agencies monitor
phone calls as well.

The key to interception of satellite communications is powerful computers that search
through these masses of messages for ones of interest.

The intercept stations take in millions of messages intended for the legitimate earth
stations served by the satellite and then use computers to search for pre-programmed
addresses and keywords.

In this way they select out manageable numbers (hundreds or thousands) of messages
to be searched through and read by the intelligence analysis staff.

Many people are vaguely aware that a lot of spying occurs, maybe even on them, but
how do we judge if it is ubiquitous or not a worry at all? Is someone listening every time
we pick up the telephone? Are all Internet or fax messages being pored over
continuously by shadowy figures somewhere in a windowless building? There is almost
never any solid information with which to judge what is realistic concern and what is silly
paranoia.

What follows explains as precisely as possible - and for the first time in public - how the
worldwide system works, just how immense and powerful it is and what it can and
cannot do. The electronic spies are not ubiquitous, but the paranoia is not unfounded.

The global system has a highly secret codename - ECHELON.

The intelligence agencies will be shocked to see it named and described for the first
time in print.

Each station in the ECHELON network has computers that automatically search through
millions of intercepted messages for ones containing pre-programmed keywords or fax,
telex and email addresses. Every word of every message is automatically searched:
they do not need your specific telephone number or Internet address on the list.

All the different computers in the network are known, within the UKUSA agencies, as
the ECHELON Dictionaries.

Computers that can search for keywords have existed since at least the 1970s, but the
ECHELON system has been designed to interconnect all these computers and allow the
stations to function as components of an integrated whole.

Under the ECHELON system, a particular station‘s Dictionary computers contain not
only its parent agency‘s chosen keywords, but also a list for each of the other four
agencies. For example, each New Zealand site has separate search lists for the NSA,
GCHQ [British], DSD [Australia], and CSE [Canada] in addition to its own.

So each station collects all the telephone calls, faxes, telexes, Internet messages and
other electronic communications that its computers have been pre-programmed to
select for all the allies and automatically send this intelligence to them.

This means that New Zealand stations are being used by the overseas agencies for
their automatic collecting - while New Zealand does not even know what is being
intercepted from the New Zealand sites for the allies. In return, New Zealand gets tightly
controlled access to a few parts of the system.

The GCSB computers, the stations, the headquarter operations and, indeed, GCSB
itself function almost entirely as components of this integrated system.

Each station in the network - not just the satellite stations - has Dictionary computers
that report to the ECHELON system

P37

United States spy satellites, designed to intercept communications from orbit above the
earth, are also likely to be connected into the ECHELON system.

These satellites either move in orbits that criss-cross the earth or, like the Intelsats, sit
above the Equator in geostationary orbit.

They have antennae that can scoop up very large quantities of radio communications
from the areas below.
A final element of the ECHELON system are facilities that tap directly into land-based
telecommunications systems, completing a near total coverage of the world‘s
communications.

The microwave networks are made up of chains of microwave towers relaying
messages from hilltop to hilltop (always within line of sight) across the countryside.
These networks shunt large quantities of communications across a country. Intercepting
them gives access to international underseas communications (once they surface) and
to international communication trunk lines across continents.

They are also an obvious target for large-scale interception of domestic
communications. Of course, when the microwave route is across one of the UKUSA
countries‘ territory it is much easier to arrange interception.

P41

The ECHELON system has created an awesome spying capacity for the United States,
allowing it to monitor continuously most of the world‘s communications.

It is an important component of its power and influence in the post-Cold War world
order, and advances in computer processing technology continue to increase this
capacity.

The NSA pushed for the creation of this system and has the supreme position within it.
It has subsidized the allies by providing the sophisticated computer programs used in
the system, it undertakes the bulk of the interception operations and, in return, it can be
assumed to have full access to the allies‘ capabilities.

On December 2 1987, when Prime Minister David Lange announced plans to build a
new spy station, he issued a press statement explaining that the station would provide
greater independence in intelligence matters: "For years there has been concern about
our dependence on others and all that implies. This government is committed to
standing on its own two feet."

Lange believed the statement. Even as Prime Minister, no one had told him about the
ECHELON Dictionary system and the way the new station would fit in.

P43

His first experience of the UKUSA alliance was its security ‘indoctrination‘ (they really
use this word). The indoctrination was done by GCSB security officer Don Allan, and
consisted of a strict lecture about never, for the rest of his life, talking about his job with
anyone except other indoctrinated people. GCSB workers are forbidden to say anything
about their work, even to their partners.

The indoctrination concluded with Holmes signing the two page indoctrination form,
which refers to New Zealand laws for punishing infringements (in the Crimes Act) but
which originates primarily in UKUSA regulations. Equivalent forms must be signed by
staff throughout the UKUSA alliance.

P44

In the middle of 1994 Holmes got his first overseas posting - and a prestigious one at
that. He is on a three-year posting to the center of the UKUSA alliance, the enormous
NSA headquarters at Fort George G. Meade.

This posting was the first ever by a GCSB analyst to the NSA. Before he left New
Zealand his daily work, like that of all analysts, revolved entirely around that most
striking manifestation of GCSB‘s links with the NSA: the ECHELON Dictionary system.

Each morning the signals intelligence analysts in New Zealand log on at their computer
terminals and enter the Dictionary system, just as their equivalents do in the United
States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia.

What follows is a precise description of how the system works, the first time it has been
publicly described. [Buy the book for full details]

After entering their security passwords, the analysts reach a directory that lists the
different categories of intercept available, each with a four digit code; 4066, for instance,
might be Russian fishing trawlers, 5535 Japanese diplomatic traffic in the South Pacific,
4959 communications from South Pacific countries and so on.

They type in the code for the category they want to use first that day.

As soon as they make a selection, a ‘search result‘ appears, stating the number of
documents which have been found fitting that category.

The day‘s work begins, reading through screen after screen of intercepted messages.

If a message appears worth reporting on, the analyst can select it from the rest and
work on it out of the Dictionary system.

He or she then translates the message - either in its entirety or as a summary called
a ‘gist‘ - and writes it into the standard format of all intelligence reports produced
anywhere within the UKUSA network.

This is the ‘front end‘ of the Dictionary system, using a commercially available program
(called BRS Search). It extracts the different categories of intercepted messages
(known just as ‘intercept‘) from the large GCSB computer database of intercept from the
New Zealand stations and overseas agencies.

[ I interrupt this book excerpt to bring you retrieval results for "BRS Search" from the
www.altavista.digital.com search engine:

BRS/Search is designed to manage large collections of unstructured information,
allowing multiple users to quickly and efficiently search, retrieve and analyze stored
documents simply by entering a word, concept, phrase, or combination of phrases, in
any length. The product offers the most powerful indexing structure available today, with
users able to pinpoint critical information in seconds, even across millions of documents
in numerous databases.

Hmmm. Sounds like the search engine I just used.

You give the search engine keywords to search for, and can specify exclusion logic
keywords. e.g. "digital AND NOT watch"]

Before anything goes into the database, the actual searching and selection of
intercepted messages has already occurred - in the Dictionary computers at the New
Zealand and overseas stations.
This is an enormous mass of material - literally all the business, government and
personal messages that the station catches.

The computers automatically search through everything as it arrives at the station.

This is the work of the Dictionary program.

It reads every word and number in every single incoming message and picks out all the
ones containing target keywords and numbers.

Thousands of simultaneous messages are read in ‘real time‘ as they pour into the
station, hour after hour, day after day, as the computer finds intelligence needles in the
telecommunications haystack.

Telephone calls containing keywords are automatically extracted from the masses of
other calls and digitally recorded to be listened to by analysts back in the agency
headquarters.

The implications of this capability are immense.

The UKUSA agencies can use machines to search through all the telephone calls in the
world, just as they do for written messages.

It has nothing to do with whether someone is deliberately tapping your phone, simply
whether you say a keyword or combination of keywords that is of interest to one of the
UKUSA agencies.

P47

The keywords include such things as names of people, ships, organizations, countries
and subjects. They also include the known telex and phone numbers and Internet
addresses of the individuals, businesses, organizations and government offices they
may want to target.

The agencies also specify combinations of these keywords to help sift out
communications of interest.

For example, they might search for diplomatic cables containing both the words ‘Suva‘
and ‘aid‘, or cables containing the word ‘Suva‘ but NOT the word ‘consul‘ (to avoid the
masses of routine consular communications).

It is these sets of words and numbers (and combinations of them), under a particular
category, that are placed in the Dictionary computers.

The whole system was developed by the NSA.

P51

The only known public reference to the ECHELON system was made in relation to the
Menwith Hill station. In July 1988, a United States newspaper, the Cleveland Plain
Dealer, published a story about electronic monitoring of phone calls of a Republican
senator, Strom Thurmond. The alleged monitoring occurred at Menwith Hill.

Margaret Newsham worked at Menwith Hill as a contract employee of Lockheed Space
and Missiles Corporation. She is said to have told congress staff that, while at Menwith,
she was able to listen through earphones to telephone calls being monitored.

When investigators subpoenaed witnesses and sought access to plans and manuals for
the ECHELON system, they found there were no formal controls over who could be
targeted; junior staff were able to feed in target names to be searched for by the
computers without any check of their authorization to do so.

None of this is surprising and it is likely to be insignificant compared with official abuse
of the system.

The capabilities of the ECHELON system are so great, and the secrecy surrounding it
makes it so impervious to democratic oversite, that the temptation to use it for
questionable projects seems irresistible.

In June 1992 a group of current ‘highly placed intelligence operatives‘ from the British
GCHQ spoke to the paper Observer: ‘We feel we can no longer remain silent regarding
that which we regard to be gross malpractice and negligence within the establishment in
which we operate.‘

They gave as examples GCHQ interception of three charitable organizations, including
Amnesty International and Christian Aid. As the Observer reported:

"At any time GCHQ is able to home in on their communications for a routine target
request," the GCHQ source said. In this case of phone taps the procedure is known as
Mantis. With the telexes this is called Mayfly. By keying in a code relating to Third World
aid, the source was able to demonstrate telex ‘fixes‘ on the three organizations.

We can then sift through those communications further by selecting keywords to search
for.

Without actually naming it, this was a fairly precise description of how the ECHELON
Dictionary system works.

Note that it was being used for telephone calls.

Again, what was not revealed in the publicity was that this is a UKUSA-wide system.
The design of the ECHELON system means that the interception of these organizations
could have occurred anywhere in the network, at any station where the GCHQ had
requested that the four digit code covering the necessary keywords and exclusion logic
for Third World aid be placed.

P54

In a further misuse of ECHELON, a former intelligence employee revealed that Prime
Minister Margaret Thatcher had personally ordered interception of the Lonrho company,
owners of the Observer newspaper, after that newspaper published a series of articles
in 1989 exposing events surrounding a multi- billion dollar British arms deal with Saudi
Arabia.

The newspaper said the deal had been pushed strongly by Mrs. Thatcher, and it was
alleged that massive bribes were made to middlemen, including her son, Mark, who was
said to have received a 10 million Pound commission.

The former employee of the British Joint Intelligence Committee, Robin Robison, broke
his indoctrination oaths and told the Observer that, as part of his job, which involved
sorting intelligence reports from the British intelligence agencies, he personally
forwarded GCHQ transcripts of intercepted communications about Lonrho to Mrs.
Thatcher‘s office.

P9

Intelligence is not just neutral information; it can be powerful and dangerous.
Intelligence gathering and military force are two sides of the same coin. Both are used
by countries and groups within countries to advance their interests, often at the expense
of others. To influence or defeat an opponent, knowledge can be more useful than
military force.

The type of intelligence described in this book, signals intelligence (SIGINT), is the
largest, most secret and most expensive source of secret intelligence in the world today.

P-5655

Like the British examples, and Mike Frost‘s Canadian examples, these stories will only
be the tip of the iceberg.

There is no evidence of a UKUSA code of ethics or a tradition of respect for Parliament
or civil liberties in their home countries.

The opposite seems to be true: that anything goes as long as you do not get caught.
Secrecy not only permits but encourages questionable operations.

Three observations need to be made about the immense spying capability provided by
the ECHELON system.

The first is that the magnitude of the global network is a product of decades of intense
Cold War activity. Yet with the end of the Cold War it has not been demobilized and
budgets have not been significantly cut.

Indeed the network has grown in power and reach. Yet the public justifications, for
example that ‘economic intelligence is now more important‘, do not even begin to
explain why this huge spy system should be maintained. In the early 1980s the Cold
War rhetoric was extreme and global war was seriously discussed and planned for.

In the 1990s, the threat of global war has all but disappeared and none of the allies
faces the remotest serious military threat.

The second point about the ECHELON capabilities is that large parts of the system,
while hiding behind the Cold War for their justification, were never primarily about the
Cold War at all.

The UKUSA alliance did mount massive operations against the Soviet Union and
other ‘communists‘, but other elements of the worldwide system, such as the
interception of Intelsat communications, microwave networks and many regional
satellites, were not aimed primarily at the Russians, the Iraqis or the North Koreans.

Then, and now, they are targeting groups which do not pose any physical threat to the
UKUSA allies at all.

But they are ideal to use against political opponents, economic competitors, countries
        where the allies may want to gain some advantage (especially access to cheap
        resources) and administrations (like Nicaragua‘s Sandinista government) which do not
        fit an American-dominated world order.

        The third observation is that telecommunications organizations - including the telephone
        companies - are not blameless in all of this.

        These companies, to which people pay their monthly bills believing that the phone calls
        they make and the faxes they send are secure, should well be aware of the wholesale
        interception of ‘private‘ communications that has been occurring for decades.

        Yet they neither invest in encryption technology nor insist that organizations such as the
        Washington-based Intelsat Corporation provide encryption.

        They do not let their customers know that their international communications are open
        to continuous interception. Wittingly or unwittingly, this lack of action assists large-scale
        spying against the individuals, businesses and government and private organizations
        that innocently entrust their communications to these companies.

        ECHELON is a staggeringly comprehensive and highly secret global spying system.
        Around the world there are networks of spy stations and spy satellites which can
        intercept communications anywhere on the planet.

        P18

        Over the last 10 years a lot has been heard in New Zealand about the dangers
        of ‘bureaucratic capture‘, about senior officials controlling their ministers rather than the
        other way around. The area of government activity described in this book is the ultimate
        example of bureaucratic capture.

        Politicians, whom the public has presumed will be monitoring the intelligence
        organizations on their behalf, have been systematically denied the information required
        to do that job.

        If a democratic society wants to control its secret agencies, it is essential that the public
        and politicians have the information and the will to do so.

        P113

        Good encryption systems, such as PGP, developed privately by American Phil
        Zimmerman, are publicly available, although they are still used only by relatively few
        people in the know.

        The UKUSA agencies have been attempting to curb the spread of this technology,
        which is a major threat to their influence, so far without enough success to stop it.

        It remains to be seen how much the public can find a technological answer to
        maintaining privacy in a world with systems like ECHELON.
*** end of ‘Secret Power‘ excerpt

                                                  Return
                                          by Duncan Campbell
                                               25.07.2000
                                             from Eridu Website

Since 1998, much has been written and spoken about the so-called Echelon system of international
communications surveillance. Most of what has been written has been denied or ignored by US and
European authorities. But much of what has been written has also been exaggerated or wrong. Amongst
a sea of denials, obfuscations and errors, confusion has reigned. This review by Duncan Campbell,
author of the European Parliament‘s 1999 "Interception Capabilities 2000" report 1 , is intended to help
clear up the confusion, to say what Echelon is (and isn‘t), where it came from and what it does.
Echelon, or systems like it, will be with us a long time to come.

Echelon is a system used by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) to intercept and
process international communications passing via communications satellites. It is one part of a global
surveillance systems that is now over 50 years old. Other parts of the same system intercept messages
from the Internet, from undersea cables, from radio transmissions, from secret equipment installed
inside embassies, or use orbiting satellites to monitor signals anywhere on the earth‘s surface. The
system includes stations run by Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, in addition to those
operated by the United States. Although some Australian and British stations do the same job as
America‘s Echelon sites, they are not necessarily called "Echelon" stations. But they all form part of the
same integrated global network using the same equipment and methods to extract information and
intelligence illicitly from millions of messages every day, all over the world.

The first reports about Echelon in Europe 2 credited it with the capacity to intercept "within Europe, all
e-mail, telephone, and fax communications". This has proven to be erroneous; neither Echelon nor the
signals intelligence ("sigint") system of which it is part can do this. Nor is equipment available with the
capacity to process and recognize the content of every speech message or telephone call. But the
American and British-run network can, with sister stations, access and process most of the worlds
satellite communications, automatically analyzing and relaying it to customers who may be continents
away.

The world‘s most secret electronic surveillance system has its main origin in the conflicts of the Second
World War. In a deeper sense, it results from the invention of radio and the fundamental nature of
telecommunications. The creation of radio permitted governments and other communicators to pass
messages to receivers over transcontinental distances. But there was a penalty - anyone else could
listen in. Previously, written messages were physically secure (unless the courier carrying them was
ambushed, or a spy compromised communications). The invention of radio thus created a new
importance for cryptography, the art and science of making secret codes. It also led to the business of
signals intelligence, now an industrial scale activity. Although the largest surveillance network is run by
the US NSA, it is far from alone. Russia, China, France and other nations operate worldwide networks.
Dozens of advanced nations use sigint as a key source of intelligence. Even smaller European nations
such as Denmark, the Netherlands or Switzerland have recently constructed small, Echelon-like
stations to obtain and process intelligence by eavesdropping on civil satellite communications.
             th
During the 20 century, governments realized the importance of effective secret codes. But they were
often far from successful. During the Second World War, huge allied code-breaking establishments in
Britain and America analyzed and read hundreds of thousands of German and Japanese signals. What
they did and how they did it remained a closely-guarded secret for decades afterwards. In the
intervening period, the US and British sigint agencies, NSA and Government Communications
Headquarters (GCHQ) constructed their worldwide listening network.

The system was established under a secret 1947 "UKUSA Agreement," which brought together the
British and American systems, personnel and stations. To this was soon joined the networks of three
British commonwealth countries, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Later, other countries including
Norway, Denmark, Germany and Turkey signed secret sigint agreements with the United States and
became "third parties" participants in the UKUSA network.

Besides integrating their stations, each country appoints senior officials to work as liaison staff at the
others‘ headquarters. The United States operates a Special US Liaison Office (SUSLO) in London and
Cheltenham, while a SUKLO official from GCHQ has his own suite of offices inside NSA headquarters
at Fort Meade, between Washington and Baltimore.

Under the UKUSA agreement, the five main English-speaking countries took responsibility for
overseeing surveillance in different parts of the globe 3 . Britain‘s zone included Africa and Europe, east
to the Ural Mountains of the former USSR; Canada covered northern latitudes and polar regions;
Australia covered Oceania. The agreement prescribed common procedures, targets, equipment and
methods that the sigint agencies would use. Among them were international regulations for sigint
security 4 , which required that before anyone was admitted to knowledge of the arrangements for
obtaining and handling sigint, they must first undertake a lifelong commitment to secrecy. Every
individual joining a UKUSA sigint organization must be "indoctrinated" and, often "re-indoctrinated" each
time they are admitted to knowledge of a specific project. They are told only what they "need to know",
and that the need for total secrecy about their work "never ceases".

Everything produced in the sigint organizations is marked by hundreds of special code-words that
"compartmentalize" knowledge of intercepted communications and the systems used to intercept them.
The basic level, which is effectively a higher classification than "Top Secret" is "Top Secret Umbra".
More highly classified documents are identified as "Umbra Gamma"; other code-words can be added to
restrict circulation still further. Less sensitive information, such as analyses of telecommunications traffic,
may be classified "Secret Spoke".

The scale and significance of the global surveillance system has been transformed since 1980. The
arrival of low cost wideband international communications has created a wired world. But few people are
aware that the first global wide area network (WAN) was not the internet, but the international network
connecting sigint stations and processing centers. The network is connected over transoceanic cables
and space links. Most of the capacity of the American and British military communications satellites,
Milstar and Skynet, is devoted to relaying intelligence information. It was not until the mid 1990s that
the public internet became larger than the secret internet that connects surveillance stations. Britain’s
sigint agency GCHQ now openly boasts on its web site [http://www.gchq.gov.uk] that it helps operate
"one of the largest WANs [Wide Area Networks} in the world" and that "all GCHQ systems are linked
together on the largest LAN in Europe ... connected to other sites around the world". The same pages
also claim that "the immense size and sheer power of GCHQ‘s supercomputing architecture is difficult to
imagine".

The UKUSA alliance‘s wide area network is engineered according to the same principles as the internet
5 , and provides access from all field interception stations to and from NSA‘s central computer system,
known as Platform. Other parts of the system are known as Embroidery, Tideway and Oceanfront. The
intelligence news network is Newsdealer. A TV conference system, highly encrypted like every other
part of the network, is called Gigster. They are supported by applications known as Preppy and Droopy.
NSA‘s e-mail system looks and feels like everybody else‘s e-mail, but is completely separate from the
public network. Messages addressed to its secret internal internet address, which is simply "nsa", will
not get through.
The delivery of NSA intelligence also now looks and feels like using the internet. Authorized users with
appropriate permissions to access "Special Compartmented Intelligence" 6 use standard web browsers
to look at the output of NSA‘s Operations Department from afar. The system, known as "Intelink", is run
from the NSA‘s Fort Meade HQ. Completed in 1996, Intelink connects 13 different US intelligence
agencies and some allied agencies with the aim of providing instant access to all types of intelligence
information. Just like logging onto the world wide web, intelligence analysts and military personnel can
view an atlas on Intelink‘s home page, and then click on any country they choose in order to access
intelligence reports, video clips, satellite photos, databases and status reports.7

In the early post war years, and for the next quarter century, there was little sign of this automation or
sophistication. In those years, most of the world‘s long distance communications - civil, military or
diplomatic - passed by high frequency radio. NSA and its collaborators operated hundreds of remote
interception sites, both surrounding the Soviet Union and China and scattered around the world. Inside
windowless buildings, teams of intercept operators passed long shifts listening into silence, interspersed
with sudden periods of frenetic activity. For the listening bases on the front line of the cold war,
monitoring military radio messages during the cold war brought considerable stress. Operators at such
bases often recall colleagues breaking down under the tension, perhaps fleeing into closets after
believing that they had just intercepted a message marking the beginning of global thermonuclear war.

The Second World War left Britain‘s agency GCHQ with an extensive network of sigint outposts. Many
were fixed in Britain, while others were scattered around the then Empire. From stations including
Bermuda, Ascension, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Iraq, Singapore, and Hong Kong, radio operators tracked Soviet
and, soon, Chinese political and military developments. These stations complemented a US network
which by 1960 included thousands of continuously operated interception positions. The other members
of the UKUSA alliance, Australia, Canada and New Zealand contributed stations in the South Pacific
and arctic regions.

After the signing of the UKUSA pact, a new chain of stations began operating along the boundaries of
the western sphere of influence, monitoring the signals of Soviet ground and air forces. British sigint
outposts were established in Germany and, secretly in Austria and Iran. US listening posts were set up
in central and southern Germany and later in Turkey, Italy and Spain. One major US sigint base -
Kagnew Station at Asmara in Eritrea - was taken over from the British in 1941 and grew to become,
until its closure in 1970, one of the largest intercept stations in the world. One of its more spectacular
features was a tracking dish used to pass messages to the United States by reflecting them off the
surface of the moon.

By the mid 1960s, many of these bases featured gigantic antenna systems that could monitor every HF
(High Frequency) radio message, from all angles, while simultaneously obtaining bearings that could
enable the position of a transmitter to be located. Both the US Navy and the US Air Force employed
global networks of this kind. The US Air Force installed 500 meter wide arrays known as FLR-9 at sites
including Chicksands, England, San Vito dei Normanni in Italy, Karamursel in Turkey, the
Philippines, and at Misawa, Japan. Codenamed "Iron Horse", the first FLR-9 stations came into
operation in 1964. The US Navy established similar bases in the US and at Rota, Spain, Bremerhaven,
Germany, Edzell, Scotland, Guam, and later in Puerto Rico, targeted on Cuba.
When the United States went to war in Vietnam, Australian and New Zealand operators in Singapore,
Australia and elsewhere worked directly in support of the war. Britain; as a neutral country was not
supposed to be involved. In practice, however British operators at the GCHQ intercept station no
UKC201 at Little Sai Wan, Hong Kong monitored and reported on the North Vietnamese air defense
networks while US B52 bombers attacked Hanoi and other North Vietnamese targets.

Since the end of the cold war, the history of some cold war signals intelligence operations have been
declassified. At the US National Cryptologic Museum, run by NSA at its headquarters, the agency now
openly acknowledges many of its cold war listening operations. It also describes the controversial use of
ships and aircraft to penetrate or provoke military defenses in operations that cost the lives of more than
100 of its staff. But another longstanding aspect of sigint operations remain unacknowledged. During the
second world war as well as in the cold war and since, British and US intelligence agencies monitored
the signals and broke the codes of allies and friends, as well as of civilians and commercial
communications around the world. The diplomatic communications of every country were and are
attacked.

The stations and methods were the same as for military targets. Within the intelligence agencies, the
civilian target was known as "ILC". ILC stood for "International Leased Carrier", and referred to the
private companies or telecommunications administrations operating or administrating long range
undersea cables or radio stations. Some ILC circuits were rented to governments or large companies as
permanent links. The majority were used for public telegraph, telex or telephone services.

Many details of the operation of the English-speaking sigint axis were revealed by two NSA defectors at
a press conference held in Moscow on 6 September 1960. There, two NSA analysts, Bernon Mitchell
and William Martin, told the world what NSA was doing:

          We know from working at NSA [that] the United States reads the secret
          communications of more than forty nations, including its own allies ... NSA keeps in
          operation more than 2000 manual intercept positions ... Both enciphered and plain
          text communications are monitored from almost every nation in the world, including
          the nations on whose soil the intercept bases are located.
                                                       New York Times, 7 September 1960.

The revelations were reported in full in the US, but their impact was soon buried by security
recriminations and accusations. Martin and Mitchell revealed that NSA‘s operations division included
two key groups. One group covered the Soviet Union and its allies. The second analysis division was
known as ALLO, standing for "all other [countries]". This part of NSA‘s production organization was later
renamed ROW, starting for "Rest of the World".

Thus, in 1965, while intercept operators at the NSA‘s Chicksands station in England focused on the
radio messages of Warsaw Pact air forces, their colleagues 200 kilometers north at Kirknewton,
Scotland were covering "ILC" traffic, including commercially run radio links between major European
cities. These networks could carry anything from birthday telegrams to detailed economic or commercial
information exchanged by companies, to encrypted diplomatic messages. In the intercept rooms,
machines tuned to transmission channels continuously spewed out 8-ply paper to be read and marked
up by intelligence analysts. Around the world, thousands of analysts worked on these mostly
unencrypted communications using NSA ‘watch lists‘ - weekly key word lists of people, companies,
commodities of interest for the NSA watchers to single out from ‘clear‘ traffic. Coded messages were
passed on immediately. Among the regular names on the watch lists were the leaders of African
guerrilla movements who were later to become their countries‘ leaders. In time, many prominent
Americans were added to the list. The international communications of the actress Jane Fonda, Dr
Benjamin Spock and hundreds of others were put under surveillance because of their opposition to the
war in Vietnam. Back power leader Eldridge Cleaver and his colleagues were included because of their
civil rights activities in the US.

A short distance to the north at Cupar, Scotland, another intercept station was operated by the British
Post Office, and masqueraded as a long distance radio station. In fact, it was another GCHQ
interception site, which collected European countries‘ communications, instead of sending them.

In time, these operations were integrated. In 1976, NSA set up a special new civilian unit at its
Chicksands base to carry out diplomatic and civilian interception. The unit, called "DODJOCC"
(Department of Defense Joint Operations Centre Chicksands) was targeted on non-US Diplomatic
Communications, known as NDC. One specific target, known as FRD, stood for French diplomatic
traffic. Italian diplomatic signals, known similarly as ITD, were collected and broken by NSA‘s
counterpart agency GCHQ, at its Cheltenham centre.

Entering Chicksands’ Building 600 through double security fences and a turnstile where green and
purple clearance badges were checked, the visitor would first encounter a sigint in-joke - a copy of the
International Telecommunications Convention pasted up on the wall. Article 22 of the Convention, which
both the United Kingdom and the United States have ratified, promises that member states,
         "agree to take all possible measures, compatible with the system of telecommunication
         used, with a view to ensuring the secrecy of international correspondence".
Besides intercepting ILC communications at radio stations, NSA, GCHQ and their counterparts also
collected printed copies of all international telegrams from public and commercial operators in London,
New York and other centres. They were then taken to sigint analysts and processed in the same way as
foreign telegrams snatched from the air at sites like Chicksands and Kirknewton. Britain had done this
since 1920, and the United States since 1945. The joint programme was known as Operation
Shamrock, and continued until it was exposed by US Congressional intelligence investigations in the
wake of the Watergate affair.

On 8 August 1975, NSA Director Lt General Lew Allen admitted to the Pike Committee of the US
House of Representatives that :
       "NSA systematically intercepts international communications, both voice and cable" He
       also admitted that "messages to and from American citizens have been picked up in the
       course of gathering foreign intelligence".
At a later hearing, he described how NSA used "‘watch lists" an aid to watch for foreign activity of
reportable intelligence interest".8

US legislators considered that these operations might have been unconstitutional. During 1976, a
Department of Justice team investigated possible criminal offences by NSA. Part of their report was
released in 1980 It described how intelligence on US citizens, known as MINARET "was obtained
incidentally in the course of NSA‘s interception of aural and non-aural (e.g, telex) international
communications and the receipt of GCHQ-acquired telex and ILC (International Leased Carrier) cable
traffic (SHAMROCK)" (emphasis in original).

As in the United Kingdom, from 1945 onwards NSA and its predecessors had systematically obtained
cable traffic from the offices of major cable companies - RCA Global, ITT World Communications and
Western Union. Over time, the collection of copies of telegrams on paper was replaced by the delivery of
magnetic tapes and eventually by direct connection of the monitoring centers to international
communications circuits. In Britain, all international telex links and telegram circuits passing in, out or
through the country were and are connected to a GCHQ monitoring site in central London, known as
UKC1000.

By the early 1970s, the laborious process of scanning paper printouts for names or terms appearing on
the "watch lists" had begun to be replaced by automated computer systems. These computers
performed a task essentially similar to the search engines of the internet. Prompted with a word, phrase
or combination of words, they will identify all messages containing the desired words or phrases. Their
job, now performed on a huge scale, is to match the "key words" or phrases of interest to intelligence
agencies to the huge volume of international communications, to extract them and pass them to where
they are wanted. During the 1980s, the NSA developed a "fast data finder" microprocessor that was
optimally designed for this purpose. It was later commercially marketed, with claims that it "the most
comprehensive character-string comparison functions of any text retrieval system in the world". A single
unit could work with:
        "trillions of bytes of textual archive and thousands of online users, or gigabytes of live
        data stream per day that are filtered against tens of thousands of complex interest
        profiles"9 .
Although different systems are in use, the key computer system at the heart of a modern sigint station‘s
processing operations is the "Dictionary". Every Echelon or Echelon-like station contains a Dictionary.
Portable versions are even available, and can be loaded into briefcase-sized units known as "Oratory"
10 . The Dictionary computers scan communications input to them, and extract for reporting and further
analysis those that match the profiles of interest. In one sense, the main function of Dictionary
computers are to throw most intercepted information away.

In a 1992 speech on information management, former NSA Director William Studeman described the
type of filtering involved in systems like ECHELON : 11
         "One [unidentified] intelligence collection system alone can generate a million inputs per
         half hour; filters throw away all but 6500 inputs; only 1,000 inputs meet forwarding
         criteria; 10 inputs are normally selected by analysts and only one report is produced.
         These are routine statistics for a number of intelligence collection and analysis systems
         which collect technical intelligence".
In other words, for every million communications intercepted only one might result in action by an
intelligence agency. Only one in a thousand would ever be seen by human eyes.

Supporting the operations of each Dictionary are gigantic intelligence databases which contain tables of
information related to each target. At their simplest, these can be a list of telephone, mobile phone, fax
or pager numbers which associated with targets in each group. They can include physical or e-mail
addresses, names, or any type of phrase or concept that can be formulated under normal information
retrieval rules.

Powerful though Dictionary methods and keyword search engines may be, however, they and their giant
associated intelligence databases may soon be replaced by "topic analysis", a more powerful and
intuitive technique, and one that NSA is developing strongly. Topic analysis enables Comint customers
to ask their computers to "find me documents about subject X". X might be "Shakespeare in love" or
"Arms to Iran".

In a standard US test used to evaluate topic analysis systems, one task the analysis program is given is
to find information about "Airbus subsidies". The traditional approach involves supplying the computer
with the key terms, other relevant data, and synonyms. In this example, the designations A-300 or A-320
might be synonymous with "Airbus". The disadvantage of this approach is that it may find irrelevant
intelligence (for example, reports about export subsidies to goods flown on an Airbus) and miss relevant
material (for example a financial analysis of a company in the consortium which does not mention the
Airbus product by name). Topic analysis overcomes this and is better matched to human intelligence.

In 1991, a British television programme reported on the operations of one Dictionary computer at
GCHQ‘s London station in Palmer Street, Westminster (station UKC1000). The programme quoted
GCHQ employees, who spoke off the record:
        "Up on the fourth floor there, [GCHQ] has hired a group of carefully vetted British
        Telecom people. [Quoting the ex-GCHQ official:] It‘s nothing to do with national security.
        It‘s because it‘s not legal to take every single telex. And they take everything: the
        embassies, all the business deals, even the birthday greetings, they take everything.
        They feed it into the Dictionary."
Among the targets of this station were politicians, diplomats, businessmen, trades union leaders, non-
government organizations like Amnesty International, and even the hierarchy of the Catholic church.

The Echelon system appears to have been in existence since the early 1970s, and to have gone
through extensive evolution and development. The need for efficient processing systems to replace the
human operators who performed watch list scans was first foreseen in the late 1960s, when NSA and
GCHQ were planning the first large satellite interception sites. The first such station was built at
Morwenstow, Cornwall, and utilized two large dish antennae to intercept communications crossing the
Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The second was built at Yakima, in the northwestern US state of
Washington. Yakima intercepted satellite communications over the Pacific Ocean.

Also in the early 1970s, NSA and CIA discovered that sigint collection from space was far more effective
and productive than had been foreseen, resulting in vast accumulations of magnetic tapes that quickly
outstripped the available supply of Soviet linguists and analysts. By the end of the 1970s, one of the
main sites processing communications intercepted from space was Menwith Hill, in central England. A
document prepared there in 1981 12 identifies intelligence databases used at Menwith Hill as "Echelon
2". This suggests that the Echelon network was already into its second generation by 1981.

By the mid 1980s, communications handled by Dictionary computers around the world were heavily
sifted, with a wide variety of specifications available for non-verbal traffic. Extensive further automation
was planned in the mid 1980s under two top secret NSA Projects, P-377 and P-415. The
implementation of these projects completed the automation of the "watch list" activity of previous
decades. Computers replaced the analysts who compared reams of paper intercepts to names and
topics on the watch list. In the late 1980s, staff from sigint agencies from countries including the UK,
New Zealand and China attended training courses on the new Echelon computer systems.

Project P-415 made heavy use of NSA and GCHQ‘s global internet to enable remote intelligence
customers to task computers at each collection site, and then receive the results automatically. Selected
incoming messages were compared to forwarding criteria held on the Dictionary. If a match was found,
the raw intelligence was forwarded automatically to the designated recipients. According to New
Zealand author Nicky Hager, 13 Dictionary computers are tasked with many thousands of different
collection requirements, described as "numbers" (four digit codes).

Details of project P-415 and the plans for the massive global expansion of the Echelon system were
revealed in 1988 by Margaret "Peg" Newsham. Ms Newsham a former computer systems manager,
worked on classified projects for NSA contractors until the mid 1980s. From August 1978 onwards, she
worked at the NSA‘s Menwith Hill Station as a software coordinator. In this capacity, she helped
managed a number of Sigint computer databases, including "Echelon 2". She and others also helped
establish "Silkworth", a system for processing information relayed from signals intelligence satellites
called Chalet, Vortex and Mercury. Her revelations led to the first ever report about Echelon, published
in 1988. 14

In Sunnyvale, California, Peg Newsham worked for Lockheed Space and Missiles Corporation. In that
capacity, she worked on plans for the massive expansion of the Echelon network, a project identified
internally as P-415. During her employment by Lockheed, she also become concerned about
corruption, fraud and abuse within the organizations planning and operating electronic surveillance
systems. She reported her concerns to the US Congress House Permanent Select Committee on
Intelligence early in 1988. She also told them how she had witnessed the interception of a telephone call
made by a US Senator, Strom Thurmond, while working at Menwith Hill.

The full details of Echelon would probably never have come to serious public attention but for 6 further
years of research by New Zealand writer Nicky Hager, who assiduously investigated the new Echelon
station that started operating at Waihopai on the South Island of New Zealand in 1989. His 1996 book
Secret Power 15 is based on extensive interviews with and help from members of the New Zealand
signals intelligence organization. It remains the best informed and most detailed account of how Echelon
works.

Early in 2000, information and documents leaked to a US researcher16 provided many details of how
Echelon was developed for use worldwide. Under a 1982 NSA plan assigned to Lockheed Space and
Missiles Systems, engineers and scientists worked on Project P-377 - also known as CARBOY II. This
project called for the development of a standard kit of "ADPE" (automated data processing equipment)
parts for equipping Echelon sites. The "commonality of automated data processing equipment (ADPE)
in the Echelon system" included the following elements:
                               Local management subsystem
                               Remote management subsystem
                               Radio frequency distribution
                               Communications handling subsystem
                               Telegraphy message processing subsystem
                               Frequency division multiplex telegraphy
                                 processing subsystem
                               Time division multiplex telegraphy processing
                                 subsystem
                               Voice processing subsystem
                               Voice collection module
                               Facsimile processing subsystem
                               [Voice] Tape Production Facility
The CARBOY II project also called for software systems to load and update the Dictionary databases.
At this time, the hardware for the Dictionary processing subsystem was based on a cluster of DEC VAX
mini-computers, together with special purpose units for processing and separating different types of
satellite communications.

In 1998 and 1999, the intelligence specialist Dr Jeff Richelson of the National Security Archive 17
Washington, DC used the Freedom of Information Act to obtain a series of modern official US Navy and
Air Force documents which have confirmed the continued existence, scale and expansion of the
Echelon system. The documents from the US Air Force and US Navy identify Echelon units at four
sites and suggest that a fifth site also collects information from communications satellites as part of the
Echelon system.
One of the sites is Sugar Grove, West Virgina US, about 250 miles south-west of Washington in a
remote area of the Shenandoah Mountains. It is operated by the US Naval Security Group and the US
Air Force Intelligence Agency. An upgraded sigint system called Timberline II was installed at Sugar
Grove in the summer of 1990. At the same time, according to official US documents, an "Echelon
training department" was established. With training complete, the task of the station in 1991 became "to
maintain and operate an ECHELON site".18

The US Air Force has publicly identified the intelligence activity at Sugar Grove as "to direct satellite
communications equipment [in support of] consumers of COMSAT information ... this is achieved by
providing a trained cadre of collection system operators, analysts and managers". The 1998-99 USAF
Air Intelligence Agency Almanac described the mission of the Sugar Grove unit as providing "enhanced
intelligence support to air force operational commanders and other consumers of COMSAT information."
19 In 1990, satellite photographs showed that there were 4 satellite antennae at Sugar Grove. By
November 1998, ground inspection revealed that this had expanded to nine.

Further information published by the US Air Force identifies the US Naval Security Group Station at
Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico as a COMSAT interception site. Its mission is "to become the premier
satellite communications processing and analysis field station". These and further documents
concerning Echelon and COMSAT interception stations at Yakima, Sabana Seco (Puerto Rico), Misawa
(Japan) and Guam have been published on the web.20

From 1984 onwards, Australia, Canada and New Zealand joined the US and the UK in operating
Comsat (communications satellite) interception stations. Australia‘s site at Kojarena, Geraldton near
Perth in western Australia includes four interception dishes. The station‘s top targets include Japanese
diplomatic and commercial messages, communications of all types from and within North Korea, and
data on Indian and Pakistani nuclear weapons developments. A second Australian satcom intercept site,
at Shoal Bay in the Northern Territories, mainly targets Australia‘s northern neighbour, Indonesia.
Australian sources say however that Shoal Bay is not part of the Echelon system, as Australia is
unwilling to allow the US and Britain to obtain raw intercepts directly.

The New Zealand site, Waihopai now has two dishes targeted on Intelsat satellites covering the south
Pacific. In 1996, shortly after "Secret Power" was published, a New Zealand TV station obtained images
of the inside of the station‘s operations centre. The pictures were obtained clandestinely by filming
through partially curtained windows at night. The TV reporter was able to film close-ups of technical
manuals held in the control centre. These were Intelsat technical manuals, providing confirmation that
the station targeted these satellites. Strikingly, the station was seen to be virtually empty, operating fully
automatically.

Before the introduction of Echelon, different countries and different stations knew what was being
intercepted and to whom it was being sent. Now, all but a fraction of the messages selected by
Dictionary computers at remote sites may be forwarded to overseas customers, normally NSA, without
any local knowledge of the intelligence obtained.

Information from the Echelon network and other parts of the global surveillance system is used by the
US and its allies for diplomatic, military and commercial purposes. In the post cold war years, the staff
levels at both NSA and GCHQ have contracted, and many overseas listening posts have been closed or
replaced by Remote Operations Facilities, controlled from a handful of major field stations. Although
routinely denied, commercial and economic intelligence
[http://www.heise.de/tp/english/inhalt/co/6662/1.html] is now a major target of international sigint activity.
Under a 1993 policy colloquially known as "levelling the playing field", the United States government
under President Clinton established new trade and economic committees and told the NSA and CIA to
act in support of US businesses in seeking contracts abroad. In the UK, GCHQ‘s enabling legislation
from 1994 openly identifies one of its purposes as to promote "the economic well-being of the United
Kingdom in relation to the actions or intentions of persons outside the British Islands".
Massive new storage and processing systems are being constructed to provide on-line processing of the
internet and new international communications networks. By the early 1990s, both GCHQ and NSA
employed "near line" storage systems capable of holding more than a terabyte of data 21 . In the near
future, they are likely to deploy systems one thousand times larger. Key word spotting in the vast
volumes of intercepted daily written communications - telex, e-mail, and data - is a routine task. "Word
spotting" in spoken communications is not an effective tool, but individual speaker recognition
techniques have been in use for up to 10 years. New methods which have been developed during the
1990s will become available to recognize the "topics" of phone calls, and may allow NSA and its
collaborators to automate the processing of the content of telephone messages - a goal that has eluded
them for 30 years.

Under the rubric of "information warfare", the sigint agencies also hope to overcome the ever more
extensive use of encryption by direct interference with and attacks on targeted computers. These
methods remain controversial, but include information stealing viruses, software audio, video, and data
bugs, and pre-emptive tampering with software or hardware ("trapdoors").
                                                                                                           st
In the information age, we need to re-learn a lesson now a century old. Despite the sophistication of 21
century technology, today‘s e-mails are as open to the eyes of snoopers and intruders as were the first
crude radio telegraph messages. Part of the reason for this is that, over many decades, NSA and its
allies worked determinedly to limit and prevent the privacy of international telecommunications. Their
goal was to keep communications unencrypted and, thus, open to easy access and processing by
systems like Echelon. They knew that privacy and security, then as a century ago, lay in secret codes
or encryption. Until such protections become effective and ubiquitous, Echelon or systems like it, will
remain with us.


Literaturangaben
        1) Available from the European Parliament web site
        http://www.europarl.eu.int/dg4/stoa/en/publi/pdf/98-14-01-2en.pdf. The report is part of a
        series of four in a series on the "Development of surveillance technology and risk of
        abuse of economic information"
        [http://www.europarl.eu.int/dg4/stoa/en/publi/default.htm#up] The report contains a
        detailed technical account of how different types of communications are intercepted

        2) "An appraisal of technologies of political control", report for the European Parliament
        Scientific and Technological Options office (STOA) by Dr Steve Wright, Omega
        Foundation, Manchester, UK, January 1998.

        3) The arrangements are sometimes called "TEXTA Authority". TEXTA stands for
        "Technical Extracts of Traffic Analysis" and is in effect a voluminous listing of every
        communications source identified by each agency. It is catalogued and sorted by
        countries, users, networks, types of communications system and other features.

        4) Called IRSIG

        5) TCP/IP, or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

        6) "SCI", also known as Special Intelligence, is secret intelligence for which codeword
        clearance is required. Special regulations also apply to offices in which SCI is
        examined. They must be physically secure and electromagnetically shielded. These
        offices are known as SCIFs (SCI Facilities).

        7) The US intelligence intranet is described in "Top Secret Intranet: How U.S.
        Intelligence Built Intelink -- the world‘s largest, most secure network", by Frederick
        Martin (Prentice Hall, 1999)
8) The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights, Hearings before the
Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence
Activities, US Senate, Washington, 1976.

9) By the Paracel Corporation, as the FDF "Text-finder". It claims to be the "fastest,
most adaptive information filtering system in the world".

10) Oratory is described in "Spyworld", by Mike Frost and Michel Gratton, Doubleday
Canada, 1994. It was used to select messages intercepted at clandestine embassy
interception sites.

11) Address to the Symposium on "National Security and National Competitiveness :
Open Source Solutions" by Vice Admiral William Studeman, Deputy Director of Central
Intelligence and former director of NSA, 1 December 1992, McLean, Virginia.

12) See reference 1, above.

13) Secret Power, by Nicky Hager. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand, 1996.

14) New Statesman (UK), 12 August 1988. At the time, Ms Newsham was a confidential
source of information and was not identified in the article. In February 2000, living in
retirement and facing a serious illness, Ms Newsham, said that she could be identified
as the original source of information on Echelon. She also appeared on a CBS
television programme about Echelon, Sixty Minutes (shown on 27 February 2000).

15) See reference 16.

16) "Echelon P-377 Work Package for CARBOY II", published at cryptome.org/echelon-
p377.htm [http://cryptome.org/echelon-p377.htm]

17) An independent organization that, among other functions. catalogues US
government documents obtained under Freedom of Information legislation.

18) Naval Security Group Command Regulation C5450.48A; see note 23.

19) "Desperately Seeking Signals", Jeff Richelson, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,
March-April 2000.

20) The documents relating to Echelon stations can be found at the National Security
Archive web site [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv].

21) A million megabytes, or 10 12 bytes.
                                         Return
                                        from ThinkAboutIt Website


JUNE 2001
The E.C. Parliament has confirmed (admitted?) the existence of the communications intelligence
and information exchange network called ECHELON.

This global network of wiretaps, data-sniffing and general eavesdropping systems enables the
U.S. government (and probably the U.K.) to intercept digital communications.

In effect this means that, amongst other activities, ECHELON is capable of recording all email
messages and all telephone conversations - regardless of who is making them.

ECHELON is based at Menwith Hill in North Yorkshire U.K - rumors of its existence have
circulated for years. ECHELON does not require a suspicion element to monitor any
communications and can, therefore, snoop into innocent peoples personal data. An E.C.
spokesman stated that there is good reason to believe that information has been obtained by
ECHELON by illegally monitoring private emails.

Amongst other things the French government is sure that commercial contracts have been lost to
the U.S. (including an Airbus contract with Saudi Arabia) despite U.S. denials.

Unless encrypted, any persons communications, from any location can be snooped upon - in fact
it is suspected that all European emails and telephone communications are automatically
recorded at Menwith Hill.




                             Menwith Hill - near Harrogate North Yorkshire (UK)


JULY 18 - 2001
The residents of North Yorkshire are registering a strong protest against the Menwith Hill
Listening Station following the closure of its sister station in Bavaria (Germany).

Despite U.S. denials the German base was not closed due to a cost cutting exercise (millions of
dollars have recently been spent on improved electronic eavesdropping equipment) but protests
  from the German public forced the U.S. agencies to transfer their activities to Menwith Hill.

  It is likely that Menwith Hill will become the most important covert listening station in the world and
  also an integral component in the new Star wars Defense system.

  It is understandable that the people of the North of England want no part of this "skulking and
  covertly dangerous " element of U.S. military World dominance.




  In a report produced by the United States Space Command, entitled "A Vision for 2020", General
  Howell M. Estes states,
          "Globalization of the World Economy will continue with a widening between the
          "haves " and the "have nots".

          The aims of the U.S. Space Command - dominating the space dimension for
          Military operations to protect U.S. interests and investment. Integrating Space
          Forces into War fighting capabilities across the full system of conflict".
                                   Return to The Echelon Network




                                             by Dan Brown
                                           from DanBrown Website


Digital Fortress
Phillips Exeter Academy, and the true story behind Dan Brown‘s bestseller...
                            o A prestigious prep school
                            o A powerful intelligence agency
                            o A minor indiscretion
                            o A major thriller
In the Spring of 1995, on the campus of Phillips Exeter Academy, the U.S. Secret Service made a
bust...
      THE TARGET : A teenage student flagged by a government computer as being a threat to
        national security.
      THE CRIME : Sending E-mail to a friend in which he said he thought President Clinton should be
        shot.
      THE MISTAKE : The same mistake many Americans make every day...believing that what they
        say in E-mail is private.
In the wake of the incident, Dan Brown, an English teacher at the school, surprised by the government‘s
apparent ability to "listen in", began researching the intelligence community‘s access to civilian
communication. What he stumbled across stunned him... an ultra-secret, $12 billion a year intelligence
agency that only 3% of Americans know exists.

This clandestine organization, known as the NSA (jokingly referred to as No Such Agency), employs
over 20,000 code-breakers, analysts, technicians, and spies and has a 86-acre compound hidden in
Maryland. Founded over half a century ago by President Truman, the NSA‘s technology is unrivaled.
They have the ability to monitor all of our digital communications--cellular phone, FAX, and E-mail. They
are bound by presidential directive to do whatever it takes to protect our national security... including
"snoop" our most private conversations if necessary.

Brown coaxed two ex-NSA cryptographers to speak to him via anonymous remailers (an E-mail
protocol that ensures both parties privacy), and the cryptographers, each unaware of the other, told
identical stories... incredible accounts of NSA submarines that listened in on underwater phone cables,
of a terrorist attack on the New York Stock Exchange that never went public, and also of a chilling new
NSA technology--a multi-billion dollar supercomputer capable of deciphering even the most secure
communications. Nonetheless, the cryptographers sang the praises of the NSA and insisted that
ensuring our nation‘s security can only be done at the expense of civilian privacy.
         "The battle between privacy and security," says Brown, "has no clear-cut answers. The
         stakes are enormous. All I know is that when I learned the truth about the NSA, I had to
         write about it."
If he disappears... we‘ll know who to blame.



Did You Know?
Some surprising facts about your lack of privacy.
            In large cities, Americans are photographed on the average of 20 times a day.
            Everything you charge is in a database that police, among others, can look at.
            Supermarkets track what you purchase and sell the information to direct-mail
               marketing firms.
            Your employer is allowed to read your E-Mail, and if you use your company‘s
               health insurance to purchase drugs, your employer has access to that
               information.
            Government computers scan your E-Mail for subversive language.
            Your cell phone calls can be intercepted, and your access numbers can be
               cribbed by eavesdroppers with police scanners.
            You register your whereabouts every time you use an ATM, credit card, or use
               EZ PASS at a toll booth.
            You are often being watched when you visit web sites. Servers know what you‘re
               looking at, what you download, and how long you stay on a page.
            A political candidate found his career destroyed by a newspaper that published a
               list of all the videos he had ever rented.
            Most "baby monitors" can be intercepted 100 feet outside the home.
            Intelligence agencies now have "micro-bots" -- tiny, remote control, electronic
              "bugs" that literally can fly into your home and look around without your noticing.
            Anyone with $100 can tap your phone.
            A new technology called TEMPEST can intercept what you are typing on your
              keypad (from 100 feet away through a cement wall.)
            The National Security Agency has a submarine that can intercept and decipher
              digital communications from the RF emissions of underwater phone cables.



Author FAQ
NSA secrets, anecdotes, privacy info, and a surprising look into the future
DIGITAL FORTRESS, the controversial thriller about the ultra-secret U.S. National Security Agency,
spent 15 weeks as the #1 national bestselling E-book and was inspired by a true event.


AUTHOR INTERVIEW
       "I couldn’t figure out how the Secret Service knew what these kids were saying in
       their E-mail."

       Q: A rather startling event inspired you to write Digital Fortress. Can you elaborate on
       what happened?

       A: A few years ago, I was teaching on the campus of Phillips Exeter Academy in New
       Hampshire. One Spring day, unannounced, the U.S. Secret Service showed up and
       detained one of our students claiming he was a threat to national security. As it turned
       out, the kid had sent private E-mail to a friend saying how much he hated President
       Clinton and how he thought the president should be shot. The Secret Service came to
       campus to make sure the kid wasn‘t serious. After some interrogation the agents
       decided the student was harmless, and not much came of it. Nonetheless, the incident
       really stuck with me. I couldn‘t figure out how the secret service knew what these kids
       were saying in their E-mail.

       I began doing some research into where organizations like the Secret Service get their
       intelligence data, and what I found out absolutely floored me. I discovered there is an
       intelligence agency as large as the CIA... that only about 3% of Americans knows
       exists.

       It is called the National Security Agency (NSA), and it is home to the country‘s
       eavesdroppers. The agency functions like an enormous vacuum cleaner sucking in
       intelligence data from around the globe and processing it for subversive material. The
       NSA‘s super-computers scan E-mail and other digital communiqués looking for
       dangerous word combinations like "kill" and "Clinton" in the same sentence.

       The more I learned about this ultra-secret agency and the fascinating moral issues
       surrounding national security and civilian privacy, the more I realized it was a great
       backdrop for a novel. That‘s when I started writing Digital Fortress.


       "The NSA is in charge of waging the information war-- stealing other people’s
       secrets while protecting our own."

       Q: The NSA sounds fascinating, can you tell me more about it?
                                                                      th
A: The NSA was founded at 12:01 on the morning of November 4 , 1952 by President
Truman. No note of this event was made in the Congressional Record. The NSA‘s
charge was simple--to intercept and decipher intelligence information from hostile
governments around the globe. Secondly, it was to create the means to enable secure
communications among U.S. military and officials.

Put another way, the NSA is in charge of waging the information war--stealing other
people‘s secrets while protecting our own; they are not only the nation‘s code-breakers,
but also our code-writers. Today the agency has a $12 billion annual budget, about
25,000 employees, and an 86-acre heavily armed compound in Fort Meade, Maryland.
It is home to the world‘s most potent computers as well as some of the most brilliant
cryptographers, mathematicians, technicians, and analysts. Digital Fortress is about a
brilliant female cryptographer who works inside these sacred walls.


"Intelligence analysts joke that the acronym ’NSA’ really stands for ’No Such
Agency.’"

Q: Why have so few people heard of the NSA?

A: In the novel the intelligence analysts joke that the acronym "NSA" really stands for
"No Such Agency" or "Never Say Anything." Seriously though, the NSA is clandestine
because it has to be. It is responsible for protecting this nation from some very powerful
and hostile forces; often times this involves practices that civilians might find intrusive or
immoral.

The NSA is far more effective if it is immune to the public scrutiny that most of the other
agencies have to endure. Although not many people have heard of the NSA, that fact is
quickly changing. Certainly those people familiar with the intelligence community are
aware of the NSA‘s existence and general code of conduct. Computer users who are
savvy about issues of privacy in the digital age are also more and more aware of the
NSA‘s existence and practices.

The battle for privacy rights in a digital world is starting to take center stage, and I
suspect it will be THE major issue of the next decade. We can all expect to hear a lot
more about the NSA as the battle surrounding national security and civilian privacy
develops.


"We communicated via anonymous remailers such that our identities remained
secret."

Q: How did you get so much information on such a clandestine agency?

A: Much of the data on the NSA is public domain if you know where to dig. James
Bamford wrote a superb exposé of the agency, and there are a number of former
intelligence sources who have written extensive white-papers on the subject. I was also
fortunate to befriend two former NSA cryptographers while researching the book. We
communicated via anonymous remailers such that our identities remained secret.

At first, I was surprised with the information they were sharing, and I suspected, despite
their obvious knowledge, that they were probably not who they said they were. But the
more we spoke, the more I was convinced they were authentic. Neither one knew about
the other, and yet they told almost identical stories. When I asked why they were
sharing intelligence data with me, the response startled me. One cryptographer put it
this way,
        "I am a mathematician, not a politician. The NSA‘s technologies and
        practices are necessary, believe me, but their level of secrecy is
        dangerous. It breeds distrust. I believe it is good for everyone that the
        agency is gradually coming to the public eye. I am not sharing classified
        information; the information I am sharing is already out there, but it is
        skillfully buried. I‘m only bringing it to the surface."


"There used to be barriers around information. Technology has changed that."

Q: Ten years ago we never read about privacy rights, now it is an enormous issue.
Why?

A: Barriers. There used to be barriers around information. Technology has changed
that. It used to be we sent our messages in sealed envelopes with the U.S. postal
service; now we E-mail.

Global corporations used to gather for closed-door meetings; now they teleconference.
Once we sent important documents with bonded couriers; now we FAX. All of these
transfers take place through a vast network of cables and satellites that is impossible to
keep entirely secure. Technology has made global communication more efficient, but
the down side is that there is a lot more of each of us floating around out there waiting
to be intercepted.


"ITT and Western Union were under enormous political pressure to cooperate
silently... and they did so."

Q: Does the government really read our E-mail?

A: Government monitoring of civilian communication is something that has been going
on for decades. Even though the public is widely unaware, government officials and
specialists in privacy-related fields are certainly aware of the practice. The debate over
its ethics is complex because a precedent exists that intercepting certain E-mail, cellular
phone, and FAX communications can help law-enforcement officials catch dangerous
criminals. The question turns into one of civilian privacy vs. national security. In the
1950‘s the NSA‘s then top-secret Project Shamrock intercepted and scanned all
telegrams sent in or out of the country; ITT and Western Union were under enormous
political pressure to cooperate silently... and they did so.

Project Shamrock stayed in effect until 1975. Nixon‘s Huston Plan and later Project
Minaret further relaxed regulations on monitoring civilian communications and even
activated enormous watch-lists of U.S. civilians whose communiqués were regularly
tapped. Just recently, of course, the FBI caught the infamous hacker Jose Ardita by
secretly monitoring computer activity at Harvard University. As you can see, this sort of
activity is nothing new.


"The loopholes are obvious..."

Q: But aren‘t there laws against intercepting E-mail?

A: Current laws are shaky at best. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)
provides that personal E-mail cannot be intercepted while it is in transit. However, once
the E-mail is digitally "stored" it is fair game and officials can legally gain access. The
irony in the law is that E-mail travels by copying itself from server to server; the moment
it is "in transit" it is also stored on servers across the country.

The loopholes are obvious. It‘s hard to prove that unwarranted monitoring takes place,
but most privacy specialists agree that monitoring is rampant, a point well-taken when
you consider the following: Government Incentive -- Terrorist activity against the U.S. is
on the rise (some from domestic sources), and the incentive certainly exists to protect
national security in anyway possible. It‘s Easy - The technology now exists for the
government to secretly scan enormous quantities of data very cost effectively. It‘s Legal
- The current laws are written such that they do not hinder the intelligence agencies in
any real way from scanning civilian communications for subversive activity. Historical
Precedent - The intelligence community has a long history of protecting national security
through domestic intelligence gathering.

Operation Shamrock and Minaret are two examples. Daily Proof - Almost every day
there are stories in the news of civilians arrested for child pornography, embezzlement,
drug trade, etc. These arrests usually hold up in court based on evidence from
intercepted private communications. Officials often have court-orders when they tap E-
mail and phones, but it is not difficult to imagine time-sensitive crises where court-orders
are not feasible and laws are bent in the name of protecting the common good.


"If I send E-mail that reads, ’Tonight I’m taking out my wife,’ how would you
interpret that?"

Q: Most individuals are law-abiding citizens, why should they care if a government
agency might be listening in to their personal communications?

A: First, there is the obvious moral issue of whether or not we want to live in an
Orwellian society where big brother is peering in from all sides. But more immediate
concerns are those of abuse and misinterpretation of data. For example, if I send E-mail
that reads, "Tonight I‘m taking out my wife," how would you interpret that? Am I treating
my wife to a date, or am I killing her? Because language is sometimes ambiguous, it
runs the risk of misunderstanding. The results can be disastrous.


"The priest made a single typo that changed his life forever."

Q: Can you give us any "real life" horror stories of instances of abuse or
misinterpretation?

A: Absolutely. There is one I heard recently that has become somewhat of an urban
legend. Although I can‘t vouch for the accuracy of the story, it‘s a perfect example of the
sorts of things that we now hear happening all the time. Apparently, last year a priest
from Utah sent E-mail to his sister in Boston. In his message he mentioned that some
local teenagers had stopped by his church that day and baked him brownies. Hoping to
impress his sister with his technological wizardry, he borrowed the church‘s new digital
camera and took a photo of the brownies. Then he attached the photo to his E-mail and
sent it off. Of course everything should have been fine.

Alas, it was not. In a cruel twist of fate, while typing his E-mail the priest made a single
typo that changed his life forever. While writing the phrase "teenagers baked brownies",
instead of typing "B" for baked, he missed and hit the letter "N" (the letter directly next to
the "B"), resulting in the phrase "teenagers naked brownies."
Because he had unknowingly typed the words "naked" and "teenagers" next to each
other in his E-mail, his message was flagged by a secret government computer
scanning for child pornographers on the Internet. To make matters worse (much worse)
the priest had attached a photo to his E-mail, so his transmission was flagged top-
priority for immediate analysis.

When the task force went to examine the photo, however, they found that the file was
corrupt and could not be opened. All they knew was that the photo was entitled
"Brownies", and it was sent by a priest who was writing about naked teenagers. They
tracked the priest‘s identity through his Internet service provider and secretly began
investigating his church. They found to their horror that both the Cub Scouts and the
Brownies met at there on a regular basis. They concluded that this priest had been
sending pictures of naked Brownies... a felony. They arrested him.


"The government is far less intrusive than most forces."

Q: Is the government the only force that pries into our lives?

A: Absolutely not. In fact, the government is far less intrusive than most forces. With the
evolution of the personal computer, small companies and even individuals can now
keep track of enormous databanks. Can you imagine ten years ago your neighborhood
grocer making a note of every single item you as a customer purchased? Now it
happens automatically at the check-out scanners. If you buy groceries with a credit or
debit card, a detailed record of your personal purchasing preferences is instantly
cataloged. Marketing agencies pay top dollar for these lists.


"Even our simplest daily actions are recorded and can come back to haunt us."

Q: Can you give us other examples of how we are spied on?

A: The list is endless. Aside from the cameras that are trained on us at all ATM‘s, toll-
booths, and large department stores, there is plenty of subtle spying. Sweepstakes are
a good example. If you enter $100,000 dollar sweepstakes, you should be aware that
the company sponsoring the sweepstakes will make ten times that much selling your
personal information to direct-mail marketing firms. Another example is the ubiquitous
"free blood pressure clinic." Many of these clinics are set up NOT to check your blood
pressure but rather to gather prospecting lists for pharmaceutical companies.

The world-wide-web is anything but private. Many computer users still don‘t realize that
the web sites they visit will, in many cases, track their progress through the site--how
long a user stays, what he lingers over, what files he downloads. If you‘re visiting sites
on the web that you don‘t want anyone to know you‘re visiting, you better think again.

Even our simplest daily actions are recorded and can come back to haunt us. One of
my favorite stories is of a political race in California in which a candidate was running on
a platform of conservative family values. His challenger simply went to the man‘s local
Blockbuster Video and tipped the clerk $100 to print out a list of every movie the
candidate‘s family had ever rented. The list contained some titles that were by no
means Disneyesque. He leaked the list to the papers, and the election was over before
it began.
"Ultimately, the price we pay for national security will be an almost total loss of
privacy."

Q: What‘s in store for us in the future, more or less privacy?

A: Less. Every day, civilians have fewer and fewer secrets, and it‘s only going to get
worse. The world has become a dangerous place, and our security is harder to protect.
Criminals have access to the same technology we do. If we want the government to
catch terrorists who use E-mail or cellular phones, we have to provide a means for them
to monitor these types of communication.

There are plenty of very sharp folks who are working hard to find some happy medium--
key escrow systems that would enable officials to monitor communications only with a
court order--but despite all the efforts to leave the public some semblance of secrecy,
ultimately the price we pay for national security will be an almost total loss of privacy.


"Currently, criminals can obtain the necessary level of anonymity to commit their
crimes. That is changing."

Q: Is this death of privacy all bad news?

A: Not entirely. Many people will want my head for saying that, but if you think about it,
most of the bad things that occur in society happen because people have privacy -- that
is to say, criminals can obtain the necessary level of anonymity to commit their crimes.

One needs privacy to break the law and get away with it. Child molesters, terrorists,
organized criminals--- they all work in private. If their communications and daily
activities are less clandestine, they will not last long. Of course, there is the obvious
question of whether or not we trust the law-enforcement officials who are listening in.

Whether or not we trust those people we‘ve elected to watch over us is a question
asked by the antagonist in Digital Fortress--"Quis custodiet ipsos custodes," he quotes -
- "Who will guard the guards?"


"Ultimately, privacy will not survive the digital revolution."

Q: Isn‘t there any way to protect ourselves from prying eyes?

A: Ultimately, privacy will not survive the digital revolution. We live in a society
experiencing exponential technological growth. Within the decade, most of our daily
activities will be conducted through our home computers-- paying taxes, voting,
shopping, all of our entertainment, movie-downloads will replace videos, music
downloads will replace CD‘s... all of this personal information will be zipping around
between satellites and through cables...it would be naive to believe that we will develop
some foolproof method of keeping all this information secure.


"The important thing for us to do is to ensure that the death of privacy is
bilateral."

Q: How should we prepare ourselves for the end of privacy?

A: The important thing for us to do is to ensure that the death of privacy is bilateral--that
    is, that while snoopers know more about us, we know more about them. If a
    supermarket or clinic is selling our personal information, we should know to whom. If a
    web site plans to watch our every move, we should be warned before we enter the site.


    "The death of privacy may have some wonderful side effects we don’t yet
    imagine--it may just make us a more moral society..."

    Q: The scenario sounds grim. Can you leave us with any words of hope?

    A: Sure. The death of privacy may have some wonderful side effects we don‘t yet
    imagine--it may just make us a more moral society. If we are more visible to our peers,
    our behavior as a society will undoubtedly improve. Think about it... if your whole town
    knows when you are on the Internet sneaking a peek at Lois Lane in her underwear,
    you might just decide to do something else... maybe even curl up with a good book.



The NSA
                     Links to the NSA‘s official site as well as other intelligence
                     resources (courtesy of FAS)
                     N.287 dated 9 May 1996
                     page 2
                     The Best U.S. Intelligence Web Site

                      The best Internet site on the American intelligence community is
                      undoubtedly one run by the Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
                      which has been fighting a long battle to declassify secrets that no
                      longer need to be kept in the Cold War‘s aftermath (Project on
                      Government Secrecy-PGS) and to encourage an overhaul of
    intelligence services (Intelligence Reform Project-IRP).

    The site offers a lot of striking documents and pictures. In their pages, Steven Aftergood
    and John Pike, leading figures in PGS and IRP, show satellite images (with resolutions
    from 10 to 1 meter) of the main buildings housing American intelligence agencies as
    well as pictures of the same premises and maps indicating their exact location.

    When the Brown commission published its report on reforms in American intelligence on
    March 1 it recommended that the community‘s budget not be disclosed.

    By cross-checking several documents and using reverse engineering methods, FAS
    published a relatively precise estimate of what is effectively the community‘s budget of
    around $28 billion (a detailed analysis with maps and tables is available on
    http://www.fas.org/irp/commission/budget.htm). President Bill Clinton indirectly paid
    tribute to that effort on April 23 by suggesting that Congress adopt a bill to make the
    budget public.

    Drawing on open sources, Pike also drew up a first directory of 160 companies that
    work for American intelligence (http://www.fas.org/irp/contract.html).

    The directory is constantly updated on the web. Recently, FAS persuaded John Deutch
    to make the Director of Central Intelligence‘s report for 1994 public and published it in
    March on its site (http://www.fas.org/irp/cia94.htm)
       In addition, Aftergood publishes a newsletter entitled Secrecy & Government Bulletin
       (SG&B) every month.

       Now in its fifth year, the publication has produced a number of major scoops ever since
       it revealed the existence of an on-going Special Access Program for the first time in
       1991. Named Timber Wind, the project to build a nuclear-powered engine for a rocket
       was finally scrapped.

       SG&B is currently financed by the Rockefeller Family Fund, the CS Fund and several
       other donors. But it is seeking fresh funding in order to continue its work.



Someone Is Listening
An overview of the battle...
Excerpt from the L.A. TIMES

       "DEMANDING THE ABILITY TO SNOOP"
       By Robert Lee Hotz
       TIMES SCIENCE WRITER

       Someone Is Listening...

       When Charles and Diana discovered millions of people were reveling in their most
       intimate telephone calls, the world‘s most public couple had to face the facts of private
       life in the electronic age.

       In a world of cellular phones, computer networks, electronic mail and interactive TV, the
       walls might as well have ears.

       With the explosion of such devices, more people and companies -- from banks to
department stores -- seem to have more access to more information that someone
wants to keep private. In response, computer users are devising their own electronic
codes to protect such secrets as corporate records, personal mail or automated teller
transactions.

Historically, the biggest ears have belonged to the federal government, which has used
surveillance techniques designed to track down criminals and security risks to keep
electronic tabs on subjects ranging from civil rights leaders to citizens making overseas
calls.

But, today, federal officials are afraid that advanced technology, which for almost 50
years has allowed them to conduct surveillance on a global scale, is about to make
such monitoring impossible.

Now, federal intelligence and law enforcement agencies are insisting on their right to
eavesdrop.

The government is proposing a standardized coding, or encryption, system that would
eliminate eavesdropping by anyone except the one holder of the code‘s key -- the
government itself.

To ensure that federal agents and police can continue to wiretap communications, the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is introducing a national
electronic code. It will cover all telephone systems and computer transmissions, with a
built-in back door that police can unlock with a court order and an electronic key.

White House and FBI officials insist they have no way to force any company to adopt
the new technology. They will not outlaw other forms of coding, they said.

But experts say a series of regulatory actions involving Congress, the State
Department, the U.S. attorney general, export licensing restrictions and the purchasing
power of the federal government will effectively force people to use the code.

The government‘s plan has triggered an outcry among computer users, civil rights
groups and others. The American Civil Liberties Union and groups of computer
professionals say the plan raises major constitutional questions.

Federal laws are designed to limit the government‘s ability to wiretap, not guarantee it,
they say.
        "Where does the U.S. government get the right to understand
        everything that is transmitted?" asked Michel Kabay, director of
        education for the National Computer Security Assn. in Carlisle, Pa.
Not so many years ago, powerful encryption techniques were the monopoly of military
and intelligence agencies.

Over time, computer experts and corporate cryptographers created codes to protect
their private communications. Some of these scramble electronic signals so thoroughly
that even the supercomputers of the National Security Agency cannot decipher them.
One of the best codes, called Pretty Good Privacy, is free and can be downloaded from
computer network libraries around the world -- yet it still contains safeguards that
protect its secrets from prying eyes.

Combined with advances in fiber optics and digital communications, these codes enable
people to send electronic mail, computer files and faxes the government cannot read,
and to make phone calls even the most sophisticated wiretapper cannot understand.
As new technologies converge to form the roadbed of a national information
superhighway, the government faces the prospect of millions of people around the world
communicating in the absolute privacy of the most secure codes science can devise.

At the same time, hundreds of phone companies channel calls through new digital
switches into long-distance fiber-optic cables where, translated into light-speed laser
pulses, they may elude interception more easily. Dozens of other companies are
organizing global wireless digital networks to send phone calls, faxes and computer files
over the airwaves to people no matter where they are or how often they move.

Given all this, NIST officials say the new code, called Skipjack, is the government‘s
attempt to strike a balance between personal privacy and public safety.

They say it will protect people from illicit eavesdropping, while allowing an authorized
government agent to unlock any scrambled call or encrypted computer message. It
could be incorporated into virtually every computer modem, cellular phone and
telecommunications system manufactured in the United States.

Designed by the National Security Agency, which conducts most of the country‘s
communications surveillance, the code is one facet of an ambitious government
blueprint for the new information age.

But critics say the code is just one of several steps by federal law enforcement groups
and intelligence agencies to vastly expand their ability to monitor all telecommunications
and to access computer databases.

Federal officials acknowledge that they are even considering the idea that foreign
governments should be given the keys to unlock long-distance calls, faxes and
computer transmissions from the United States. An international agency, supervised by
the United Nations or Interpol, might be asked to hold in trust the keys to electronic
codes, said Clint Brooks, a senior NSA technical adviser.

The Skipjack furor pits the White House, the FBI and some of the government‘s most
secret agencies against privacy advocates, cipher experts, business executives and
ragtag computer-zoids who say codes the government cannot break are the only way to
protect the public from the expanding reach of electronic surveillance.

On the computer networks that link millions of users and self-styled Cypherpunks -- a
group of encryption specialists -- the federal proposal has stirred fears of an electronic
Big Brother and the potential abuse of power.
        "It really is Orwellian when a scheme for surveillance is described as a
        proposal for privacy," said Marc Rotenberg, Washington director of
        Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.
Encryption is the art of concealing information in the open by hiding it in a code. It is
older than the alphabet, which is itself a code that almost everyone knows how to read.

Today, electronic codes conceal trade secrets, protect sensitive business calls and
shelter personal computer mail. They also scramble pay-per-view cable television
programs and protect electronic credit card transactions.

Everyone who uses an automated teller machine is entrusting financial secrets to an
electronic code that scrambles transmissions between the automated teller and the
bank‘s main computer miles away. One inter-bank network moves $1 trillion and 1
million messages around the world every day, swaddled in the protective cocoon of its
code.

Nowhere has the demand for privacy grown so urgent as on the international
confederation of computer systems known as the Internet. There, in a proving ground
for the etiquette of electronic communication, millions of people in dozens of countries
are adopting codes to protect their official business, swap gossip and exchange
personal notes elbow-to-elbow in the same crowded electronic bazaar.
         "People have been defending their own privacy for centuries with
         whispers, darkness, envelopes, closed doors, secret handshakes and
         couriers," said Eric Hughes, moderator of the Cypherpunks, an Internet
         group that specializes in encryption.

        "We are defending privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail-
        forwarding systems, with digital signatures and with electronic money."
And it‘s working. The technology is leaving law enforcement behind.

Federal officials who defend the Skipjack plan say they are worried about too much
privacy in the wrong hands.
         "Are we going to let technology repeal this country‘s wiretap laws?"
         asked James K. Kallstrom, FBI chief of investigative technology. Under
         U.S. law, any wiretap not sanctioned by a court order is a felony.
Federal law enforcement agencies and intelligence groups were galvanized last fall
when AT&T introduced the first inexpensive mass-market device to scramble phone
calls. The scrambler contains a computer chip that generates an electronic code unique
to each conversation.

FBI officials paled at what they said was the prospect of racketeers, drug dealers or
terrorists being able to find sophisticated phone scramblers to code and decode calls at
the nearest phone store.

National security analysts and Defense Department officials say U.S. intelligence
agencies find the new generation of computer encryption techniques especially
unsettling. It promises to make obsolete a multibillion-dollar investment in secret
surveillance facilities and spy satellites.
         "We would have the same concerns internationally that law
         enforcement would have domestically about uncontrolled encryption,"
         said Stewart A. Baker, NSA general counsel.
NSA officials are reluctant to discuss their surveillance operations, but they said they
would not want terrorists or anyone else "targeting the United States" to be able to
communicate in the secrecy provided by unbreakable modern codes.

The Clinton Administration is expected to advise telecommunications and computer
companies this fall to adopt the Skipjack code as a new national encryption standard
used by the government, the world‘s largest computer user, and anyone who does
business with it.

The government also will be spending billions in the next 10 years to promote a public
network of telecommunications systems and computer networks called the National
Information Infrastructure. Any firm that wants to join will have to adopt the Skipjack
code.

Skipjack is being offered to the public embedded in a tamper-proof, $26 computer circuit
called the Clipper Chip. It is produced by Mykotronx Inc., a computer company in
Torrance. To make it easier for agents to single out the proper conversation in a stream
of signals, every Clipper Chip has its own electronic identity and broadcasts it in every
message it scrambles.

Federal agents conducting a court-authorized wiretap can identify the code
electronically and then formally request the special keys that allow an outsider to
decipher what the chip has scrambled.

Federal officials say they expect companies to incorporate the chip into consumer
phone scramblers, cellular phones and "secure" computer modems. Within a few years,
FBI officials say, they expect the Skipjack code to be part of almost every encryption
device available to the average consumer.

Many companies say they are leery of adopting the sophisticated electronic code, even
though it could protect them from foreign intelligence agencies and competitors seeking
their trade secrets. But AT&T, which has a long history of cooperating with the
government on communications surveillance, has already agreed to recall the
company‘s consumer scramblers and refit them this fall with the new chip.

Even without Skipjack and the Clipper Chip, advanced computers and electronic
databases already have expanded government‘s ability to track and monitor citizens.

Searches of phone records, computer credit files and other databases are at an all-time
high, and court-authorized wiretaps -- which listened in on 1.7 million phone
conversations last year -- monitor twice as many conversations as a decade ago,
federal records show.

The General Accounting Office says that federal agencies maintain more than 900
databanks containing billions of personal records about U.S. citizens.

This type of easy access to electronic information is addictive, critics contend.

Since the FBI set up its computerized National Criminal Information Center in 1967, for
example, information requests have grown from 2 million a year to about 438 million last
year, and the criminal justice database itself now encompasses 24 million files.

The FBI records system, like computer files at the Internal Revenue Service, is
"routinely" used for unauthorized purposes by some federal, state and local law
enforcement agencies, the General Accounting Office (GAO) said.

GAO auditors found that some police agencies have used the FBI system to investigate
political opponents. Others have sold FBI information to companies and private
investigators. In Arizona, a former law enforcement official used it to track down his
estranged girlfriend and kill her, the auditors reported.

What the government can‘t find in its own files, it can obtain from any one of hundreds
of marketing firms that specialize in compiling electronic dossiers on citizens. The FBI is
seeking authority from Congress to obtain those records without consulting a judge or
notifying the individual involved, which is required now.

Information America, for example, offers data on the location and profiles of more than
111 million Americans, 80 million households and 61 million telephone numbers.
Another firm specializes in gay men and lesbians.

A third, a service for doctors called Patient Select, singles out millions of people with
nervous stomachs.
        Computer experts say encryption can draw a curtain across such electronic windows
        into private life.

        In fact, the FBI is planning to encrypt its criminal justice computer files.
                  "Recent years have seen technological developments that diminish the
                  privacy available to the individual," said Whitfield Diffie, a pioneering
                  computer scientist who helped invent modern cryptography.

                "Cameras watch us in the stores, X-ray machines search us at the
                airport, magnetometers look to see that we are not stealing from the
                merchants, and databases record our actions and transactions.

                "Cryptography," he said, "is perhaps alone in its promise to give us
                more privacy rather than less."


NEXT
Inside the company that makes the secret chip
         Scrambling for Privacy
         As more people and companies adopt codes to protect their telephone calls, faxes and
         computer files, the federal government has proposed a national encryption standard
         that will allow people to protect their privacy while ensuring that law enforcement agents
         can still wiretap telecommunications.

        Here is how it would work:
            When someone using a Skipjack-equipped secure phone calls another secure
                phone, chips inside the phone generate a unique electronic code to scramble
                the conservation.
            The chip also broadcasts a unique identifying serial number.
            If a law enforcement agent wants to listen in, he first must obtain a court order
                and the get the chip‘s serial number from the signal.
            The agent obtains takes that number to the Treasury Department and the
                National Institute of Standards and Technology, which keep the government‘s
                digital keys to the chip.
            The keys are combined to unscramble the conversation. When legal
                authorization for the wiretap expires, the keys are destroyed.
                     o Two 80-digit random strings of zeros and ones are selected.
                     o They are factored together to form the chip‘s unique key the key is then
                         split in half.
                     o Each half is paired with the serial number of the chip to form two keys.
                     o One is kept by the Treasury Department and the other by the National
                         Institute of Standards and Technology.
            Sources: U.S. National Security Agency, Mykotronx Inc.


Someone Is Listening
        To eavesdrop on a telephone conversation, law enforcement agents must obtain a court
        order, but they can use other devices, such as so-called pen registers, that record
        incoming or outgoing telephone numbers without actually listening to the calls.

        WIRETAP COURT ORDERS

        From 1985 through 1991, court-ordered wiretaps resulted in 7,324 convictions and
        nearly $300 million in fines. A single court order can involve many telephones. This data
         includes federal and state orders, but does not include many national security wiretaps.
                                          1985: 784
                                          1986: 754
                                          1987: 673
                                          1988: 738
                                          1989: 763
                                          1990: 872
                                          1991: 856
                                          1992: 919 *
         MONITORING PHONE ACTIVITY

         Pen registers are devices that record only the outgoing numbers dialed on a telephone
         under surveillance. Below are the number of pen registers in use, by year.
                                          1987: 1,682
                                          1988: 1,978
                                          1989: 2,384
                                          1990: 2,353
                                          1991: 2,445
                                          1992: 3,145
         Sources: Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, U.S. Justice Department, House
         Judiciary Committee



Turning Cell Phones Into Ankle Bracelets
Report on how cellular phones will soon be used by government officials to track your
whereabouts


‘E911‘ Turns Cell Phones into Tracking Devices
by Chris Oakes
3:10pm 6.Jan.98.PST
         Cell phones will be taking on a new role in 1998, beginning a slow transition to
         becoming user tracking devices. The outcome of this shift reassures some, but has
         others calling for restrictions on how cell-locating information can be used.

         The impending first phase of the FCC‘s rules is aimed at enabling emergency services
         personnel to quickly get information on the location of a cell phone user in the event of a
         911 call. By April, all cellular and personal communications services providers will have
         to transmit to 911 operators and other "public safety answering points" the telephone
         number and cell site location of any cell phone making a 911 call.

         The aim of the law is to bring to cell phone users the same automatic-locating capability
         that now exists with wireline phones. But while the FCC‘s aim is simple on the surface -
         to make it easier for medical, fire, and police teams to locate and respond to callers in
         distress - the technology is also giving rise to concerns over the ease with which the
         digital age and its wireless accouterments are bringing to tracking individuals.
                  "The technology is pretty much developing to create a more and more
                  precise location information. The key question for us is ‘what is the legal
                  standard for government access?‘" says James Dempsey, senior staff
                  counsel at the Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT)
         Those seeking restrictions on the use of cell phone tracking information emphasize that,
         unlike the stationary wireline phones, a cell phone is more specifically associated with
         an individual and their minute-by-minute location.
In December, the FCC began requiring wireless providers to automatically patch
through any emergency calls made through their networks. Subscriber or not, bills paid
or unpaid, anyone with a cell phone and a mobile identification number was thus
guaranteed to see their 911 calls completed.

1998 brings new rules into place that take that initial action much further. By April,
emergency service personnel will receive more than just the call - they‘ll also get the
originating cell phone‘s telephone number and, more significantly, the location of the cell
site that handled the call.

The FCC‘s "Enhanced 911 services" requirements that wireless providers make this
information available is the beginning of a tracking system that by 2001 will be able to
locate a phone within a 125-meter radius.

To provide this precise location information, Jeffrey Nelson of the Cellular
Telecommunications Industry Association says different carriers will choose different
methods of gathering location information, but all of them involve detecting the radio
frequencies sent from the phone to service antennas. Because a phone sends
additional signals to other antennas in addition to the primary one, "triangulation" lets
them calculate the caller‘s whereabouts within that multi-antenna region. All this
happens automatically when a cell phone is turned on.

The upshot, Nelson says, is that cellular callers will "be able to make a call to 911 or the
appropriate emergency number without having to explain where they are." He cites a
case in which a woman stranded in a blizzard, unable to tell where she was, was
located by use of her cell phone. Various systems are being tested by most providers,
he reports, but many are already working with methods to provide such location
information today.

But this tracking issue has privacy advocates seeking preventive legislation to see that
the instant accessibility of the information to emergency units doesn‘t just as easily
deliver the same tracking information to law enforcement agencies - from local police on
up to the FBI.
         "The FCC has been in the picture from the 911 perspective," says
         Dempsey of the Center for Democracy and Technology.
But to him, this obvious emergency benefit of E911 necessitates legal action to draw
boundaries around its use by other organizations, namely law enforcement.

That‘s where the issue runs into the same waters as the controversy surrounding the
expansion of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). That
1994 law was meant to keep communications companies from letting the advancement
of digital and wireless technology become an obstacle to the surveillance needs of law
enforcement agencies. But the CDT and the Electronic Frontier Foundation, among
others, have argued that as CALEA undergoes actual implementation (a process that is
still ongoing), the FBI is seeking to expand its surveillance capabilities by seeking unjust
specifications for phone systems‘ compliance with the law.

Dempsey wants to see both CALEA and the new E911 requirements be implemented
with clear restrictions on the ability of law enforcement to tap into personal information
on users, especially their whereabouts at any one time.

With the implementation of E911, Dempsey says that in effect,
        "your phone has become an ankle bracelet. Therefore we are urging
        the standard for government access be increased to a full probable
              cause standard. [Law enforcement agencies] have to have suspicion to
              believe that the person they are targeting is engaged in criminal
              activity."
     Currently, he says, to get a court order allowing the surveillance of cell phone use, law
     enforcement only has to prove that the information sought - not the individual - is
     relevant to an ongoing investigation.
             "It says to law enforcement you‘ve got to have a link between the
             person you‘re targeting and the crime at issue," Dempsey says. "It
             cannot be a mere fishing expedition."
     While the CDT and others seek beefed-up constitutional restrictions on the ability for
     law enforcement to obtain court orders in such cases, the FBI says the process for
     obtaining such court orders is already adequate.
             "We work under the strict provisions of the law with regard to our ability
             to obtain a court order," said Barry Smith, supervisory special agent in
             the FBI‘s office of public affairs.

              "Law enforcement‘s access to [cell phone data] falls very much within
              the parameters of the Fourth Amendment."
     He also says that under CALEA, the call data the FBI seeks does not provide the
     specific location of a wireless phone.

     The FCC and its E911 requirements are distinct from CALEA, but because they offer
     the ultimate form of tracking information - far more instantly and explicitly than the FBI is
     seeking in the implementation of CALEA, E911 may be ripe for access by law
     enforcement for non-emergency needs.

     As for the distinction between the dispute over CALEA and the FCC‘s E911 services,
     Smith says the latter has nothing to do with the FBI. "There‘s not any crossover
     between the two."

     But, says Dempsey, when law enforcement serves a court order, they could get location
     information through the requirements established by E911.



Spying in Europe

The Echelon System
     ECHELON article From Eurobytes
     From London Daily Telegraph

     ONLINE SURVEILLANCE

     Rumors have abounded for several years of a massive system designed to intercept
     virtually all email and fax traffic in the world and subject it to automated analysis, despite
     laws in many nations (including this one) barring such activity. The laws were
     circumvented by a mutual pact among five nations. It‘s illegal for the United States to
     spy on it‘s citizens. Likewise the same for Great Britain. But under the terms of the
     UKUSA agreement, Britain spies on Americans and America spies on British citizens
     and the two groups trade data. Technically, it may be legal, but the intent to evade the
     spirit of the laws protecting the citizens of those two nations is clear.

     The system is called ECHELON, and had been rumored to be in development since
     1947, the result of the UKUSA treaty signed by the governments of the United States,
the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

The purpose of the UKUSA agreement was to create a single vast global intelligence
organization sharing common goals and a common agenda, spying on the world and
sharing the data. The uniformity of operation is such that NSA operatives from Fort
Meade could work from Menwith Hill to intercept local communications without either
nation having to formally approve or disclose the interception.




                        ECHELON intercept station at Menwith Hill, England.



What is ECHELON used for?
In the days of the cold war, ECHELON‘s primary purpose was to keep an eye on the
U.S.S.R. In the wake of the fall of the U.S.S.R. ECHELON justifies it‘s continued multi-
billion dollar expense with the claim that it is being used to fight "terrorism", the catch-all
phrase used to justify any and all abuses of civil rights.

With the exposure of the APEC scandal, however, ECHELON‘s capabilities have come
under renewed scrutiny and criticism by many nations. Although not directly implicated
in the bugging of the Asia Pacific Economic Conference in Seattle, the use of so many
U.S. Intelligence agencies to bug the conference for the purpose of providing
commercial secrets to DNC donors raised the very real possibility that ECHELON‘s all-
hearing ears were prying corporate secrets loose for the advantage of the favored few.

Given that real terrorists and drug runners would always use illegal cryptographic
methods anyway, the USA led attempt to ban strong crypto to the general populace
seemed geared towards keeping corporate secrets readable to ECHELON, rather than
any real attempt at crime prevention.

The cover blows off!

Even close allies do not like it when they are being spied on. Especially if the objective
is not law enforcement but corporate shenanigans to make rich politicians just that
much richer. So, the Civil Liberties Committee of the European Parliament looked into
      ECHELON, and officially confirmed it‘s existence and purpose.


Here is the article that ran in the London Telegraph
      Tuesday 16 December 1997
      Issue 936
      Spies like US

      A European Commission report warns that the United States has developed an
      extensive network spying on European citizens and we should all be worried. Simon
      Davies reports:
              Cooking up a charter for snooping

              A GLOBAL electronic spy network that can eavesdrop on every
              telephone, email and telex communication around the world will be
              officially acknowledged for the first time in a European Commission
              report to be delivered this week.

              The report - Assessing the Technologies of Political Control - was
              commissioned last year by the Civil Liberties Committee of the
              European Parliament. It contains details of a network of American-
              controlled intelligence stations on British soil and around the world, that
              "routinely and indiscriminately" monitor countless phone, fax and email
              messages.

              It states:
                       "Within Europe all email telephone and fax
                       communications are routinely intercepted by the United
                       States National Security Agency transferring all target
                       information from the European mainland via the
                       strategic hub of London then by satellite to Fort Meade
                       in Maryland via the crucial hub at Menwith Hill in the
                       North York moors in the UK."
              The report confirms for the first time the existence of the secretive
              ECHELON system.

              Until now, evidence of such astounding technology has been patchy
              and anecdotal. But the report - to be discussed on Thursday by the
              committee of the office of Science and Technology Assessment in
              Luxembourg - confirms that the citizens of Britain and other European
              states are subject to an intensity of surveillance far in excess of that
              imagined by most parliaments. Its findings are certain to excite the
              concern of MEPs.
                      "The ECHELON system forms part of the UKUSA
                      system (Cooking up a charter for snooping) but unlike
                      many of the electronic spy systems developed during
                      the Cold War, ECHELON is designed primarily for non-
                      military targets: governments, organizations and
                      businesses in virtually every country.

                       "The ECHELON system works by indiscriminately
                       intercepting very large quantities of communications
                       and then siphoning out what is valuable using artificial
                       intelligence aids like MEMEX to find key words".
              According to the report, ECHELON uses a number of national
dictionaries containing key words of interest to each country.

For more than a decade, former agents of US, British, Canadian and
New Zealand national security agencies have claimed that the
monitoring of electronic communications has become endemic
throughout the world. Rumors have circulated that new technologies
have been developed which have the capability to search most of the
world‘s telex, fax and email networks for "key words". Phone calls, they
claim, can be automatically analyzed for key words.

Former signals intelligence operatives have claimed that spy bases
controlled by America have the ability to search nearly all data
communications for key words. They claim that ECHELON
automatically analyses most email messaging for "precursor" data
which assists intelligence agencies to determine targets. According to
former Canadian Security Establishment agent Mike Frost, a voice
recognition system called Oratory has been used for some years to
intercept diplomatic calls.

The driving force behind the report is Glyn Ford, Labour MEP for
Greater Manchester East. He believes that the report is crucial to the
future of civil liberties in Europe.
         "In the civil liberties committee we spend a great deal
         of time debating issues such as free movement,
         immigration and drugs. Technology always sits at the
         centre of these discussions. There are times in history
         when technology helps democratize, and times when it
         helps centralize. This is a time of centralization. The
         justice and home affairs pillar of Europe has become
         more powerful without a corresponding strengthening
         of civil liberties."
The report recommends a variety of measures for dealing with the
increasing power of the technologies of surveillance being used at
Menwith Hill and other centers. It bluntly advises:
        "The European Parliament should reject proposals from
        the United States for making private messages via the
        global communications network (Internet) accessible to
        US intelligence agencies."
The report also urges a fundamental review of the involvement of the
American NSA (National Security Agency) in Europe, suggesting that
their activities be either scaled down, or become more open and
accountable.

Such concerns have been privately expressed by governments and
MEPs since the Cold War, but surveillance has continued to expand.
US intelligence activity in Britain has enjoyed a steady growth
throughout the past two decades. The principal motivation for this rush
of development is the US interest in commercial espionage. In the
Fifties, during the development of the "special relationship" between
America and Britain, one US institution was singled out for special
attention.

The NSA, the world‘s biggest and most powerful signals intelligence
organization, received approval to set up a network of spy stations
throughout Britain. Their role was to provide military, diplomatic and
              economic intelligence by intercepting communications from throughout
              the Northern Hemisphere.

              The NSA is one of the shadowiest of the US intelligence agencies. Until
              a few years ago, it existence was a secret and its charter and any
              mention of its duties are still classified. However, it does have a Web
              site (www.nsa.gov:8080) in which it describes itself as being
              responsible for the signals intelligence and communications security
              activities of the US government.

              One of its bases, Menwith Hill, was to become the biggest spy station in
              the world. Its ears - known as radomes - are capable of listening in to
              vast chunks of the communications spectrum throughout Europe and
              the old Soviet Union.

              In its first decade the base sucked data from cables and microwave
              links running through a nearby Post Office tower, but the
              communications revolutions of the Seventies and Eighties gave the
              base a capability that even its architects could scarcely have been able
              to imagine. With the creation of Intelsat and digital telecommunications,
              Menwith and other stations developed the capability to eavesdrop on an
              extensive scale on fax, telex and voice messages. Then, with the
              development of the Internet, electronic mail and electronic commerce,
              the listening posts were able to increase their monitoring capability to
              eavesdrop on an unprecedented spectrum of personal and business
              communications.

              This activity has been all but ignored by the UK Parliament. When
              Labour MPs raised questions about the activities of the NSA, the
              Government invoked secrecy rules. It has been the same for 40 years.

              Glyn Ford hopes that his report may be the first step in a long road to
              more openness.
                     "Some democratically elected body should surely have
                     a right to know at some level. At the moment that‘s
                     nowhere".




FROM "COVERT ACTION" QUARTERLY

EXPOSING THE GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
by Nicky Hager
          IN THE LATE 1980S, IN A DECISION IT PROBABLY REGRETS, THE US PROMPTED NEW
            ZEALAND TO JOIN A NEW AND HIGHLY SECRET GLOBAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM.
         HAGER’S INVESTIGATION INTO IT AND HIS DISCOVERY OF THE ECHELON DICTIONARY
         HAS REVEALED ONE OF THE WORLD’S BIGGEST, MOST CLOSELY HELD INTELLIGENCE
         PROJECTS. THE SYSTEM ALLOWS SPY AGENCIES TO MONITOR MOST OF THE WORLD’S
                        TELEPHONE, E-MAIL, AND TELEX COMMUNICATIONS.
For 40 years, New Zealand‘s largest intelligence agency, the Government Communications Security
Bureau (GCSB) the nation‘s equivalent of the US National Security Agency (NSA) had been helping its
Western allies to spy on countries throughout the Pacific region, without the knowledge of the New
Zealand public or many of its highest elected officials.

What the NSA did not know is that by the late 1980s, various intelligence staff had decided these
activities had been too secret for too long, and were providing me with interviews and documents
exposing New Zealand‘s intelligence activities. Eventually, more than 50 people who work or have
worked in intelligence and related fields agreed to be interviewed.

The activities they described made it possible to document, from the South Pacific, some alliance-wide
systems and projects which have been kept secret elsewhere. Of these, by far the most important is
ECHELON.

Designed and coordinated by NSA, the ECHELON system is used to intercept ordinary e-mail, fax,
telex, and telephone communications carried over the world‘s telecommunications networks. Unlike
many of the electronic spy systems developed during the Cold War, ECHELON is designed primarily for
non-military targets: governments, organizations, businesses, and individuals in virtually every country. It
potentially affects every person communicating between (and sometimes within) countries anywhere in
the world.

It is, of course, not a new idea that intelligence organizations tap into e-mail and other public
telecommunications networks. What was new in the material leaked by the New Zealand intelligence
staff was precise information on where the spying is done, how the system works, its capabilities and
shortcomings, and many details such as the codenames.

The ECHELON system is not designed to eavesdrop on a particular individual‘s e-mail or fax link.
Rather, the system works by indiscriminately intercepting very large quantities of communications and
using computers to identify and extract messages of interest from the mass of unwanted ones. A chain
of secret interception facilities has been established around the world to tap into all the major
components of the international telecommunications networks.

Some monitor communications satellites, others land-based communications networks, and others radio
communications. ECHELON links together all these facilities, providing the US and its allies with the
ability to intercept a large proportion of the communications on the planet.

The computers at each station in the ECHELON network automatically search through the millions of
messages intercepted for ones containing pre-programmed keywords. Keywords include all the names,
localities, subjects, and so on that might be mentioned. Every word of every message intercepted at
each station gets automatically searched whether or not a specific telephone number or e-mail address
is on the list.

The thousands of simultaneous messages are read in "real time" as they pour into the station, hour after
hour, day after day, as the computer finds intelligence needles in telecommunications haystacks.


SOMEONE IS LISTENING
The computers in stations around the globe are known, within the network, as the ECHELON
Dictionaries.

Computers that can automatically search through traffic for keywords have existed since at least the
1970s, but the ECHELON system was designed by NSA to interconnect all these computers and allow
the stations to function as components of an integrated whole. The NSA and GCSB are bound together
under the five-nation UKUSA signals intelligence agreement.
The other three partners all with equally obscure names are:
             the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) in Britain
             the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) in Canada
             the Defense Signals Directorate (DSD) in Australia
The alliance, which grew from cooperative efforts during World War II to intercept radio transmissions,
was formalized into the UKUSA agreement in 1948 and aimed primarily against the USSR.

The five UKUSA agencies are today the largest intelligence organizations in their respective countries.
With much of the world‘s business occurring by fax, e-mail, and phone, spying on these communications
receives the bulk of intelligence resources. For decades before the introduction of the ECHELON
system, the UKUSA allies did intelligence collection operations for each other, but each agency usually
processed and analyzed the intercept from its own stations.

Under ECHELON, a particular station‘s Dictionary computer contains not only its parent agency‘s
chosen keywords, but also has lists entered in for other agencies. In New Zealand‘s satellite interception
station at Waihopai (in the South Island), for example, the computer has separate search lists for the
NSA, GCHQ, DSD, and CSE in addition to its own.

Whenever the Dictionary encounters a message containing one of the agencies‘ keywords, it
automatically picks it and sends it directly to the headquarters of the agency concerned. No one in New
Zealand screens, or even sees, the intelligence collected by the New Zealand station for the foreign
agencies. Thus, the stations of the junior UKUSA allies function for the NSA no differently than if they
were overtly NSA-run bases located on their soil.

The first component of the ECHELON network are stations specifically targeted on the international
telecommunications satellites (Intelsats) used by the telephone companies of most countries. A ring of
Intelsats is positioned around the world, stationary above the equator, each serving as a relay station for
tens of thousands of simultaneous phone calls, fax, and e-mail.

Five UKUSA stations have been established to intercept the communications carried by the Intelsats.




                                      ECHELON Station in Morwenstow, UK


The British GCHQ station is located at the top of high cliffs above the sea at Morwenstow in Cornwall.

Satellite dishes beside sprawling operations buildings point toward Intelsats above the Atlantic, Europe,
and, inclined almost to the horizon, the Indian Ocean. An NSA station at Sugar Grove, located 250
kilometers southwest of Washington, DC, in the mountains of West Virginia, covers Atlantic Intelsats
transmitting down toward North and South America. Another NSA station is in Washington State, 200
kilometers southwest of Seattle, inside the Army‘s Yakima Firing Center.

                                                                               *1
Its satellite dishes point out toward the Pacific Intelsats and to the east.




The job of intercepting Pacific Intelsat communications that cannot be intercepted at Yakima went to
New Zealand and Australia. Their South Pacific location helps to ensure global interception.

New Zealand provides the station at Waihopai (above image) and Australia supplies the Geraldton
                                                                                                 *2
station (below image) in West Australia (which targets both Pacific and Indian Ocean Intelsats).




Each of the five stations‘ Dictionary computers has a codename to distinguish it from others in the
network.

The Yakima station, for instance, located in desert country between the Saddle Mountains and
Rattlesnake Hills, has the COWBOY Dictionary, while the Waihopai station has the FLINTLOCK
Dictionary. These codenames are recorded at the beginning of every intercepted message, before it is
transmitted around the ECHELON network, allowing analysts to recognize at which station the
interception occurred.

New Zealand intelligence staff has been closely involved with the NSA‘s Yakima station since 1981,
when NSA pushed the GCSB to contribute to a project targeting Japanese embassy communications.
Since then, all five UKUSA agencies have been responsible for monitoring diplomatic cables from all
Japanese posts within the same segments of the globe they are assigned for general UKUSA
            3
monitoring.

Until New Zealand‘s integration into ECHELON with the opening of the Waihopai station in 1989, its
share of the Japanese communications was intercepted at Yakima and sent unprocessed to the GCSB
headquarters in Wellington for decryption, translation, and writing into UKUSA-format intelligence
reports (the NSA provides the codebreaking programs).




                                             click image to enlarge




COMMUNICATION" THROUGH SATELLITES
The next component of the ECHELON system intercepts a range of satellite communications not carried
by Intelsat. In addition to the UKUSA stations targeting Intelsat satellites, there are another five or more
stations homing in on Russian and other regional communications satellites.

These stations are:
             Menwith Hill in northern England
             Shoal Bay, outside Darwin in northern Australia (which targets Indonesian
                satellites)
             Leitrim, just south of Ottawa in Canada (which appears to intercept Latin
                American satellites - below image)
             Bad Aibling in Germany
             Misawa in northern Japan
A group of facilities that tap directly into land-based telecommunications systems is the final element of
the ECHELON system.

Besides satellite and radio, the other main method of transmitting large quantities of public, business,
and government communications is a combination of water cables under the oceans and microwave
networks over land. Heavy cables, laid across seabeds between countries, account for much of the
world‘s international communications. After they come out of the water and join land-based microwave
networks they are very vulnerable to interception.

The microwave networks are made up of chains of microwave towers relaying messages from hilltop to
hilltop (always in line of sight) across the countryside. These networks shunt large quantities of
communications across a country. Interception of them gives access to international undersea
communications (once they surface) and to international communication trunk lines across continents.

They are also an obvious target for large-scale interception of domestic communications.

Because the facilities required to intercept radio and satellite communications use large aerials and
dishes that are difficult to hide for too long, that network is reasonably well documented. But all that is
required to intercept land-based communication networks is a building situated along the microwave
route or a hidden cable running underground from the legitimate network into some anonymous building,
possibly far removed. Although it sounds technically very difficult, microwave interception from space by
                                            4
United States spy satellites also occurs.

The worldwide network of facilities to intercept these communications is largely undocumented, and
because New Zealand‘s GCSB does not participate in this type of interception, my inside sources could
not help either.


NO ONE IS SAFE FROM A MICROWAVE
A 1994 exposé of the Canadian UKUSA agency, Spyworld, co-authored by one of its former staff, Mike
Frost, gave the first insights into how a lot of foreign microwave interception is done (see p. 18).

It described UKUSA "embassy collection" operations, where sophisticated receivers and processors are
secretly transported to their countries‘ overseas embassies in diplomatic bags and used to monitor
                                              *5
various communications in foreign capitals.

Since most countries‘ microwave networks converge on the capital city, embassy buildings can be an
                                                                                                           *6
ideal site. Protected by diplomatic privilege, they allow interception in the heart of the target country.

The Canadian embassy collection was requested by the NSA to fill gaps in the American and British
embassy collection operations, which were still occurring in many capitals around the world when Frost
left the CSE in 1990. Separate sources in Australia have revealed that the DSD also engages in
                    *7
embassy collection.

On the territory of UKUSA nations, the interception of land-based telecommunications appears to be
done at special secret intelligence facilities. The US, UK, and Canada are geographically well placed to
intercept the large amounts of the world‘s communications that cross their territories.

The only public reference to the Dictionary system anywhere in the world was in relation to one of these
facilities, run by the GCHQ in central London.

In 1991, a former British GCHQ official spoke anonymously to Granada Television‘s World in Action
about the agency‘s abuses of power. He told the program about an anonymous red brick building at 8
Palmer Street where GCHQ secretly intercepts every telex which passes into, out of, or through London,
feeding them into powerful computers with a program known as "Dictionary."

The operation, he explained, is staffed by carefully vetted British Telecom people:
       "It‘s nothing to do with national security. It‘s because it‘s not legal to take every single
       telex. And they take everything: the embassies, all the business deals, even the
                                                                                       *8
       birthday greetings, they take everything. They feed it into the Dictionary."
What the documentary did not reveal is that Dictionary is not just a British system; it is UKUSA-wide.

Similarly, British researcher Duncan Campbell has described how the US Menwith Hill station in Britain
taps directly into the British Telecom microwave network, which has actually been designed with several
                                                                                               9
major microwave links converging on an isolated tower connected underground into the station.

The NSA Menwith Hill station, with 22 satellite terminals and more than 4.9 acres of buildings, is
undoubtedly the largest and most powerful in the UKUSA network. Located in northern England, several
thousand kilometers from the Persian Gulf, it was awarded the NSA‘s "Station of the Year" prize for
1991 after its role in the Gulf War. Menwith Hill assists in the interception of microwave communications
in another way as well, by serving as a ground station for US electronic spy satellites.

These intercept microwave trunk lines and short range communications such as military radios and
walkie talkies.
Other ground stations where the satellites‘ information is fed into the global network are Pine Gap (click
above images) run by the CIA near Alice Springs in central Australia and the Bad Aibling station in
          *10
Germany.

Among them, the various stations and operations making up the ECHELON network tap into all the main
components of the world‘s telecommunications networks. All of them, including a separate network of
stations that intercepts long distance radio communications, have their own Dictionary computers
connected into ECHELON.

In the early 1990s, opponents of the Menwith Hill station obtained large quantities of internal documents
from the facility. Among the papers was a reference to an NSA computer system called Platform. The
integration of all the UKUSA station computers into ECHELON probably occurred with the introduction of
this system in the early 1980s.

James Bamford wrote at that time about a new worldwide NSA computer network codenamed Platform,
       "which will tie together 52 separate computer systems used throughout the world. Focal
       point, or `host environment,‘ for the massive network will be the NSA headquarters at
       Fort Meade. Among those included in Platform will be the British SIGINT organization,
                 *11
       GCHQ."


LOOKING IN THE DICTIONARY
The Dictionary computers are connected via highly encrypted UKUSA communications that link back to
computer data bases in the five agency headquarters.

This is where all the intercepted messages selected by the Dictionaries end up. Each morning the
specially "indoctrinated" signals intelligence analysts in Washington, Ottawa, Cheltenham, Canberra,
and Wellington log on at their computer terminals and enter the Dictionary system. After keying in their
security passwords, they reach a directory that lists the different categories of intercept available in the
data bases, each with a four-digit code.

For instance, 1911 might be Japanese diplomatic cables from Latin America (handled by the Canadian
CSE), 3848 might be political communications from and about Nigeria, and 8182 might be any
messages about distribution of encryption technology.

They select their subject category, get a "search result" showing how many messages have been
caught in the ECHELON net on that subject, and then the day‘s work begins. Analysts scroll through
screen after screen of intercepted faxes, e-mail messages, etc. and, whenever a message appears
worth reporting on, they select it from the rest to work on.

If it is not in English, it is translated and then written into the standard format of intelligence reports
produced anywhere within the UKUSA network either in entirety as a "report," or as a summary or "gist."
INFORMATION CONTROL
A highly organized system has been developed to control what is being searched for by each station
and who can have access to it. This is at the heart of ECHELON operations and works as follows.

The individual station‘s Dictionary computers do not simply have a long list of keywords to search for.
And they do not send all the information into some huge database that participating agencies can dip
into as they wish. It is much more controlled.

The search lists are organized into the same categories, referred to by the four digit numbers. Each
agency decides its own categories according to its responsibilities for producing intelligence for the
network. For GCSB, this means South Pacific governments, Japanese diplomatic, Russian Antarctic
activities, and so on.

The agency then works out about 10 to 50 keywords for selection in each category. The keywords
include such things as names of people, ships, organizations, country names, and subject names. They
also include the known telex and fax numbers and Internet addresses of any individuals, businesses,
organizations, and government offices that are targets. These are generally written as part of the
message text and so are easily recognized by the Dictionary computers.

The agencies also specify combinations of keywords to help sift out communications of interest. For
example, they might search for diplomatic cables containing both the words "Santiago" and "aid," or
cables containing the word "Santiago" but not "consul" (to avoid the masses of routine consular
communications). It is these sets of words and numbers (and combinations), under a particular category,
that get placed in the Dictionary computers. (Staff in the five agencies called Dictionary Managers enter
and update the keyword search lists for each agency.)

The whole system, devised by the NSA, has been adopted completely by the other agencies.

The Dictionary computers search through all the incoming messages and, whenever they encounter one
with any of the agencies‘ keywords, they select it. At the same time, the computer automatically notes
technical details such as the time and place of interception on the piece of intercept so that analysts
reading it, in whichever agency it is going to, know where it came from, and what it is.

Finally, the computer writes the four-digit code (for the category with the keywords in that message) at
the bottom of the message‘s text. This is important. It means that when all the intercepted messages
end up together in the database at one of the agency headquarters, the messages on a particular
subject can be located again.

Later, when the analyst using the Dictionary system selects the four- digit code for the category he or
she wants, the computer simply searches through all the messages in the database for the ones which
have been tagged with that number.

This system is very effective for controlling which agencies can get what from the global network
because each agency only gets the intelligence out of the ECHELON system from its own numbers. It
does not have any access to the raw intelligence coming out of the system to the other agencies. For
example, although most of the GCSB‘s intelligence production is primarily to serve the UKUSA alliance,
New Zealand does not have access to the whole ECHELON network. The access it does have is strictly
controlled.

A New Zealand intelligence officer explained:
       "The agencies can all apply for numbers on each other‘s Dictionaries. The hardest to
       deal with are the Americans. ... [There are] more hoops to jump through, unless it is in
       their interest, in which case they‘ll do it for you."
There is only one agency which, by virtue of its size and role within the alliance, will have access to the
full potential of the ECHELON system the agency that set it up.

What is the system used for? Anyone listening to official "discussion" of intelligence could be forgiven for
thinking that, since the end of the Cold War, the key targets of the massive UKUSA intelligence machine
are terrorism, weapons proliferation, and economic intelligence.

The idea that economic intelligence has become very important, in particular, has been carefully
cultivated by intelligence agencies intent on preserving their post-Cold War budgets. It has become an
article of faith in much discussion of intelligence.

However, I have found no evidence that these are now the primary concerns of organizations such as
NSA.


QUICKER INTELLIGENCE, SAME MISSION
A different story emerges after examining very detailed information I have been given about the
intelligence New Zealand collects for the UKUSA allies and detailed descriptions of what is in the yards-
deep intelligence reports New Zealand receives from its four allies each week.

There is quite a lot of intelligence collected about potential terrorists, and there is quite a lot of economic
intelligence, notably intensive monitoring of all the countries participating in GATT negotiations. But by
far, the main priorities of the intelligence alliance continue to be political and military intelligence to assist
the larger allies to pursue their interests around the world. Anyone and anything the particular
governments are concerned about can become a target.

With capabilities so secret and so powerful, almost anything goes. For example, in June 1992, a group
of current "highly placed intelligence operatives" from the British GCHQ spoke to the London Observer:
        "We feel we can no longer remain silent regarding that which we regard to be gross
        malpractice and negligence within the establishment in which we operate."
They gave as examples GCHQ interception of three charitable organizations, including Amnesty
International and Christian Aid. As the Observer reported:
         "At any time GCHQ is able to home in on their communications for a routine target
         request," the GCHQ source said.
In the case of phone taps the procedure is known as Mantis. With telexes it is called Mayfly. By keying in
a code relating to Third World aid, the source was able to demonstrate telex "fixes" on the three
organizations.
         "It is then possible to key in a trigger word which enables us to home in on the telex
         communications whenever that word appears," he said. "And we can read a pre-
                                                                         12
         determined number of characters either side of the keyword."
Without actually naming it, this was a fairly precise description of how the ECHELON Dictionary system
works.

Again, what was not revealed in the publicity was that this is a UKUSA-wide system. The design of
ECHELON means that the interception of these organizations could have occurred anywhere in the
network, at any station where the GCHQ had requested that the four-digit code covering Third World aid
be placed.

Note that these GCHQ officers mentioned that the system was being used for telephone calls. In New
Zealand, ECHELON is used only to intercept written communications: fax, e-mail, and telex. The reason,
according to intelligence staff, is that the agency does not have the staff to analyze large quantities of
telephone conversations.
Mike Frost‘s exposé of Canadian "embassy collection" operations described the NSA computers they
used, called Oratory, that can "listen" to telephone calls and recognize when keywords are spoken. Just
as we can recognize words spoken in all the different tones and accents we encounter, so too,
according to Frost, can these computers. Telephone calls containing keywords are automatically
extracted from the masses of other calls and recorded digitally on magnetic tapes for analysts back at
agency headquarters.

However, high volume voice recognition computers will be technically difficult to perfect, and my New
Zealand-based sources could not confirm that this capability exists. But, if or when it is perfected, the
implications would be immense. It would mean that the UKUSA agencies could use machines to search
through all the international telephone calls in the world, in the same way that they do written messages.

If this equipment exists for use in embassy collection, it will presumably be used in all the stations
throughout the ECHELON network. It is yet to be confirmed how extensively telephone communications
are being targeted by the ECHELON stations for the other agencies.

The easiest pickings for the ECHELON system are the individuals, organizations, and governments that
do not use encryption. In New Zealand‘s area, for example, it has proved especially useful against
already vulnerable South Pacific nations which do not use any coding, even for government
communications (all these communications of New Zealand‘s neighbors are supplied, unscreened, to its
UKUSA allies).

As a result of the revelations in my book, there is currently a project under way in the Pacific to promote
and supply publicly available encryption software to vulnerable organizations such as democracy
movements in countries with repressive governments. This is one practical way of curbing illegitimate
uses of the ECHELON capabilities.

One final comment. All the newspapers, commentators, and "well placed sources" told the public that
New Zealand was cut off from US intelligence in the mid-1980s.

That was entirely untrue.

The intelligence supply to New Zealand did not stop, and instead, the decade since has been a period of
increased integration of New Zealand into the US system. Virtually everything the equipment, manuals,
ways of operating, jargon, codes, and so on, used in the GCSB continues to be imported entirely from
the larger allies (in practice, usually the NSA). As with the Australian and Canadian agencies, most of
the priorities continue to come from the US, too.

The main thing that protects these agencies from change is their secrecy. On the day my book arrived in
the book shops, without prior publicity, there was an all-day meeting of the intelligence bureaucrats in
the prime minister‘s department trying to decide if they could prevent it from being distributed. They
eventually concluded, sensibly, that the political costs were too high. It is understandable that they were
so agitated.

Throughout my research, I have faced official denials or governments refusing to comment on publicity
about intelligence activities. Given the pervasive atmosphere of secrecy and stonewalling, it is always
hard for the public to judge what is fact, what is speculation, and what is paranoia.

Thus, in uncovering New Zealand‘s role in the NSA-led alliance, my aim was to provide so much detail
about the operations the technical systems, the daily work of individual staff members, and even the
rooms in which they work inside intelligence facilities that readers could feel confident that they were
getting close to the truth.

I hope the information leaked by intelligence staff in New Zealand about UKUSA and its systems such
as ECHELON will help lead to change.

                          Return to The NSA - The Super Secret National
                                         Security Agency
                                 Return to Temas / Sociopolitica
                                        Return to Echelon




                                    in New Statesman Magazine
                                          12 August 1988
                                       from Duncan Campbell Website




  They’ve got it taped
  In the booming surveillance industry they spy on whom they wish, when they wish, protected by
  barriers of secrecy, fortified by billions of pounds worth of high, high technology. Duncan
  Campbell reports from the United States on the secret Anglo-American plan for a global
                                     st
  electronic spy system for the 21 century capable of listening in to most of us most of the time

  American, British and Allied intelligence agencies are soon to embark on a massive, billion-dollar
  expansion of their global electronic surveillance system. According to information given recently in
  secret to the US Congress, the surveillance system will enable the agencies to monitor and
                                                st
  analyze civilian communications into the 21 century. Identified for the moment as Project P415,
  the system will be run by the US National Security Agency (NSA). But the intelligence agencies of
  many other countries will be closely involved with the new network, including those from Britain,
  Australia, Germany and Japan--and, surprisingly, the People‘s Republic of China.

  New satellite stations and monitoring centers are to be built around the world, and a chain of new
  satellites launched, so that NSA and its British counterpart, the Government Communications
  Headquarters (GCHQ) at Cheltenham, may keep abreast of the burgeoning international
  telecommunications traffic.

  The largest overseas station in the Project P415 network is the US satellite and communications
  base at Menwith Hill. near Harrogate in Yorkshire. It is run undercover by the NSA and taps into
  all Britain‘s main national and international communications networks (New Statesman, 7 August
  1980). Although high technology stations such as Menwith Hill are primarily intended to monitor
  international communications, according to US experts their capability can be, and has been,
  turned inwards on domestic traffic. Menwith Hill, in particular, has been accused by a former
  employee of gross corruption and the monitoring of domestic calls.

  The vast international global eavesdropping network has existed since shortly after the second
  world war, when the US, Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand signed a secret agreement
  on signals intelligence, or "sigint". It was anticipated, correctly, that electronic monitoring of
  communications signals would continue to be the largest and most important form of post-war
  secret intelligence, as it had been through the war.
Although it is impossible for analysts to listen to all but a small fraction of the billions of telephone
calls, and other signals which might contain "significant" information, a network of monitoring
stations in Britain and elsewhere is able to tap all international and some domestic
communications circuits, and sift out messages which sound interesting. Computers automatically
analyse every telex message or data signal, and can also identify calls to, say, a target telephone
number in London, no matter from which country they originate.

A secret listening agreement, called UKUSA (UK-USA), assigns parts of the globe to each
participating agency. GCHQ at Cheltenham is the coordinating centre for Europe, Africa and the
Soviet Union (west of the Ural Mountains).

The NSA covers the rest of the Soviet Union and most of the Americas. Australia--where another
station in the NSA listening network is located in the outback--co-ordinates the electronic
monitoring of the South Pacific, and South East Asia.

With 15,000 staff and a budget of over £500 million a year (even without the planned new Zircon
spy satellite), GCHQ is by far the largest part of British intelligence. Successive UK governments
have placed high value on its eavesdropping capabilities, whether against Russian military signals
or the easier commercial and private civilian targets.

Both the new and existing surveillance systems are highly computerized. They rely on near total
interception of international commercial and satellite communications in order to locate the
telephone or other messages of target individuals. Last month, a US newspaper, the Cleveland
Plain Dealer, revealed that the system had been used to target the telephone calls of a US
Senator, Strom Thurmond. The fact that Thurmond, a southern Republican and usually a
staunch supporter of the Reagan administration, is said to have been a target has raised fears
that the NSA has restored domestic, electronic, surveillance programmes. These were originally
exposed and criticized during the Watergate investigations, and their closure ordered by
President Carter.

After talking to the NSA, Thurmond later told the Plain Dealer that he did not believe the
allegation. But Thurmond, a right-wing Republican, may have been unwilling to rock the boat.
Staff members of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence said that staff were "digging
into it" despite the "stratospheric security classification" of all the systems involved.

The Congressional officials were first told of the Thurmond interception by a former employee of
the Lockheed Space and Missiles Corporation, Margaret Newsham, who now lives in Sunnyvale,
California. Newsham had originally given separate testimony and filed a lawsuit concerning
corruption and mis-spending on other US government "black" projects. She has worked in the US
and Britain for two corporations which manufacture signal intelligence computers, satellites and
interception equipment for NSA, Ford Aerospace and Lockheed. Citing a special Executive Order
signed by President Reagan, she told me last month that she could not and would not discuss
classified information with journalists. But according to Washington sources (and the report in the
Plain Dealer, she informed a US Congressman that the Thurmond interception took place at
Menwith Hill, and that she personally heard the call and was able to pass on details.

Since then, investigators have subpoenaed other witnesses and asked them to provide the
complete plans and manuals of the ECHELON system and related projects. The plans and
blueprints are said to show that targeting of US political figures would not occur by accident. but
was designed into the system from the start.

While working at Menwith Hill, Newsham is reported to have said that she was able to listen
through earphones to telephone calls being monitored at the base. Other conversations that she
heard were in Russian. After leaving Menwith Hill, she continued to have access to full details of
Menwith Hill operations from a position as software manager for more than a dozen VAX
computers at Menwith which operate the ECHELON system.

Newsham refused last month to discuss classified details of her career, except with cleared
Congressional officials. But it has been publicly acknowledged that she worked on a large range
of so-called "black" US intelligence programmes, whose funds are concealed inside the costs of
other defense projects. She was fired from Lockheed four years ago after complaining about the
corruption, and sexual harassment.

Lockheed claimed she had been a pook [as written] timekeeper, and has denied her charges of
corruption on "black" projects. But the many charges she is reported to have made--such as the
use of top secret computers for football pools, or to sell a wide range of merchandise from their
offices, and deliberate and massive overcharging and waste by the company--are but small beer
in a continuing and wider scandal about defense procurement. Newsham‘s testimony about
overcharging by contractors is now the subject of a major congressional inquiry.

From US sources not connected with Margaret Newsham, we have obtained for the first time a
list of the major classified projects in operation at Menwith Hill. The base currently has over
1,200 staff, more than two thirds of them Americans. Other than the ECHELON computer
network, the main projects at Menwith Hill are code-named SILKWORTH, MOONPENNY, SIRE,
RUNWAY and STEEPLEBUSH. The station also receives information from a satellite called BIG
BIRD.
               Project SILKWORTH is, according to signals intelligence specialists, the
                  code-name for long-range radio monitoring from Menwith Hill
               MOONPENNY is a system for monitoring satellite communications
               RUNWAY is thought to be the control network for an eavesdropping
                  satellite called VORTEX, now in orbit over the Soviet Union
               The base earlier controlled a similar series of satellites called CHALET
               The new STEEPLEBUSH control centre appears connected with the latest
                  and biggest of the overhead listening satellites
               These are code-named MAGNUM, according to US intelligence sources
BIG BIRD, which is not usually connected with Menwith Hill, is a low-orbiting photographic
reconnaissance satellite. But investigators have worked out, from details of the clearances
necessary to know about BIG BIRD, that this satellite--and indeed, many other satellites,
variously disguised as "weather satellites"--also carry listening equipment. One such sigint
package is said to have been aboard the doomed space shuttle Challenger, despite its ostensibly
civilian purpose.

Recently published US Department of Defense 1989 budget information has confirmed that the
Menwith Hill spy base will be the subject of a major $26 million expansion programme.
Information given to Congress in February listed details of plans for a four-year expansion of the
main operation building and other facilities at Menwith Hill. Although the testimony referred only
to a "classified location", the base can be identified because of references to STEEPLEBUSH.
According to this testimony, the new STEEPLEBUSH II project will cost $15 million between now
and 1993. The expansion is required to avoid overcrowding and "to support expanding classified
missions".

During the Watergate affair, it was revealed that NSA, in collaboration with GCHQ, had routinely
intercepted the international communications of prominent anti-Vietnam war leaders such as Jane
Fonda and Dr Benjamin Spock. Another target was former Black Panther leader Eldridge
Cleaver. Then in the late 1970s, it was revealed that President Carter had ordered NSA to stop
obtaining "back door" intelligence about US political figures through swapping intelligence data
with GCHQ Cheltenham.

Among important stations being developed in the new P415 network, sources indicated, are Bude
in Cornwall, mainly run by GCHQ, Bad Aibling in Germany, and two sites in the People‘s
Republic of China (which are used only for monitoring the USSR). The western intelligence
agencies have not yet resolved the question of how to replace the recently upgraded British
intelligence listening station at Chung Hom Kok in Hong Kong (which at the moment listens to
China itself) when the colony is handed back to China next decade.

In Australia three months ago, New Zealand Defense Minister Bob Tizard revealed that two
Australasian interception stations planned for the early 1990s will be targeted on new
communications satellites launched by third world countries such as India and Indonesia. The
new satellite spy bases are at Geraldton in northern Australia and Blenheim, New Zealand. The
similar British spy base at Morwenstow, near Bude, Cornwall, has been continuously expanded
throughout the 1980s, including the provision of massive US analysis computers.

If Margaret Newsham‘s testimony is confirmed by the ongoing Congressional investigation, then
the NSA has been behaving illegally under US law--unless it can prove either that Thurmond‘s
call was intercepted completely accidentally, or that the highly patriotic Senator is actually a
foreign spy or terrorist. Moreover NSA‘s international phone tapping operations from Menwith Hill
and at Morwenstow, Cornwall, can only be legal in Britain if special warrants have been issued
by the Secretary of State to specify that American intelligence agents are persons to whom
information from intercepts must or should be given. This can not be established, since the
government has always refused to publish any details of the targets or recipients of specific
interception warrants.

When the Menwith Hill base was first set up there was no British law controlling phone tapping,
or making unauthorized interception (such as by foreign intelligence agencies) illegal. Now there
is, and telecommunications interception by the Americans from British territory would clearly be
illegal without the appropriate warrant.

When the new Interception of Communications Act was passed in 1985, however, it was
obviously designed to make special provision for operations like ECHELON or Project P415 to
trawl all international communications to and from Britain. A special section of the Act, Section
3(2), allows warrants to be issued to intercept any general type of international messages to or
from Britain if this is "in the interests of national security" or "for the purpose of safeguarding the
economic well-being of the United Kingdom". Such warrants also allow GCHQ to tap any or all
other communications on the same cables or satellites that may have to be picked up in order to
select out the messages they want. So whether or not a British government warrant can legally
allow American agents to intercept private British communications, there is no doubt that British
law as well as British bases have been designed to encourage rather than inhibit the booming
industry in international telecommunications surveillance.

Both British and American domestic communications are also being targeted and intercepted by
the ECHELON network, the US investigators have been told. The agencies are alleged to have
collaborated not only on targeting and interception, but also on the monitoring of domestic UK
communications.

Special teams from GCHQ Cheltenham have been flown in secretly in the last few years to a
computer centre in Silicon Valley near San Francisco for training on the special computer
systems that carry out both domestic and international interception.

The centre near San Francisco has also been used to train staff from the "Technical Department"
of the People‘s Liberation Army General Staff, which is the Chinese version of GCHQ. The
Department operates two ultra-secret joint US-Chinese listening stations in the Xinjiang Uighur
Autonomous Region, close to the Soviet Siberian border. Allegedly, such surveillance systems
are only used to target Soviet or Warsaw Pact communications signals, and those suspected of
involvement in espionage and terrorism. But those involved in ECHELON have stressed to
Congress that there are no formal controls over who may be targeted. And I have been told that
junior intelligence staff can feed target names into the system at all levels, without any check on
their authority to do so. Witnesses giving evidence to the Congressional inquiry have discussed
whether the Democratic presidential contender Jesse Jackson was targeted; one source implied
that he had been. Even test engineers from manufacturing companies are able to listen in on
private citizens‘ communications, the inquiry was told.

But because of the special Executive Order signed by President Reagan, US intelligence
operatives who know about such politically sensitive operations face jail sentences if they speak
out--despite the constitutional American protection of freedom of speech and of the press. And in
Britain, as we know, the government is in the process of tightening the Official Secrets Act to
make the publication of any information from intelligence officials automatically a crime, even if
the information had already been published, or had appeared overseas first.


Selected references:

Note: Duncan Campbell has generously provided additional US sources of information on
electronic interception which shall be offered on this site when available.
              1972 Winslow Peck, former NSA analyst, Ramparts interview on NSA
                 electronic interception: http://jya.com/nsa-elint.htm
              1976 Duncan Campbell, "British MP Accuses U.S. of Electronic spying,"
                 New Scientist, August 5, 1976, p. 268.
              1979 Duncan Campbell, "The Threat of the Electronic Spies," New
                 Statesman, February 2, 1979, pp. 140-44.
              1980 Duncan Campbell, "Society Under Surveillance," Policing The
                 Police, Vol. 2. (Ed: Ha.) John Calder, London.
              1980 Duncan Campbell and Clive Thomas, "BBC‘s Trade Secrets," New
                 Statesman, July 4, 1980, pp. 13-14.
              1980 Duncan Campbell and Linda Melvern, "America‘s Big Ear on
                 Europe," New Statesman, July 18, 1980, pp. 10-14.
              1981 Duncan Campbell, (Ed.) "Big Brother Is Listening - Phone tappers
                 and the security state", 1st ed. Vol. 2. New Statesman, London.
              1983 Duncan Campbell, "Spy in the Sky," New Statesman, September 9,
                 1983, pp. 8-9.
              1983 James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America‘s Most
                 Secret Agency, London, Penguin. Excerpts:
                      o Chapter 8 - Partners
                      o Chapter 9 - Competition
                      o Chapter 10 - Abyss

             1984 Duncan Campbell, The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier: American Military
               Power in Britain, London, Michael Joseph.
             1985 Jeffrey T. Richelson and Desmond Ball, The Ties That Bind:
               Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries, London, Allen &
               Unwin.
             1986 Duncan Campbell and Patrick Forbes, "UK‘s Listening Link to
               Apartheid," New Statesman, August 1, 1986, pp. 101-11.
             1986 Duncan Campbell and S. Connor, On The Record, Michael Joseph,
               London.
             1987 William Burrows, Deep Black: Space Espionage and National
               Security, New York, Random House. Excerpt:
                    o Chapter 8 - Foreign Bases: A Net Spread Wide
                1989 Jeffrey T. Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community, New York,
                  Ballinger. Excerpts:
                       o Chapter 8 - Signals Intelligence
                       o Chaper 12 - Exchange and Liaison Arrangements

                1996 Nicky Hager, Secret Power: New Zealand‘s Role In the International
                  Spy Network, Craig Potton, Nelson, New Zealand.
                1996 Intelligence Online report on UKUSA cooperation:
                  http://www.blythe.org/Intelligence/readme/brits-usa.int45
                1997 Daily Telegraph report "Spies Like US" on Mentwith Hill (with aerial
                  photo) and other commentary:
                  http://www.accessone.com/%7Erivero/POLITICS/ECHELON/echelon.htm
                  l
                1998 Nicky Hager, Covert Action Quarterly article on ECHELON:
                  http://jya.com/echelon.htm
                1998 European Parliament, STOA report, Assessment of the
                  Technologies of Political Control: http://jya.com/stoa-atpc.htm
                The book excerpts provide extensive additional sources.
                  The National Security Agency Web site: http://www.nsa.gov:8080
                  Related US Office of Technology Assessment reports on electronic
                  surveillance, 1972-1996: http://jya.com/esnoop.htm
                                                      Return




                                    From an article in Nexus Magazine April/May 96
                                         from MinmdControlForums Website


               A lawsuit filed against the U.S. National Security Agency reveals a frightening array of
                          technologies and programs designed to keep tabs on individuals.

                                                John St Clair Akwei
                                                          vs
                                              National Security Agency
                                           Ft George G. Meade, MD, USA
                                               (Civil Action 92-0449)


The following document comprises evidence for a lawsuit filed at the U.S. Courthouse in Washington,
DC, by John St Clair Akwei against the National Security Agency, Ft George G. Meade, Maryland (Civil
Action 92-0449), constitutes his knowledge of the NSA‘s structure, national security activities proprietary
technologies and covert operations to monitor individual citizens Ed.




        1. THE NSA’S MISSION AND DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE
OPERATION
Communications Intelligence (COMINT)

Blanket coverage of all electronic communications in the US and the world to ensure
national security. The NSA at Ft Meade, Maryland has had the most advanced
computers in the world since the early 1960s. NSA technology is developed and
implemented in secret from private corporations, academia and the general public.

Signals Intelligence (SICINT)

The Signals Intelligence mission of the NSA has evolved into a program of decoding
EMF waves in the environment for wirelessly tapping into computers and track persons
with the electrical currents in their bodies. Signals Intelligence is based on fact that
everything in the environment with an electric current in it has a magnetic flux around it
which gives off EMF waves. The NSA/DoD [Department of Defense] developed
proprietary advanced digital equipment which can remotely analyze all objects whether
manmade or organic, that have electrical activity.

Domestic Intelligence (DOMINT)

The NSA has records on all US citizens. The NSA gathers information on US citizen
who might be of interest to any of the over 50,000 NSA agents (HUMINT). These
agents are authorized by executive order to spy on anyone. The NSA has a permanent
national security anti-terrorist surveillance network in place. This surveillance network is
completely disguised and hidden from the public.

Tracking individuals in the US is easily and cost-effectively implemented with NSA‘s
electronic surveillance network. This network (DOMINT) covers the entire US, involves
tens of thousands of NSA personnel, and tracks millions of persons simultaneously.
Cost-effective implementation of operations is assured by NSA computer technology
designed to minimize operations costs. NSA personnel serve in quasi-public positions in
their communities and run cover businesses and legitimate businesses that can inform
the intelligence community of persons they would want to track. NSA personnel in the
community usually have cover identities such as social workers, lawyers and business
owners.

Individual Citizens Occasionally Targeted for Surveillance by Independently Operating
NSA Personnel

NSA personnel can control the lives of hundreds of thousands of individuals in the US
by using the NSA‘s domestic intelligence network and cover businesses. The operations
independently run by them can sometimes go beyond the bounds of law. Long-term
control and sabotage of tens of thousands of unwitting citizens by NSA operatives is
likely to happen. NSA DOMINT has the ability to assassinate US citizens covertly or run
covert psychological control operations to cause subjects to be diagnosed with ill mental
health.
                   The above symptoms highlight a fraction of the vast array of
             Neuro-Electromagnetic Frequency Assaults perpetuated by the Police and
                              Military Intelligence Agencies toward
             Remote Mind Control Experiments, Behavioural Manipulation and Murder.



2. NSA’S DOMESTIC ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE
NETWORK
As of the early 1960s, the most advanced computers in the world were at the NSA, Ft
Meade. Research breakthroughs with these computers were kept for the NSA. At the
present time the NSA has nanotechnology computers that are 15 years ahead of
present computer technology. The NSA obtains blanket coverage of information in the
US by using advanced computers that use artificial intelligence to screen all
communications, regardless of medium, for key words that should be brought to the
attention of NSA agents/cryptologists. These computers monitor all communications at
the transmitting and receiving ends. This blanket coverage of the US is a result of the
NSA‘s Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) mission. The NSA‘s electronic surveillance network
is based on a cellular arrangement of devices that can monitor the entire EMF
spectrum. This equipment was developed, implemented and kept secret in the same
manner as other electronic warfare programs.

Signals Intelligence Remote Computer Tampering

The NSA keeps track of all PCs and other computers sold in the US. This is an integral
part of the Domestic Intelligence network. The NSA‘s EMF equipment can tune in RF
emissions from personal computer circuit boards (while filtering out emissions from
monitors and power sup- plies). The RF emission from PC circuit boards contains digital
information in the PC. Coded RF waves from the NSA‘s equipment can resonate PC
circuits and change data in the PCs. Thus the NSA can gain wireless modem-style entry
into any computer in the country for surveillance or anti-terrorist electronic warfare.

Detecting EMF Fields in Humans for Surveillance

A subject‘s bioelectric field can be remotely detected, so subjects can be monitored
anywhere they are. With special EMF equipment NSA cryptologists can remotely read
evoked potentials (from EEGs). These can be decoded into a person‘s brain-states and
thoughts. The subject is then perfectly monitored from a distance. NSA personnel can
dial up any individual in the country on the Signals Intelligence EMF scanning network
and the NSA‘s computers will then pinpoint and track that person 24 hours a day. The
NSA can pick out and track anyone in the US.
3. NSA SIGNALS INTELLIGENCE USE OF EMF BRAIN
STIMULATION
NSA Signals Intelligence uses EMF Brain Stimulation for Remote Neural Monitoring
(RNM) and Electronic Brain Link (EBL). EMF Brain Stimulation has been in
development since the MKULTRA program of the early 1950s, which included
neurological research into radiation (non-ionizing EMF) and bioelectric research and
development. The resulting secret technology is categorized at the National Security
Archives as "Radiation Intelligence", defined as "information from unintentionally
emanated electromagnetic waves in the environment, not including radioactivity or
nuclear detonation". Signals Intelligence implemented and kept this technology secret in
the same manner as other electronic warfare programs of the US Government. The
NSA monitors available information about this technology and withholds scientific
research from the public. There are also international intelligence agreements to keep
this technology secret.

The NSA has proprietary electronic equipment that analyze electrical activity in humans
from a distance. NSA computer generated brain mapping can continuously monitor all
of the electrical activity in the brain continuously. The NSA records and decode
individual brain maps (of hundreds of thousands of persons) for national security
purposes. EMF Brain Stimulation is also secretly used by the military for brain-to-
computer link (in military fighter aircraft, for example).

For electronic surveillance purposes, electrical activity in the speech center of the brain
can be translated into the subject‘s verbal thoughts. RNM can send encoded signals to
the brain‘s auditory cortex, thus allowing audio communications direct to the brain
(bypassing the ears). NSA operatives can use this covertly to debilitate subjects by
simulating auditory hallucinations characteristic of paranoid schizophrenia.
Without any contact with the subject, Remote Neural Monitoring can map out electrical
activity from the visual cortex of a subject‘s brain and show images from the subject‘s
brain on a video monitor. NSA operatives see what the surveillance subject‘s eyes are
seeing. Visual memory can also be seen. RNM can send images direct to the visual
cortex, bypassing the eyes and optic nerves. NSA operatives can use this
surreptitiously to put images into a surveillance subject‘s brain while they are in REM
sleep for brain-programming purposes.

Capabilities of NSA Operatives Using RNM

There has been a Signals Intelligence network in the US since the 1940s. The NSA, Ft
Meade has in place a vast two-way wireless RNM system which is used to track
subjects and non-invasively monitor audio-visual information in their brains. This is all
done with no physical contact with the subject. RNM is the ultimate method of
surveillance and domestic intelligence. Speech, 3D sound and subliminal audio can be
sent to the auditory cortex of the subject‘s brain (bypassing the ears), and images can
be sent into the visual cortex. RNM can alter a subject‘s perceptions, moods and motor
control.

Speech cortex/auditory cortex link has become the ultimate communications system for
the intelligence community. RNM allows for a complete audio-visual brain-to-brain link
or brain-to-computer link.




The above is a simple flowchart of Neuro-Electromagnetic Frequency Assaults showing methods that can be
                    perpetuated by the Police and Military Intelligence Agencies toward
                 Remote Mind Control Experiments, Behavioural Manipulation and Murder.



4. NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY SIGNALS INTELLIGENCE
ELECTRONIC BRAIN LINK TECHNOLOGY
NSA SIGINT can remotely detect, identify and monitor a person‘s bioelectric fields.

The NSA‘s Signals Intelligence has the proprietary ability to monitor remotely and non-
invasively information in the human brain by digitally decoding the evoked potentials in
the 30-50 Hz, 5 milliwatt electromagnetic emissions from the brain.
Neuronal activity in the brain creates a shifting electrical pattern that has a shifting
magnetic flux. This magnetic flux puts out a constant 30-50 Hz, 5 milliwatt
electromagnetic (EMF) wave. Contained in the electromagnetic emission from the brain
are spikes and patterns called "evoked potentials". Every thought, reaction, motor
command, auditory event and visual image in the brain has a corresponding "evoked
potential" or set of "evoked potentials". The EMF emission from the brain can be
decoded into the current thoughts, images and sounds in the subject‘s brain.

NSA SIGINT uses EMF-transmitted Brain Stimulation as a communications system to
transmit information (as well as nervous system messages) to intelligence agents and
also to transmit to the brains of covert operations subjects (on a non-perceptible level).

EMF Brain Stimulation works by sending a complexly coded and pulsed
electromagnetic signal to trigger evoked potentials (events) in the brain, thereby forming
sound and visual images in the brain‘s neural circuits. EMF Brain Stimulation can also
change a person‘s brain-states and affect motor control.

Two-way electronic Brain Link is done by remotely monitoring neural audio-visual
information while transmitting sound to the auditory cortex (bypassing the ears) and
transmitting faint images to the visual cortex (bypassing the optic nerves and eyes). The
images appear as floating 2D screens in the brain.

Two-way electronic Brain Link has become the ultimate communications system for
CIA/NSA personnel. Remote neural monitoring (RNM, remotely monitoring bioelectric
information in the human brain) has become the ultimate surveillance system. It is used
by a limited number of agents in the US Intelligence Community.




The above is a simple flowchart of Neuro-Electromagnetic Frequency Assaults showing methods that can be
                    perpetuated by the Police and Military Intelligence Agencies toward
                 Remote Mind Control Experiments, Behavioural Manipulation and Murder.
5. [NO HEADING IN ORIGINAL DOCUMENT]
RNM requires decoding the resonance frequency of each specific brain area. That
frequency is then modulated in order to impose information in that specific brain area.
The frequency to which the various brain areas respond varies from 3 Hz to 50 Hz. Only
NSA Signals Intelligence modulates signals in this frequency band. (See Table 1)

This modulated information can be put into the brain at varying intensities from
subliminal to perceptible. Each person‘s brain has a unique set of bioelectric
resonance/entrainment frequencies. Sending audio information to a person‘s brain at
the frequency of another person‘s auditory cortex would result in that audio information
not being perceived.

The Plaintiff learned of RNM by being in two-way RNM contact with the Kinnecome
group at the NSA, Ft Meade.

They used RNM 3D sound direct to the brain to harass the Plaintiff from October 1990
to May 1991.

As of 5/91 they have had two-way RNM communications with the Plaintiff and have
used RNM to attempt to incapacitate the Plaintiff and hinder the Plaintiff from going to
the authorities about their activities against the Plaintiff in the last 12 years. The
Kinnecome group has about 100 persons working 24 hours a day at Ft Meade. They
have also brain-tapped persons the Plaintiff is in contact with to keep the Plaintiff
isolated. This is the first time ever that a private citizen has been harassed with RNM
and has been able to bring a lawsuit against NSA personnel misusing this intelligence
operations method.




6. NSA TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
       Remote monitoring/tracking of individuals in any location, inside any building,
       continuously, anywhere in the country. A system for inexpensive implementation of
       these operations allows for thousands of persons in every community to be spied on
       constantly by the NSA.

       Remote RNM Devices

       NSA‘s RNM equipment remotely reads the evoked potentials (EEGs) of the human
       brain for tracking individuals, and can send messages through the nervous systems to
       affect their performance. RNM can electronically identify individuals and track them
       anywhere in the US. This equipment is on a network and is used for domestic
       intelligence operations, government security and military base security, and in case of
       bioelectric warfare.

       Spotters and Walk-Bys in Metropolitan Areas

       Tens of thousands of persons in each area working as spotters and
       neighbourhood/business place spies (sometimes unwittingly) following and checking on
       subjects who have been identified for covert control by NSA personnel.

       Agents working out of offices can be in constant communication with spotters who are
       keeping track of the NSA‘s thousands of subjects in public. NSA agents in remote
       offices can instantly identify (using~ RNM) any individual spotted in public who is in
       contact with surveillance subject.

       Chemicals and Drugs into Residential Buildings with Hidden NSA Installed and
       Maintained Plastic Plumbing lines

       The NSA has kits for running lines into residential tap water and air ducts of subjects for
       the delivery of drugs (such as sleeping gas or brainwashing-aiding drugs). This is an
       outgrowth of CIA pharmapsychology (psychopharmacology).

       Brief Overview of Proprietary US Intelligence/Anti- Terrorist Equipment Mentioned

       Fixed network of special EMF equipment that can read EEGs in human brains and
       identify/track individuals by using digital computers. ESB (Electrical Stimulation to the
       Brain) via EMF signal from the NSA Signals Intelligence is used to control subjects.

       EMF equipment that gathers information from PC circuit boards by deciphering RF
       emissions, thereby gaining wireless modem- style entry into any personal computer in
       the country. All equipment hidden, all technology secret, all scientific research
       unreported (as in electronic warfare research). Not known to the public at all, yet
       complete and thorough implementation of this method of domestic intelligence has been
       in place since the early 1980s.

       Editor‘s Note: I tried ringing Mr Akwei to find out what was the out- come, if any, of his
       court case. He firmly but kindly told me that he could not speak about anything to do
       with the case over the phone and hung up. A subsequent conversation of similar length
       resulted in the information that he did not wish his address or phone number published
       with this article. So, if we hear of any developments, we‘ll let you know.


Its totally obvious from the above article that the US National Security Agency is none other than a
covertly run terrorist organization.
 Their highly sophisticated technology that is used to monitor and manipulate the minds of millions of
 innocent people daily, is a blatant expression of the dominating and authoritarian mentality that exists
 behind the facade of our so called democratic society.

 George Orwell‘s "THOUGHT POLICE" is an absolute reality in today‘s world.

 Whether we realize it or not, every individual within our society is negatively effected by this
 dictatorship attitude.

 It has to change - It will change - It starts with you!

 George Farquhar
 Project Freedom
                                  An example of EMF Brain Stimulation

                               Bioelectric Resonance                Information Induced Through
      Brain Area
                                     Frequency                               Modulation
 Motor Control
                                         10 Hz                Motor Impulse co-ordination
 Cortex
 Auditory Cortex                         15 Hz                Sound which bypasses the ears
 Visual Cortex                           25 Hz                Images in the brain bypassing the eyes
 Somatosensory                           9 Hz                 Phantom touch sense
 Thought Center                          20 Hz                Imposed subconscious thoughts




RESOURCES
These publications have only been discovered since December 1991, after Plaintiff had already notified
authorities (Dept of Justice, etc.) of Public Corruption by named NSA employees. When no action was
taken against the NSA employees, I researched the Intelligence Community electronic surveillance
technology involved and discovered the following publications.
     The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, by Robert Becker, M.D.
         Monitoring neuroelectric information in the brain ESB. (p. 265,313,318)

     Cross currents, by Robert Becker. Simulating auditory hallucinations. Remote computer
       tampering using RF emissions from the logic board. (p.
       70,78,105,174,210,216,220,242,299,303)

     Currents of Death, by Paul Brodeur. Driving brain electrical activity with external EM;
       magnetophosphenes; Delgado. (p. 27,93)

     The Zapping of America, by Paul Brodeur. DoD EM ESB research; simulating auditory
       hallucinations.

     Of Mice, Men and Molecules, by John H. Heller 1963 Bioelectricity; probing the brain with EM
       waves. (p, 110)

     The Three-Pound Universe, by Judith Hooper. CIA EEG research; EEGs for surveillance.
    (p.29,132,137)

 In the Palaces of Memory, by George Johnson. EM emissions from the brain; the brain as an
   open electromagnetic circuit.

 The Puzzle Palace, by James Bamford. Signals Intelligence; most advanced computers in the
   early ‘sixties.

 The US Intelligence Community. Glossary terms at National Security Archives; Radiation
   Intelligence (information from unintentionally emanated electromagnetic energy, excluding
   radioactive sources).

 The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate", by John Marks. Electrical or radio stimulation to the
   brain; CIA R&D in bioelectrics. (p.227)

 Secret Agenda, by Jim Hougan. National security cult groups.

 Crimes of the Intelligence Community, by Morton Halperin. Surreptitious entries; intelligence
   agents running operations against government workers.

 War in the Age of Intelligent Machines, NSA computer supremacy, complete control of
  information.

 Alternate Computers, by Time-Life Books. Molecule computers.

 The Mind, by Richard Restak, M.D. EEG Systems inc.; decoding brain EM emanations, tracking
   thoughts on a computer. (p. 258)

 MedTech, by Lawrence Galton. Triggering events in the brain, direct to auditory cortex signals.

 Cyborg, by D.S. Halacy, Jr, 1965. Brain-to-computer link research contracts given out by the US
   government.

 Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control, by Harvey M. Weinstein M.D. Dr. Cameron;
   psychic driving; ultraconceptual communications.

 Journey Into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse, by
   Gordon Thomas, Intelligence R&D; Delgado; psychic driving with radio telemetry. (p.
   127,276,116,168,169)

 Mind Manipulators, by Alan Scheflin and Edward M. Opton. MKULTRA brain research for
   information-gathering.

 The Brain Changers, by Maya Pines. Listening to brain EM emissions. (p.19)

 Modern Bioelectricity. Inducing audio in the brain with EM waves; DoD cover-up; EM wave ESB;
   remote EEGs

 Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Neurophysiology, by Sudhansu Chokroverty.
   Magnetophosphenes; images direct to the visual cortex.

 The Mind of Man, by Nigel Calder. US intelligence brain research.

 Neuroelectric Society Conference, 1971. Audio direct to the brain with EM waves; 2-way remote
    EEGs.

 Brain Control, by Elliot S. Valenstein. ESB., control of individuals.

 Towards Century 21, by C.S. Wallia. Brain Stimulation for direct-to-brain communications (p21)

 Mind Wars, by Ron McRae (associate of Jack Anderson). Research into brain-to-brain electronic
   communications., remote neural EM detection (PP. 62 106, 136).

 Mind Tools, by Rudy Rucker. Brain tapping; communications with varying biomagnetic fields
   (p82).

 US News and World report, January 2nd 1984. EM wave brain stimulation; intelligence
   community hi-tech (p38).

 Ear Magazine. Article on extremely low frequencies radio emissions in the natural environment;
   radio emissions from the human body.

 City Paper, Washington DC January 17, 1992. Article FCC and NSA "complete radio spectrum"
   listening posts.

 Frontiers in Science, by Edward Hutchings Jr 1958 (p48).

 Beyond Bio Feedback, by Elmer and Alyce Green, 1977 (p118)

 The Body Quantum, by Fred Alan Wolf

 Cloning; A Biologist Reports, by Robert Gillmore McKinnell. Ethical review of cloning humans.

 Hoovers‘ FBI, by Former agent William Turner. Routines of electronic surveillance work. (p280).

 July 20th 2019, by Arthur C. Clarke LIDA; Neurophonics; Brain-computer link.

 MegaBrain, by Michael Hutchison. Brain stimulation with EM waves; CIA research and
   information control. (pp.107,108,117,120,123).

 The Cult of Information, by Theodore Rosnak, 1986. NSA Directive #145; personal files in
   computers; computer automated telephone tapping.

 The Body Shop, 1986 implantation of an electrode array on the visual cortex for video direct to
   the brain; other 1960‘s research into electronically triggering Phosphenes in the brain, thus
   bypassing the eyes.

 Evoked Potentials, by David Regan. Decoding neuroelectric information in the brain.
                               Return to La Red Echelon
                                             by Dr. Kingsley Dennis
                                                   Global Research
                                                    March 31, 2008
                                             from GlobalResearch Website


         Dr. Kingsley Dennis is a Research Associate in the Centre for Mobilities Research (CeMoRe)
         based at the Sociology Department at Lancaster University, U.K. His research involves
         examining physical–digital convergences and how these might impact upon social processes.

         He is concerned with the digital rendition of identity and the implications of surveillance
         technologies.
                 Web: http://www.kingsleydennis.com
                 Blog: http://www.new-mobilities.co.uk
                 E–mail: Kingsley@kingsleydennis.co.uk




Introduction
The Argentinean writer Jorge Luis Borges once famously wrote of a great Empire that created a map
that was so detailed it was as large as the Empire itself. The actual map itself grew and decayed as
the Empire itself conquered or lost territory. When the Empire finally crumbled, all that remained was
the map. In some sense we can say that it is the map in which we live; we occupy a location within a
simulation of reality.

Although semanticists say that ‗the map is not the territory‘, within this digitized age the territory is
increasingly becoming the map and the separation between the physical and the digitized rendition is
blurring. In this context, to ‗know the map‘ gives priority to intervene upon the physical.

In recent years many of us have been scrambling to get ‗on the Net‘ and thus be ‗mapped‘; within a
few years we may find that living ‗off the Net‘ will no longer be an option.

It is my argument that the future direction of present technological emergence is one that seeks to go
beyond networks; rather it is towards ubiquitous technologies that offer a complete immersive (or
rather ‗sub-mersive‘) experience of a digitized environment.

With networks there is always the possibility of moving into the grey and illusive areas in-between.

These are the areas where the networks do not, or cannot, cover; neglected zones of poverty and
risk, and insecure zones of warlord regions, and smuggling zones. With immersive technological
mapping there may one day be no ‗spaces in-between‘; the distinction between ‗in‘ and ‗out‘
dissolved; boundaries melted away under the digital gaze.

In this article I argue that the US military-industrial complex is attempting to gain full dominance over
the complete information spectrum, including dominating the electro-magnetic spectrum and the
Internet, in order to gain full total coverage for purposes of containment and control.
Moving Towards Full Spectrum Dominance
As is now well-known, in 2002 the US Pentagon‘s DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project
Agency) responded to the alleged lack of intelligence data after the September 11th attacks by
                                                                                           1
establishing the ‗Total Information Awareness‘ office, commandeered by John Poindexter .

According to Poindexter‘s own words,
       "We must be able to detect, classify, identify, and track…This is a high level,
       visionary, functional view of the world-wide system…The mission here is to take the
       competing hypotheses from the analytical environment and estimate a range of
       plausible futures.

        The objective is to identify common nodes, representing situations that could occur,
        and to explore the probable impact of various actions or interventions that authorities
        might make in response to these situations."
        (Poindexter, 2002)

The latest program in this surveillance project is the Space Based Infrared System (called SBIRS
High) that aims to track all global infra-red signatures as well as, what is termed, ‗counterspace
situational awareness‘ (Dinerman, 2004).

The 80s ‗Star Wars‘ missile defense project of Reaganite US security policy has been craftily
converted into intercepting today‘s ‗enemy‘: not necessarily rogue missiles, but information and
domestic ‗earth-bound‘ security. The US military also has in operation the IKONOS remote sensing
satellite, which travels at 17, 000 mph 423 miles into space, circumnavigating the globe every 98
minutes, with a 3-foot resolution capacity.

Such satellites belong to the private company Space Imaging Inc (now sold to GeoEye), who work for
the military due to US law that restricts the US government operating upon their own soil (Brzezinski,
2004). Also, the US military RADARSAT satellite uses radar to see through clouds, smoke and dust.

The US National Security Agency (NSA) utilizes top of the range KEYHOLE-11 satellites that have a
10-inch resolution, which means headlines can be read from someone sitting on a bench in Iran,
although this resolution remains officially unacknowledged (Brzezinski, 2004).

As an example of more distributed and networked ‗industrial/civil surveillance‘, many bridges within
North America have acoustic sensors and underwater sonar devices anchored to the base of the
bridges to check for the presence of divers, to prevent anyone from placing explosives on the
riverbed. These devices are then linked to a central hub for monitoring information feedback.

Such post 9-11 fears have led to the setting up of USHomeGuard, a private company established by
Jay Walker (founder of Priceline.com), which utilizes over a million webcams to watch over 47,000
pieces of critical infrastructure across the US, eg; pipelines, chemical plants, bridges, dams.

These webcams are monitored continuously by observers working from home (Brzezinski, 2004).

Crandall sees this as a part of the emerging,
       ‗contemporary regime of spectacle… machine-aided process of disciplinary
       attentiveness, embodied in practice, that is bound up within the demands of a new
       production and security regime‘
        (Crandall, 2005)

This operational practice, as Crandall sees it, confirms a,
        ‗codification of movement‘ and ‗manoeuvres of strategic possibility‘, and leading to a
        ‗resurgence in temporal and locational specificity‘
        (Crandall, 2005).

This is directly related with the US military construction towards an agenda of complete coverage: in
                                         2
their terms, ‗full spectrum dominance‘ .

In 1997 the Chief of Staff of the US Air Force predicted that within three years,
        ‗we shall be capable of finding, tracking, and targeting virtually in real time any
        significant element moving on the face of the earth‘
        (cited in Crandall, 2005)

Perhaps a little premature yet it appears that the US military-industrial machine is attempting to
enclose the global open system; to transform it and enmesh it within a closed system of total
information awareness; to cover, track, and gaze omnisciently over all flows, mobilities, and
transactions. It is a move towards a total system, an attempt to gain some degree of mastery over the
unpredictability of global flows through the core component of dominating informational flows.

As part of this project the US military are currently establishing a linkage of satellites into what has
been dubbed the military ‗Internet in the sky‘, which will form part of their secure informational
network named as the Global Information Grid, or GIG (Weiner, 2004).

First conceived in 1998, and now in construction, $200 billion has already been estimated as a cost
for both the hardware and software (Weiner, 2004). This war-net, as the military also term it, forms
the core of the US military‘s move towards appropriating network-centric warfare (Arquilla and
Ronfeldt, 2001a; Arquilla and Ronfeldt, 2001b; Dickey, 2004; Weiner, 2004).

The chief information officer at the US Defense Department was noted for saying that ‗net-centric
principles were becoming ―the centre of gravity‖ for war planners‘ (Weiner, 2004).

Some of the names of the military contractors involved in this project include:
            Boeing
            Cisco Systems
            Hewlett-Packard
            IBM
            Lockheed Martin
            Microsoft
            Raytheon
            Sun Microsystems
                  (Weiner, 2004)

As part of this complete coverage – or ‗full spectrum dominance‘ – the US military hopes to be able to
communicate and control an increasing arsenal of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned
ground vehicles (UGVs), integrated into what they are calling the ‗Multimedia Intelligent Network of
Unattended Mobile Agents‘ (Minuteman).

This in turn is part of a larger military project on Intelligent Autonomous Agent Systems (Science-
Daily, 2002).

Recently, a document entitled Information Operation Roadmap was declassified by the Pentagon and
made public by the National Security Archive on January 26, 2006. According to this document the
term ‗information operations‘ includes

The integrated employment of the core capabilities of,
             Electronic Warfare
             Computer Network Operations
             Psychological Operations
              Military Deception
              Operations Security,
...in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp
adversarial human and automated decisions-making while protecting our own. (DoD, 2003: 22)

The document continues by outlining how the US military needs to secure a future electromagnetic
capability,
         ‗sufficient to provide maximum control of the entire electromagnetic spectrum,
         denying, degrading, disrupting, or destroying the full spectrum of globally emerging
         communication systems, sensors, and weapons systems dependant on the
         electromagnetic spectrum‘
        (DoD, 2003: 61)

Clearly, the recommendation here is for developing, and extending, current capabilities in order to
have full and complete dominance over all globally emerging telecommunications and their hardware.

This shift in military affairs involves re-strategizing informational systems toward what the military see
as a,
         ‗transformational communications architecture‘ to ‗help create a nimbler, more lethal
         military force to which information is as vital as water and ammunition‘
        (Dickey, 2004)

Brig. Gen. Robert Lennox, deputy chief of the Army Space and Missile Defense Command,
describes the military vision as,
        ‗one seamless battlefield, which is linked without the bounds of time or space, to
        knowledge centers, and deployment bases throughout the world‘
        (Dickey, 2004)

Beginning in 2008 the US Navy plans to replace its Ultra High Frequency Follow-On satellite network
with a Mobile User Objective System which will provide voice and data communications through
wireless hand-held receivers as part of the Global Information Grid (GIG).

The ‗Internet in the Sky‘ that will form part of the GIG will consist of both AEHF and TSAT satellite
programs (Dickey, 2004). Each AEHF satellite has the capacity to serve as many as 4,000 networks
and 6,000 users at once; and the proposed TSAT satellites are claimed to be ten times more
powerful than the AEHF.

These proposals are currently underway as part of the US‘s ‗revolution in military affairs‘ to develop
not only a superior battlefield information network but also to,
        ‗extend the information grid to deploy mobile users around the globe, creating a new
        capability for combat communications on the move‘
        (Dickey, 2004)

As for the new generation of surveillance satellites launched since 2005, when these systems are
fully operational the elite military complex will be able to gain precise information not only upon
alleged ‗enemies‘ but also upon the movements of almost any individual upon the planet, at almost
any time, anywhere.

The complexity of security communications and sensitive information is being targeted within military
strategy in an effort to enclose all; to survey the full spectrum of an open system in a bid to collect
and contain. In short, to transform the unknown into a known closed system: the containment of the
complex global system.

This also can be seen within the security of complexity, circulation, and contingency.

Dillon considers that this ‗global security problematic‘ is concerned with the circulation of everything
as in,
        ‗a systemically interdependent world everything is connected or, in principle, is able
        to be connected, to everything else‘
        (Dillon, 2005).

For Dillon, circulation shifts the new global security problematic,
         ‗from a ―geo-strategic‖ into an ―ecological‖ problem characterized by the escalatory
         dynamics of complex interdependencies‘
        (Dillon, 2005).

The challenge of global security in this context lies in the contingency between calculability and
doubt. Dillon further sees this as being behind the trend in US military affairs towards the complexity
sciences:
        ‗the fascination of military-strategic science in the United States especially with
        complexity, chaos, nonlinearity and the new science of life introduced by the digital
        and molecular revolutions has proclaimed as much since the early 1990s‘
        (Dillon, 2003).

Security and power relations now clearly transcend traditional geo-political boundaries. Security is
both socio-technical and biometric, with the security problematic becoming increasingly virtual and
codified, ordered with attempted control of disorder (Dillon, 2003). The militarization of complex
global open systems has serious implications for issues of civil liberty, and notions of the surveillance
state.

Such domains of complex interdependencies are radicalizing, in a militaristic sense, information,
communication, command, control, and surveillance. The internal/external circulation and flows
characteristic of open systems (whether informational or physical) are under interrogation from
Western hegemonic, specifically US, military strategies in an attempt to close them down, plug-up the
pores of flows and to blanket-coverage all potential contingencies.

These are the operations of clandestine strategies that seek to contain the unpredictable and to map
all physical-digital movements and traces.

Emerging technologies that ‗locate‘ and ‗trace‘ present a world where,
       ‗every object and human is tagged with information specifications including history
       and position – a world of information overlays that is no longer virtual but wedded to
       objects, places, and positions‘
        (Crandall, 2005).

Such meshing of the physical and the digital through the medium of sentient communicators is what
is foreseen here as steering towards a digitally-rendered global system vulnerable to control via a
technical-military elite.

This scenario is exactly that as envisioned by ex-US National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski.

Brzezinski, in his ‗Between Two Ages - America's Role in the Technetronic Era‘ (1970), put forward
the concept of a future ‗technotronic era‘ whereby a more controlled society would gradually emerge,
dominated by an elite unrestrained by traditional values.

Brzezinski wrote that,
        ‗Power will gravitate into the hands of those who control information‘ (Brzezinski,
        1970: 1), adding that surveillance and data mining will encourage ‗tendencies
        through the next several decades toward a technocratic era, a dictatorship leaving
        even less room for political procedures as we know them.‘
        (Brzezinski, 1970: 12)

By gaining control over informational technological communications Brzezinski outlined how this
could help achieve control and order over the public:
        "Unhindered by the restraints of traditional liberal values, this elite would not hesitate
        to achieve its political ends by the latest modern techniques for influencing public
        behavior and keeping society under close surveillance and control."
        (Brzezinski, 1970: 252)

Also important to consider is that many military technologies become appropriated and absorbed into
civil technologies. For example, by 2003 a quarter of all rental vehicles at US agencies used some
form of GPS tracking: not only for driver-location but also for the rental agency to know where the car
has travelled, and its speed.

Also, cars with speakerphones can be enabled from remote devices in order to listen in and
eavesdrop on occupants in a car under surveillance, as has been utilized by police forces in the US
(Brzezinski, 2004). This type of digitalized surveillance at-a-distance can have serious implications
upon increasingly surveyed, tracked, and mapped social practices.

It also suggests that technically-based northern ‗societies‘ are being maneuvered towards a surveyed
and sensored, or synchronic society




Sensoring the Ecosphere: The Coming of a Synchronic Society?
The development of increasingly sentient ‗smart‘ environments will go some way towards creating a
more systemic relationship of interconnections and interdependencies between humans,
objects/machines, and locality. This possibility has led some commentators to speak of an emerging
cybernomadic landscape (Saveri, 2004).

Here, the emphasis is on an embedded sensory world that will influence and fundamentally alter
social practices.

Such a cybernomadic landscape has been defined, in a recent IFTF report, by three primary forces
of,
            physical-digital fusion
            the augmented self
            digitally catalyzed masses
                  (Saveri, 2004: 2)

Similarly, De Rosnay sees this future as a form of symbiotic humanity:
         ‗each person functions as a node in this hyper-network. Symbiotic humanity is both
         the totality of the network and one of its elements; it exists through the network and
         the network exists only through it‘
        (de Rosnay, 2000: 143)

In all cases it involves networking with, utilizing, and interacting with objects, something which futurist
and author Bruce Sterling refers to as a ‗synchronic society‘:
         A synchronic society generates trillions of catalogable, searchable, trackable
         trajectories… Embedded in a monitored space and time and wrapped in a haze of
         process, no object stands alone; it is not a static thing, but a shaping-thing.
        (Sterling, 2005: 50)

And a ‗shaped-thing‘ may in the future rely upon more efficient and ubiquitous radio frequency
identification (RFID) tags, now often euphemistically termed as arphids. These RFID tags can be
networked into a global system of positioning and identification:

Your arphid monitors are hooked into the satellite based Global Positioning System. Then your
network becomes a mobile system of interlinked objects that are traceable across the planet's
surface, from outer space, with one-meter accuracy, around the clock, from pole to pole. (Sterling,
2005: 92)
A physical-digital augmented environment interlinked with objects is, as Sterling states, based upon
identification. Objects, as well as individuals, need to be identified, both in their object-self identity as
well as in their positions. And yet this shift is not limited towards individuals or objects; it also extends
into Nature and the ecosystem.

The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) recently announced that it
considered today‘s computer maps of the Earth to be inaccurate. Investment has been put into
producing better computer generated terrain maps of the Earth using both radar and laser scanning
                                                                                    3
(Piquepaille, 2005), with a future view for placing radio-towers on the moon or Mars .

These updated moves towards securing a military full spectrum dominance incorporate the latest
known developments in smart sensors whereby complex computerized devices at the miniature, or
even nano-level, will be able to 24/7 monitor ecological, social, and/or biological environments and
people:

These new computers would take the form of networks of sensors with data-processing and
transmission facilities built in. Millions or billions of tiny computers — called 'motes', 'nodes' or 'pods'
— would be embedded into the fabric of the real world. They would act in concert, sharing the data
that each of them gathers so as to process them into meaningful digital representations of the world.

Researchers could tap into these 'sensor webs' to ask new questions or test hypotheses. Even when
the scientists were busy elsewhere, the webs would go on analyzing events autonomously, modifying
their behavior to suit their changing experience of the world. (Butler, 2006a)

Such a scenario, if realized, would drastically alter the material and social fabric of the living world.

Deborah Estrin, director of the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing in Los Angeles, California,
sees,
      ‗the sensor-web revolution as an important thread in a grander tapestry of global
      monitoring, which involves billions of dollars being poured into projects to monitor the
      continents and oceans‘.
        (Butler, 2006a)

For example, upcoming projects include:
            The $200 million EarthScope project from the NSF: 3,000 stations are to be
               erected that will,
                   o ‗track faint tremors, measure crustal deformation and make three-
                        dimensional maps of the earth's interior from crust to core. Some
                        2,000 more instruments are to be mobile - wireless and sun- or wind-
                        powered - and 400 devices are to move east in a wave from
                        California across the nation over the course of a decade‘
                          (Broad, 2005)

              The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to be established at
                an estimated cost of $500 million. The plan is for a coast-to-coast NEON to,
                    o ‗involve perhaps 15 circular areas 250 miles in diameter, each
                         including urban, suburban, agricultural, managed and wild lands.
                         Each observatory would have radar for tracking birds and weather
                         as well as many layers of motes and robots and sensors, including
                         some on cranes in forest canopies‘
                          (Broad, 2005)

              The ‗Interagency Working Group on Earth Observations‘, backed by the
                National Science & Technology Council within the Executive Office of the
                President, US, has recently published their Strategic Plan for the U.S.
                Integrated Earth Observation System (IWGEO, 2005).
                     Their vision is to discover, access, collect, manage, archive, process, and
                     model earth geological data in order to better forecast such flows as
                     weather, energy resources, natural resources, pre and post-disasters, as
                     well as a host of other integrated processes.

                     In their words:
                          o ‗The Earth is an integrated system. Therefore, all the processes that
                              influence conditions on the Earth are linked and impact one another.
                              A subtle change in one process can produce an important effect in
                              another. A full understanding of these processes and the linkages
                              between them require an integrated approach, including observation
                              systems and their data streams‘
                             (IWGEO, 2005: 47)


The report Strategic Plan for the U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IWGEO, 2005)
discusses a vast range of geological integrated monitoring systems. However, a caveat here is
necessary, for the above projects towards environmental mapping contain shades of a western
geographical imagination.

Cartography, as a pioneering navigational science and art, has long been used for validating colonial
expansion, Imperial incursions, and for designating western territorial trophies. The geographical
imagination is continually formed as residues of knowledge build one upon the other as images
become re-appropriated for geo-political agendas.

The western global imagination has participated in the de-centering of global geographies in past
centuries, and may again be party to later digital formations of knowledge gathering and geo-
strategies of dominance and power. As with the Plan for the U.S. Integrated Earth Observation
System which aims to monitor, track, catalogue, and forecast global processes and movements,
geographical spaces will be subjected to a US-centric digital gaze.

Denis Cosgrove views such a gaze as,
       ‗implicitly imperial, encompassing a geometric surface to be explored and mapped,
       inscribed with content, knowledge and authority‘
        (2001: 15)

Emerging technologies in information-sensoring indicate an authoritarian, predominantly military,
strategy for Earth monitoring. Increasingly, relationships between humans/devices/environments are
being merged, or steered, towards a new construction of social life - one that embeds the individual,
as a digitally-rendered identity, within a global informational ‗grid-lock‘.

If such an irreversible shift is made towards digitally-rendered societies this would arguably ‗lock-in‘ a
form of monitored control society.

With such predictions of an increasingly sensored and enmeshed global system it is difficult to see
how living ‗off the Net‘ will be a choice in the near future.




Conclusion
As this article has argued there are both overt and covert strategies within the US military-industrial
complex towards securing full spectrum dominance over global information flows, which include
dominating the electro-magnetic spectrum and the Internet. Increasingly western technological
societies are moving towards developing sensored environments whereby information is processed
on individuals as well as securing geographical data.
This suggests a future whereby in order to move legitimately an individual will be subjected to a
complex network of informational tracking and verification. This will undoubtedly see an increased
militarization of the civil sphere. Such a re-configuration of the social, through increased dependency
upon physical-digital systems, will inevitably involve various structural relations of power.

For example, individuals not deemed ‗worthy‘ will be denied the right of movement through digitally-
controlled spaces. This is not to imply that all acts of social passage will necessarily be uncomfortably
noticed by the general legitimized user. It is likely that in-built strategies of marginalization will be
increasingly ‗normalised‘ as part of shifting social practices: a regular state of affairs within a twenty-
first century beset by manipulated terror in-securities.

Further, there are indications that these entwined and embedded information flows will seek to
incorporate not only the physical and digital, but also the biological. In other words, each unit of
information will be sought to be coded and therefore ‗secured‘ under a full spectrum dominance
agenda.

Goonatilake (1999) sees this as moving towards a meta-communications environment that will
merge human/genetic, cultural, machine as information codes and which will serve as information
carriers:
         The future will thus result in intense communications not only between machines and
         humans, but also with genetic systems so that information in the three realms of
         genes, culture and machines will result in one interacting whole. The three for all
         purposes would be interacting as one communicating system.
        (Goonatilake, 1999: 197)

We may soon be moving towards a momentous shift, perhaps the most important paradigmatic shift
our current civilization has ever witnessed: a transformation into a digitally contained and controlled
global environment.

This leaves the future vulnerable to extreme possibilities. Already there has been much Internet
‗chatter‘ about the potential this offers for ‗exotic‘ containment and control practices, including the
possibility that a space-based, armed communications network is capable of beaming
electromagnetic pulse technology upon virtually any chosen spot on the Earth.

The potential here for mass mind control strategies is severely worrying and unnerving.

As we move towards the second decade of the twenty-first century we come increasingly close to a
crossroads:
             One path indicates a move towards a deep and entrenched militarization of the
               civil sphere where control and containment are the order of the day
             The other path leads towards increased civil participation, engagement, and
               empowerment
It is perhaps a choice between global emancipation or complete global grid-lock.




References
              Arquilla, J. and Ronfeldt, D. (2001a) 'Networks, Netwars, and the Fight for the
                Future'. First Monday, 6 (10), URL:
                http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue6_10/ronfeldt/index.html.
              Arquilla, J. and Ronfeldt, D. F. (2001b) Networks and Netwars : The Future of
                Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
              Broad, W. (2005) A Web of Sensors, Taking Earth's Pulse. New York Times:
            May 10th 2005
         Brzezinski, M. (2004) Fortress America: On the front lines of Homeland
            Security - an inside look at the coming surveillance state. New York: Bantam.
         Brzezinski, Z. (1970) Between Two Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic
            Era. New York: Viking
         Butler, D. (2006) 'Everything, Everywhere'. Nature, 440 402-405.
         Cosgrove, D. (2001) Apollo's Eye: A cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in
            the Western Imagination. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
         Crandall, J. (2005) 'Operational Media'
            http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=441
         Dept. of Defense (2003) Information Operation Roadmap (accessed
            12/07/2006)
         de Rosnay, J. (2000) The Symbiotic Man: A New Understanding of the
            Organization of Life and a Vision of the Future. New York: McGraw Hill.
         Dickey, B. (2004) 'Internet in the Sky'
            http://www.govexec.com/story_page.cfm?articleid=28919&printerfriendlyVers
            =1&
         Dillon, M. (2003) ' Virtual Security: A Life Science of (Dis)order'. Millennium:
            Journal of International Studies, Volume 32 (3), 531-558.
         Dillon, M. (2005) Global Security in the 21st Century: Circulation, Complexity
            and Contingency. Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International
            Affairs: (pp. 2-3)
         Dinerman, T. (2004) 'Can the US really build a global persistent surveillance
            system?' http://www.thespacereview.com/article/216/1
         Goonatilake, S. (1999) Merged Evolution: Long-Term Implications of
            Biotechnology and Information Technology. Amsterdam: Gordon and
            Breach.
         IWGEO (2005) Strategic Plan for the U.S. Integrated Earth Observation
            System. National Science & Technology Council (Executive Office of the
            President): (pp. 1-166)
         Piquepaille, R. (2005) 'Better terrain maps of Earth… and beyond'
            http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/wp-trackback.php?p=69
         Poindexter, J. (2002) 'Overview of the Information Awareness Office'
            http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/poindexter.html
         Saveri, A. (2004) The Cybernomadic Framework. Institute for the Future:
            March 2004
         Science-Daily (2002) '"Internet In The Sky" Will Guide Unmanned Vehicles
            Into Battle, Aid In Emergencies'
            http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020424073127.htm
         Sterling, B. (2005) Shaping Things. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
         Weiner, T. (2004) 'Pentagon Envisioning a Costly Internet for War'
            http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/011905_pentagon_internet.sht
            ml



NOTES
        1. Poindexter is an ex-retired Navy Admiral, and one-time National Security
             Advisor to President Reagan
        2. ‗Full Spectrum Dominance‘ is a key term used in the Joint Vision 2020 report –
             a document outlining future visions for the US Department of Defense. See
             http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2000/n06022000_20006025.html
        3. Even Google has attempted to get a slice of the action by releasing Google
             Mars. See: http://www.google.com/mars/
                                  Return to ¿El Fin de La Internet?
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                                  Return to Temas / Sociopolitica
                                     Return to La Red Echelon




                                        by ―Ignorance Isn’t Bliss‖
                                               October 12, 2008
                                         from EducateYourSelf Website


                Editor's Note: The author of this article will only identify himself as a 29 year
                  old male from Florida with the name of “Ignorance Isn’t Bliss”. It's slightly
                    annoying that a writer of this man's intellectual capacity wouldn't just
                 employ a conventional-sounding pseudonym instead of this tongue twisting
                    sobriquet, but that slight irritant doesn't detract one smidgen from the
                    quality and depth of this article. Visit his website; there's much careful
                                            thought to mine there...
                                                                                     Ken Adachi


The vision of Google‘s future, according to Google co-founder, Sergey Brin, is,
        "it would be like the mind of God".
And it‘s a future that they‘re working feverishly to make a reality today.

While that quote was in reference to ―the ultimate search engine‖, this analysis is going to make
it more than clear that he was in fact referring to Google in particular. In doing so, we‘ll see
numerous other quotes demonstrating their intentions, what they mean by ―all of the worlds
information‖, how they‘re on precisely the right path to achieve their goal with the U.S. military in
this vast project that is set to change humanity forever.

―AI‖ (artificial intelligence) is actually too ―narrow‖ of a term for a cognitive system, but a ―broad‖
cognitive system would contain many narrow AI parts. To even contemplate the notion of
cognitive ―Artificial General Intelligence‖ one must first embrace emergence. Emergence is the
key to all complex systems that could be considered in attempting to create a model for an AGI
system.

Google‘s methodology in their quest is to exploit and harness the powers of emergence, while
adding ‗parts‘ that perform cognitive tasks in their own right. The idea is to push the term super-
organism to the fullest potential. The insights are the ant colony, and the beehive.

The models are the Internet, and the human brain. The entire premise of emergence is ‗the sum
is greater than its parts‘.

Ants are abysmally stupid, in our terms, yet the colony as a super-organism often gives rise to
give the impression of the individual ants being intelligent. With beehives this feature expands
even further. Under the right conditions, a complex systems analysis of the collective can be
indistinguishable from that as a single organism. Compare this to cells in the human body, or
brain alone.

Each human mind is a hive, of neurons; a hivemind.

Each neuron is abysmally stupid, and each brain part is nearly worthless alone, yet the
interconnected cells of each part and each part interconnected give rise to consciousness and
higher brain functions.

Then there‘s the Internet, with its millions of routers and billions of computers all interconnected
as one that is already evolving into a ‘smart‘ semantic web on its own. It‘s no wonder that
philosophers often compare the Internet - as a complex system - to the brain, and many thinkers
argue that at some point the Internet itself may become unintendedly conscious via emergence.

But what if a collective of intelligent beings harnessing global scale supercomputers armed with
state of the art algorithms made the goal of turning their symbiotic co-evolving component of the
Internet their life‘s work?

Enter Google: Google seeks to ―gather & organize‖, in their words, ―all of the worlds information―.

It‘s the company slogan, and when you hear them speak it they place much emphasis on ―all‖.
But what‘s more, according to both co-founders of the company, they intend for it to
―understand‖ what all of the worlds information means. In many cases, they‘re going to extremes
in order to ―gather all‖ of it, but they‘re lettings us do the work for them wherever they can.

A look over their ―Product‖ list is as far as one must go to get an idea, yet it goes further than
that.

But first, the main search feature must be highlighted.

Google, like other search engines, ―crawls‖ the Internet. That is, their algorithm laden
interconnected supercomputer automatons scour the Internet, link-by-link literally archiving the
entire history of the Internet, page by page, day by day. A page changes and Google finds the
change and adds it to its own archives. It then saves these archives for all time.

This includes content from social networks, blogs, news sites, and so forth. Feeding a link into
Archive.org’s Wayback Machine paints a candid picture of this process. Their urgency to archive
all possible acquirable data also extends to other areas, such as your personal life via Gmail,
Health, Calendar & Google Desktop (which scans all of the files in your ―personal‖ computer) .

Another technique is the ‗transfer of human intelligence‗, which involves monitoring our behavior
as we surf the Web and more. This is achieved via many routes, such as the standard Google
Search, Google cookies, Google Toolbar (that embeds in most web browser programs), Google
Desktop, sites with AdSense integrated, ―Powered by Google‖ complete site integration, and
last-but-not-least their new Google Chrome web-browser.

Add to that Docs and Knol.

There isn‘t even room in this article to explain the ramifications that each one of their ―Products‖
poses in what it‘s set to ―understand‖ about yourself & your habits, and everything about the
human race from the genetic to the social scale.

But note their new ―Android‖ mobile device service, which has 2 alarming features.
             First, is one app that records the users iris scan, for login purposes.
             Second, nearly every other app encourages the use of real-time
                navigational GPS tracking.
So on one hand it conditions you to submit your eye iris scans, and on the other it conditions you
to embrace constant real-time GPS tracking of your every move. The latter is dually striking as
virtually all modern cell phones already embody GPS tracking, except most people aren‘t yet
aware of that.

In other cases they go out of their way to acquire ‗their‘ data: Google Books, Patent Search,
Scholar, Maps & Street View, Earth, Translate, Finance and now even Newspaper (archiving the
history of all possible print newspapers).

For some insight into the implications of their machine eventually having in its ‗intellectual
possession‘ virtually the entire history of humanity‘s books, newspaper, scholarly academic
papers and so forth, consider the statement from a Google Factory Tour guide:
       ―We are not scanning all those books to be read by people, we are scanning
       them to be read by an AI.‖
The point is proven in the fact that they‘re scanning the entire books whether or not the entire
contents will be browsable online. Perhaps my publishing of this article online is giving the
Machine even more focused insight into itself?

Then there‘s the darker side.
             First, they intend to - if not already - use your PC‘s microphone to monitor
                ‗background audio‘ ‗in order to listen to TV‘s and so forth to garner
                better ads for the user‘. As US intelligence agencies already monitor
                subjects via their cell phone microphones, which can only be prevented
                by removing the phones battery, you can expect Google equipped
                mobile devices and automobiles to do the same.

             Second, another goal is acquiring every persons DNA code, and then
               making it searchable online as another ―Product‖. This could prove to be
               their most challenging ambition, but in Google tradition they‘ve rolled out
               the (on the surface) independent ―23andMe‖ social networking
               personalized genome service which is already showing signs of
               targeting children for systematic indoctrination in DNA databanks.
Much of their epic archiving quest wont even immediately pay off, but it‘s being kept as fruit
waiting to ripen, or rather waiting for their conscious entity to ripen to be able to harness it. By
this point many would declare that AGI isn‘t possible, but regardless of beliefs and possibilities
(external possibilities aren‘t dependent on one persons beliefs), the stated goal exists.

Peter Norvig, former head of the now Intelligent Systems Division at NASA‘s ARC, and now
Google’s Director of Research, in 2007, claimed that Google is already co-evolving with the
Internet.
         ―We hadn‘t expected that‖, he said.
But the Googler‘s seem to be right on course to reach their ambitions by conscious direction of
that delves beyond mere emergence alone. There are many cases of the 2 Google co-founders
going on the record about ―AI‖, and between them and their related media‘s, it‘s quite clear that
their intentions aren‘t merely ‗narrow AI‘ nor is any of it mere accident.

Take for instance machine vision.

Begin with Google Video and shortly afterwards they acquired Youtube. These are both sites
where the user does the work in providing the profitable content for them. For some it was neat
for Youtube results to appear in Google Video searches, but then Google began crawling most
of all other streaming video hosts including many of their competitors.

During that shuffle, Google acquired Neven Vision, the worlds most advanced machine vision
firm. One desirable prospect for Google was that NV‘s technology was already geared for mobile
devices. Another was that it was designed for both still photos and videos. It can be understood
as advanced biometrics that‘s designed to recognize all types of objects, not just human faces.

So while you‘re walking around your neighborhood waving your GPS equipped Google mobile
device around, it‘s possible that Google is storing your cameras data in building Google‘s
omnipresent worlds eye.

But I see a scarier side: When their infantile systems grow conscious enough, not only would
they - or It - know and understand everything humanity has ever written, it would also have to a
certain degree all of our videos from film to personal cams.

One side is it helps it become sentient, the other is it accelerates its ability to understand
humans individually and socially. After all, you couldn‘t expect a machine to become conscious
& intelligent without vision, nor could it understand humans without seeing them in action.

An intelligent thinking machine would also needs ears, and ears they are giving it. Make a call to
1-800-GOOG411 and experience their speech recognition algorithms for yourself. No surprise
that the service is free, because the more people use it the more you help them reach their goal
of omniscience. And it‘s safe to assume to this technology is busy helping it listen to all of the
videos it‘s looking at.

Meanwhile, their Translate efforts has their system rapidly learning how to translate any
language from any language, guided by a handful of engineers who in most cases don‘t even
know the languages themselves. You can see this by doing the typical search, and you can bet
they‘re already working on integrating the technology into audio speech recognition.

Above we have the perfect outline of inherent rise of sentience via emergence, but they aren‘t
leaving it to just that.

In May of 2008, Google hosted their own ―Machine Learning Summit―, of which,
        ―most of the material covered (documents, videos, presentations) at these types
        of events is confidential and proprietary and can‘t be released.‖
Prior to that, in 2006, internal documents leaked stating their plans the build ―the worlds largest
AI laboratory‖. That lab might be already existent somewhere in their own properties, or it might
be in or set to be in a government / military facility.

The facility could be in one of their many data-centers or other secretive locations. A
‗secretive‗ data-center of public fame is known best as ―PROJECT02―, which has direct access
to cheap power via a hydroelectric damn owned and operated by the US Army Corp of
Engineers.

Being the size of ‗2 football fields‘, it sounds reminiscent of what everyone used to say in
reference to the NSA‘s Echelon system that was and is used to monitor virtually every form of
telecommunications in the US and much of the Earth.

There‘s no telling how many Google facilities exist, but is can be said that they wouldn‘t need
one centralized location for the ‗worlds largest AI lab‘. With global telecommunications now
being radically different than 60 years ago, private intranets can connect up any remote office or
personal computer as a collective. This means that a modern day Manhattan Project could be
operated across the planet in secret with great ease.

This would especially be the case if you had literally a million or more parallel platformed CPU‘s
at your disposal (like Google does). Consider that computing power per $1000 is literally less
than millionth what was during the Manhattan Project, and that project only cost about US$24
billion.

Anything even resembling a modern semiconductor computer hadn‘t even been invented yet.
Meanwhile, every year their capabilities expand as CPU prices drop and work gets easier,
exponentially, thanks to Moore‘s Law and the Law of Accelerating Returns.

On the surface, Google seems to be poised to be able go it alone in their effort, yet they are in
deep cahoots with the US military‘s parallel initiative.

Since the US military maintains global supremacy via its Navy, one could almost Google to roll
out plans for ‗naval‘ data-centers (which they have). The full scope of government & military
involvement with Google’s AGI project goes well beyond the scope of this analysis, but suffice to
say that Google have in 2008 signed a 40-90 year lease, with their geographical neighbors, at
NASA‘s Ames Research Center (ARC), in Silicon Valley, for a 1.2 million square feet
collaborative research facility.

But not only does Google get to build on the government land there, they already have exclusive
access to land and park their private Google jumbo jets on ARC‘s ―Moffitt Field‖.



“Moffitt Field”.
ARC is historically NASA‘s prime hub of AI & AGI research, so it‘s of little surprise that Sergey
Brin, when asked about the partnership, repeatedly mentioned ―AI‖ as the primary strategic
interest. Also relevant in this summary, is the fact that Google was initially funded by DARPA,
NASA, and the National Science Foundation.

It‘s also been alleged by a former CIA agent that not only did the CIA fund them during their
earlier years, but that the CIA has an actual office in the main Googleplex headquarters, while
it‘s a fact that Google hardware runs the US Intelligence Community‘s ‗spy wikipedia‗. DARPA
claims the fame of inventing the Internet, and by visiting their website you can browse through
their extensive list of various inter-related ―cognitive‖ ―self-aware‖ artificial intelligence projects.

Vint Cerf, Google‘s ―Chief Internet Evangelist‖ VP, ‗invented the Internet‘ together with Bob
Kahn via DARPA. Vint still works with NASA on the ―Interplanetary Internet‖, as well as on other
projects for the United States military.

Lastly, in terms of a so-called ‗god on earth‘ status, Larry Page has stated the desires to get
started on ―climate modification‖, a dream of military strategists since ancient times. Fostering
such a sentiment with Google‘s de-facto government-operation status via NASA & DARPA,
humanity doesn‘t just face whatever typically assumed degrees of ‗computer control‘ by the
omnipresent and omniscient Machine, the Machine is on the path of geophysical omnipotence.

NASA, in recent years, has pursued the perfect program to mesh with this. The goal of the
―Intelligent Archives‖ sounds familiar to everything Google is doing in terms of ―understanding‖
massive amounts of data. They even used the phrases ―self-aware‖ and ―cognitive‖. The projects
webpage now speak in the past tense, and it‘s unclear its true status after its parent division
became the ―Intelligent Systems Division‖.
In any case, with deep integration with NASA and their Earth sciences, and the military and their
hundreds of top secret satellites, and AI all in-between, I‘d say Page has found the perfect
scenario to pursue this dream.

In closing, lets just say that Google manages to actually understand what the data in its own text
data-holdings ‗means‘. This could be kept simply between webpages and books. Consider
hundreds of thousands of texts related to related to programming languages and software
engineering (essentially everything on the subject).

By using Google Search we can tell the system is very much in perpetual tune with its own
complete data-holdings.

One could argue that they‘re flirting with ―hard-takeoff‖ AGI emergence on this front alone. And if
you spend enough time putting complex worded search strings ‗into‘ Google Calculator and
Code Search you might help make that a reality.

Imagine what it would mean if the Google co-founders get their wish of Google being directly
connected to human minds via neural interface.

That might make people reconsider that Google fought for the new wireless Internet spectrum,
and are working to bring 3 billion new people the Internet, good things.

                              Return to Google and The Internet
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                                         Paraciencia
                                      Return to Echelon
                            by Dr Nick Begich and Jeane Manning
                              An article from Nexus Magazine Dec/Jan 1996
                                  from MinmdControlForums Website

Scheduled to be fully operational by 1998, the US military‘s HAARP transmitter is no mere auroral
research project.

Its super-powerful radio-wave beam may irreparably damage the planets atmosphere and
severely disrupt our mental and physical health.




HAARP BOILS THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE
HAARP will zap the upper atmosphere with a focused and steerable electromagnetic bean. It is
an advanced model of an ‘ionospheric heater‘. (The ionosphere is the electrically-charged sphere
surrounding the Earth‘s upper atmosphere. It ranges between about 40 to 600 miles above
Earth‘s surface.)

Put simply, the apparatus for HAARP is a reversal of a radio telescope: antennas send out
signals instead of receiving. HAARP is the test run for a super-powerful radio-wave beaming
technology that lifts areas of the ionosphere by focusing a bean and heating those areas.
Electromagnetic waves then bounce back onto Earth and penetrate everything - living and dead.
HAARP publicity gives the impression that the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
is mainly an academic project with the goal of changing the ionosphere to improve
communications for our own good. However, other US military documents put it more clearly:
HAARP aims to learn how to "exploit the ionosphere for Department of Defense purposes".
Communicating with submarines is only one of those purposes.

Press releases and other information from the military on HAARP continually downplay what it
could do. Publicity documents insist that the HAARP project is no different than other ionospheric
heaters operating safely throughout the world in places such as Arecibo, Puerto Rico; Tromso,
Norway; and the former Soviet Union. However, a 1990 government document document
indicates that the radio frequency (RF) power zap will drive the ionosphere to unnatural activities:
        ...at the highest HF powers available in the West, the instabilities commonly
        studied are approaching their maximum RF energy disipative capability, beyond
        which the plasma processes will ‘run away‘ until the next limiting factor is
        reached.
If the military, in cooperation with the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, can show that this new
ground-based "Star Wars" technology is sound, they both win. The military has a relatively
inexpensive defense shield and the university can brag about the most dramatic geophysical
manipulation since atmospheric explosions of nuclear bombs. After successful testing, they would
have the military megaprojects of the future and huge markets for Alaska‘s North Slope natural
gas.
Looking at the other patents which built on the work of a Texas physicist named Bernard
Eastlund, it becomes clearer how the military intends to use the HAARP transmitter. It also
makes governmental denials less believable. The military knows how it intends to use this
technology, and has made it clear in their documents. The military has deliberately misled the
public through sophisticated word games, deceit and outright disinformation.

The military says the HAARP system could:
    give the military a tool to replace the electromagnetic pulse effect of atmospheric
        thermonuclear devices. - replace the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) submarine
        communication system operating in Michigan and Wisconsin with a new and more
        compact technology. - be used to replace the over-the-horizon radar system that was
        once planned for the current location of HAARP, with a more flexible and accurate
        system; - provide a way to wipe out communications over an extremely large area, while
        keeping the military‘s own communications systems working; - provide a wide-area Earth-
        penetrating tomography which, if combined with the computing abilities of EMASS and
        Cray computers, would make it possible to verify many parts of nuclear nonproliferation
        and peace agreements

     be a tool of goephysical probing to find oil, gas and mineral deposits offer a large area; -
       be used to detect incoming low-level planes and cruise missiles, making other
       technologies obsolete

      The above abilities seem like a good idea to all who who believe in sound national defence
          and to those concerned about cost cutting. However, the possible uses which the HAARP
          records do not explain, and which can only be found in US Air Force, Army, Navy nd
          other federal agency records, are alarming. Moreover effects from the reckless use of
          these power levels in our natural shield - the ionosphere - could be cataclysmic,
          according to some scientists.
One Alaskan puts it bluntly. A founder of the "NO HAARP" movement, Clare Zickuhr, says: The
military is going to give the ionosphere a big kick and see what happens.
The military failed to tell the public that they do not know what exactly will happen, but a Penn
State science article brags about that uncertainty. Macho science? The HAARP project uses the
largest energy levels yet played with, by what Begich and Manning call "the big boys with their
new toys". It is an experiment on the sky and experiments are done to find something that is not
already known. Independent scientists told Begich and Manning that a HAARP type ‘skybuster‘
with its unforeseen effects could be an act of global vandalism.



HAARP HISTORY
The patents described below were the package of ideas which were originally controlled by ARCO
Power Technologies Incorporated (APTI), a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Company, one of the
biggest oil companies in the world. APTI was the contractor that built the HAARP facility. ARCO
sold this subsidiary, the patents and the second phase construction contract to E-Systems in June
1994.

E-Systems is one of the biggest intelligence contractors in the world, doing work for the CIA,
defence intelligence organisation and others. US$1.8 billion of their annual sales are to these
organisations with US$800 million for black projects - projects so secret that even the United
States Congress isn‘t told how the money is being spent.

E-Systems was bought out by Raytheon which is one of the largest defence contractors in the
world.

Bernard J Eastlund‘s US Patent #4,686,605, "method and Apparatus for Altering a Region
in the Earth‘s Atmosphere, Ionosphere, and/or Magnetosphere", was sealed for a year
under a government secrecy order.

The Eastlund ionospheric heater was different: the radio frequency (RF) radiation was
concentrated and focused to a point in the ionosphere. This difference throws an unprecedented
amount of energy into the ionosphere. The Eastlund device would allow a concentration of one
watt per cubic centimeter, compared to others only able to deliver about one millionth of one watt.
This huge difference could lift and change the ionosphere in the ways necessary to creat futuristic
effects described in the patent. According to the patent, the work of Nikola Tesla in the early
1900‘s formed the basis of the research.

What would this technology be worth to ARCO, the owner of the patents? They could make
enormous profits by beaming electrical power, without wires, from a power-house in the gas fields
to the consumer.

Eastlund‘s patent said the technology can confuse or completely disrupt airplanes and missiles
sophisticated guidance systems. Further, this ability to spray large areas of Earth with
electromagnetic waves of varying frequencies - and to control changes in those waves - make it
possible to knock out communications on land or sea as well as in the air. The patent said:
        Thus, this invention provides the ability to put unprecedented amounts of power
        in the Earth‘s atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain the power
        injection level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more
        precise and better controlled than heretofore accomplished by the prior art,
        particularly by detonation of nuclear devices of various yields at various altitudes
        it is possible not only to interfere with third party communications but to take
        advantage of one or more such beams to carry out a communications network
        even though the rest of the world‘s communications are disrupted.

        Put another way, what is used to disrupt another‘s communications can be
        employed by one knowledgeable of this invention as a communication network at
        the same time. ...large regions of the atmosphere could be lifted to an
        unextraordinarily high altitude so that missiles encounter unexpected drag forces
        with resultant destruction. Weather modification is possible by, for example,
        altering upper atmosphere wind patterns by construction one or more plumes of
        atmospheric particles which will act as a lens or focusing device.

        Molecular modifications of the atmosphere can take place so that positive
        environmental effects can be achieved. Besides actually changing the molecular
        composition of an atmospheric region, a particular molecule or molecules can be
        chosen for increased presence. For example, ozone, nitrogen, etc concentrations
        in the atmosphere could be artificially increased.
Begich found 11 other APTI patents. They told how to make "Nuclear-sized Explosions without
Radiation", power beaming systems, over-the-horizon radar, detection systems for missiles
carrying nuclear warheads, electromagnetic pulses previously produced by thermonuclear
weapons and other "Star Wars" tricks. This cluster of patents underlay the HAARP weapons
system.




MENTAL MANIPULATION
Related research by Begich and Manning uncovered bizarre schemes. For example, US Air
Force documents revealed that a system had been developed for manipulating and disrupting
human mental processes through pulsed radio-frequency radiation (the stuff of HAARP) over
large geographical areas.
The most telling material about this technology came from writings of Zbigniew Brzezinski
(former National Security Adviser to US President Carter) and J. F. MacDonald (Science Adviser
to US President Johnson and a Professor of Geophysics at UCLA), as they wrote about use of
power beaming transmitters for geophysical and environmental warfare. The documents showed
how these effects might be caused, and the negative effects on human health and thinking.

The mental-disruption possibilities for HAARP are the most disturbing. More than 40 pages of the
book, with dozens of footnotes, chronicle the work of Harvard professors , military planners and
scientists as they plan and test this use of the electromagnetic technology. For example, one of
the papers describing this use was from the International Red Cross in Geneva. It even gave the
frequency ranges where these effects could occur - the same ranges which HAARP is capable of
broadcasting.

The following statement was made more than 25 years ago in a book which Brzezinski wrote
while a professor at Columbia University:
        Political strategists are tempted to exploit research on the brain and human
        behaviour. Geophysicist Gordon J. F. MacDonald - specialist in problems of
        warfare - says accurately-timed, artificially excited electronic strokes could lead to
        a pattern of oscillations that produce relatively high power levels over certain
        regions of the Earth. In this way, one could develop a system that would seriously
        impair the brain performance of very large populations in selected regions over
        an extended period. No matter how deeply disturbing the thought of using the
        environment to manipulate behaviour for national advantages, to some the
        technology permitting such use will very probably develop within the next few
        decades.
In 1966, MacDonald was a member of the President‘s Science Advisory Committee and later a
member of the President‘s Council on Environmental Quality. he published papers on the use of
environmental control technologies for military purposes. The most profound comment he made
as a geophysicist was:
        The key to geophysical warfare is the identification of environmental instabilities
        to which the addition of a small amount of energy would release vastly greater
        amounts of energy.
While yesterday‘s geophysicists predicted today‘s advances, are HAARP program managers
delivering on the vision? The geophysicists recognized that adding energy to the environmental
soup could have large effects. However, humankind has already added substantial amounts of
electromagnetic energy into our environment without understanding what might constitute critical
mass. The book by Begich and Manning raises questions. Have these additions been without
effect, or is there a cumulative amount beyond which irreparable damage can be done? Is
HAARP another step in a journey from which we cannot turn back? Are we about to embark on
another energy experiment which unleashes another set of demons from Pandora‘s box?

As early as 1970, Zbigniew Brzezinski predicted a "more controlled and directed society" would
gradually appear, linked to technology. This society would be dominated by an elite group which
impresses voters by allegedly superior scientific know-how. Angels Don‘t Play This HAARP
further quotes Brzeziski: Unhindered by the restraints of traditional liberal values, this elite would
not hesitate to achieve its political ends by using the latest modern techniques for influencing
public behaviour and keeping society under close surveillance and control. Technical and
scientific momentum would then feed on the situation it exploits.

His forecasts proved accurate. Today, a number of new tools for the "elite" are emerging, and the
temptation to use them increases steadily. The policies to permit the tools to be used are already
in place. How could the USA be changed bit by bit, into the predicted, highly-controlled techno-
society? Among the ‘stepping stones‘ Brzezinski expected were persisting social crises and use
of the mass media to gain the public‘s confidence.

In another document prepared by the government, the US Air Force claims:
        "The potential applications of artificial electromagnetic fields are wide-ranging and
        can be used in many military of quasi-military situations... Some of these potential
        uses include dealing with terrorist groups, crowd control, controlling breaches of
        security at military installations, and antipersonnel techniques in tactical warfare.
        In all of these cases the EM (electromagnetic) systems would be used to
        produce mild to severe physiological disruption or perceptual distortion or
        disorientation. In addition, the ability of individuals to function could be degraded
        to such a point that they would be combat-ineffective.

        Another advantage of electro-magnetic systems is that they can provide coverage
        over large areas with a single system. They are silent, and countermeasures to
        them may be difficult to develop... One last area where electro-magnetic radiation
        may prove of some value is in enhancing abilities of individuals for anomalous
        phenomena.
Do these comments point to uses already somewhat developed? The author of the government
report refers to an earlier Air Force document about the uses of the radio-frequency radiation in
combat situations.

The United States congressional record deals with the use of HAARP for penetrating the earth
with signals bounced off the ionosphere. These signals are used to look inside the planet to a
depth of many kilometers in order to locate underground munitions, minerals and tunnels. For
1996, the US Senate has set aside US$15 million to develop this ability alone: Earth penetrating
tomography.

The problem is that the frequency needed for Earth-penetrating radiations is within the frequency
range most cited for disruption of human mental functions. It may also have profound effects on
migration patterns of fish and wild animals which rely on an undisturbed energy field to find their
routes. As if electromagnetic pulses in the sky and mental disruption were not enough, Eastlund
bragged that the super powerful ionospheric heater could control weather.

Begich and Manning brought to light government documents indicating that the military has
weather-control technology. When HAARP is eventually built to its full power level, it could create
weather effects over entire hemispheres. If one government experiments with the world‘s weather
patterns, what is done in one place will impact everyone else on the planet. Angels Don‘t Play
This HAARP explains a principle behind some of Nikola Tesla‘s inventions - resonance - which
affects planetary systems.




BUBBLE OF ELECTRIC PARTICLES
Angels... includes interviews with independent scientists such as Elizabeth Rauscher. She has a
PhD, a long and impressive career in high-energy physics, and has been published in prestigious
science journals and books. Rauscher commented on HAARP:
        "You‘re pumping tremendous energy into an extremely delicate molecular
        configuration that comprises these multi-layers we call the ionosphere"
The ionosphere is prone to catalytic reactions, she explained: if a small part is changed, a major
change in the ionosphere can happen. In describing the ionosphere as a delicately balanced
system, Dr Rauscher shared her mental picture of it: a soap bubble like sphere surrounding
Earth‘s atmosphere, with movements swirling over the surface of the bubble. If a big enough hole
is punched through it, she predicts it could pop.




SLICING THE IONOSPHERE
Physicist Daniel Winter, PhD of Waynesville, North Carolina, says HAARP high-frequency
emissions can couple with the long-wave pulses the Earth grid uses to distribute information as
vibrations to synchronize dances of life in the biosphere. Dan terms this geomagnetic action
"Earth‘s information bloodstream", and says it is likely that coupling of HAARP, HF with natural
ELF can cause unplanned, unsuspected side-effects.




CRUDELY PLUCKING THE STRINGS
Second concept: As Earth rotates, HAARP will slice across geomagnetic flux... a donut shaped
spool of magnetic strings - like longitude meridians on maps. HAARP may not ‘cut‘ these strings
in Gaia‘s magnetic mantle, but will pulse each thread with harsh, out-of-harmony high
frequencies. These noisy impulses will vibrate goemagnetic flux lines, sending vibrations all
through the geomagnetic web. Effects of this interference with symphonies of Gaia‘s geomagnetic
harp are unknown, and I suspect barely thought of. Even if thought of, the intent is to learn to
exploit any effects, not to play in tune with global symphonies.




FEVERISH EARTH
Among other researchers quoted is Paul Schaefer of Kansas City. His degree is in electrical
engineering and he spent four years building nuclear weapons. He says: But most of the theories
that we have been taught by scientists to believe in seem to be falling apart.

Schaefer talks about imbalances already caused by the industrial and atomic age, especially by
radiation of large numbers of tiny, high-velocity particles "like very small spinning tops" into our
environment. The unnatural level of motion of highly energetic particles in the atmosphere and in
radiation belts surrounding Earth is the villain in weather disruptions, according to this model
which describes Earth discharging its build-up of heat, relieving stress and regaining a balanced
condition through earthquakes and volcanic action



ELECTRONIC RAIN FROM THE SKY
The military has published papers about electron precipitation from the magnetosphere caused by
manmade very-low-frequency electromagnetic waves. Two Stanford University radio scientists
offer evidence of what technology can do to affect the sky by making waves on Earth. They
showed that very-low-frequency radio waves can vibrate the magnetosphere and cause high-
energy particles to cascade into the Earth‘s atmosphere. By turning the signal on or off, they could
stop the flow of energetic particles.




WEATHER CONTROL
Avalanches of energy dislodged by such radio waves could hit us hard. Their work suggests that
technicians could control global weather by sending relatively small ‘signals‘ into the Van Allen
belts (radiation belts around the earth). Thus Tesla’s resonance effects can control enormous
energies by tiny triggering signals. The Begich/Manning book asks whether that knowledge will be
used by war-orientated or biosphere-orientated scientists.

The military has had about 20 years to work on weather warfare methods, which it euphemistically
calls weather modification. For example, rainmaking technology was taken for a few test rides in
Vietnam. The US Department of Defense sampled lightning and hurricane manipulation studies in
Project Skyfire and Project Stormfury. And they looked at some complicated technologies that
would give big effects.

Angels Don’t Play This HAARP cites an expert who says the military studied both lasers and
chemicals which they figured could damage the ozone layer over an enemy. Looking at ways to
cause earthquakes, as well as to detect them, was part of the project named Prime Argus,
decades ago. The money for that came from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA, now under the acronym ARPA).

In 1994 the US Air Force revealed its Spacecast 2020 master plan which includes weather
control since the 1940s, but Spacecast 2020 noted that "using environmental modification
techniques to destroy, damage or injure another state is prohibited". Having said that, the Air
Force claimed that technological advance "compels a re-examination of this sensitive and
potentially risky topic".




FORTY YEARS OF ZAPPING THE SKY
As far back as 1958, the chief White House adviser on weather modification, Captain Howard T.
Orville, said the US Department of Defense was studying "ways to manipulate the the charges of
the Earth and sky and so affect the weather" by using an electronic beam to ionize or de-ionize
the atmosphere over a given area.

In 1966, Professor Gordon J. F. MacDonald was Associate Director of the Institute of
Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, Los Angeles, was a member of
the President‘s Science Advisory Committee, and later a member of the President‘s Council on
Environmental Quality. He published papers on the use of environmental control technologies for
military purposes.

MacDonald made a revealing comment:
      "The key to geophysical warfare is the identification of environmental instabilities
      to which the addition of a small amount of energy would release vastly greater
      amounts of energy."
World recognized scientist MacDonald had a number of ideas for using the environment as a
weapon system and he contributed to what was, at the time, the dream of a futurist. When he
wrote his chapter, "How to wreck the Environment", for the book Unless Peace Comes, he was
not kidding around.

In it he describes the use of weather manipulation, climate modification, polar ice-cap melting or
destabilization, ozone depletion techniques, earthquake engineering, ocean wave control and
brain-wave manipulation using the planet‘s energy fields. He also said that these types of
weapons would be developed and, when used, would be virtually undetectable by their victims. Is
HAARP that weapon? The military‘s intention to do environmental engineering is well-
documented.

US Congress‘s subcommittee hearings on Oceans and International Environment looked into
military weather and climate modification conducted in the early 1970‘s.
         "What emerged was an awesome picture of far-ranging research and
         experimentation by the Department of Defense into ways environmental
         tampering could be used as a weapon" said another author cited in the book.
The revealed secrets surprised legislators. Would an inquiry into the state of the art of
electromagnetic manipulation surprise lawmakers today? They may find out that technologies
developed out of the HAARP experiments in Alaska could deliver on Gordon MacDonald‘s
vision, because leading-edge scientists are describing global weather as not only air pressure and
thermal systems but also as an electrical system.
SMALL INPUT, BIG EFFECT
HAARP zaps the ionosphere where it is relatively unstable. A point to remember is that the
ionosphere is an active electrical shield protecting the planet from the constant bombardment of
high-energy particles from space. This conducting-plasma, along with Earth‘s magnetic field, traps
the electrical plasma of space and holds it back from going directly to the Earth‘s surface, says
Charles Yost of Dynamic Systems, Leicester, North Carolina:
        "If the ionosphere is greatly disturbed, the atmosphere below is subsequently
        disturbed."
Another scientist interviewed said there is a super-powerful electrical connection between the
ionosphere and the part of the atmosphere where our weather comes onstage: the lower
atmosphere. One manmade electrical effect - powerline harmonic resonance - causes fallout of
charged particles from the Van Allen belts, and the falling ions cause ice crystals which precipitate
rain clouds. What about HAARP?

Energy blasted upward from an ionospheric heater is not much compared to the total in the
ionosphere, but HAARP documents admit that thousand fold greater amounts of energy can be
released in the ionosphere than injected. As with MacDonald‘s "key to geophysical warfare",
"nonlinear" effects mean small input and large output. Astrophysicist Adam Trombly told
Manning that an acupuncture model is one way to look at the possible effect of multi-gigawatt
pulsing of the ionosphere. If HAARP hits certain points, those parts of the ionosphere could react
in surprising ways.

Smaller ionospheric heaters such as the one at Arecibo are underneath relatively placid regions of
the ionosphere compared to the dynamic movements nearer Earth‘s magnetic poles. That adds
another uncertainty to HAARP: the unpredictable and lively upper atmosphere near the North
Pole. HAARP experimenters do not impress common-sense Alaskans such as Barbara Zickuhr,
who says:
        "They‘re like boys playing with a sharp stick, finding a sleeping bear and poking it
        in the butt to see what‘s going to happen".



COULD THEY SHORT-CIRCUIT THE EARTH?
Earth as a spherical electrical system is a fairly well-accepted model. However, these
experimenters who want to make unnatural power connections between parts of this system
might not be thinking of possible consequences. Electrical motors and generators can be caused
to wobble when their circuits are affected. Could human activities cause a significant change in a
planet‘s electrical circuit or electrical field?

A paper in the respected journal Science deals with manmade ionization from radioactive
material, but perhaps it could also be studied with HAARP type skybusters in mind: For example,
while changes in the Earth‘s electric field resulting from a solar flare modulating conductivity may
have only a barely detectable effect on meteorology, the situation may be different in regard to
electric field changes caused by manmade ionization...

Meteorology of course is the study of the atmosphere and weather. Ionization is what happens
when a higher level of power is zapped into atoms and knocks electrons off the atoms. The
resulting charge particles are the stuff of HAARP. Paul Schaefer, commenting on HAARP-type
technologies says: One look at the weather should tell us that we are on the wrong path

Angels Don’t Play..... is about the military‘s plan to manipulate that which belongs to the world:
the ionosphere. The arrogance of the United States Government in this is not without precedent.
Atmospheric nuclear tests had similar goals. More recently, China and France put their people‘s
money to destructive use in underground nuclear tests.

It was recently reported that the US Government spent US $3 trillion on its nuclear program since
its beginnings in the 1940s. What new breakthroughs in life science could have been made with
all the money spent on death?




Begich, Manning and others believe that democracies need to be founded on openness rather
than the secrecy which surrounds so much military science. Knowledge used in developing
revolutionary weapons could be used for healing and helping mankind. Because they are used in
new weapons, discoveries are classified and suppressed.

When they do appear in the work of other independent scientists, the new ideas are often
frustrated or ridiculed, while military research laboratories continue to build their new machines for
the killing fields.

Click on the following link to take a virtual tour of the HAARP site in Alaska:
http//w3.nrl.navy.mil/projects/haarp/tourar.html

                                    Return to La Red Echelon
                                        Return to HAARP
                                        by Tom Burghardt
                                              April 12, 2010
                                      from GlobalResearch Website


What could be a significant legal victory in the on-going battle against blanket surveillance
transpired March 31 in district court in San Francisco, along with a stinging rebuke of the Obama
administration.

U.S. District Court Chief Judge Vaughn R. Walker ruled that the government had violated the
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and that the National Security Agency's warrantless
spying program was illegal.




In Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation v. Obama, Walker found that the government employed
extralegal means in 2004 to wiretap the now-defunct Islamic charity's phone calls, as well as
those of their attorneys. Ruling that the plaintiffs had been "subjected to unlawful surveillance,"
Walker declared that the government was liable to pay them damages.

The court's decision is a strong rejection of administration assertions that an imperious
Executive Branch, and it alone, may determine whether or not a case against the government
can be examined by a lawful court, merely by invoking the so-called "state secrets privilege."

The Justice Department has not decided whether it will appeal the decision; it appears likely
however given the stakes involved, that the case will be remanded back to the Ninth Circuit
Court of Appeals.

Like their Bushist predecessors, the Obama administration has heartily embraced the dubious
state secrets theory, a dodgy legalistic invention manufactured to conceal criminal policies and
illegal acts authored by the government and their agents.

The March 31 decision is all the more remarkable, in light of Judge Walker's dismissal of a
series of lawsuits brought by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Electronic
Frontier Foundation (EFF) over the explosive issues of driftnet surveillance and the CIA's
kidnapping and torture program that disappeared alleged terrorist suspects into Agency "black
sites."

The latter case, Mohamed et al. v. Jeppesen Dataplan, Inc., was dismissed by Walker in 2008
after Justice Department attorneys successfully argued that the "state secrets privilege" applied.

The appeals court rejected those arguments and ruled last year that,
       "the state secrets privilege has never applied to prevent parties from litigating
       the truth or falsity of allegations, or facts, or information simply because the
       government regards the truth or falsity of the allegations to be secret."
The court added,
       "According to the government's theory, the judiciary should effectively cordon off
       all secret government actions from judicial scrutiny, immunizing the CIA and its
       partners from the demands and limits of the law."
Several other cases dismissed by Walker challenged the secret state's authority to spy on the
American people in a profitable arrangement with the nation's giant telecommunications firms,
internet service providers and a host of shadowy private security corporations.

In late January, Antifascist Calling reported that Walker dismissed EFF's Jewell v. NSA lawsuit
challenging the agency's targeting of the electronic communications of millions of U.S. citizens
and legal residents.

As AT&T whistleblower Marc Klein told Wired earlier this year, internal AT&T documents
suggest that the on-going NSA spy program,
       "was just the tip of an eavesdropping iceberg."
According to Klein, these programs are not "targeted" against suspected terrorists but rather,
       "show an untargeted, massive vacuum cleaner sweeping up millions of peoples'
       communications every second automatically."
Despite overwhelming evidence that the state acted illegally, Walker dismissed Jewell claiming
that driftnet spying by the government was not a "particularized injury" but instead a "generalized
grievance" because almost everyone in the United States has a phone and internet service.

Chillingly, Walker asserted that,
         "a citizen may not gain standing by claiming a right to have the government
         follow the law."
What prompted Walker's change of heart in the Al-Haramain case?

During the course of litigation objecting to the government's characterization that Al-Haramain
was a "Specially Designated Global Terrorist Organization," U.S. attorneys inadvertently turned
over a classified document from the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) that revealed a
broad pattern of illegal surveillance.

Based on that document, the charity's lawyers filed a lawsuit under the FISA provision that,
       "an aggrieved person... shall be entitled to recover... actual damages, but not
       less than liquidated damages of $1,000 or $100 per day for each day of
       violation, whichever is greater" along with "reasonable attorney's fees."
The Bushist DOJ moved to squash the lawsuit, claiming that it would jeopardize "privileged state
secrets" and "national security," a position upheld by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San
Francisco.

That court, the World Socialist Web Site reported April 6,
       "issued a truly Orwellian ruling that, due to the states secret doctrine, 'the
        [classified document], its contents, and any individuals' memories of its
        contents, even well-reasoned speculation as to its contents, are completely
        barred from further disclosure in this litigation'."
Once back in the district court, Bush administration lawyers moved to dismiss the case because
the charity had "no standing" without the classified document.

The Ninth Circuit's ruling was both poison pill and Catch 22 because, as socialist critic John
Andrews wrote, without a document,
       "which no one was allowed to remember [Al-Haramain] could not prove that it
       had actually been spied upon."
How's that for circular reasoning and Kafkaesque logic!

When Al-Haramain's attorneys listed 28 publicly available sources to bolster their claims, Walker
rejected the government's motion to dismiss and the case went forward.

And when the "change" administration blew into town on January 19, 2009, the Obama regime
decided it was time to "look forward, not backward," refusing to open any inquiries or
investigations into a host of illegal practices, from waging aggressive war to torture and blanket
surveillance, carried out by the previous government.

Once in power, Obama's Justice Department replicated the Star Chamber atmospherics of the
Bush administration, arguing that spy operations against the charity were lawful because the
President's "wartime powers" allowed him to override FISA.

This too, was a legal fiction crafted by Bush torture-enablers John C. Yoo and (current) U.S.
Ninth Circuit Court Judge Jay Bybee when they worked at the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC).

The pair, along with Vice President Dick Cheney's Chief of Staff, David Addington, were chief
architects of the Bush regime's criminal policies enacted in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks.

Jon Eisenberg, one of the attorneys who represented Al-Haramain, told The New York Times
that,
       "Judge Walker is saying that FISA and federal statutes like it are not optional.
       The president, just like any other citizen of the United States, is bound by the
       law."
In a follow-up report April 1, Eisenberg told the Times,
          "If Holder wanted to be really aggressive, he could go into the Justice
          Department's files and pick out some of the people who were wiretapped and
          prosecute those cases," Mr. Eisenberg said.

        "But do they want to do that? No. The Obama administration made a decision a
        long time ago that they are not going to prosecute Bush's warrantless
        wiretapping program."
Walker also rejected arguments made by the government that the charity's lawsuit should be
dismissed, "without ruling on the merits" the Times reported, because allowing the case to go
forward could reveal "state secrets."

The judge rejected those arguments out of hand and characterized Obama administration
assertions of a,
        "state secrets privilege" as amounting to "unfettered executive-branch
        discretion" that had "obvious potential for governmental abuse and
        overreaching."
Additionally, Walker ruled that the government arguments amounted to a demand that the
Executive Branch ignore FISA, even though Congress had enacted the statute,
        "specifically to rein in and create a judicial check for executive-branch abuses of
        surveillance authority."
The constellation of programs now known as the President's Spying Program (PSP) and
specifically NSA's Stellar Wind program, which monitored Americans' email messages and
phone calls without court approval, as stipulated by FISA, was first revealed by The New York
Times in 2005.

Since those disclosures, the severity of the state's illegal activities against the American people
have escalated and now pose a far-greater threat to a functioning democracy then at any time in
our history.




Why the Ruling Matters
FISA is a 1978 law that was the result of earlier, illegal programs such as the FBI's
COINTELPRO, the CIA's Operation CHAOS and the NSA's Operation SHAMROCK during the
1960s and 1970s.

When those programs were exposed by investigative journalists and the Senate Select
Committee on Intelligence (the Church Committee), the secret state was thrown into crisis.

Similar to today's driftnet surveillance and infiltration operations that rely on informants and
agents provocateurs to gin-up "national security" and "counterterrorism" cases against official
enemies, those earlier programs targeted domestic political dissidents and "suspect" racial and
ethnic groups, in full-on counterinsurgency-type "neutralization" actions that all but destroyed the
vibrant social movements of the Johnson and Nixon years.

A Justice Department spokeswoman, Tracy Schmaler, told the Times that the Obama
administration had "overhauled" procedures for invoking the states secrets privilege and that it
would be invoked only when "absolutely necessary to protect national security."

This is a rank mendacity.

Under new guidelines in place since September 2009, as I reported last November, Justice
Department officials are supposed to reject the request to deploy the state secrets privilege to
quash lawsuits if the Executive Branch's motivation for doing so would,
        "conceal violations of the law, inefficiency or administrative error" or to "prevent
        embarrassment."
Despite strong legal grounds for allowing surveillance and torture cases to go forward, the
Obama administration, like the discredited Bush regime before it, continues to stonewall,
obfuscate and obstruct.

U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder claims that a DOJ "high-level committee" has reviewed
relevant material in the Al-Haramain and other cases equally relevant to charges that the secret
state, specifically the nexus of programs known as the PSP, violated the law. The guidelines
further stipulate that lawbreaking by a specific agency, the FBI and NSA in the Al-Haramain
case, must be reviewed by those agency's inspectors general.

This is supposed to occur whenever,
         "invocation of the privilege would preclude adjudication of particular claims,"
         particularly when a specific "case raises credible allegations of government
        wrongdoing."
If such a review has taken place, the results have never be publicly disclosed.

Commenting on the ruling, Salon's Glenn Greenwald wrote April 1 that while news reports have
focused on the illegality of Bush's NSA spy program,
       "the bulk of Judge Walker's opinion was actually a scathing repudiation of the
       Obama DOJ."

        "In fact" Greenwald avers, "the opinion spent almost no time addressing the
        merits of the claim that the NSA program was legal. That's because the Obama
        DOJ - exactly like the Bush DOJ in the case before Judge [Ann Diggs] Taylor -
        refused to offer legal justifications to the court for this eavesdropping."

        "Instead" Greenwald writes, the Obama administration advanced "the imperial
        and hubristic position" that the court, indeed any court, "had no right whatsoever
        to rule on the legality of the program because,
                     a. plaintiffs could not prove they were subjected to the
                          secret eavesdropping (and thus lacked 'standing' to
                          sue)
                     b. the NSA program was such a vital 'state secret' that
                          courts were barred from adjudicating its legality"
In further comments to the media, Eisenberg stated:
         "The Obama Administration stepped right into the shoes of the Bush
         Administration, on national security generally and on this case in particular,"
         adding, "even though I have the security clearance, I don't have the 'need to
         know,' so I can't see anything. This is Obama. Obama! Mr. Transparency! Mr.
         Change! It's exactly what Bush would have done."
As this writer has argued many times, while the color of the drapes in the Oval Office may have
changed since Obama took office, on every substantive issue, from warrantless wiretapping, to
indefinite detention and preemptive wars of imperialist aggression, the current regime has
recapitulated, indeed expanded, the onerous policies of his predecessor.




Illegal Programs Proliferate Under Obama
Despite pledges from candidate Obama and his acolytes that illegal activities by the secret state
would be reined-in, the Obama administration has sought to embellish the Executive Branch's
lawless policies as the "War on Terror" metastasizes on a planetary scale.

Both The New York Times and The Washington Post have confirmed that the Obama
administration,
        "has taken the extraordinary step of authorizing the targeted killing of an
        American citizen, the radical Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki."
Whether or not al-Awlaki is an operative of the Afghan-Arab database of disposable Western
intelligence assets known as al-Qaeda, or whether the dodgy cleric's targeting is part of a CIA
clean-up operation that would preempt disclosure of the Agency's foreknowledge of the 9/11
attacks is besides the point.

What is significant is that the administration is now standing-up a presidential assassination
program that would target American citizens far from any battlefield, solely on the basis of
unchecked accusations by the Executive Branch that they're involved in terrorism.
No warrant, no arrest, no trial: in place of a lawful conviction by a "jury of his peers," "justice" will
come in the form of a Hellfire missile or a bullet in the back of the head!

In November, I wrote of a suggested plan published by the Joint Special Operations University
(JSOU) to create a secretive "National Manhunting Agency."

In that piece I said while the text was not an "official" report, the fact that the monograph,
"Manhunting - Counter-Network Organization for Irregular Warfare," was written by retired Air
Force Lt. Colonel George A. Crawford and published by JSOU, lends added weight to
arguments by critics that the United States Government has "gone rogue" and is preparing a
planet-wide Operation Condor network to capture or kill imperialism's enemies.

In light of last week's reports, does such an entity now exist, either as an official, though
compartmented, code-word protected secret operation, or as a privatized Murder, Inc.?

On the domestic surveillance front, as The New York Times revealed in several investigative
pieces in 2009, NSA, despite assurances from the Obama administration, continued to intercept,
        "private e-mail messages and phone calls of Americans in recent months on a
        scale that went beyond the broad legal limits established by Congress last
        year."
According to journalists Eric Lichtblau and James Risen, the "intelligence officials" said that
the agency,
        "had been engaged in 'overcollection' of domestic communications of
        Americans. They described the practice as significant and systemic."
In a follow-up piece, the Times' reporters disclosed, that a former NSA analyst,
          "described being trained in 2005 for a program in which the agency routinely
          examined large volumes of Americans' e-mail messages without court warrants.
          Two intelligence officials confirmed that the program was still in operation."
Indeed, as a heavily-redacted 38-page report released last year by the inspectors general of five
federal agencies found, most "intelligence officials" interviewed "had difficulty citing specific
instances" when the National Security Agency's wiretapping program contributed to successes
against "terrorists."

But as a means for monitoring the communications of dissident and activist groups, lawless
surveillance programs have been a boon to America's political police as they zero-in on
anarchists, Muslims, environmentalists, indeed any group perceived to be a "threat" to the
capitalist order.

The report goes on to state that when President Bush authorized the illegal warrantless
wiretapping operation, he also signed off on a host of other surveillance programs that the secret
state has never publicly disclosed. According to multiple published reports, those programs
include a massive data-mining operation of the email, internet searches, blog posts, GPS
locational data of American citizens.

Security researcher Chris Soghoian, the publisher of the web site Slight Paranoia, discovered
at the secretive Intelligent Support Systems (ISS) wiretapping conference last October in
Washington, that a niche security outfit, Packet Forensics was marketing internet spying boxes
to the federal government.

In December, Soghoian revealed that a Sprint Nextel executive disclosed at ISS that the firm
provided law enforcement agencies with its customers' (GPS) location information "over 8 million
times between September 2008 and October 2009" and that this new "tool" for tracking our
every move "was made possible due to the roll-out by Sprint of a new, special web portal for law
enforcement officers."
According to Soghoian and researcher Sid Stamm, Packet Forensics has developed technology
designed to intercept communications without breaking encryption, by deploying forged security
certificates instead of real ones that websites use to verify connections.

SSL certificates are the tiny lock symbol that appears in your web browser when you make a
"secure" connection for online banking or to purchase a book or video game.

In a paper published March 24, Certified Lies - Detecting and Defeating Government
Interception Attacks Against SSL, Soghoian and Stamm reveal that "a new attack" on
individuals' privacy rights is,
        "the compelled certificate creation attack, in which government agencies compel
        a certificate authority to issue false SSL certificates that are then used by
        intelligence agencies to covertly intercept and hijack individuals' secure Web-
        based communications. We reveal alarming evidence that suggests that this
        attack is in active use."
According to a marketing brochure handed out by Packet Forensics at the ISS conclave,
       "Users have the ability to import a copy of any legitimate key they obtain
       (potentially by court order) or they can generate 'look-alike' keys designed to
       give the subject a false sense of confidence in its authenticity."
In other words, secret state agencies, with or without the legal niceties one generally expects in
a democracy, can forge security keys "for reasons of state."

Soghoian and Stamm aver that the product is recommended for government investigators and
that Packet Forensics stated that,
        "IP communication dictates the need to examine encrypted traffic at will,"
        therefore "your investigative staff will collect its best evidence while users are
        lulled into a false sense of security afforded by web, e-mail or VOIP encryption."
In blunt terms, all your communications belong to us!

And if you don't like it, well, there's a jail cell waiting for you in some quiet, out-of-the-way
"secure location" otherwise known as a black site! How has the "change" administration
responded to these, and a raft of other reports?

The Washington Post reported April 9, that congressional grifters and privacy advocates,
      "are stepping up the pressure on the Obama administration to fill the five vacant
      seats on the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, a panel created in
      2004 to ensure that executive branch counterterrorism policies protect
      Americans' civil liberties."
Post journalist Ellen Nakashima disclosed that the,
        "board has been vacant since the end of the last administration."
On and on it goes.

The securitization and militarization of daily life in the "greatest democracy money can buy"
proceeds apace.

As anthropologist and social critic David Price revealed in a new piece for CounterPunch,
America's military-industrial-intelligence-academic-complex has pressured U.S. universities to
welcome the CIA and other secret state agencies back onto campuses with open arms.
        "After 9/11" Price writes, "the intelligence agencies pushed campuses to see the
        CIA and campus secrecy in a new light, and, as traditional funding sources for
        social science research declined, the intelligence community gained footholds
        on campuses."
These programs, managed by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence's (ODNI)
Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA),
         "use universities to train intelligence personnel by piggybacking onto existing
         educational programs."

        "Even amid the militarization prevailing in America today," Price writes, "the
        silence surrounding this quiet installation and spread of programs ... is
        extraordinary."
Not so extraordinary however, if one considers America's rapid transformation into a police state
even as the capitalist Empire runs aground.

                                       Return to Obama - A "New"
                                           Sociopolitical Era?
                                       Return to Big Brother Loves
                                                  You...
                                         Return to The Echelon
                                                 Network
                                            Return to 'War on
                                                  Terror'




                                           by Michael C. Ruppert
                                                 September 2000
                                         from FromTheWilderness Website




                              The following story appeared in the September,
                                          2000 Special Edition of
                                           'From The Wilderness'.
        "U.S. journalist Mike Ruppert, a former Los Angeles police officer who now runs
        a Web site that seeks to expose CIA covert operations, said he met with RCMP
        investigator McDade on Aug. 3 in L.A.

        Ruppert said the RCMP officer was anxious to see documents he received three
        years ago from a shadowy Green Beret named Bill Tyre [sic] detailing the sale of
        rigged Promis software to Canada."
        - The Toronto Star, September 4, 2000.

Only the legends of Excalibur, the sword of invincible power, and the Holy Grail, the chalice from
which Christ took his wine at the Last Supper begin to approach the mysterious aura that have
evolved in the world of secret intelligence around a computer software program named Promis.

Created in the 1970s by former National Security Agency (NSA) programmer and engineer Bill
Hamilton, now President of Washington, D.C.'s Inslaw Corporation, PROMIS (Prosecutor's
Management Information System) crossed a threshold in the evolution of computer programming.
Working from either huge mainframe computer systems or smaller networks powered by the
progenitors of today's PCs, PROMIS, from its first "test drive" a quarter century ago, was able to
do one thing that no other program had ever been able to do.

It was able to simultaneously read and integrate any number of different computer programs or
data bases simultaneously, regardless of the language in which the original programs had been
written or the operating system or platforms on which that data base was then currently installed.

In the mid 1970s, at least as far as computer programs were concerned, the "universal translator"
of Star Trek had become a reality. And the realm of Star Trek is exactly where most of the major
media would have the general public place the Promis story in their world views.

But given the fact that the government of Canada has just spent millions of dollars investigating
whether or not a special version of Promis, equipped with a so-called "back door" has
compromised its national security, one must concede that perhaps the myths surrounding Promis
and what has happened to it need to be re-evaluated.



                         PROMIS - CIA's Secret Spying Software
                                         by Barbaricfellow
                                            August 12, 2008
                                         from YouTube Website




Myths, by definition, cannot be solved, but facts can be understood and integrated. Only a very
few people realize how big the Promis story really is.

It is difficult to relegate Promis to the world of myth and fantasy when so many tangible things, like
the recently acknowledged RCMP investigation make it real. Canadians are not known for being
wildly emotional types given to sprees.

And one must also include the previous findings of Congressional oversight committees and no
less than six obvious dead bodies ranging from investigative journalist Danny Casolaro in 1991,
to a government employee named Alan Standorf, to British Publisher and lifelong Israeli agent
Robert Maxwell also in 1991, to retired Army CID investigator Bill McCoy in 1997, to a father and
son named Abernathy in a small northern California town named Hercules.

The fact that commercial versions of Promis are now available for sale directly from Inslaw belies
the fact that some major papers and news organizations instantly and laughably use the epithet
conspiracy theorist to stigmatize anyone who discusses it. Fear may be the major obstacle or
ingredient in the myth surrounding modified and "enhanced" versions of Promis that keeps
researchers from fully pursuing leads rising in its wake.

I was validated in this theory on September 23rd in a conversation with FTW (From The
Wilderness) Contributing Editor Peter Dale Scott, Ph.D.

Scott, a Professor Emeritus at UC Berkeley and noted author. Peter, upon hearing of the details
of my involvement, frankly told me that Promis frightened him. Casolaro, who was found dead in a
West Virginia motel room in 1991, had Scott's name (Scott is also a Canadian) in a list of people
to contact about his Promis findings.
He never got that far.

A close examination of the Promis saga actually leads to more than a dozen deaths which may
well be why so many people avoid it. And many of those deaths share in common a pattern
where, within 48 hours of death, bodies are cremated, residences are sanitized and all files
disappear. This was certainly the case with my friend Bill McCoy, a legendary retired Army CID
investigator who was also the principal investigator for Hamilton in his quest to recover what may
be hundreds of millions in lost royalties and to reunite him with the evolved progeny of his brain
child.

Those progeny now have names like SMART (Self Managing Artificial Reasoning Technology)
and TECH. I will never forget hearing of McCoy's death and his immediate cremation and then
trying to reconcile that with the number of times he had told me, while sitting in his Fairfax Virginia
home, that he wanted to be buried next to his beloved wife in spite of the fact that he was a
Taoist.

I have tried to avoid becoming involved in Promis even though I have been in possession of
documents and information about the case for more than six years. Reluctantly, as I realized that
recent developments gave me a moral imperative to write, I gathered all of my scattered computer
files connecting the case into one place. When assembled they totaled more than seven
megabytes and that did not include maybe 500 printed pages of separate files.

In researching this story I found a starkly recurring theme. It appeared first in a recent statement I
tape recorded from probably one of the three best informed open sources on the story in the
world, William Tyree. I also came across the same theme, almost verbatim, in a research paper
that I discovered while following leads from other sources.

Tyree is no stranger to FTW. A former US Army Green Beret, framed in 1979, he has been
serving a life sentence for the murder of his wife Elaine outside of Fort Devens Massachusetts,
then home of the 10th Special Forces Group. I have written of him in no less than six prior issues
of FTW.

He has, from his prison cell in Walpole Massachusetts, been a central if little known figure in the
Promis case for many years, like a monk mysteriously possessed of information that no one else
could obtain. If the story is ever fully told his role may be even more significant than anyone has
ever supposed.

The information from Tyree, recorded in a phone conversation on August 28, and the research
work on "block-modeling" social research theory uncovered while researching other leads both
describe the same unique position or vantage point from hypothetical and actual perspectives.
Tyree described an actual physical point in space, further out than ever thought possible and now
used by US satellites.

This distance is made possible by Promis progeny so evolved that they make the original software
look primitive. The social research, which included pioneering mathematical work - apparently
facilitating the creation of artificial intelligence - postulated that a similar remote hypothetical
position would eliminate randomness from all human activity.

Everything would be visible in terms of measurable and predictable patterns - the ultimate big
picture. Just one of the key web sites where I found this information is located at http
//web.syr.edu/~bvmarten/socialnet.html.

One of FTW's guiding principles is our incessant drive to separate that which is important from
that which is merely true. The purpose of this article is to provide leads and insights, some very
concrete, for the continued investigation of the Promis saga.

While we do not claim to be worthy of pulling Excalibur from the stone we do hope to be divorced
enough from egotistical motivations and dreams of Pulitzers or glory to avoid being led into the
trap that has befallen so many seeking the Holy Grail. FTW believes that the Promis story will only
be solved by a group of people working together selflessly for a greater good. Maybe there is
legend here after all.

Put simply, from the vantage point of a child actor in 1970s Burger King commercials, "It's too big
to eat!"

What would you do if you possessed software that could think, understand every language in the
world, that provided peep holes into everyone else's computer "dressing rooms," that could insert
data into computers without people's knowledge, that could fill in blanks beyond human reasoning
and also predict what people would do - before they did it? You would probably use it wouldn't
you? But Promis is not a virus.

It has to be installed as a program on the computer systems that you want to penetrate. Being as
uniquely powerful as it is this is usually not a problem. Once its power and advantages are
demonstrated, most corporations, banks or nations are eager to be a part of the "exclusive" club
that has it. And, as is becoming increasingly confirmed by sources connected to this story,
especially in the worldwide banking system, not having Promis - by whatever name it is offered -
can exclude you from participating in the ever more complex world of money transfers and money
laundering.

As an example, look at any of the symbols on the back of your ATM card. Picture your bank
refusing to accept the software that made it possible to transfer funds from LA to St. Louis, or from
St. Louis to Rome.

The other thing to remember is that where mathematics has proved that every human being on
the earth is connected to every other by only six degrees of separation, in covert operations the
number shrinks to around three.

In the Promis story it often shrinks to two. It really is a small world.




The First Rip Off
Reagan confidant and overseer for domestic affairs from 1981 to 1985 Ed Meese loved Promis
software. According to lawsuits and appeals filed by Hamilton, as well as the records of
Congressional hearings, the FBI and dozens of news stories, the legend of Promis began in 1981-
2.

After a series of demonstrations showing how well Promis could integrate the computers of
dozens of US attorneys offices around the country, the Department of Justice (DoJ) ordered an
application of the software under a tightly controlled and limited license.

From there, however, Meese, along with cronies D. Lowell Jensen (also no stranger to FTW's
pages) and Earl Brian allegedly engaged in a conspiracy to steal the software, modify it to include
a "trap door" that would allow those who knew of it to access the program in other computers, and
then sell it overseas to foreign intelligence agencies. Hamilton began to smell a rat when agencies
from other countries, like Canada, started asking him for support services in French when he had
never made sales to Canada.

The Promis-managed data could be anything from financial records of banking institutions to
compilations of various records used to track the movement of terrorists. That made the program
a natural for Israel which, according to Hamilton and many other sources, was one of the first
countries to acquire the bootlegged software from Meese and Company.

As voluminously described by Inslaw attorney, the late Elliot Richardson, the Israeli Mossad under
the direction of Rafi Eitan, allegedly modified the software yet again and sold it throughout the
Middle East. It was Eitan, the legendary Mossad captor of Adolph Eichmann, according to
Hamilton, who had masqueraded as an Israeli prosecutor to enter Inslaw's DC offices years
earlier and obtain a first hand demonstration of what the Promis could do.

Not too many Arab nations would trust a friendly Mossad agent selling computer programs. So the
Mossad provided their modified Promis to flamboyant British publishing magnate Robert Maxwell,
a WWII Jewish resistance fighter who had assumed the Anglo name and British citizenship after
the war.

It was Maxwell, capable of traveling the world and with enormous marketing resources, who
became the sales agent for Promis and then sold it to, among others, the Canadian government.
Maxwell drowned mysteriously in late 1991, not long after investigative reporter Danny Casolaro
was "suicided" in West Virginia. Maxwell may not have been the only one to send Promis north.

In the meantime, after winning some successes, including a resounding Congressional finding
that he had been cheated, Bill Hamilton hit his own buzz saw in a series of moves by the Reagan
and Bush Justice Departments and rigged court decisions intended to bankrupt him and force him
out of business. He survived and fought on. In the meantime hundreds of millions of dollars in
royalties and sales fees were going into the wrong pockets. And, as was later revealed from a
number of directions, this initial tampering with the software was far from the only game in town.

Both the CIA, through GE Aerospace in Herndon Virginia (GAO Contract #82F624620), the FBI
and elements of the NSA were tinkering with Promis, not just to modify it with a trap door, but to
enhance it with artificial intelligence or AI. It's worth it to note that GE Aerospace was
subsequently purchased by Martin-Marietta which then merged to become Lockheed-Martin the
largest defense and aerospace contractor in the world. This will become important later on.

Confidential documents obtained by FTW indicate that much of the AI development was done at
the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia Labs using research from other US universities,
including Harvard, Cal-Tech and the University of California. And it was not just Reagan
Republicans who got their hands on it either.

As we'll see shortly, Promis came to life years before the election of Ronald Reagan.

It was also, according to Bill Tyree, an essential element in the espionage conducted by Jonathan
Pollard against not only the US government but the Washington embassies of many nations
targeted by Israel's Mossad.




The Last Circle
For more than a year and half, members of the National Security Section of the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police (RCMP) have been traveling through the US, often in the company of a savvy
female homicide detective from the small California town of Hercules named Sue Todd. Even now
questions linger as to what the Canadians were really after. But there is absolutely no question
that while surreptitiously in the U.S. the Mounties spent more time with author and investigative
reporter Cheri Seymour than with anyone else.

And for good reason.

Seymour, under the pen name of Carol Marshall is the author of a meticulously researched e-
book entitled The Last Circle. So meticulously researched and documented is the book that
FTW's researcher "The Goddess" has fact checked it and found it flawless. Same with Bill
Hamilton and the Mounties, who have also told me of its precision.

Anyone seeking to understand the Promis story must include this book as a part of their overall
research.

I first met Cheri in person this spring after she had contacted me via the Internet. I traveled to her
home, some three hours outside of Los Angeles and viewed acres of documentation for a saga
that started with drug related murders and police corruption around methamphetamine production
in northern California in the 1980s.

That investigation later connected to politicians like Tony Coelho and major corporations like MCA
and eventually led to a shadowy scientist named Michael Riconosciuto.

Familiar names like Ted Gunderson and relatively unknown names like Robert Booth Nichols
weave throughout this detailed epic that takes us to the Cabazon Indian Reservation in the
California Desert and into the deepest recesses of the 1980s Reagan/Bush security apparatus.

Gunderson, a retired FBI Special Agent in Charge (SAC) from Los Angeles, and Nichols, a
mysterious Los Angeles man, exposed through court documents obtained by Seymour as being a
career CIA operative, connected with scientist/programmer, Riconosciuto in a sinister, yet now
very well documented phase of Promis' development.

In affidavits Riconosciuto claimed that one of the tasks he performed at the Cabazon reservation
was to install a back door in the version of Promis that was sold to Canada. In August of this year
the RCMP investigators told both Seymour and me that they had traveled to the reservation
several times and had confirmed many details of Seymour's research. They had also interviewed
Riconosciuto on more than one occasion.

As with everyone else I have ever met who has spoken with him, both the Mounties and Seymour
kept a reserved distance from him and always "counted their fingers after every hand shake."

By using treaties between the U.S. Government and Native American peoples that recognize
Native American reservations as sovereign nations, the CIA has long and frequently avoided
statutory prohibitions against operating inside the United States. The financial rewards for tribal
nations have been significant and the extra security afforded by tribal police in remote areas has
been a real blessing for covert operatives.

The Last Circle describes in detail how Promis software was modified by Riconosciuto to allegedly
include the back door "eavesdropping" capability but also enhanced with one form of AI and
subsequently applied to the development of new weapons systems including "ethnospecific"
biowarfare compounds capable of attacking specific races.

Riconosciuto, now serving time in a Federal prison in Pennsylvania has a cell a very short
distance from fellow espionage inmates Edwin Wilson and Jonathan Pollard. While his tale is
critical to understanding what has happened to Promis, the fact remains that Riconosciuto has
been out of the loop and in legal trouble for eight years. He has been in a maximum security
prison for at least six. What was surprising was that in 1998 he contacted homicide detective Sue
Todd in Hercules and told her that the murder of a father and son, execution style, was connected
to the Promis story. One connection was obvious.

Hercules is a "company town" connected to a weapons manufacturer described in Seymour's
book that also connects to the Cabazon Indian Reservation.




The Three Bills
I lived in Washington, D.C. from August 1994 until late October of 1995. It was during that time
that I was a semi-regular visitor at the Fairfax, Virginia home of Bill McCoy, a loveable sixty-
something giant, always adorned with a beret who complained ruthlessly about what had
happened to the United States since "The Damned Yankee Army" had taken over.

Writers were "scribblers." People who thought they knew something about covert operations
without ever having seen one were "spooky-groupies." "Mac," as we called him, had his
investigative fingers in almost everything but he was most involved with Promis.

McCoy was a retired Chief Warrant Officer from the U.S. Army's Criminal Investigation Division.
He had broken some of the biggest cases in Army history. It was Mac who first introduced me to
both Bill Tyree and to Bill Hamilton in 1994.

I recall scratching my head as I would be sitting at Mac's dinner table when a call would come in
from Hamilton asking if there was any new information from Tyree.
          "Not yet, " McCoy would answer, "I'll call as soon as I get something."

        "How," I asked, "could a guy in a maximum security prison like Walpole State
        Penitentiary in Massachusetts be getting information of such quality that
        someone like Hamilton would be calling urgently to see what had come in?"

        "That," answered McCoy was the work of someone known only as "The Sergeant
        Major," and alternately as "His Eminence" who fed the information to Tyree, who
        in turn fed it to McCoy, who then passed it on to Hamilton.
Sometimes however, Tyree and Hamilton communicated directly. To this day the identity of the
Sergeant Major remains a mystery and the puzzle piece most pursued by the RCMP when they
visited me in August, 2000.

It was also not by coincidence then that, in the same winter of 94-95, McCoy revealed to me that
he was using former Green Berets to conduct physical surveillance of the Washington, D.C.
offices of Microsoft in connection with the Promis case.

FTW (From The Wilderness) has, within the last month, received information indicating that piracy
of Microsoft products at the GE Aerospace Herndon facility were likely tied to larger objectives,
possibly the total compromise of any Windows based product. It is not by chance that most of the
military and all of the intelligence agencies in the U.S. now operate on Macintosh systems.

In late 1996 Tyree mailed me a detailed set of diagrams and a lengthy narrative explaining the
exact hows and whys of the murder of Danny Casolaro and an overall view of the Promis saga
that is not only consistent with what is described by Seymour in The Last Circle but also provides
many new details.
Asked about Mike Riconosciuto for this story Tyree would say only that,
       "He's very good at what he does. There are very, very few who can touch him,
       maybe 200 in the whole world. Riconosciuto's in a class all by himself."
Those documents, as later described to me by RCMP Investigator Sean McDade, proved to be
"Awesome and right on the money."

The essence of those documents was that, not only had the Republicans under Meese exploited
the software, but that the Democrats had also seen its potential and moved years earlier.

Nowhere was this connection more clearly exposed than in understanding the relationship
between three classmates from the U.S. Naval Academy:
            Jimmy Carter
            Stansfield Turner (Carter's CIA director)
            billionaire banker and Presidential kingmaker (Carter's Annapolis
               roommate), Arkansas' Jackson Stephens
The Tyree diagrams laid out in detail how Promis, after improvement with AI, had allegedly been
mated with the software of Jackson Stephens' firm Systematics. In the late seventies and early
eighties, Systematics handled some 60-70% of all electronic banking transactions in the U.S.

The goal, according to the diagrams which laid out (subsequently verified) relationships between
Stephens, Worthen Bank, the Lippo Group and the drug/intelligence bank BCCI was to penetrate
every banking system in the world.

This "cabal" could then use Promis both to predict and to influence the movement of financial
markets worldwide.

Stephens, truly bipartisan in his approach to profits, has been a lifelong supporter of George Bush
and he was, at the same time, the source of the $3 million loan that rescued a faltering Clinton
Campaign in early 1992. There is a great photograph of Stephens with a younger George "W"
Bush in the excellent BCCI history, False Profits.

In the fall of 1997, Bill McCoy, having recently gone off of his heart medication was found dead in
his favorite chair. In the days and weeks before he had been advised by Tyree that a Pakistani hit
man, on an Israeli contract had been in the states seeking to fulfill a hit on McCoy. There had
been other hints that someone closer to McCoy might do the job.

Tyree recently told FTW that just before his death, he had given McCoy information on "Elbit"
flash memory chips, allegedly designed at Kir Yat-Gat south of Tel Aviv. The unique feature of the
Elbit chips was that they worked on ambient electricity in a computer. In other words, they worked
when the computer was turned off. When combined with another newly developed chip, the
"Petrie," which was capable of storing up to six months worth of key strokes, it was now possible
to burst transmit all of a computer's activity in the middle of the night to a nearby receiver - say in
a passing truck or even a low flying SIGINT (Signals Intelligence) satellite.

According to Tyree this was the methodology used by Jonathan Pollard and the Israeli Mossad to
compromise many foreign embassies in Washington.

Within 48 hours of his death Bill McCoy had been cremated and in less than four days all of Mac's
furniture, records and personal belongings had been removed from his home by his son, a full
Colonel in the Army.

The house had been sanitized and repainted and, aside from the Zen garden in the back yard,
there was no trace that McCoy had ever lived there.




Harvard and HUD
Former Assistant Secretary of Housing, Catherine Austin Fitts has had about as much ink in
FTW as anyone else. A feisty, innovative thinker she has seen raging success as a Managing
Director of the Wall Street investment bank Dillon Read and she has been "nuked" into near
poverty after devising software strategies seeking to optimize financial data and returns for the US
taxpayer.

While acting as a HUD (United States Department of Housing and Urban Development)
consultant in 1996, selling defaulted HUD Mortgages into the private market through her own
investment bank, Hamilton Securities (no relation), she achieved unheard of taxpayer returns of
around 90 cents on the dollar. In doing so she ran afoul of an entrenched Washington financial
power structure feeding uncompetitively at the HUD trough.

Last month we described how Fitts devised a data optimization method using hand coding by
residents of a HUD Housing project in Washington to produce Promis-like results. She
successfully "mapped" the flow of HUD money and was about to create proprietary software that
would make the job easier. That software would have integrated billions of pieces of disorganized
HUD financial data.

Suddenly, in August 1996, DoJ and HUD Inspector's General investigations started that seized
her computers and resulted in a four-year blatantly illegal campaign to crush everything she stood
for. No charges were ever brought, Fitts, her money and her data are still viciously separated.

One of the empires Fitts threatened was that of the Harvard Endowment. The Harvard
Endowment is not really a benevolent university fund but an aggressive investment predator with
$19 billion in assets, some from HUD subsidized housing. Harvard also has a number of other
investments in high tech defense operations and had a big hand in investing George W Bush's
lackluster firm Harken Energy.

"W" has a Harvard MBA. Fitts' chief nemesis at Harvard, Herbert "Pug" Winokur, head of
Capricorn Investments, and member of the board of the Harvard Endowment is also a PhD
mathematician from Harvard where the mathematical breakthroughs that gave rise to Artificial
Intelligence using block-modeling research were discovered.

In the 60s Winokur had done social science research for the Department of Defense on causes of
inner city unrest in the wake of the 1967 Detroit riots.

The pioneering research at Harvard that allegedly gave rise to the Artificial Intelligence installed in
Promis later moved north. According to a Harvard website
(http://www.analytictech.com/mb119/chap2e.htm)
         "Much of the effort of the Harvard group - no longer based solely at Harvard - was
         centered on the International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA) at
         Toronto...".
Things grew more suspicious as Fitts' research disclosed that Winokur, through Capricorn
Investments, had a decisive role in the 1980s management of the intelligence/government
outsourcing mega-firm DynCorp, of Reston, VA. Winokur served as DynCorp CEO from 1989 to
1997.
DynCorp handles everything for Uncle Sam from aircraft maintenance, to sheep-dipping of
combat troops into private assault forces in Colombia, to the financial management of HUD
records, to the maintenance of computer security at government facilities. One of DynCorp's most
interesting contracts is with the DoJ for the financial management of assets seized in the drug
war.

DynCorp also counts among its shareholders former CIA Director James Woolsey.

Pug Winokur made DynCorp what it is today and he still sits on the board.

In juxtaposition, Harvard and HUD differ in one striking respect according to Fitts. The Harvard
Endowment has enjoyed wildly uncharacteristic above market tax-free returns for the last decade,
(33% in 1999), while HUD, in the same year, was compelled to do a "manual adjustments" to
reconcile a $59 billion shortfall between its accounts and the U.S. Treasury account. [This is not a
typographical error].

Where did all that money go? $59 billion in an election year is a staggering amount of money.
Why is no one screaming? HUD's explanation is that it was loading a new accounting system that
did not work and then did not bother to balance its checkbook for over a year.

I was not surprised when Bill Hamilton confirmed to both Fitts and to me that Winokur's DynCorp
had played a role in the evolution of Promis in the 1980s. One other surprise was to come out of
Fitts' investigations that had months earlier led her to conclude that she was up against Promis-
related interests. On the very day that DoJ and HUD shut her down she was discussing software
development with a Canadian firm that is at the heart of the Canadian space program, Geomatics.

The term Geomatics applies to a related group of sciences - all involving satellite imagery - used
to develop geographic information systems, global positioning systems and remote sensing from
space that can actually determine the locations of natural resources such as oil, precious metals
and other commodities.

Apparently centered in Canada, the Geomatics industry offers consulting services throughout the
world in English, German, Russian, French, Arabic, Spanish and Chinese. Geomatics technology,
launched aboard Canadian satellites via US, European or Japanese boosters can help developing
or industrialized nations inventory and manage all of their natural resources. There are also
several Geomatics related companies in the U.S. including one not far from the Johnson Space
center in Houston.

This situation is custom made for enhanced Promis software with back-door technology. What
better way to map and inventory all of the world's resources than by making each client nation pay
for the work. By providing the client nation Promis-based software it would then be possible to
compile a global data base of every marketable natural resource. And it would not be necessary
to even touch the resources because commodities and futures markets exist for all of them.

An AI enhanced, Promis-based program would then be the perfect set up to make billions of
dollars in profits by watching and manipulating the world's political climate to trade in, let's say
Tungsten futures. Such a worldwide database would be even more valuable if there were, for
example, a sudden surge in the price of gold or platinum.

Bill Hamilton readily agreed that this was an ideal situation for the application of Promis
technology. In furthering our research on Geomatics we discovered that almost everywhere
Geomatics technology went we also found Lockheed-Martin.
Enter The Mounties
Thanks to a strong push in my direction from Cheri Seymour, the Mounties and Hercules PD
Homicide Detective Sue Todd arrived at my door on August 3rd. They had already consumed
most of the FTW web site and were well familiar with my writings. I had let them know, through
Cheri, that I did have information on Promis from Bill Tyree and that I would be happy to share it.
Before getting into details we all went out for lunch at a nearby Chinese restaurant.

In setting basic outlines for our conversations that day I indicated that, as a journalist, I viewed our
discussions as off-the-record. I took no notes and did not tape record any of the discussion. I am
recounting the events now only after corresponding with McDade and advising him of my intention
to write. He responded and did not object. I took the same position with Detective Todd. I warned
the Mounties and Todd at the outset that a sudden termination of their investigations was likely
and that they would all become expendable.

It happened to me once.

Over lunch the Mounties were quite candid about the fact that the RCMP had Promis software
and that it even went by the name Promis. I think they may have also mentioned the name PIRS
which is an acknowledged system in the RCMP network. They stated that they had been given
their version of Promis by the Canadian Security and Intelligence Service (CSIS).

CSIS was an intelligence breakaway from the Mounties in 1984, intended to be a pure [sic]
intelligence agency. It was created largely with the expertise and assistance of the CIA.

All of us understood two things about that arrangement and we discussed them openly.
              First, there was a question as to whether or not any intelligence service
                 created by the CIA could be completely loyal to its native country
              Secondly, it was also understood that there was a rivalry between the two
                 agencies similar to the one that existed between the FBI and the CIA, or
                 in a larger context, the Clinton gang and the Bush gang in the US
The chief concern of the Mounties, clearly, was to ascertain whether or not their version of Promis
was one that was compromised. McDade also described in detail how he knew that supposedly
secure RCMP communications equipment had been compromised by the NSA.

The Mounties acknowledged regular meetings with Cheri Seymour but evinced none of the
interest she said that they had previously shown in the Mossad. With me their single-minded
focus was Bill Tyree and where and how he obtained his information.

Sue Todd, confirmed for me suspicions that there was an unspoken alliance between the RCMP
investigators and the FBI. She said that during the course of her three years of efforts to solve the
double murder in Hercules, she had routinely visited FBI offices and enjoyed access to FBI files
relative to both the Promis investigation and anything connected to her victims.

That information was obviously being shared with the Mounties and that implied the blessings of
the FBI. In short, a domestic law enforcement officer was sharing information with agents of a
foreign government. In some cases that could provoke espionage charges but in this case it was
apparently sanctioned. The Hercules murder victims had no apparent connection to Promis
software in any way except for the fact that Riconosciuto had possessed knowledge about the
murders which he had provided to Todd from prison.

The Hercules Armament Corporation, featured in The Last Circle, was an obvious link. I also
noted that the father in Todd's case had been a computer engineer with passions for both
geological research and hypnosis and no other visible connections to the Promis story.

As we copied Tyree's papers and went through other materials the next day I was aware that the
Canadians expressed special interest in Jackson Stephens and anything having to do with the
manipulation of financial markets. They asked for copies of news reports I had showing that
General Wesley Clark, the recently retired NATO Commander, has just gone to work for
Stephens, Inc. in Little Rock Arkansas.

I also provided documents showing that Stephens' financial firm Alltel, heir to Systematics, was
moving heavily into the mortgage market. As the Mounties repeatedly pressed for information on
the identity of the Sergeant Major I referred them to Tyree directly through his attorney Ray
Kohlman and to Tyree's closest friend, the daughter of CIA bagman and paymaster Albert
Carone, Dee Ferdinand. [For more on Carone visit the FTW web site].

McDade did eventually contact Ferdinand by phone and shortly thereafter one of the most bizarre
twists in the whole story took place.

About a week after meeting the Mounties I heard back from Sean that the Tyree documents and
flow charts from 1996 had been right on the money. A special recurring theme in those
documents that meshes with Seymour's research is the fact that modified versions of Promis
software with both artificial intelligence and trap doors were being smuggled out of Los Alamos
nuclear labs in containers labeled as radioactive waste.

According to Tyree and other sources, after an Indian reservation, the safest place in the world
that no one will ever break into is a nuclear waste dump. This also applies to containers in transit
between countries. The radioactive warning label guarantees unmolested movement of virtually
anything.

Promis software is apparently no exception.




Bill Casey and Al Carone from the Grave
Albert Vincent Carone has also been covered exhaustively in FTW, both in the newsletter and
on the web site. A retired NYPD Detective, also a made-member of the Genovese crime family,
Carone spent his entire working career as a CIA operative. (FTW has special reports on both Bill
Tyree and Al Carone available from the web site or at the end of this newsletter).

For more than 25 years before his mysterious death in 1990, Al Carone served as a bagman and
liaison between George Bush, CIA Director Bill Casey, Oliver North, Richard Nixon and many
other prominent figures including Robert Vesco, Manuel Noriega and Ferdinand Marcos. The
Carone-Tyree connection, covered in detail in the Sept. 1998 issue (Vol. I, No.7) goes back to
operations in the mid 1970s when Tyree, serving with the Special Forces, engaged in CIA
directed missions for which Carone was the paymaster.

Carone's death from "chemical toxicity of unknown etiology" in 1990 resulted in the sanitizing of all
of his military and NYPD records as well as the theft and disappearance of nearly ten million
dollars in bank accounts, insurance policies and investments. Virtually overnight, almost every
record of Carone disappeared leaving his daughter and her family nearly bankrupt under the
burden of tens of thousands of dollars in medical bills.

In 1996, Carone's daughter, Dee Ferdinand, discovered that Tyree and Carone had known each
other and that Tyree could prove instrumental in helping to restore Carone's lost fortune.
Ferdinand filed suit in U.S. District Court this spring seeking to recover pensions, insurance
policies and benefits in a case which has no known connection to Promis.

I have known Ferdinand and her family for more than seven years. Never once has she
mentioned a connection between her father and Promis although she was well familiar with the
case from Tyree and conversations with Bill Hamilton. I had referred the Mounties to her because
of my belief that she could possibly help identify Tyree's source, the Sergeant Major.

On August 10th, exactly one week after the Mounties came to see me, the DoJ mailed Ferdinand
a response to her suit seeking dismissal. Included in the paperwork was a bizarre document, now
in FTW's possession, that, by the account of both Ferdinand and her lawyer, had absolutely
nothing to do with her case. The document in question was a March 29, 1986 Declaration from
CIA Director William Casey, a close friend of the Carone family.

Paragraph 6 of that document (prepared for another case) stated,
       "Two of the documents responsive to Plaintiffs' Request No 1, specifically the
       one-page letter dated 28 March 1979 and a one-page letter dated 8 January
       1980, have been released in the same excised form as they were previously
       released by the Government of Canada. I independently and formally assert the
       state secrets privilege for the information excised from these two documents."
Dee Ferdinand called me immediately. The letter had nothing to do with her suit. It mentioned
Canada. Canada was not even mentioned in her suit.
       "What was going on?" she asked.

        "It's blackmail," I answered. "CIA, which is monitoring everything the Canadians
        do, everything I do, everything you do, knows that I will tell the Mounties of these
        letters."
McDade didn't grasp the concept at first. He was a straight-ahead street cop. But I had been
through something similar when serving as the press spokesman for the Perot Presidential
campaign in 1992.

I explained it to Sean,
         "Sean, you and I are just the messengers. But I guarantee that at some level of
         your government the CIA's reference to these letters will scare people to death. It
         is a reminder that CIA has them."
A week later McDade told me that the dates were indeed significant - very significant. That's all he
would say.

FTW has what may be a possible explanation for the dates in question. The President and CIA
Director on these dates the letters were written were Jimmy Carter and Stansfield Turner.

Aside from the then recent Russian invasion of Afghanistan, a saga in which the Canadian
government played a minor role, the largest drama on the world scene was the overthrow of the
Shah of Iran in January 1979, the rise of the Ayatollah Khomeini and the seizure of the U.S.
Embassy in Teheran later that year. The Canadian government and the CIA worked very closely
in Iran, the Canadian Embassy even housing some CIA personnel who had escaped the crowds
of students.

But that kind of assistance is not something to hide. Another explanation was needed to explain
shock waves in Ottawa.

Recently, a source using a code name known to FTW has surfaced with information relating to
Promis. In his communiqués he describes the use of Promis software by the Bush family to loot
the secret bank accounts of Manuel Noriega and Ferdinand Marcos.

Promis is able to do this because funds can be transferred out of accounts without a trace.

Remember the trap door?

The rule of thumb here is that crooks, especially CIA sponsored crooks, don't usually go to the
cops when somebody steals their stolen money. From my personal experience in the era, and
direct exposure to two members of the Iranian Royal family, both before and after the overthrow, I
am acutely aware that the Shah, then perhaps the richest man in the world, was actually targeted
by the CIA. His downfall was no accident. Once worth more than $20 billion, the Shah ended his
life a refugee in Egypt. Many of his billions disappeared and the family was very upset about it.

Could the financial power of Promis have been turned loose first through Canada when Carter
was President in the US? The Shah did a lot of banking in Canada. We may never know the
answer. But if the downfalls of wealthy US supported dictators Noriega and Marcos are any
indication the answer is likely, yes. And the Shah was wealthier than both of them put together.

Where'd all that money go?




Headlines
On August 25th the Toronto Star broke what was to become a series of stories by Valerie Lawson
and Allan Thompson. The cat was out of the bag. Various figures known to have direct
connections to Riconosciuto had been virtually dogging the Mounties' every move as they
traveled in the US. One even contacted me just days after the Mounties left LA.

It was a story that could not be kept under wraps forever. Most of the Star story was accurate. It
was going to be difficult for the RCMP to move quietly now.

A Reuters story the same day closed with the following paragraphs,
       "Canada's national counterintelligence agency said in a June report that friendly
       nations were making concerted efforts to steal sensitive technology and
       information.

        "The Canadian Security Intelligence Service said outsiders were particularly
        interested in aerospace, biotechnology, chemicals, communications, information
        technology, mining and metallurgy, nuclear energy, oil and gas, and the
        environment."
That was Geomatics, at the heart of Canada's space program, Canada's flagship space
technology. I checked the Star story. There had been no mention of high tech or space related
issues.

What did Reuters know?

In mid September, after receiving confidential source documents related to the case telling me
that one version of Promis, modified in Canada was handled through the Canadian firm I.P.
Sharp, I got an answer. A quick search on the web revealed that Sharp, a well documented
component of the case, had been bought by a Reuters company in the early 90s. Hamilton later
told me that he had heard that Reuters possibly had the Promis software. That would explain how
they knew about the aerospace connection.
Michael Dobbs of The Washington Post called and asked what I knew. I confirmed that I had met
with the Mounties but didn't know much else other than giving them the Tyree flow charts. The
Post was never going to tell the truth.

Their business was keeping secrets, not revealing them. The Mounties had made waves.

On August 28 the phone rang and it was a collect call from Tyree.
      "Get a tape recorder and turn it on," he said.
Over the course of the next half an hour Tyree, obviously reading from detailed and copious
notes, named individuals and companies dealing with Promis software and its progeny. The tape
was specific down to naming specific engineers in military and private corporations doing Promis
research.

Tyree described specific Congressional committees that had been infiltrated with "enhanced"
Promis. Tyree described how Promis progeny, having inspired four new computer languages had
made possible the positioning of satellites so far out in space that they were untouchable. At the
same time the progeny had improved video quality to the point where the same satellite could
focus on a single human hair. The ultimate big picture.

Promis progeny had also evolved to the point where neural pads could be attached to plugs in the
back of the human head and thought could be translated into electrical impulses that would be
equally capable of flying a plane or wire transferring money.

Names like Sandia, Cal-Tech, Micron, Tech University of Graz, Oded Leventer and Massimo
Grimaldi rolled from his lips as he tore through the pages of notes. Data, such as satellite
reconnaissance, could also now be downloaded from a satellite directly into a human brain. The
evolution of the artificial intelligence had progressed to a point where animal behavior and thought
were being decoded. Mechanical humans were being tested. Animals were being controlled by
computer.

Billy saved Canada for last.
         "Here's how we fuck Canada," he started.
He was laughing as he facetiously described what was coming as some sort of bizarre payback
for the War of 1812.

Then, placing the evolutions of Promis in context with the Canadian story Tyree asked a question
as to why one would really now need to go to all the trouble of monitoring all of a foreign country's
intelligence operations.
         "There's an easier way to get what I want," he said. "I access their banks. I
         access their banks and I know who does what and who's getting ready to do
         what," he said.
He described how Canada had been provided with modified Promis software which Canada then
modified, or thought they had modified, again to eliminate the trap door.

That software turned loose in the financial and scientific communities then became Canada's
means of believing that they were securing the trap door information from the entities to whom
they provided their versions of Promis. But, unknown, to the Canadians the Elbit chips in the
systems bypassed the trap doors and permitted the transmission of data when everyone thought
the computers were turned off and secure.

Tyree did not explain how the chips physically got into the Canadian computers.
        "This," Tyree said "is how you cripple everything Canada does that you don't like.
        And if you want proof I offer you the fact that we toppled the government of
        Australia in 1980."

        "[Prime Minister] Gough Whitlam and Nugan Hand [Bank]," I answered.
Tyree affirmed. The Labor Government of Whitlam had been suddenly unseated after making
nationalistic noise and questioning the role of US intelligence agencies in Australian affairs.

The issue of a coming feud between the dollar and the Euro came up. I suggested that rapidly
vanishing support in South America and Europe both were threatening the military operations of
"Plan Colombia" and the economic boost it would give the US economy.

Tyree jumped in,
        "If I can put Canada in line and show the Eurodollar, the 'Eurotrash' what I have
        already done to my neighbor, whom I value to some degree - remember, these
        are not nice people - these are financial thugs at their worst. So what they are
        going to do is sit down discreetly and say, 'Look, this is what we did to Canada.
        Now, would you like us to do this to the European market as well?'

        Mike, they're not going to think twice about it. A weapon is only good if someone
        knows what its capability is. Prior to using the atomic bomb it was irrelevant."
He continued,
        "They refer to it as the Nagasaki Syndrome."
After describing in some detail how the financial powers-that-be had gutted American
manufacturing productivity through globalization he described a strategy intended to halt any
move by the Euro to overshadow the dollar or even compete with it.

It was pure economic hostage taking and Canada would be the object lesson. Then, chillingly, he
described something familiar to any military strategist.

The penetration and looting of HUD (United States Department of Housing and Urban
Development) was the test bed, the proving ground, the "White Sands" of the Promis economic
Atom bomb. Once the CIA and the economic powers-that-be had proven that, over a period of
years, they could infiltrate and loot $59 billion dollars from HUD, they knew that they could do it
anywhere.

Said Tyree,
        "Then they knew they had what it took to go abroad and create mayhem. It was
        planned twenty years ago."
It took several days to reach Sean McDade who had been on vacation. I played the Tyree tape
for him over an open phone line into RCMP headquarters. He asked me to make a physical copy
right away and send it to him.

After he had had time to listen to it he cautioned me against sending it anywhere else. I told him
that as long as his investigation was active that I would do nothing more than make the standard
copies I make of any sensitive documents as a precaution. I could tell that the tape had rattled
him. Though I had known from the start that the large and energetic Mountie, whom I believed to
be a dedicated an honest man, would never be allowed to ride his case out to the end, I still had
hopes.

But in my heart I knew that Tyree was right. In all the years he had been feeding me information I
had never known him to be wrong and, apparently, neither had Bill Hamilton. I did not send a copy
of the tape to Hamilton because I knew how difficult and potentially dangerous McDade's job was
going to be now that the press had exposed him.

Having been a cop in dangerous political, CIA infested waters I knew what it was like to not know
who you could trust.

If keeping the tape quiet would give the Mounties and edge I would do it - but only as long as they
had a case.




Sudden Death
Then it was over.

On September 16th the Toronto Star announced that the RCMP had suddenly closed its Promis
investigation with the flat disclaimer that it did not have and never did have any version of Bill
Hamilton's software.

That was as shocking a statement as it was absurd.
       "The only way that you can identify Promis," said a perplexed Bill Hamilton, "is to
       compare the code. Sean McDade said that he was not an engineer and couldn't
       read code so how did he know?"
Hamilton was as emphatic as I was that McDade had said that RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted
Police) had Promis. So was Cheri Seymour. I offered a fleeting hope that the Mounties were
playing a game, saying that they had terminated the investigation to shake some of the incessant
probing that had been taking place around McDade's every move.

I was finally convinced when McDade e-mailed me and said that it was his view that the Mounties
did not have any version of Promis and that he had no objections if I decided to write a story. I
then agreed with Seymour that, whether they had said so or not, both the Mounties and Sue Todd
had left enough visible footprints that it was their intention for us to go public. It might be the only
protection they had.

As I had predicted from the start, they had come too close to bigger issues and been shut down
ruthlessly. I called Sue Todd who lamented that she was marking her three year homicide
investigation, "Closed by the press."

Even though she was convincing I had the feeling that she was playing back a rehearsed script. I
told her that I was not satisfied with the statements that there was no Promis in the RCMP. I
recalled our lunchtime conversation of August 3rd. She agreed with me that the RCMP mission
was to determine whether or not RCMP Promis was a stolen or compromised version. She knew
that they had it. So did I.

I e-mailed McDade one last time saying that I was going to write it like I remembered it.

He never got back to me.

Bill Hamilton added one last twist when he told me in a conversation that the Mounties claimed
to have developed their software on their own. That, he said, was nonsense because the
Mounties did not have that kind of sophistication or ability. He thought that the RCMP program
had been specially prepared FBI. That would explain the role of retired FBI agent Ted Gunderson.
Though I didn't tell him at the time I knew that he had obtained that information from Bill Tyree.
And Bill Tyree and his provider, the Sergeant Major, are two people that Bill Hamilton and I both
have learned to respect.




Diplomacy
Just three days after the Toronto Star announced the abrupt termination of the RCMP
investigation the Canada based International Network on Disarmament and Globalization (INDG)
posted an electronic bulletin on a speech by former Canadian Ambassador to the US. In an
address the night before, less than 48 hours after the termination of the RCMP investigation,
Derek Burney, current President of CAE, a Canadian firm manufacturing flight simulators,
criticized the U.S. aerospace industry for being overly-protectionist under the guise of national
security.

In addressing the Aerospace Industries Association of Canada, according to large stories that
appeared in CP (Canadian Press) and Toronto's Globe and Mail, Burney was characterized as
sounding unusually tough in his criticism of American policy that was freezing Canadian firms out
of aerospace contracts.

Both stories were ambivalent in that they alternately made Burney sound critical of the U.S. while
championing Canadian interests and at the same time weak as he noted that Mexico stood poised
under NAFTA to replace Canada as the U.S.'s number one trading partner.

The CP story made two telling observations. It quoted Burney as saying that Canada needed to
do more to,
       "preserve and enhance its access to the American market."
Then it closed it's story on Burney's speech, advocating a compromise agreement between the
US and Canada, by saying that Burney's position,
         "risks being perceived here at home as a sellout or worse."
A close examination of Burney's remarks, published in the INDG bulletin revealed something
more like an obsequious surrender rather than a mere sellout.

While there were a few tough-talking paragraphs that saved Canadian face, the essence of the
speech was that Burney believed that American defense firms, the largest of which is Lockheed-
Martin, were poised to transfer the bulk of their contracts to companies in Mexico.

Citing Canada's dependence upon access to American avionics and "databases," Burney painted
a picture that seemingly left Canada over a barrel. Without access to American technology the
Canadian aerospace industry could not function.

Buried deep in the text of Burney's speech we found the following paragraph which is, we believe,
the best place to end this story.
        "That does not mean that we have to agree with everything Washington does or
        says or do things exactly as the Americans do. On the contrary, one of the
        advantages of being a good neighbor and close ally is that we can speak freely
        and forthrightly to the Americans - provided we have a solid case and are seeking
        to influence their position and not simply capture a quick headline.

        And, never forget, it is always more effective to be frank in private.

        Otherwise your motive can be somewhat suspect."
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                                              Government




                                                by Susan Bryce
                                   Excerpts from Nexus Magazine Aug/Sept 1995
                                       from MinmdControlForums Website

In July this year, the UKUSA Agreement ‘celebrates‘ 48 years of operation. But there will be no
fanfare, no ceremonies and no media attention marking the event.

Born in secrecy, it will continue to operate in secrecy, linking the:
                      Unites States
                      the United Kingdom
                      Australia
                      New Zealand
                      Canada
                      (Japan)
                      (Korea)
                      (NATO nations in a peak security agreement)




          A view of the Joint Defence Space Research Facility, Pine Gap, near Alice Springs, NT, Australia,
                            from one of the surrounding hills showing all eight radomes.
The United Kingdom United States Agreement is one of the most important treaties ever entered
into by the English-speaking world, and one of the least well-known.

Desmond Ball (1990) has described the UKUSA pact as "the ties that bind", a treaty which
obligates Australia to cooperate with the other UKUSA partners. To this date, it has never been
officially acknowledged by any country. This article examines some of the significant
organizations and projects that operate under the UKUSA pact.

Despite the secrecy surrounding the agreement, quite a considerable amount of technical
information has been made available through the work of researchers such as Desmond Ball and
James Bamford. They have, however, been at pains to ensure that "there is no single mention of
the subject of UFOs" (Good, 1987, p.412).

While the exact day and month of the UKUSA pact continue to be debated, the year itself, 1947,
bears significance as the year of the alleged Roswell UFO crash in New Mexico and heightened
UFO activity. (Incidentally, the first A-bomb test was in New Mexico [Cathie, 1990, p.239].)

According to Cooper (1991, p.196), between January 1947 and December 1952 at least 16
crashed or downed alien craft, 65 bodies and one live alien were recovered. Of these, 13
occurred within the borders of the United States. Research Ronald R. Russell reported that the
British Deputy Directorate of Intelligence had 15,000 UFO reports on file from 1947 to 1954
(Good, 1989, p.31).

The nature of the UKUSA Agreement has provided its organs with a unique autonomy and ability
to pry into any avenue that proves interesting. Top-secret military bases such as Pine Gap,
Nurrungar and Menwith Hill operate under the UKUSA pact. So, too, does the clandestine
National Security Agency (NSA). Research conducted for the "Star Wars" project, now linked with
the deaths of 22 defense scientists, is also conducted under the auspices of the UKUSA
Agreement.

The initial idea of the agreement was to carve up the globe into spheres of cryptological influence.
Each country was assigned specific targets according to its potential for maximum intercept
coverage. UKUSA brought together, under a single umbrella, the SIGINT (signals intelligence)
organizations of the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. In
recent years, Japan, Korea and NATO nations have joined the pact.

Prior to the UKUSA Agreement, an arrangement known as BRUSA existed. BRUSA formalized
cooperation between British and US COMINT (communications intelligence) agencies.

Although top secret, news of the UKUSA Agreement leaked quickly to Moscow through Kim
Philby. As one American intelligence officer put it, the UKUSA Agreement was "like opening up a
party line to Moscow centre" (Costello, 1988, p.516).

Signatories to the UKUSA Agreement conceded to standardize terminology, code-words,
intercept handling procedures and indoctrination oaths.

Today, cooperation among pact members occurs in areas such as monitoring radio broadcasts,
undertaking covert action and assassinations, overhead reconnaissance, human intelligence,
estimates, security intelligence, counter-intelligence, training, seconding and equipment (Bamford,
1982, p. 308).

UKUSA is a tiered agreement.
           The National Security Agency is called the "First Party"
           The Australian Defence Signals Directorate (DSD)
              The British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ)
              The Canadian Communications Security Establishment
              The New Zealand Government‘s Communications Security Bureau
                (GCSB) are "Second Parties"
              Remaining countries are designated "Third Parties"



NSA - THE BIGGEST BROTHER OF ALL
As the "First Party" to the UKUSA Agreement, the National Security Agency undertakes
numerous clandestine operations.

It is arguably the most significant intelligence-gathering agency. As the NSA was established
without any official legislation, there is nothing, legally, that it cannot do. It is often referred to as
No Such Agency!

The National Security Agency can only be described as the biggest brother of all. Secretly
                                              th
launched by the Truman Administration on 4 November 1954, the NSA today controls over 2,000
electronic intercept stations, has a budget of over US$10 billion per year, and employs more than
130,000 personnel around the world - making it even larger than the CIA (Ball, 1980, p.33).

The NSA operates more than three billion dollars‘ worth of decoding machines, scramblers,
computers and other forms of electronic equipment. The first Cray computer was built specifically
to meet the needs of the NSA.

There are 10 major departments within the NSA, including four operational divisions, five staff and
support sections, and one training unit.

Its basic functions are:
                          signals intelligence (SIGINT)
                          electronics intelligence (ELINT)
                          radar intelligence (RADINT)
                          communications security (COMSEC)
                          human intelligence (HUMINT)
                            (Good, 1987, p. 412)
The inner sanctum of the NSA is the Central Security Service (CSS), created by President Nixon
in 1972.

According to James Bamford (1982, p. 155), the CSS is the eyes and ears of America‘s
cryptological empire.
        "They are soldiers, sailors, Marines and airmen who sit in long rows with
        earphones, turning dials, activating tape recorders and tapping out messages on
        six-ply multicolored carbon paper."
Through its electronic expertise, the NSA is heavily involved with the UFO phenomena - whether
of extraterrestrial origin or not.

Cooper (1991, p. 200) maintains that the primary purpose of the NSA is to,
       "decipher alien communications, language, and establish a dialogue with
       extraterrestrials. The second purpose is to monitor all communications and
       emissions from any and all electronic devices world-wide for the purpose of
       gathering intelligence, both human and alien, and to contain the secret of the
       alien presence."
In 1983, the NSA embarked on a project, code-named Platform, as part of its Big Brother-style
surveillance network.

Platform involved a plan to establish a worldwide computer network linking together 52 separate
government computer systems used throughout the world. All of this information would find its
way through the electronic superhighway back to the NSA‘s headquarters at Fort Mead in
Maryland, USA.

Within the USA, Australia and the UK, the NSA can plug into every telephone call and message
entering, leaving or transiting the country.

In Australia, this is done through the US base, Pine Gap, and the new installation at Geraldton in
Western Australia (Toohey, 1992).



AUSTRALIAN DENIALS
           "Australia is investing heavily in modern high technology intelligence collection
           and surveillance systems."
           - The Hon. Kim Beazley, Australian Minister for Defense, 1987.

The Australian Government consistently denies involvement with the UKUSA Agreement and the
presence of the NSA in Australia. Australian governments, both Labor and Liberal, have pursued
a "neither confirm nor deny" policy.
      th
On 19 April 1977, Malcolm Fraser declined to "provide information that might confirm or deny
speculation" as to whether Australia was a signatory to the UKUSA Agreement, and whether the
NSA operates electronic intercept stations in Australia (Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates,
1977).

In November 1986, Senator Gareth Evans refused to "provide information which might confirm or
deny speculation on the intelligence and security matters raised" by a question put by Senator
Vallentine regarding the UKUSA Agreement (Hansard, 1986).

Despite the denials, seven different Australian Government agencies are involved in UKUSA
activities.

They are the Office of National Assessments, ASIO, the Defense Signals Directorate, Services
Intelligence Directorates, Joint Intelligence Organisation, and ASIS (Ball, 1990, p. 31).




BASE STATIONS
The UKUSA relationship is more than an agreement to coordinate intelligence activities and share
the intelligence collected.

The SIGINT aspect of the relationship is cemented by the presence of US facilities on British,
Canadian and Australian territory; by joint operations within and outside UKUSA territory, and, in
the case of Australia, UK and US staff at all defence Signals Directorate facilities.




THE AUSTRALIAN BASES
                                 Close-up view of radomes at the JDSRF,
                                         Pine Gap. NT Australia

Much has already been written in NEXUS about the development of ‘new warfare ideas‘.

According to Collyns (1976, p.81), Soviet scientists initiated discussions and proposals at the
United Nations to ban the development of the new warfare ideas such as creating holes
or ‘windows‘ in the ozone layer to bombard specific areas of the Earth with increased natural
ultraviolet radiation which would kill all life-forms and turn the land into barren desert.

Other ideas discussed at this meeting were the use of infrasound to demolish ships by creating
acoustic fields on the sea; and hurling a huge chunk of rock into the sea with a cheap atomic
device (the resultant tidal wave could demolish the coastal fringe of a country). Other tidal waves
could be created by detonating nuclear devices at the frozen poles.

Controlled floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and droughts directed towards specific targets and
cities were also discussed.

There is speculation that US bases are heavily involved in research involving many of these ‘new
warfare ideas‘ as well as experimentation with the worldwide grid system.



MERINO
The most important US installation in Australia is the Joint Defense Space Research Facility at
Pine Gap, near Alice Springs.

Code-named Merino, Australian External Affairs Minister Paul Hasluck signed the agreement for
                 th
Pine Gap on 9 December 1966. Its official role is to control signals and readout from Rhyolite
satellites stationed over the Pacific. Three US intelligence agencies - the National
Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the CIA and the NSA - are known to be centrally involved (Ball,
1980, p. 58).

Pine Gap has a complex of radomes, a huge computer room and about 20 support buildings. A
secret community of around 454 people live within the compound surrounded by a seven-square
mile buffer zone encircled by a double fence, complete with 24 hour-a-day patrol and two and a
half mile no-fly zone.

Pine Gap is strictly under US control. Very few Australians are permitted in the top-secret sector
of the facility. The Signals Analysis Section of the computer room is staffed exclusively by CIA
and NSA analysts.
In May 1974, an article in the now defunct Australian newspaper, The Nation Review, claimed
that,
        "The United States has been carrying out continuous research into
        electromagnetic propulsion (EMP) at Pine Gap since it was established in 1966"
        (Deyo, 1992, p. 24).
Certainly, some features of Pine Gap are suspect (or have occurred through coincidence):
              The Pine Gap transmitter sits very near the Tropic of Capricorn, and its
                antipode is very near the Tropic of Cancer on the centre of the Atlantic
                Ocean‘s great dividing ridge.

             Pine Gap has what is believed to be the deepest and straightest water
               bore in Australia drilled beneath it.

             In September 1969, journalist Robert Cooksey (1969, p. 7) speculated that
               there was a nuclear power station at Pine Gap due to its high level of
               water consumption.

             Exactly opposite Pine Gap, on the other side of the Earth, is the Menwith
               Hill Station at Harrogate, England (Bamford, 1992, p. 208). Menwith Hill
               Station, code-named Steeplebush, is an exact replica of Pine Gap.
               Opened in September 1960, Menwith Hill has a staff of 400 and, like Pine
               Gap, is free from electromagnetic interference.

             Menwith Hill intercepts telephone and other communications to and from
               Europe and the United States. There is also a Circularly Disposed
               Antenna Array and a four-element VHF intercept antenna at Menwith Hill.

             Reports that white discs, about 30 feet in diameter with US Air Force
               markings, have been ferried into Australia inside large military transports
               which have landed at one or other of the two airports servicing Pine Gap
               (Deyo, 1992, p.24).



NORTH WEST CAPE
The US defense facility at North West Cape has its own share of interesting features:
    The North West Cape transmitter is just slightly north of the Tropic of Capricorn, and its
       antipode is directly in the middle of the Bermuda triangle.

     It is almost certain that the earlier version of Pine Gap‘s Very Low Frequency Transceiver,
        which is located at North West Cape near Exmouth Bay, Western Australia, was and still
        is used to transmit very powerful undersea electric currents to US submarines which trail
        long antennae behind them.
   
     It is also known that electricity transmitted in this way can be ‘strong‘ enough to recharge
        on-board high-voltage batteries known as plasma-dynamic storage cells (Deyo, 1992,
        p.24).

     On 25 October 1973, two US Navy personnel observed a UFO hovering near the
             th

       restricted Naval Communication Station at North West Cape which is used by the NSA.

            o "The object was due west of Area B, the location of the High Frequency
               Transmitter… it was completely stationary except for a halo around the centre,
                which appeared to be either revolving or pulsating… It suddenly took off at a
                tremendous speed and disappeared…"
                (Good, 1987, p. 170).



CASINO
In November 1969, construction began on the Nurrungar facility, code-named Casino.

The location, known as the "Woomera Prohibited Area", is a small valley in South Australia and
was formerly used for joint British and Australian weapons testing.

Like Pine Gap, Nurrungar was equipped by Scalar Electronics and has a direct communications
link with the Department of Defense in Canberra. Nurrungar is also reported to have direct radio
and submarine cable links with the US (Ball, 1980, p. 65). IBM, TRW, Philco-Ford and Aerojet are
heavily involved as contractors to Nurrungar.

Known as a "Joint Defense Space Communications Station", Nurrungar station is inherently
involved, to some extent at least, in the SDI programme (Ball, 1992, p. 79).

Its role in SDI occurs through the Defense Support Program (Code 647). The DSP is a series of
multi-purpose or integrated satellites placed at geostationary altitude and concerned with missile
early-warning and nuclear-test detection.

It also involves photographic and electronic intelligence. For further explanation, see Ball (1980,
pp. 65-82).




DEFENSE DEATH LINKED TO UKUSA PROJECTS
Between 1982 and 1988, 22 British defense scientists died in mysterious circumstances.

Most of the scientists were employees of General Electric or its subsidiary, Marconi. Some were
undertaking contract work for the Defense Ministry. Marconi specializes in simulation techniques
both in space and underwater - processes fundamental to the Strategic Defense Initiative.
Industry sources believe that many of the scientists‘ work involved computer software
programmes designed to guide or intercept projectiles, both undersea and airborne.

All 22 deaths have been the result of bizarre accidents or suicides. Inquests into the ‘suicides‘
have recorded open verdicts, with authorities unable to explain the deaths.

Some of the more gruesome deaths are:
            Ashhad Shariff, 26, a computer expert with Marconi Defense Systems,
              died in a car near Bristol. Shariff killed himself by pressing the car‘s
              accelerator while a rope was tied around his neck and attached to a tree.

             David Sands, 37, computer expert a British defense contractor with
               Marconi Company Ltd, killed himself by driving a car laden with gasoline
               cans into an abandoned building in Surrey.

             Vimal Dajibhai, 24, a programmer with Marconi Underwater Systems, died
               after apparently jumping from a bridge in Bristol.
The British Opposition has tied scientists‘ deaths to research for the Strategic Defense Initiative,
claiming that some were working on aspects of underwater vibration implications which have
extensive implications for SDI, while others were involved in SDI-related research on computer-
controlled radar.

Signatories to the UKUSA Agreement have a longstanding interest in underwater activities. One
project, Desktop, involves surveillance of a "mysterious Soviet undersea operation". The only
official statement ever released about the project states that it is an extremely sensitive analysis
programme dealing with "foreign activity."

The code-word, Holystone, also designates highly sensitive undersea operations.




MATES
Marconi’s history is closely allied with projects undertaken through the UKUSA Agreement.

This began in 1941, under the BRUSA Agreement, when the USA delivered a model of the
Japanese Purple machine (used by Japan to encipher diplomatic communications) to British
code-breakers. In return, the British gave the US an assortment of advanced cryptological
equipment, including the revolutionary Marconi-Adcock high-frequency direction-finder (HF-DF).

As technical giants, General Electric and its subsidiary Marconi have provided much of the
technology vital to projects undertaken through the UKUSA Agreement. As a leader in
communications technology, the General Electric Corporation is the sixth largest company in the
United States, with sales approaching US$56.3 billion in 1992.

Its financial strength was originally backed by the Morgan banking house, and General Electric‘s
missile and space vehicle department was instrumental in the first Apollo mission.

GE sold its aerospace division to Martin Marietta in November 1992. Martin Marietta produced the
satellites for the Navy‘s space project, White Cloud (part of the Classic Wizard ocean surveillance
system), under the direction of the US Air Force‘s Special Projects Office in Los Angeles (the
cover for the West Coast office of the National Reconnaissance Office).

Technical assistance was provided by the NRO, and E-Systems, Inc. which provided the
electronic intelligence (ELINT) receivers and antennae for the satellites.




UKUSA AND THE STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE
For more than 40 years, the former Soviet empire has been the main target of intelligence-
gathering conducted under the auspices of the UKUSA Agreement.

One of the most significant projects undertaken through the UKUSA Agreement was the Strategic
Defense Initiative (SDI), commonly known as "Star Wars". US President Reagan launched the
Strategic Defense Initiative on 23 March 1983 to "render nuclear weapons impotent and
obsolete". The heart of SDI called for the development of a "Peace Shield" using a global network
of defensive devices in space, including powerful lasers and beam machines, to provide an
umbrella of protection against a Soviet nuclear attack.

Proponents of the New World Order credit the Strategic Defense Initiative with the demise of the
Soviet Union.
In May, 1993, US Defense Secretary, Les Aspin, claimed that SDI helped bring about the
collapse of the Soviet Union:
        "I think it probably had something to do with it.", he said. "The former Soviet
        Union was aware of the tremendous advances that the United States military was
        making, not just in Star Wars but in technology generally."
And so, since the supposed end of the Cold War, SDI has been portrayed as some kind of
menace that exhausted the Soviet Union morally, economically, politically and militarily.

Gorbachev made any progress on disarmament absolutely dependent on the United States
dropping SDI. Indeed, he agreed to unprecedented Soviet troop withdrawals and reductions as a
trade-off for the termination of SDI. But a week after these concessions, US President Bush asked
Congress to increase funds for SDI by US£4.5 billion in the next fiscal year.

The media wondered how Mikhail Gorbachev would react to this slap in the face, but instead of
criticism from Moscow there was accelerated cooperation: discussions regarding the development
of a lunar base and a joint mission to Mars.




WINDING DOWN SDI?
    th
On 4 May 1993, the acting director of the SDI organization, Major General Malcolm O’Neill,
spoke to a Senate Armed Services sub-committee and requested US$3,800 million for SDI in the
fiscal year 1994, $40million less than was appropriated in financial year 1993.
      th
On 13 April 1993, just days after the O‘Neill request, Secretary of Defense Les Aspin officially
terminated the SDI organization, renaming it the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO).

In a media statement, Aspin said that future research by the BMDO will focus on space-based
sensors called "Brilliant Eyes", to be used for missile-tracking for enhanced coverage of lower and
upper-tier theatre defenses, "Brilliant Eyes" would also help ground-based interceptors provide full
coverage of the continental United States.




THE REAL USES OF SDI?
Far from down-scaling SDI, full funding was continued up until 1993 without so much as a
whimper from the Soviet leadership.

Some authors have suggested that the real purpose of SDI was to protect the Earth from an
extraterrestrial invasion. In Genesis Revisited, Zecharia Sitchin maintains that the world‘s
leaders,
         "have been aware for some time, first, that there is one more planet in our solar
         system and, second, that we are not alone".
He claims that only this knowledge can explain the incredible changes in world affairs that have
been taking place with even more incredible speed. Certainly, Reagan and Gorbachev both
referred to "threats from extraterrestrials"…
                                     th
Speaking at Fallston, Maryland, on 4 December 1985, Reagan stated:
       "Just think how easy his (Gorbachev‘s) task and mine might be in these meetings
       that we held if suddenly there was a threat to this world from some other species
                  from another planet outside the universe. We‘d forget all the little local differences
                  that we have between our countries and we would find out once and for all that
                  we are all human beings here on Earth together."
             th
      ON 16 February 1987, at the Grand Kremlin Palace, Moscow, Gorbachev observed:
            "At our meeting in Geneva, the US President said that if the Earth faced an
            invasion by extraterrestrials, the United States and the Soviet Union would join
            forces to repel such an invasion. I shall not dispute the hypothesis, though I think
            it‘s early yet to worry about such an intrusion."
                                                                                 st
      In an address to the General Assembly of the United Nations on 21 September 1987, speaking
      of the need to turn swords into ploughshares, Reagan said:
              "In our obsession with antagonisms of the moment, we often forget how much
              unites all the members of humanity. Perhaps we need some outside, universal
              threat to recognize this common bond.

                  I occasionally think how quickly our differences would vanish if we were facing an
                  alien threat from outside this world."



      THE UKUSA AGREEMENT - A COLOSSUS
      The UKUSA Agreement poses significant implications for Australian sovereignty and democracy.

      In a world where US hegemony is now virtually undisputed, it is vital for us to question and make
      public the role of the UKUSA Agreement and the operations of US installations around the world.

      To this day, no government will acknowledge the existence of this treaty nor make public the
      activities and projects that place under its auspices.

      What is it that the signatories to the UKUSA Agreement have to hide, and how or what do they
      fear?

                                         Return to The Echelon Network
                                        Return to Temas / Sociopolitica
                                     Return to Pine Gap - Australian 'Area 51'




                                                      by Ed Encho
                                                          2009
                                                  from OpEdNews Website



Editor’s Note: On Monday, 2 February 2009, OEN premieres Ed Encho’s newest update of his investigative series, “Main
Core, PROMIS and the Shadow Government (Pt. 3) far below, which brings to the forefront recent revelations on the
expansion of the US government’s surveillance apparatus and the stolen technology that makes it all possible.

On the heels of NSA whistleblower Russell Tice allegations of a government intelligence community that has crossed the line
and trashed the Constitution, Ed Encho covers a span of investigations throughout the years that reads like a Tom Clancy
suspense thriller. OEN is republishing Part I and Part II. You will want to catch up.




                                                       Part 1
                                                        January 31, 2009
            ―Over the last two weeks I have encountered just such an apocalyptic situation, where
            I and the Department of Justice have been asked to be part of something that is
            fundamentally wrong.‖
            (Excerpt from Deputy Attorney General James Comey’s draft letter of resignation to President Bush, dated
            March 16, 2004, which Comey did not in the end send.)

            "Nothing was your own except the few cubic centimeters inside your skull"
            (George Orwell: 1984)




   I: Main Core and PROMIS
   Suppose that the United States Government, or more likely an unaccountable privatized intelligence
   colossus empowered by the reaction to the 9/11 attacks and fueled by the rampant cronyism of a
   system long ago gone rotten had a surveillance tool capable of peering into the most private aspects of
   American lives on a whim.




   Now suppose that the new growth industry of a previously unthinkable futuristic police state was
   already in place, fully operational and has been online and has actively been being utilized for
   domestic spying for years before those two airplanes slammed into the World Trade Center.

   The 'terrorist' attacks were used as the justification for every unconstitutional reigning in of civil liberties
   ever since that heinous September morning seven years ago when the reset button was hit on two and
   a quarter centuries of American history and we all stepped forth into the brave new world of perpetual
   war, fear, suspicion and vengeance into a parallel reality in a place that would come to be known as
   The Homeland.
What if this surveillance industrial complex was in possession of a database that was so large and so
powerful that not only could it instantly process and retrieve the most minute or intimate aspects of a
citizen‘s lives but was also able to utilize extremely sophisticated artificial intelligence capabilities to
actually predict likely patterns of future behavior.

Such a huge database would be able to use cutting edge technology funded with taxpayer dollars and
awarded to unaccountable private corporations largely through ‗business as usual‘ no bid contracts to
create the most invasive tool of oppression this country has ever seen. This database would rely on
software that was capable of performing social network analysis based on block modeling technology
to monitor all forms of electronic communications, all internet searches, all debit and credit card
transactions, all travel arrangements, all library records, all bank activity and all telephone records.

It would then be able to use the data to not only find links between persons who already know and
interact with each other but to categorize each individual into a particular group that possess similar
behavioral and purchasing habits. These groups could then be further divided into subgroups and
further analyzed in order to determine under some loosely defined and largely unknown guidelines
whether they could potentially represent a threat.

While all of this may sound like some sort of futuristic dystopian nightmare straight out of Philip K.
Dick‘s Minority Report and "Precrime" it is very real and it goes by the name of Main Core.

For example, if you are selling a bicycle and run an advertisement in your local newspaper and you
happen to receive a call from a Muhammad who is interested in your bicycle and Muhammad happens
to have certain friends who have relationships with an organization that is determined by some
unknown criteria to be a potential terrorist organization then the call that you received from Muhammad
would then in all likelihood place you in the database and subject to an increased level of scrutiny at
best and at worst in jeopardy of being picked up and held indefinitely without any sort of judicial review.

This technology is being used today absent any form of legitimate oversight, with a Constitution that
has been eviscerated by the Bush-Cheney-Rove Axis of Evil, a vast gulag network of top secret
prisons and 'detention facilities' and the decidedly anti-American new phenomenon of state sanctioned
torture.

Throw in an overworked, systematically dumbed-down populace that has been propagandized by the
corrupt institution that is the corporate media machine with it's clever use of fear and loathing and
scientific development of advanced mind control techniques who despite the infinite wisdom of our
forefathers would gladly sacrifice their liberty for the any sort of temporary safety (no matter that it is
fleeting) and there exists today in 'The Homeland' a perfect Petri-dish for an authoritarian fascist
society.

It is though a very sophisticated form of fascism unlike more outwardly obvious regimes that we have
known in the past.

Author Bertram Gross published a book back in 1980 that was entitled Friendly Fascism, Jim Garrison
once said that "fascism would come to America in the name of national security", and author Kevin
Phillips in his 1983 book Post-Conservative America warned of the potential of an "apple pie
authoritarianism" and a coming society in which:
          "the Star Spangled Benner would wave with greater frequency and over many more
          parades; increased surveillance would crack down on urban outbreaks and extreme
          political dissidents".
This very accurately describes post 9/11 America where any semblance of reason has been
abandoned for cheap flag-waving pimped off as patriotism, criticism of authority has made into
potential treason by the highly paid shills for neoconservative doctrine, sloganeering and demagoguery
have replaced discourse, critical thinking is becoming extinct and just as George Orwell so accurately
predicted Big Brother is now watching over us, protecting us and ensuring that we understand that war
is peace, freedom is slavery and ignorance is strength.

But I digress...

Main Core has received attention in two 2008 articles, one a piece by investigative journalist
Christopher Ketcham entitled The Last Roundup (which also looks at Continuity of Government
programs but more on that in a little while) and Tim Shorrock entitled Exposing Bush‘s Historic Abuse
of Power. Both articles tie Main Core to the now legendary PROMIS software, an extremely advanced
program designed to aid federal prosecutors in case management tracking. PROMIS could pull and put
together a wide range of data from disparate sources into a single record.

The PROMIS software was created by INSLAW Inc., a company owned by a former NSA intelligence
officer named William Hamilton. PROMIS was to have been licensed to the U.S. government in the
early 1980‘s before the technology boom became widespread but was then stolen by the seamy
officials in Ronald Reagan‘s Justice Department.

The software was modified for espionage purposes to include a ‗back door‘ that could be used for
spying on those that it was sold to and in a detail that should be especially relevant with the economic
crisis that threatens to crash the global financial system, the software could also be used to track in
real time (in order to manipulate?) stock market transactions, once can certainly speculate as to how
such a tool could have contributed to an economic catastrophe as we are now facing if it were used for
such a thing.

It is important to keep in mind the period when PROMIS was stolen in the early 1980's and the fact that
the technology boom was still years in the future which should give one an idea to just how far
advanced and therefore how important that it was to those who would use it in order to promote a
sinister agenda.

Mr. Shorock's piece goes into the relationship between PROMIS and Main Core in some detail:
       According to William Hamilton, a former NSA intelligence officer who left the agency in
       the 1970s, that description sounded a lot like Main Core, which he first heard about in
       detail in 1992.
Hamilton, who is the president of Inslaw Inc., a computer services firm with many clients in government
and the private sector, says there are strong indications that the Bush administration's domestic
surveillance operations use Main Core.

Hamilton's company Inslaw is widely respected in the law enforcement community for creating a
program called the Prosecutors' Management Information System, or PROMIS. It keeps track of
criminal investigations through a powerful search engine that can quickly access all stored data
components of a case, from the name of the initial investigators to the telephone numbers of key
suspects.

PROMIS, also widely used in the insurance industry, can also sort through other databases fast, with
results showing up almost instantly.
         "It operates just like Google," Hamilton told me in an interview in his Washington office
         in May.
Since the late 1980s, Inslaw has been involved in a legal dispute over its claim that Justice Department
officials in the Reagan administration appropriated the PROMIS software. Hamilton claims that Reagan
officials gave PROMIS to the NSA and the CIA, which then adapted the software - and its outstanding
ability to search other databases - to manage intelligence operations and track financial transactions.

Over the years, Hamilton has employed prominent lawyers to pursue the case, including Elliot
Richardson, the former attorney general and secretary of defense who died in 1999, and C. Boyden
Gray, the former White House counsel to President George H.W. Bush. The dispute has never been
settled. But based on the long-running case, Hamilton says he believes U.S. intelligence uses PROMIS
as the primary software for searching the Main Core database.

Hamilton was first told about the connection between PROMIS and Main Core in the spring of 1992 by
a U.S. intelligence official, and again in 1995 by a former NSA official.

In July 2001, Hamilton says, he discussed his case with retired Adm. Dan Murphy, a former military
advisor to Elliot Richardson who later served under President George H.W. Bush as deputy director of
the CIA. Murphy, who died shortly after his meeting with Hamilton, did not specifically mention Main
Core.

But he informed Hamilton that the NSA's use of PROMIS involved something,
        "so seriously wrong that money alone cannot cure the problem," Hamilton told me. He
        added, "I believe in retrospect that Murphy was alluding to Main Core."
Hamilton also provided copies of letters that Richardson and Gray sent to U.S. intelligence officials and
the Justice Department on Inslaw's behalf alleging that the NSA and the CIA had appropriated
PROMIS for intelligence use.

Hamilton says James B. Comey's congressional testimony in May 2007, in which he described a
hospitalized John Ashcroft's dramatic standoff with senior Bush officials Alberto Gonzales and Andrew
Card, was another illuminating moment.
         "It was then that we [at Inslaw] started hearing again about the Main Core derivative of
         PROMIS for spying on Americans," he told me.
Through a former senior Justice Department official with more than 25 years of government
experience, Salon has learned of a high-level former national security official who reportedly has
firsthand knowledge of the U.S. government's use of Main Core. The official worked as a senior
intelligence analyst for a large domestic law enforcement agency inside the Bush White House. He
would not agree to an interview.

But according to the former Justice Department official, the former intelligence analyst told her that
while stationed at the White House after the 9/11 attacks, one day he accidentally walked into a
restricted room and came across a computer system that was logged on to what he recognized to be
the Main Core database.

When she mentioned the specific name of the top-secret system during their conversation, she
recalled,
        "He turned white as a sheet."
An article in Radar magazine in May, citing three unnamed former government officials, reported that,
         "8 million Americans are now listed in Main Core as potentially suspect" and, in the
         event of a national emergency, "could be subject to everything from heightened
         surveillance and tracking to direct questioning and even detention."
The INSLAW/PROMIS story reached deep into the darkest bowels of an increasingly secretive and
malevolent National Security State that had manifested itself in,
            the Reagan administration
            the arms for hostages ‗October Surprise‘ deal that sank Jimmy Carter's bid for
                re-election leading to the Reagan-Bush hostile takeover of America
            Iran-Contra, BCCI, media manipulation (see Robert Parry‘s excellent special
                report for Consortium News entitled Iran Contra’s 'lost chapter')
            Oliver North‘s swashbuckling adventures with C.O.G., drugs for guns and
                subversion of Congress all were components of Reagan‘s government, a
                government that he hypocritically railed against for its intrusiveness and yet
                presided over while the shadow government that would rise again with the
                Supreme Court installation of George W. Bush as president with many of the
                key operatives of Reagan and George H.W.
Bush‘s dark shops of oppression being given key positions in this brazenly lawless administration that
has brought America to the brink of fascism. Many of these hard-liners remain in place throughout the
bureaucracy in order to do whatever is necessary to preserve the power of the shadow government.

Ketcham's The Last Roundup is particularly of interest in that he examines the now infamous 2004 visit
of Bush administration officials Alberto Gonzalez and Andrew Card to the hospital room of Attorney
General John Ashcroft who had been stricken with pancreatitis after acting A.G. James Comey
refused to sign off on the reauthorization of what was an illegal surveillance program related to
Continuity of Government.

The story is fascinating in that it not only illustrated the length to which the Bush-Cheney junta would
go to in order to keep their dirty little programs in place but also for the high speed chase through the
streets of Washington and the race up the hospital stairs that Comey engaged in to beat Gonzalez and
Card to the sedated Ashcroft to take advantage of a sick man, when John Ashcroft actually comes out
looking like a heroic figure it becomes very apparent of just how grossly un-American that this
flagrantly criminal administration truly is.

James Comey went on to give testimony to Congress over the hospital room showdown and more
details are available from blogger Glenn Greenwald in his piece entitled What illegal "things" was the
government doing in 2001-2004? and in Barton Gellman's book Angler and excerpts were published in
the Washington Post which part one and part two can be read for more information on the back story
behind the surveillance reauthorization.

Murray Waas also has done a story on whether former Attorney General Gonzalez created a set of
falsified notes to provide a cover story for what occurred while trying to bully Comey and Ashcroft into
signing off on the obviously illegal surveillance program.

Excerpts from Ketcham's story are chilling:
       According to a senior government official who served with high-level security
       clearances in five administrations,
               "There exists a database of Americans, who, often for the slightest
               and most trivial reason, are considered unfriendly, and who, in a time
               of panic, might be incarcerated. The database can identify and locate
               perceived 'enemies of the state' almost instantaneously."
        He and other sources tell Radar that the database is sometimes referred to by the
        code name Main Core. One knowledgeable source claims that 8 million Americans are
        now listed in Main Core as potentially suspect. In the event of a national emergency,
        these people could be subject to everything from heightened surveillance and tracking
        to direct questioning and possibly even detention.
Of course, federal law is somewhat vague as to what might constitute a "national emergency."

Executive orders issued over the past three decades define it as a,
        "natural disaster, military attack, [or] technological or other emergency," while
        Department of Defense documents include eventualities like "riots, acts of violence,
        insurrections, unlawful obstructions or assemblages, [and] disorder prejudicial to public
        law and order."
According to one news report, even "national opposition to U.S. military invasion abroad" could be a
trigger.

Let's imagine a harrowing scenario: coordinated bombings in several American cities culminating in a
major blast—say, a suitcase nuke—in New York City. Thousands of civilians are dead. Commerce is
paralyzed. A state of emergency is declared by the president. Continuity of Governance plans that
were developed during the Cold War and aggressively revised since 9/11 go into effect.

Surviving government officials are shuttled to protected underground complexes carved into the hills of
Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Power shifts to a "parallel government" that consists of scores of
secretly pre-selected officials. (As far back as the 1980s, Donald Rumsfeld, then CEO of a
pharmaceutical company, and Dick Cheney, then a congressman from Wyoming, were slated to step
into key positions during a declared emergency.)

The executive branch is the sole and absolute seat of authority, with Congress and the judiciary
relegated to advisory roles at best. The country becomes, within a matter of hours, a police state.

And –

Under law, during a national emergency, FEMA and its parent organization, the Department of
Homeland Security, would be empowered to seize private and public property, all forms of transport,
and all food supplies. The agency could dispatch military commanders to run state and local
governments, and it could order the arrest of citizens without a warrant, holding them without trial for as
long as the acting government deems necessary.

From the comfortable perspective of peaceful times, such behavior by the government may seem far-
fetched. But it was not so very long ago that FDR ordered 120,000 Japanese Americans—everyone
from infants to the elderly—be held in detention camps for the duration of World War II. This is widely
regarded as a shameful moment in U.S. history, a lesson learned.

But a long trail of federal documents indicates that the possibility of large-scale detention has never
quite been abandoned by federal authorities. Around the time of the 1968 race riots, for instance, a
paper drawn up at the U.S. Army War College detailed plans for rounding up millions of "militants" and
"American negroes," who were to be held at "assembly centers or relocation camps."

In the late 1980s, the Austin American-Statesman and other publications reported the existence of 10
detention camp sites on military facilities nationwide, where hundreds of thousands of people could be
held in the event of domestic political upheaval. More such facilities were commissioned in 2006, when
Kellogg Brown & Root—then a subsidiary of Halliburton—was handed a $385 million contract to
establish "temporary detention and processing capabilities" for the Department of Homeland Security.

The contract is short on details, stating only that the facilities would be used for,
       "an emergency influx of immigrants, or to support the rapid development of new
       programs."
Just what those "new programs" might be is not specified.

In the days after our hypothetical terror attack, events might play out like this: With the population
gripped by fear and anger, authorities undertake unprecedented actions in the name of public safety.
Officials at the Department of Homeland Security begin actively scrutinizing people who—for a
tremendously broad set of reasons—have been flagged in Main Core as potential domestic threats.

Some of these individuals might receive a letter or a phone call, others a request to register with local
authorities. Still others might hear a knock on the door and find police or armed soldiers outside. In
some instances, the authorities might just ask a few questions. Other suspects might be arrested and
escorted to federal holding facilities, where they could be detained without counsel until the state of
emergency is no longer in effect.

Despite the departure of the Bush regime, martial law is a very serious possibility with it having now
been established that the executive branch can exercise dictatorial powers during a "catastrophic
emergency" (as put forth in the Bush administration's NSPD-51) which is defined as,
       "any incident, regardless of location, that results in extraordinary levels of mass
       casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the U.S. population, infrastructure,
       environment, economy or government functions".
With events unfolding as they currently are it is especially troubling to note that the "economy" is one of
the criteria that would trigger the declaration of martial law, the current economic crisis along with the
lack of will to do what it takes to make corrections rather than bailing out and essentially giving
amnesty to the Wall Street looters who are responsible for it only guarantees that the collapse when it
does come will be much more devastating.

An article in The Army Times that was published last fall reveals that as of October troop deployments
will include 'Homeland' duty under the command of NORTHCOM. Assignments will allow for an
increased public visibility (translation: getting Americans used to seeing troops on the streets) and will
have a stated purpose as follows:
          "They may be called upon to help with civil unrest and crowd control or to deal with
          potentially horrific scenarios such as massive poisoning and chaos in response to a
          chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive, or CBRNE, attack."
If action by the military (and the unaccountable mercenaries from privatized 'security' firms like
Blackwater) is decided to be merited by the unitary executive and a state of martial law declared then
what exactly is going to happen to those "8 million" names that Ketcham writes of as "potentially
suspect" who are in the Main Core database?

That Main Core and PROMIS are linked raises some extremely provocative questions in regards to
intent on the subversion of the Constitution and the overthrow of the legitimate government by a
shadow government using the Continuity of Government infrastructure.

Ketcham also references a massive 1993 piece for Wired Magazine entitled The INSLAW Octopus that
none other than the infamous rogue operative Lt. Col. Oliver North was using PROMIS for illegal
surveillance purposes:

Lt. Col. Oliver North also may have been using the program. According to several intelligence
community sources, PROMIS was in use at a 6,100-square-foot command center built on the sixth
floor of the Justice Department. According to both a contractor who helped design the center and
information disclosed during the Iran-Contra hearings, Oliver North had a similar, but smaller, White
House operations room that was connected by computer link to the DOJ's command center.

Using the computers in his command center, North tracked dissidents and potential troublemakers
within the United States as part of a domestic emergency preparedness program, commissioned under
Reagan's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), according to sources and published
reports. Using PROMIS, sources point out, North could have drawn up lists of anyone ever arrested for
a political protest, for example, or anyone who had ever refused to pay their taxes.

Compared to PROMIS, Richard Nixon's enemies list or Sen. Joe McCarthy's blacklist look downright
crude. This operation was so sensitive that when Rep. Jack Brooks asked North about it during the
Iran-Contra hearings, the hearing was immediately suspended pending an executive (secret)
conference. When the hearings were reconvened, the issue of North's FEMA dealings was dropped.

North‘s involvement with Continuity of Government programs including REX 84 has long been known
and while Col. North no longer is active in such programs (at least not to the knowledge of anyone) a
larger part of the C.O.G./shadow government infrastructure continued to breed in darkness and
secrecy and on that most glorious day for American fascism, 9/11/2001 went live under the guidance of
one of its most ardent and longtime architects, former Vice President Richard B. Cheney.
The secrets of Main Core, PROMIS and other variations of the monstrous tools of an out of control
shadow government are the veritable crown jewels of the police state and every effort has and will
continue to be vigorously employed to stifle any investigations through the official channels.

Is there really any doubt that these surveillance systems aren't being used for raw political purposes
and for blackmail? How much serious opposition did the Bush-Cheney-Rove Axis of Evil meet in their
systematic dismantling of the Constitution over the past eight years? How much of it will the Obama
administration undo?

In the ongoing exploitation of the 'terrorist' attacks of 9/11 that have been used to justify each and
every incursion on American civil liberties and thugs like Dick Cheney and David Addington acting as
the muscle for the shadow government (as is evident in the stories linked to above) the footfalls of
those little cat feet grow louder and louder.

Now if PROMIS was being used by Colonel North as a part of Rex 84 back in the 1980's when the
Continuity of Government plans were being tweaked, FEMA being set up for the eventual incorporation
into the Department of Homeland Security and financial transactions as well as communications
already being monitored what does that say about the current state in which we all find ourselves in?

Every new police state measure has been implemented largely after being conceived in secrecy under
the premise of 'national security' and NSPD-51 has allowed for the executive branch to issue a
declaration of martial law under which the roundup of dissidents for detention (or worse) will be
conducted. And this has all been non-reviewable by Congress, a supposedly (at least according to the
Constitution) a co-equal branch of government.

When a Congressman named Peter DeFazio was last year denied access to the NSPD-51/C.O.G.
plans by the Bush administration it was yet another example of what has been a disturbing pattern.

The Main Core list of potential 'enemies of the state', the assignment of troops to NORTHCOM, the
ongoing frantic efforts of the neocons to launch a war with Iran, the threat of the Cheney cabal being
further exposed, the deteriorating economy and the growing public anger at government along with a
loss of faith in public institutions all add up to something very dark that is about to come to fruition after
decades of planning.

None of this is about terrorism at all, it never has been. It is all about the implementation of a fascist
style dictatorship in America.

It is imperative that it be brought to light now that there is a window of opportunity and a new
administration, the police state and the illegal surveillance system must be dismantled and our
intelligence system be put under honest and principled oversight.




                                               Part 2
                                                1 February 2009
                                                   Spy Satellite
                                            Photo by Christian Meichtry
        "In a very real and terrifying sense, our Government is the CIA and the Pentagon, with
        Congress reduced to a debating society. Of course, you can't spot this trend to fascism
        by casually looking around. You can't look for such familiar signs as the swastika,
        because they won't be there.

        We won't build Dachaus and Auschwitzes; the clever manipulation of the mass media
        is creating a concentration camp of the mind that promises to be far more effective in
        keeping the populace in line."
        -Earling Carothers 'Jim' Garrison




I: The Shadow Government
To say that the 'terrorist' attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon were an incredible boon to
the shadow government and its long running agenda would be quite the understatement. Never before
in American history has this particular element been so visible and brazen than in the aftermath of 9/11
which has since become the ultimate trump card to be played against the forces of reason,
judiciousness and the rule of law.

The frenzied spree to dismantle the republic and reinterpret the Constitution to implement the fascist
police state that would suppress the domestic populace while the business of expanding the empire
abroad has gone on unabated for over seven years now.

The ascendance of the shadow government into the open began on that morning and the events have
been instrumental in allowing for every outrageous violation of civil liberties, international law and the
very bedrock principle upon which civilized societies are built being habeas corpus. America is now
known worldwide as a torture state, a pariah and a rogue nation to be hated and feared and is ruled by
an imperial presidency or as it is formerly known a Unitary Executive (translation: dictator).

The current state of affairs are primarily due to the policies of the cabal of one Richard B. Cheney, the
most powerful Vice President in history as well as a longtime shadow government figure who activated
Continuity of Government on the morning of 9/11.

Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld who have been collaborators in a war against the basic tenets of
American Constitutional democracy since their days together in the Ford administration were active
participants in Continuity of Government throughout the Reagan years and afterwards. With C.O.G.
being highly secretive it is not widely known due to a lack of official media coverage of the programs so
few questions have been asked, no oversight exists and it has been a useful place for a renegade
cabal with an acute distaste for democratic principles.

One of the most often referenced pieces on this was James Mann's 2004 piece for the Atlantic
Magazine entitled The Armageddon Plan.

Another shadow government figure who would later become instrumental in the transformation of
America into the fascistic Homeland is one David Addington, Cheney's crackerjack legal mind and
longtime hatchetman who has along with others such as John Yoo (a man who once said that the
president had the legal authority to crush a child's testicles were it deemed necessary) have toiled to
change the law of the nation into something dark and foreign.

In Addington's world there is legitimacy to engage in illegal (at least until now) domestic spying,
abduction and detention without trial, torture both physical and mental (a horrifying example is that of
Jose Padilla, an American citizen who would be the precedent for future actions against other
Americans) who was imprisoned and psychologically destroyed through the application of mind control
techniques straight out of the infamous CIA program MKULTRA to the point where his mental
capacities were that of "a piece of furniture".

Padilla was not only a precedent setter but also a warning of what the government could do to a
person deemed to be a 'terrorist' or 'terrorist sympathizer', the definitions of which are intentionally
vague for a very terrifying reason.

David Addington, more than once referred to as Cheney's Cheney was a key player in the
implementation of the shadow government infrastructure now that it has come out from under the cover
of darkness in the post-9/11 era.

Jane Meyer of the New Yorker speaks of their relationship in the following interview from which I
excerpt a piece from here:

        How did David Addington get to know Vice-President Cheney, and how
        long have they worked together?
        They met on Capitol Hill in the mid-eighties, when Cheney was a Republican
        congressman from Wyoming and Addington was a young staff lawyer working for the
        House Intelligence and Foreign Affairs committees.

        So they have worked together for about two decades. Their partnership was cemented
        when they worked together on the Minority Report on the Iran-Contra affair. Both
        Addington and Cheney took the idiosyncratic position that it was Congress, not
        President Reagan, that was in the wrong.

        This view reflected the opinion, held by both men, that the executive branch should run
        foreign policy, to a great extent unimpeded by Congress. It's a recurring theme-
        pushing the limits of executive power and sidestepping Congress-in their partnership.
        One example is their position that the President, as Commander-in-Chief in times of
        war, had the inherent authority to ignore the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act,
        which Congress passed in an effort to make sure that Presidents don't violate citizens'
        right to privacy by spying on them without warrants.

        After meeting and working together in Congress, Cheney and Addington continued
        their partnership at the Pentagon, where, during the Presidency of George H. W.
        Bush, Cheney was Secretary of Defense and Addington was his special assistant and,
        later, general counsel. There, Addington was known as a powerhouse, a stickler who
        controlled access to Cheney and marked up others' memos in red felt-tipped pen,
        returning the memos for rewrites that would make them sharper-and more protective
        of executive power.

        At the Pentagon, the two exhibited a similar pessimism about world affairs, in
        particular about the possibility that Mikhail Gorbachev represented true change, and
        also an unusually deep interest in "continuity of government" planning-how the
        government survives in the event of a doomsday attack.

        Addington kept the constitutional provisions for Presidential succession in his pocket at
        all times, a colleague told me.
Addington is still largely a mystery man but his connections to Continuity of Government during the
Reagan era are documented as well as his ties to Cheney. Another common denominator is the Iran-
Contra affair, Addington was a big player in it as well as most of the current crop of neocons who
returned to power under Bush II.

Addington also is connected to spook master and former CIA head William 'Bill' Casey (a man whose
history and past associations is a veritable almanac of American fascism dating from WWII through the
Reagan years and who played a key role in the theft of the PROMIS software) through The Lawless
Group (named for CIA operative Richard Lawless, a close associate of Casey).

Sidney Blumenthal's article for Salon entitled The Sad decline of Michael Mukasey provides some
additional background on Mr. Addington:
        Addington's dominion over the law - controlling the writing of the president's executive
        orders and the memos from OLC, the office of the White House counsel and the
        carefully placed network of general counsels throughout the federal government's
        departments and agencies - is a well-established and central aspect of Cheney's
        power.

        Addington has been indispensable to the vice president since he served as his
        counsel on the joint congressional committee investigating the Iran-Contra scandal,
        when Cheney was the ranking minority member. In that capacity, Addington wrote,
        under Cheney's signature, the notorious minority report that was an early clarion call
        for the imperial presidency.

        Addington and Cheney's report decried Congress for its "hysteria" over the Iran-Contra
        scandal, which involved the selling of missiles to Iran to finance arms for the
        Nicaraguan Contras against explicit congressional legislation. The Constitution, they
        argued,
                "leaves little, if any doubt that the president was expected to have the
                primary role of conducting the foreign policy of the United States."
        They added:
               "Congressional actions to limit the president in this area therefore
               should be reviewed with a considerable degree of skepticism. If they
               interfere with the core presidential foreign policy functions, they should
               be struck down."
        The Cheney minority report was the doctrinal basis for the Bush presidency: the
        unitary executive, the commander in chief ruling in wartime by fiat and, ultimately,
        torture being defined as whatever the president, not the Geneva Conventions, said it
        was. Addington's authorship of the Cheney Iran-Contra report was largely overlooked
        until fairly recently, but his deeper connection to that scandal and its resonance have
        received little attention.

        In the 1980s, Addington, then in his 20s, served as deputy counsel to CIA director
        William Casey, the moving force behind the Iran-Contra affair and the most powerful
        figure in the Reagan administration after the president. Along with other hotshots in the
        counsel's office, Addington was part of what became known within the agency as the
        "Lawless Group," named after Richard Lawless, a CIA operative who was a close
        assistant to Casey, according to a former senior CIA official.

        After Casey's death, Rep. Dick Cheney co-opted the "Lawless Group," putting its
        members in key positions when he was secretary of defense during the first Bush
        administration and vice president in the second. (Lawless, for example, after working
        as Jeb Bush's business partner, served as deputy undersecretary of defense, retiring
        this past April.)
                 "A lot of the decisions on Iran-Contra were signed off by the counsel's
                 office," a longtime senior CIA official told me. "It was not a renegade
                 operation. It had lawyers, just like now. Everything they were doing
                 was run by the general counsel's office and Addington was deputy.
                 You may draw your own conclusions, as the Russians say."
        In fact, the role of the counsel's office surfaced in the trial of Alan Fiers, the CIA agent
        in charge of the Central American Task Force, who pleaded guilty to misleading
        Congress.

        But that role was never investigated or ever really reported.
                 "These guys don't like the mainstream CIA. In fact, they hate it," the
                 CIA official explained.

                 "They don't like information unless it fits what they want to hear. They
                 hate the CIA because the CIA tells them what they don't want to hear.
                 They want assessments that prove ideological points. They are
                 looking for simplistic answers to complicated issues. They inhabit a
                 make-believe world of moving up into perceived areas of expertise. It's
                 the same guys; they all resurface when Republicans are back in
                 power. It's the same group. It's a system. The similarities are amazing
                 in all these wars we've been dragged into."
That 9/11 enabled Cheney, Addington and the rest of the neocons to brutally enforce their long
planned agenda and has served as the basis for all that has changed since that day there remains a
truly legitimate question as to what their role or knowledge of those attacks may have been.

It has been a matter of intense debate in the alternative media as to what level of involvement that this
cabal may have had in ensuring that the attacks took place (stay away from the Bush Did It canard
which is only a straw man), they did after all write in a document for the Project For A New American
Century (PNAC) entitled Rebuilding America's Defenses of the need for a "New Pearl Harbor" in order
for the public to accept their radical doctrine and there never has been a legitimate investigation of 9/11
free of conflicts of interest and with full subpoena power so as to ask the serious questions in a public
forum about the event that hit the reset button on over two and a quarter centuries of American history
and the subsequent implementation of a fascist infrastructure.

In a fairly recent article that I wrote entitled 9/11: Cover for a Coup d'Etat?, I mused as to whether the
'terrorist' attacks merely provided cover for an Edward Luttwak style coup d'etat to be piggybacked on
top of the incidents using the Continuity of Government infrastructure.

The massive USA PATRIOT Act was already awaiting a rollout and there is the still lingering question
of who was really behind the Anthrax attacks that were directed at those who were in positions to stop
its implementation. 9/11 would be consistent with historical black operations and false flag attacks and
the festering disregard for American democracy by those who assumed control in the aftermath is
widely known but I am not going to revisit that in this particular writing other than to ask the obvious
question of Cui Bono?

Whether 9/11 was indeed a coup by an alliance between the shadow government along with rogue
elements of foreign intelligence services is of less importance than the consistent pattern of below the
surface influence and interactions of non-elected government officials and foreign and domestic
criminal elements.

Author and researcher Professor Peter Dale Scott refers to a "Deep State" and I would refer readers
of this article to one of his entitled 9/11, Deep State Violence and the Hope of Internet Politics in which
Professor Scott provides an in depth look into not only the deep state but asks serious questions about
whether Continuity of Government was implemented in the aftermath of 9/11.

I excerpt the following from this piece:
        In my book The Road to 9/11, I have argued that there has existed, at least since
        World War Two if not earlier, an analogous American deep state, also combining
        intelligence officials with elements from the drug-trafficking underworld. I also pointed
        to recent decades of collaboration between the U.S. deep state and al-Qaeda, a
        terrorist underworld whose drug-trafficking activities have been played down in the
        9/11 Commission Report and the mainstream U.S. media.
The book referenced by Professor Scott is The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire and the Future of
America and it is an essential read for those seeking to understand America as it exists today.




II: Pictures of the Homeland
That the United States of America has nearly completed the tragic transition to a fascist form of
government becomes more apparent with each passing day and each additional outrage and the
cancer has so thoroughly metastasized there is little hope that a new regime in Washington is going to
be able to bring it to a halt.

Whether it be the hijacking of the financial system by the Wall Street banking cartel that is abetted by
yet another capitulation by a quisling Congress, more evidence of the desecration of privacy rights by a
surveillance industrial complex run amok, the alarming and ongoing militarizing of the nation's police,
the assignment of combat hardened troops to domestic duty (with a mandate to quell civil unrest
despite the now for all intents and purposes rendered irrelevant the Posse Comitatus Act) or the
constantly morphing and open ended definition of what exactly constitutes being a 'terrorist' to name
only a few of the more alarming changes to the republic, those who are able to recognize such things
as what they truly are should be increasingly aware that the dreaded and ubiquitous pejorative of
conspiracy theorist is (as it always has been) one gigantic sick joke.

The pushback against President Obama for announcing the planned closure of the Gitmo torture gulag
by the neocon embeds in the media has been significant.

As the saying goes, if you put a frog into a pot of boiling water it will react by jumping out immediately,
but if you put that same frog into a pot of lukewarm water and then very slowly increase the
temperature of the burner on the stove upon which it sits, that frog will stay in the pot until it becomes
soup. My fellow Americans, that frog is us and the parallel reality that is so essential for the
transformation of a state from one of benevolent democracy to one of totalitarianism as set forth by
Hannah Arendt, is in the final stages of being swapped out.

The apple pie authoritarianism becomes more entrenched, political discourse has been reduced to
nothing more than demagoguery, lies (either outright or more commonly, through omission) clever and
highly sophisticated propaganda, race-baiting, fear-mongering and all delivered through a corrupted
and complicit corporate media machine and the celebrity shills that it employs as barkers in the
carnival of immorality and perversion that is the shell of American now known as the Homeland.


In the run-up to the election, millions of little plastic pieces of vile filth (that hew to the established
storylines formerly established as an example in one Julius Streicher's publication Der Sturmer) in the
form of a DVD version of a deceitful and meticulously designed and professionally produced (in order
to evoke a proper emotional response from certain credulous or otherwise mentally unstable fringe
elements) propaganda film Obsession - Radical Islam's War Against the West and sponsored by a
well-funded, shadowy front group were mass distributed (28 million) in many of the nation's
newspapers and specifically in swing states in advance of the coming election.



The obvious intent was to generate fear and hatred and to manufacture consent as well as swing the
election to McCain. It worked to perfection as Muslim children were gassed in the nursery of a Dayton,
Ohio mosque just after the Obsession DVD was distributed locally.

Of course in the land of Orwellian newspeak it wasn't ruled an act of domestic terrorism.

For that matter, neither was Kristallnacht in a certain European closing society that eerily parallels what
has been going on in the post 9/11 'Homeland' although it is far more subtle for the original prototype
was far too ostentatious to endure for very long.

The Republican presidential campaign of John McCain (once again reverting to true form in his
opposition to the stimulus) and the shrill, strident kewpie doll Sarah Palin used political rallies to whip
up fear and loathing among the worst fringe elements of society, inciting largely angry and easily
duped supporters into shouting "terrorist", "off with his head" and even "kill him" in reference to Obama
who has been the victim of a long-running, highly coordinated, well financed campaign to paint him as
a Manchurian Candidate, a secret Muslim, a terrorist collaborator and a wolf in sheep's clothing.

This sort of sentiment continues to be encouraged by extremist fifth columnists and will only fester
more as the economy deteriorates and scapegoats are manufactured. Multi-millionaire fascist
demagogue Rush Limbaugh (a modern day Father Charles Coughlin) has become a defacto
spokesman for the GOP and will continue to foment hatred amidst those most susceptible.

The more paranoid elements are already being whipped into a frenzy over Obama's second swearing
in (the first was botched by Federalist Society stooge Chief Justice John Roberts) in that he didn't
place his hand on a bible, and of course the dirty little rumors that Obama was not born in the U.S.
continue to be circulated.

Such vitriolic rallies became veritable lynch mobs and have merely gone underground now that the
people have spoken. In a time of an unprecedented domestic economic crisis that already has
Americans on the edge are extremely dangerous and will inevitably lead to violence – of course this
may be the intent as it is consistent with more traditional versions of fascism.
In his study The Authoritarians, Bob Altemeyer identified a certain demographic segment of any
society that are hard-wired for serving authoritarians, susceptible to demagogy and subservient to
perceived authority figures.

This particular part of a population is essential to supporting totalitarian figures who rise to power
during troubled times and offer simple answers to complex problems, they are essential components of
any fascist regime and their near psychotic fervor can be channeled to the point where they are
nothing more than automatons or tools to the dangerous leaders of mass movements.

Such behavior was on full display at many Sarah Palin rallies and it wouldn't take much to turn such
gatherings into staging grounds for organized pogroms that could then be unleashed when the time is
right.

It certainly brings to mind George Orwell's 1984, but then these are truly the times which Orwell so
brilliantly prophesied, Oceania has always been at war and always will be at war, for that is what we
are and all that we shall ever be in the land of the shadow government.

No fascist system can for long exist without a certain die-hard percentage of the population who can be
mobilized as shock troops, don't ask questions and are full of resentment and hatred, only seeking a
strong leader on a white horse with simple answers to complex problems and who will point them in the
direction of those who can be easily scapegoated.

History always repeats but it never repeats exactly.

Yesteryear's Juden are today's liberals.
       "The preparations for Hate Week were in full swing, and the staffs of all the Ministries
       were working overtime. Processions, meetings, military parades, lectures, waxworks,
       displays, film shows, tele-screen programs all had to be organized; stands had to be
       erected, effigies built, slogans coined, songs written, rumors circulated, photographs
       faked..".
        -George Orwell

The ramming through of the Wall Street bailout (TARP), the financial equivalent of the USA Patriot Act
in that it placed unaccountable power in a Treasury Department that has become an occupied colony
of Goldman Sachs despite a huge public outcry is another indication of just how much power has been
transferred into the executive branch.

The usual rubber-stamping by a corrupt and (very likely threatened and blackmailed) Congress was a
foregone conclusion in the land of sham elections and an increasingly tyrannical government (Martial
Law in USA? - The Death of Democracy).

The passage of this monstrosity was allegedly aided by a threat of martial law, this according to
Representative Brad Sherman of California (below video).




Former President George W. Bush took to the television airwaves to once again sow fear over an
economic Armageddon and also what could be perceived as an implied threat of martial law in the
language "America could slip into a financial panic and a distressing scenario would unfold."

One could speculate that the "distressing scenario" which Bush mentioned could activate conditions as
set forth in NSPD-51 in order to deal with domestic unrest due to bank holidays, food shortages and
any sort of uprising as a result of the financial collapse.
Main Core would be utilized to produce the lists of those among the millions already deemed to be
suspect and prone to 'subversive' behavior, the 3rd Infantry Division's 1st Brigade Combat Team
already in place stateside would be required to 'maintain the necessary order' (augmented by
Blackwater and other private mercenaries of course) and the roundups and internments would begin.

It was an eerie déjà vu moment in which America was transported back to 2002 and 2003 with the
apocalyptic conjecture of smoking guns as mushroom clouds, phantom weapons of mass destruction,
sleeper cells, biological weapon spewing gliders that could transverse the ocean and an evil dictator
who was a "new Hitler".




III: Some Historical Context
The United States has had a history of influential groups and individuals that have a serious fascist
bent.

Some of the most powerful bankers and industrialists of the Great Depression era did plot a coup d'etat
(The Business Plot) in order to topple the hated Franklin D. Roosevelt, but were thwarted when the
man who they attempted to recruit to lead it, former Marine Corps General Smedley D. Butler instead
exposed them to Congress.

So shocking was this that the media of that era closed ranks to protect the traitors and erase the ugly
blight from our sanitized version of history. It was no secret that Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (once
featured in a fawning puff piece in Fortune Magazine) and even Nazi leader Adolf Hitler had ardent
American admirers and influential supporters who were enthralled with their highly efficient, corporate
friendly authoritarian states and their ability to propagandize the masses and crush labor unions.

A trusted servant of robber barons and financial oligarchs named Prescott Bush, a man whose
lineage would include two future U.S. Presidents actually engaged in doing business with the Nazis
until the Union Banking Corporation was shut down by FDR under the Trading With the Enemy Act.

The OSS and later the CIA actively recruited Nazis and assimilated Hitler's Eastern European
intelligence arm, The Gehlen Organization ostensibly to fight communism.

Many top Nazi scientists and intelligence operatives including many who were full blown war criminals
were allowed entry into the U.S. under Operation Paperclip after the WW II had ended, they were then
assimilated into what would become the military industrial complex as rocket scientists, psychiatrists
and medical 'experts' (whose labs were the Nazi concentration camps where gruesome medical
experiments were performed on human prisoners, I note that similar amnesty was given to Japanese
war criminals who participated in the infamous Unit 731) whose wartime experience with mind control
and torture techniques would be of use to the CIA.

Some former Nazis were allowed to migrate to Central and South America where they established
expatriate communities and joined forces with U.S. sponsored fascists to crush leftist democratic
movements in the most brutal of manner all under the cover of defeating communism.

Former Nazis played key roles in the carrying out of the wet work of the American empire in Latin
America, notably Argentina and their influence would set the precedent for the unimaginable cruelty
and repression that would later be used in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Pinochet's Chile as well as
much later in Iraq.

Klaus Barbie aka the Butcher of Lyons was one of the more notable names and is a perfect example
of an asset being used to further American interests in the southern cone, Barbie was a key part of the
'Cocaine Coup'.

The corrupting influence that was asserted on intelligence, the military and deep state movers and
shakers by such a close affiliation with Nazi war criminals and the inevitable damage done in terms of
moral authority is as difficult to fathom as it is extremely disturbing but that is a story for another time.

So as not to overly dwell on the Nazi connection (the amount of material on it is voluminous) I do want
to comment that it shows the depths to which the National Security State will go in order to ensure its
own perpetuation and ability to lay down with wolves so that the real power structure in this country is
allowed to function with ruthless, Machiavellian precision in the darkness that exists just below the
façade of legitimate public and private institutions in the United States.

The Cold War gave the intelligence apparatus and the military industrial complex the cover that was
needed in order to build the infrastructure of an extra-Constitutional government.

Almost from the very inception of the CIA the United States became involved in the assassinations and
overthrow of legitimate democratically supported governments all undertaken for big business and to
crush resistance to western capitalism. The obvious Nazi influence manifested itself in the extreme
cruelty of the methods used to expand the empire and death squads were sanctioned, torture was
widespread to the extent that it was even taught at the far-right School of the Americas and the agency
participated in sadistic and immoral mind control experimentation programs such as the notorious
MKULTRA.

It is of the utmost importance to understand the root of evil that is the Central Intelligence Agency that
was put together by the American capitalist elite in the aftermath of World War II to act as a Gestapo
for Wall Street and business interests not confined to the spheres of legality.

I would like to make reference to a that summarizes this much better than I could ever hope to do in a
well documented story How the CIA Created a Ruling, Corporate Overclass in America that is a must
read for everyone who really is serious about going at the existing order.

The cover of darkness allows for the breeding of mutations and the CIA itself eventually was able to
reconfigure into compartmentalized factions, some of the more militant joined forces with organized
crime, extreme right-wing groups, and elements of the military and foreign intelligence services to carry
out clandestine and black ops domestically.

The assassination of President John F. Kennedy for all of the research, investigations and time
elapsed has never truly been solved and it is highly likely that a Secret Team (to use the term of L.
Fletcher Prouty) may have been involved in the assassination, a moment in our history after which
everything changed. Kennedy dared to challenge the power structure when he spoke of:
        "...a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for
        expanding its sphere of influence - on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion
        instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night
        instead of armies by day.

        It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the
        building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic,
        intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations."
Many presume that this was directed at communism, the era was the height of the Cold War but the
speech was in the aftermath of the failed Bay of Pigs invasion, a botched overthrow of Fidel Castro for
which the more extreme elements of the military, the fascist right, the CIA, organized crime and big
business interests that were thrown out of Cuba after the revolution blamed Kennedy for undermining.
Kennedy had made very dangerous and mortal enemies and further inflamed matters when he
threatened to "splinter the CIA in a thousand pieces and scatter it to the winds" and ousted director
Allen Dulles, a man who was a major factor in the post WW II alliance with the Nazis and Operation
Paperclip as well as a member of Wall Street law firm Sullivan and Cromwell, a representative of anti
New Deal American fascists as well as an alleged broker of business deals with the Nazi regime.
Ironically (or maybe not) Allen Dulles would later become a member of the Warren Commission that
gave legitimacy to the Lee Harvey Oswald as lone nut conspiracy theory while ignoring the larger
picture.

I reference the Kennedy assassination not to go into it at any great length but that it, like the later
assassinations of Robert Kennedy and the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr were all coordinated
actions of the shadow government to remove opponents of the rising American fascist state.

There have throughout the years been millions upon millions of pages written by those who have
investigated (and provided cover to the official conspiracy story of) the Kennedy assassination and yet
there is still no real answer to what exactly happened but the reason why is the real key.

I would like to note that some attention should be paid to the out of print book by Carl Oglesby, The
Yankee and Cowboy War which looks into warring factions and examines at length the JFK
assassination, the implausibility of Oswald and the story of Jack Ruby who never was able to tell his
story cryptically implored Chief Justice Warren that unless he was able to be taken out of Dallas and to
Washington to personally speak to President Lyndon B. Johnson that:
         "....Consequently, a whole new form of government is going to take over our country,
         and I know I won't live to see you another time."
Peter Dale Scott who has himself done an immense amount of research on the JFK assassination
puts it like this in his aforementioned essay 9/11, Deep State Violence and the Hope of Internet Politics
has this to say about America and the failure to come to terms with the murder of John F. Kennedy:
          Recent history has seen a number of such events, such as the assassination of John
          F. Kennedy, that are so inexplicable by the public notions of American politics that
          most Americans tend not even to think of them. Instead most accept the official
          surface explanations for them, even if they suspect these are not true.

        Or if others say they believe that "Oswald acted alone," they may do so in the same
        comforting but irrational state of mind that believes God will reward the righteous and
        punish the wicked.
Kennedy's death paved the way for the military industrial complex (that President Eisenhower
ominously warned of in his farewell speech) to escalate the Vietnam War and declare war on the
American public who dissented with the immorality of that damned war and took to the streets in
protest.

Their efforts would shake the very foundations of this nation's corrupted institutions, terrify the ruling
elite classes and create a climate where any means necessary to control domestic unrest would be
utilized lest the existing order be toppled.




IV: The Reagan Years
As I wrote in part one of this ongoing series, the recent articles Christopher Ketcham entitled The Last
Roundup and Tim Shorrock's Exposing Bush's Historic Abuse of Power are both about the massive
database Main Core and how it relates to Continuity of Government programs. It is encouraging to see
that there is now more being written about this subject by more well known and influential figures than
this humble blogger.
Author James Bamford's new book on the NSA entitled The Shadow Factory is drawing a good deal of
attention already on just how much that Americans have been spied on by our own government, the
rogue neocon occupying faction as well as Israeli elements working alone and in conjunction with
domestic interests (but much more on that in part four of this series).

Arch-conservative John Whitehead of the Rutherford Institute (instrumental in funding Paula Jones'
lawsuit against President Clinton) wrote two articles on the shadow government which shows that the
immense danger of this transcends the trivialities of partisan politics.

I excerpt a small piece from Mr. Whitehead below:
        What is the bottom line here? We are, for all intents and purposes, one terrorist attack
        away from having a full-fledged authoritarian state emerge from the shadows, at which
        time democratic government will be dissolved and the country will be ruled by an
        unelected bureaucracy. And because so much of this shadow government remains
        under wraps, there is much we don't know about it. Yet that does not diminish the
        threat it poses to democratic government.

         In his 1961 Farewell Address to the Nation, Dwight D. Eisenhower tried to warn us that
         a nefarious military-industrial complex had emerged in America. "The potential for the
         disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist," he said. Eisenhower
         realized that after World War II, America had become a national security state that
         operated largely in secret and answered to practically no one.
It is heartening to see this most critical of subjects being examined at last for if the relentless drive
towards an American fascist government is not at the very minimum slowed, then nothing else is really
going to matter is it?

But I digress....

As I previously stated, this particular administration of an ubiquitous, personable, uninquisitive, (and
eventually doddering) longtime pitchman for the American brand of hard right fascism was a veritable
devil's playground for those who more than dabbled in concocting dangerous plans in the darkness
that could be put into use against all perceived enemies of America, both foreign and domestic, and
during which a lot of cash could be made on the side.

Reagan was backed by longtime spook, fixer and former CIA chief George Herbert Walker Bush who
used the office of the Vice President as a fertile launching ground to lay the groundwork for what his
son would so effectively preside over as the "unitary executive" with the necessary muscle provided by
Dick Cheney and the neocons who found a friendly incubator for their decidedly radical anti-American
ideas during the Reagan administration.

Reagan's White House was a front for:
           cowboys:
                  o Lt. Oliver Colonel North
                  o Richard Secord
                  o John Poindexter
                  o William Casey
                  o John Negroponte
           neocon connivers:
                  o Elliot Abrams
                  o Michael Ledeen
                  o Paul Wolfowitz
                  o I. Lewis 'Scooter' Libby
                  o Richard Perle
                   o Douglas Feith
             Continuity Of Government leaders:
                   o Dick Cheney
                   o Edwin Meese
                   o Donald Rumsfeld
                   o David Addington among others....
Most of the veteran shadow government operators went on to become influential players in the Bush-
Cheney administration where they have worked to ensure that their plans would reach fruition.

It was during the Reagan administration that Earl Brian, a crony of Ed Meese assisted in the theft and
distribution of the enhanced version of INSLAW's PROMIS software and it was put to good use by
among others Colonel Oliver North who used it in conjunction with his REX 84 program to track and
monitor potential dissidents or opponents who could be rounded up when and if the time was deemed
necessary.

Similarly such operations were already on the books in Operation Cable Splicer and Operation Garden
Plot.

PROMIS was also distributed and used by foreign intelligence services such as the Mossad according
to the Gordon Thomas book Gideon's Spies. Israel has always proved a useful cutout for shadow
government black ops such as Iran Contra and the Bamford book looks at the role of Israel in the
ongoing illegal spying of the Bush regime.

Both Shorrock's and Ketcham's pieces link Main Core to PROMIS which provides the link through
C.O.G. to the shadow government itself which was at it's most visible during the Reagan years.

North ran the REX 84 program out of FEMA to plan for the mass roundup and detention of American
citizens, allegedly targeting about 400,000 'illegal aliens' (brown skinned people always seem to make
for good scapegoats and cover for secretive government operations), with Cable Splicer and Garden
Plot as prototypes the current administration has launched a similar program called Operation Falcon,
a potential test run to fill up those detention facilities that Haliburton subsidiary Kellogg, Brown and
Root were awarded a $385 million contract for?

If so you can rest assured that Main Core will be able to generate the pickup lists for such an
operation. The camps were justified in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as being necessary for illegal
immigrant roundups, temporary housing facilities for displaced victims of natural disasters and for other
unspecified "new programs".

Maureen Farrell wrote the definitive piece on this for Buzzflash in 2006 entitled Detention Camp
Jitters.

I only wish that I was making this stuff up but it is far more advanced than we know.

I reference breaking news by Ellen Brown on the mysterious Wackenhut prison buses that were
sighted in the Arizona desert; I will address this in more detail in the next installment.




V: Conclusion
                        Our cities have turned into jungles
                        And corruption is stranglin' the land
                        The police force is watching the people
                        And the people just can't understand
                         We don't know how to mind our own business
                         'Cause the whole worlds got to be just like us
                         Now we are fighting a war over there
                         No matter who's the winner
                         We can't pay the cost
                         'Cause there's a monster on the loose
                         It's got our heads into a noose
                         And it just sits there watching
                         -Monster (Steppenwolf)

America post-9/11 has been a period of triumph for the shadow government. The ascendance has now
been nearly completed; the transformation for all intents and purposes is likely now irreversible.

The surveillance grids have been locked into place, the Constitution altered forever, the opposition
cowed and nullified, the media matrix impenetrable, the Congress rendered irrelevant, the public
brainwashed and the military on alert to move against the citizenry domestically (when the order is
given. As they say in the financial world, the gains have been locked in.

Despite the banishment of Bush-Cheney there will likely be no real restoration of what has been lost
nor will there be any serious type of accountability, fascism and militarism are now as American as
apple pie. Certainly there will be cosmetic changes, President Obama has already announced
Guantanamo Bay will be closed, it's just become too much of a symbol of all that has gone wrong.

Torture has also been denounced by Obama and the CIA black prisons have been ordered to be shut
down but with a deeply entrenched renegade shadow government it is likely that the ghost planes will
continue their rendition routes to black sites abroad (albeit covertly) and that private surveillance and
intelligence outfits will continue to receive government funding and mercenary armies like those of the
infamous Blackwater will continue to grow stronger.

While Tim Shorrock in his Salon piece "Exposing Bush's Historic Abuse of Power" writes of rumors of
a potential series of Congressional investigations:
        The proposal for a Church Committee-style investigation emerged from talks between
        civil liberties advocates and aides to Democratic leaders in Congress, according to
        sources involved. (Pelosi's and Conyers' offices both declined to comment.)

        Looking forward to 2009, when both Congress and the White House may well be
        controlled by Democrats, the idea is to have Congress appoint an investigative body to
        discover the full extent of what the Bush White House did in the war on terror to
        undermine the Constitution and U.S. and international laws.

        The goal would be to implement government reforms aimed at preventing future
        abuses - and perhaps to bring accountability for wrongdoing by Bush officials.
               "If we know this much about torture, rendition, secret prisons and
               warrantless wiretapping despite the administration's attempts to
               stonewall, then imagine what we don't know," says a senior
               Democratic congressional aide who is familiar with the proposal and
               has been involved in several high-profile congressional investigations.

                "You have to go back to the McCarthy era to find this level of abuse,"
                says Barry Steinhardt, the director of the Program on Technology and
                Liberty for the American Civil Liberties Union. "Because the Bush
                administration has been so opaque, we don't know [the extent of] what
                laws have been violated."
        The parameters for an investigation were outlined in a seven-page memo, written after
        the former member of the Church Committee met for discussions with the ACLU, the
        Center for Democracy and Technology, Common Cause and other watchdog groups.

        Key issues to investigate, those involved say, would include the National Security
        Agency's domestic surveillance activities; the Central Intelligence Agency's use of
        extraordinary rendition and torture against terrorist suspects; and the U.S.
        government's extensive use of military assets - including satellites, Pentagon
        intelligence agencies and U2 surveillance planes - for a vast spying apparatus that
        could be used against the American people.

        Specifically, the ACLU and other groups want to know how the NSA's use of
        databases and data mining may have meshed with other domestic intelligence
        activities, such as the U.S. government's extensive use of no-fly lists and the Treasury
        Department's list of "specially designated global terrorists" to identify potential
        suspects.

        As of mid-July, says Steinhardt, the no-fly list includes more than 1 million records
        corresponding to more than 400,000 names. If those people really represent terrorist
        threats, he says,
                 "our cities would be ablaze."
        A deeper investigation into intelligence abuses should focus on how these lists feed on
        each other, Steinhardt says, as well as the government's "inexorable trend towards
        treating everyone as a suspect."
                 "It's not just the 'Terrorist Surveillance Program,'" agrees Gregory T.
                 Nojeim from the Center for Democracy and Technology, referring to
                 the Bush administration's misleading name for the NSA's warrantless
                 wiretapping program.

                "We need a broad investigation on the way all the moving parts fit
                together. It seems like we're always looking at little chunks and
                missing the big picture."
A prime area of inquiry for a sweeping new investigation would be the Bush administration's alleged
use of a top-secret database to guide its domestic surveillance. Dating back to the 1980s and known to
government insiders as "Main Core," the database reportedly collects and stores - without warrants or
court orders - the names and detailed data of Americans considered being threats to national security.

And -

Getting a full picture on Bush's intelligence programs, however, will almost certainly require any
sweeping new investigation to have a scope that would inoculate it against charges of partisanship.

During one recent discussion on Capitol Hill, according to a participant, a senior aide to Speaker Pelosi
was asked for Pelosi's views on a proposal to expand the investigation to past administrations,
including those of Bill Clinton and George H.W. Bush.
        "The question was, how far back in time would we have to go to make this credible?"
        the participant in the meeting recalled.
However given the inability of the Congress to do anything to provide a check on the monstrous
abuses of the Bush-Cheney regime (and those shadow government activities that preceded it) it is
highly unlikely that any legitimate, official review along the lines of the Church Committee will ever
occur.

If there is any sort of an investigation I would think that it would be a dog and pony show whitewash
along the lines of the Warren Commission or the Kean-Hamilton 9/11 Commission, both of which
served to do nothing other than provide the façade of an investigation while protecting those implicated
from having their criminality exposed in the interests of national security and to continue to provide
cover for the existing established order.

In their true feckless manner the Democrats are already deferring to their more openly fascist cohorts
in the first days of the new administration which does not bode well for the future.

Too much damage has already been done and too many stand to face not only criminal charges but
also charges of outright treason if the sort of sweeping investigation that is required to get into the real
systemic rot is undertaken.




                                              Part 3
                                               2 February 2009




                                            Photo by Steve Rhodes




I: WATCH LISTS, BLACK LISTS, ENEMIES LISTS... HIT LISTS?
With the long overdue departure of the Bush administration from the White House it is the hope many
that the myriad of transgressions against the Constitution and the people of America will begin to seep
out into the public domain. It took a remarkably short time.

The day after the helicopter hauled ole George away like so much rubbish a major story broke. In an
astonishing shot across the bow directed at the shadow government the first significant whistleblower
has already come out with a story (once again ignored by the corporate media) and delivered a
devastating blow to the premise that the massive illegal domestic spying programs of the Bush
administration were undertaken in order to protect America from terrorism in the aftermath of
September 11th, 2001.
Former NSA analyst Russell Tice during two recent interviews on MSNBC‘s Countdown with Keith
Olbermann (pt 1, pt 2 far above) confirmed that the Bush-Cheney-Rove phony war on terror was as
people like myself have always strongly suspected in actuality a war on America itself.

According to the patriotic Mr. Tice the targets of the domestic spying included news organizations and
journalists and that the surveillance for specific targets was not limited to professional matters alone,
they were spied on 24/7.
         "The National Security Agency had access to all Americans' communications," he said.
         "Faxes, phone calls and their computer communications. ... They monitored all
         communications."
Tice said the NSA analyzed metadata to determine which communication would be collected. Offering
a hypothetical example, he said if the agency determined that terrorists communicate in brief, two-
minute phone calls, the NSA might program its systems to record all such calls, invading the privacy of
anyone prone to telephonic succinctness.

Tice was involved in only a small part of the project, that involved trying to "harpoon fish from an
airplane."

He said he was told to monitor certain groups in order to eliminate them as suspects for more intense
targeting. Those groups, he said, were U.S. journalists and news agencies.

But rather than excluding the news organizations from monitoring, he discovered that the NSA was
collecting the organizations' communications 24 hours a day year round.
         "It made no sense," he said.
Tice did not identify the reporters or organizations allegedly targeted.

Olbermann asked if this means there's a file somewhere containing every e-mail and phone
conversation these reporters ever had with sources, editors and family members.
       "If it was involved in this specific avenue of collection, it would be everything, yes."
       Tice answered.
        (Excerpted from Wired's Kim Zetter's blog)

The Tice interviews followed another former insider speaking out on the gross illegality of the Bush
administration programs, a former DOJ employee named Thomas Tamm was featured in a Newsweek
magazine cover story by Michael Isikoff entitled The Fed Who Blew the Whistle from which I excerpt
the following:
         In the spring of 2004, Tamm had just finished a yearlong stint at a Justice Department
         unit handling wiretaps of suspected terrorists and spies—a unit so sensitive that
         employees are required to put their hands through a biometric scanner to check their
         fingerprints upon entering.

        While there, Tamm stumbled upon the existence of a highly classified National
        Security Agency program that seemed to be eavesdropping on U.S. citizens. The unit
        had special rules that appeared to be hiding the NSA activities from a panel of federal
        judges who are required to approve such surveillance. When Tamm started asking
        questions, his supervisors told him to drop the subject.

        He says one volunteered that "the program" (as it was commonly called within the
        office) was "probably illegal."
The name of the program was Stellar Wind and please pay particular attention to this next excerpted
piece from Isikoff's story:
         The NSA, with the secret cooperation of U.S. telecommunications companies, had
         begun collecting vast amounts of information about the phone and e-mail records of
        American citizens. Separately, the NSA was also able to access, for the first time,
        massive volumes of personal financial records—such as credit-card transactions, wire
        transfers and bank withdrawals—that were being reported to the Treasury Department
        by financial institutions.

        These included millions of "suspicious-activity reports," or SARS, according to two
        former Treasury officials who declined to be identified talking about sensitive
        programs. (It was one such report that tipped FBI agents to former New York governor
        Eliot Spitzer's use of prostitutes.)

        These records were fed into NSA supercomputers for the purpose of "data mining"—
        looking for links or patterns that might (or might not) suggest terrorist activity.
This latest glimpse beneath the facade at the massive, secretive and highly illegal surveillance
campaign against the American people is an outrage. Given the proclivity of those who run the system
in this country to exert raw power to advance their own agendas it is no leap in logic that journalists
alone were the only group targeted.

There remains the question of whether blackmail, especially sexual blackmail is routinely used as a
tool to keep government and media officials from not straying too far from the dirty business of
imperialism and financial chicanery of the sort that has brought the economy to its knees.

I personally found the media spectacle of the fortuitously timed prostitution bust of former New York
Governor Elliot Spitzer who incidentally had just announced his intention to declare war on the
banksters and their accomplices in the Bush White House in a February 14, 2008 Washington Post
piece entitled Predatory Lenders Partner in Crime to be extremely suspicious.

The rogue Bush regime and the NSA have been using their big lie of the war on terror as an excuse to
scrutinize credit card use and Spitzer would have been an obvious target as is indicated by the above
excerpt from the Newsweek story.

It also makes skeptics such as myself wonder whether the witch hunt to impeach former Illinois
Governor Rod Blagojevich may at least in part be attributed to his threat to suspend state business
with Bank of America, 'Blago' was arrested the day afterwards.

In light of the Tice revelations as well as an already long and extremely sordid history of U.S.
government surveillance into the activities of dissidents and reporters that predated the Bush regime,
we also need to ask some very serious questions of a much more troubling and nefarious nature. For
example, how does such spying tie into not only the manipulation of the news but the now standard
lack of spine from the Democratic congress when it comes to prosecuting the Bush administration
criminals?

Notorious fixer Karl Rove has already announced his intent to defy yet another subpoena for his
testimony that was to have been delivered on Monday in front of the House Judiciary Committee. As of
this writing, John Conyers has once again caved and the date has now been pushed into February and
likely will soon disappear down the same memory hole where similar attempts to enforce the law have
been flushed.

Intense political pressure, threats of unemployment in a time of economic crisis and potentially
embarrassing sexual acts subject to blackmail are all entirely made possible by the rampant
unaccountability of the domestic spying programs, but are there measures that go far beyond just the
spiking of stories, the discrediting or the ruining of careers alone?

Think back to the vicious institutionalized slander directed former San Jose Mercury News reporter
Gary Webb for example for his Dark Alliance series. The savagery with which Webb was taken down
by the establishment was stunning and it ultimately resulted in his suicide, a broken and haunted man
who only dared to try to tell the truth.

There is a long trail of untimely demises of investigative journalists and other insiders whose
knowledge represents a threat to very existence of the shadow government and those who it as a
matter of routine does business with in order to avoid legitimate channels.

Perhaps the most terrifying of all question is exactly what actions do end up being taken in order to
prevent the,
              exposure of widespread criminal activity
              systemic grand scale fraud
              extra-constitutional black operations that have been conducted for decades
Investigative journalist Wayne Madsen wrote of an NSA database that was at one time named
FIRSTFRUITS that was maintained to engage in surveillance against journalists and that was renamed
after its discovery.

Some of the names in this database allegedly included:
            Christiane Amanpour
            Seymour Hersh
            James Bamford
            James Risen
            Madsen himself
According to chatter in the blogosphere that were it not consistent with the historical trail of dead
bodies could easily be dismissed as paranoia and disinformation.

One story floating around the internet mentioned an unnamed NSA security officer allegedly mused
about ‗just killing‘ troublesome bloggers.

This may be a product of paranoia (one would think paranoia would be a natural state in a land of fear
and loathing such as that which the United States has become post 9/11) but there is great progress
currently being made by internet researchers and such reputed threats should not simply be waved off
as the rantings of tin foil hatters or the favorite of all pejoratives directed at those who dare to ask
inconvenient questions, conspiracy theorists.

The fact that the alternative media and many bloggers are slowly starting to put the pieces together
one can only reasonably suspect that such behavior scares the living hell out of the establishment, and
after all, there is a history of that sort of thing. While this is not a comprehensive list the Committee to
Protect Journalists keeps a database to track the prematurely deceased in a most dangerous
profession.

The bizarre absence of any reporting of this very serious violation of civil liberties has received
absolutely no coverage in the corporatized, mainstream pocket media.

This is unconscionable that there is apparently no interest in exposing these crimes, especially
considering that those targeted could actually save their own hides (and perhaps instill some dignity)
by outing this program. It's a sad testament to the state of today's 'journalism' that is shameful by
comparison to that of days of yore when reporters were intrepid souls determined to speak the truth to
power.

Writer Eric Alterman puts it spot on in his recent Center for American Progress piece entitled Think
Again - Spying on Journalists? Why the Silence? when he notes the lack of intestinal fortitude in the
mainstream media:
Clearly something deeply disturbing lurks beneath these revelations, and with Bush gone from office,
it‘s hard to understand just what is preventing journalists from seeking the truth about this program
more energetically. The only thing they have to fear is fear itself.

This sad state of affairs brings to mind the following:
                 When the Nazis came for the communists,
                 I remained silent;
                 I was not a communist.
                 When they locked up the social democrats,
                 I remained silent;
                 I was not a social democrat.

                  When they came for the trade unionists,
                  I did not speak out;
                  I was not a trade unionist.

                  When they came for the Jews,
                  I remained silent;
                  I was not a Jew.

                  When they came for me,
                  there was no one left to speak out.
                  - Pastor Martin Niemöller

And the silence by those tasked by the First Amendment‘s now quaint and antiquated imbuing upon
them a responsibility for a free press as an essential check on authoritarianism is deafening in its
absence.

Quislings, cowards and public relations flacks seem to be the one thing that our journalism schools
never failed to produce over the past several decades, feckless and spineless careerists with neither a
sense of honor nor of their place as defenders of precious liberty.

There shall be no refuge for the weasels nor the rats in the end therefore their mass abrogation of their
chosen profession along with their acute absence of courage is even more damnable for when the time
comes they will perhaps live to lament that they did not speak out when they had the chance.



II: NIGHT AND FOG
        ―Death Solves All Problems, No Man, No Problem‖
        - Joseph Stalin

The National Security State has a history of silencing those who would speak out and especially
reporters deemed to have become a nuisance. This is done either through intense pressure brought
down on media corporations through organized harassment of sponsors, brutal coordinated smear
campaigns much like the one that took down the aforementioned Gary Webb or when all else fails, the
reporters often just happen to turn up mysteriously dead.

The list of ‗suicides‘ and accidents is a long one and in the view of the ruthless psychopaths who both
run and profit from a high-tech snooping network seems to be that any means are to be undertaken to
keep their games going even if it ultimately results in termination with extreme prejudice.

I believe that I will have to put together a list myself but when I just started writing down names off the
top of my head of strange deaths I came up with over thirty right off the bat.
The ugly truth is that none of these police state powers are being used to protect the United States
from foreign enemies, terrorism or any other excuse that is being made in order to get Americans to
submit their rights. It is all in the name of power, money and to protect the interests of the oligarchy and
the power elite who run the establishment and it needs to be stopped because it is out of control.

Take the strange case of Danny Casolaro for example...

Perhaps the closest to get at the truth about PROMIS and how it was an integral piece of the shadow
government was investigative journalist Danny Casolaro. Casolaro had been working on research for a
book on a shadowy transnational power group that seemed to run through the postwar era and had
connections to many of the major scandals including Iran-Contra, BCCI, the Nugan Hand Bank,
international drug cartels, weapons dealers and intelligence operatives in not only the U.S. government
but internationally as well.

Casolaro dubbed this group, one that largely rose out of a ‗dirty old boy network‘ of the OSS/CIA out of
the ashes of World War II as The Octopus.

Casolaro began to become aware of the more sinister aspects of what Professor Peter Dale Scott
refers to as the deep state but is more commonly known as either the shadow government, the parallel
government and even arguably the permanent government while investigating the theft of the PROMIS
software from the Inslaw corporation.

On Saturday, August 10, 1991 a maid at a Martinsburg, West Virginia Sheraton Inn was horrified to
find the nude body of Joseph Daniel Casolaro in the bathtub, the victim of an apparent ‗suicide‘. It was
by accounts a particularly grisly scene and a strangely violent ‘suicide’ with both of his wrists slashed
deeply multiple times with a razor blade.

There was a very short and impersonal note, blood splattered on the tile walls and a pair of bloody
towels that were shoved under the sink away from the bathtub.

Strange circumstances followed in the aftermath of the discovery of Danny Casolaro‘s corpse in a
blood filled bathtub. His body was hastily taken away and embalmed (making any subsequent autopsy
much more difficult) before family members were officially notified (a violation of state law by accounts)
and room 517 had been professionally cleaned thereby removing critical evidence prior to any sort of
thorough forensic investigation could be performed.

Compounding doubts about the official ‗suicide‘ story are contradictory statements made by friends and
family that Casolaro was NOT suicidal at all but was actually quite exited over the prospect of
publishing his book on the findings of his investigative work, even to the extent that he had scheduled a
party to celebrate. He was in the final stages of nailing down the story of the century and had gone to
West Virginia in search of the evidence that would prove his theory, make the connection to PROMIS
and ‗bring back the head of the octopus‘.

The sudden ending (yet another hotel room 'suicide') was especially suspicious because when the
body was discovered, his files were missing.

In addition to the shadowy players in the global arms and narcotics trades the Octopus also appeared
to have had as tentacles rogue elements of U.S. intelligence Casolaro found connections to not only
Iran-Contra but also BCCI, the Nugan Hand bank, the October Surprise, money launderers and
organized crime as well as a continuous thread of involvement in dirty dealings both domestically and
abroad.

The roots of this milieu of malevolence stretched back to the post World War II era when a collection of
spooks, corrupt bureaucrats and extremist right wing ideologues began to operate as a faction within
the intelligence apparatus, a state upon themselves to profit financially while engaging in the darks
forms of clandestine activities and black operations.

Author Joel Bainerman in his 1992 book entitled The Crimes of a President wrote the following (some
of this ostensibly quoting William Hamilton of Inslaw as well as a 1991 story from the St. Louis
Dispatch) that has a very good description on Casolaro's theory:
         ―Casolaro had discovered a common denominator to the theft of Inslaw‘s software and
         other recent scandals‖ says Hamilton who worked very closely with Casolaro right up
         to his death in helping him to uncover the dirty dealing behind the theft of Inslaw‘s
         software.
A group of individuals trained in covert intelligence operations and aligned with the U.S. political
leadership who were allegedly profiting from each of these scandals.

These veterans of U.S. covert intelligence operations had also allegedly been selling pirated copies of
Inslaw‘s software to foreign intelligence and law enforcement agencies and funneling the funds through
BCCI. Casolaro believed that some of the profits from these illegal sales made their way into a slush
fund used for political payoffs and covert intelligence operations not authorized by congress.

Danny Casolaro is far from the only one to whom mysterious death had befallen after their investigative
work got them too close to the real power structure or presented an obstacle to its need for the cloak of
secrecy.

Too many rising politicians, uncooperative politicians and judges, hostile witnesses, whistle blowers
and reporters have met with no small number of strange and untimely deaths often attributed to
accidents (small plane crashes in particular), ‗suicides‘( a good deal of them in hotel rooms), sudden
heart attacks or seizures (many in people with no history of such problems) and random acts of
extreme violence that go unsolved by authorities.

In addition to Casolaro, other suspicious deaths of investigators of this particular nexus of evil include
Financial Times reporter Anson Ng, reportedly a friend of Casolaro who was found dead from a
gunshot wound in his Guatemala City apartment where he was reportedly working on a story related to
BCCI and to try to interview a guy named Jimmy Hughes who according to the writer Rodney Stitch
had information regarding shady dealings at the Cabazon Indian Reservation near Palm Springs, CA
as well as Jonathan Moyle whose body was found hanging in a closet in a Santiago hotel room where
he had been investigating the CIA and the arms trade.

Joel Bainerman also noted in his book that the Cabazon Indian Reservation where the PROMIS
software was allegedly modified for espionage purposes by a very interesting character, a technical
genius named Michael Riconosciuto to include the ‗back door‘ feature (to allow for secret access)
was in fact a ―CIA cutout‖.

The government contracting firm Wackenhut, a Florida based corporation alleged to have been
involved in sensitive 'private security' matters (Blackwater before Blackwater) was involved at the time
in a joint-venture with the Cabazon tribe to use the sovereign land status of the reservation to work on
a variety of endeavors including the development and testing of arms including a fuel air explosive,
biochemical warfare agents and other armaments that could be provided to third world regimes,
primarily to right wing governments in Latin America.

The Cabazon Indian Reservation was allegedly transformed into veritable spook nest as well as a
staging ground for covert military industrial complex purposes. Wackenhut incidentally is back in the
news (or at least the alternative media) with Ellen Brown's recent story about the mysterious prison
buses spotted in Arizona so they are still a player and a big one at that.

I would venture to speculate that the truth about Wackenhut Corporation and its longtime involvement
in the prison industrial complex that has become so very, very lucrative to this fascist society is
something that deserves one hell of a good deal of scrutiny.




III: INDIO 2008
Interestingly enough there was a local news investigation in the Palm Springs area in 2008 that had
focused on the 2005 multiple murder-suicide of Riverside County District Attorney Investigator David
McGowan and five members of his family.

As the series continued questions began to arise on whether McGowan had been digging a bit too
deeply into a cold case file regarding a 1981 triple murder on the Cabazon Reservation that had ties to
the covert activities that Danny Casolaro was investigating.

Subsequent installments in the KESQ series by news reporter Nathan Baca began to ask questions
about PROMIS as well as the other mysterious activities at the reservation and began to delve into the
1981 murders of tribal leader Fred Alvarez who resisted those behind the Cabazon-Wackenhut joint
venture as well as two friends.

An interview was conducted with the daughter of one of the victims who is to this day seeking justice
for the murder of her father Ralph Boger.

Rachel Begley (her website is called desertfae) very accurately described what has been going on at
Cabazon as follows:
       "I'm more shocked than anything. I had no idea these things were going on. Most of
       America doesn't know these things are going on," said Begley. "It's still going on to this
       day. It's a big web of corruption."
The series ended abruptly in October after an installment that began to delve into whether other local
Indian tribes may have been involved in dealings with Wackenhut and mentioned ―an experimental
electromagnetic weapon called a "railgun" as being one of the projects. That the KESQ story has not
continued is disappointing but certainly not surprising given the history of what has happened to those
digging too deeply into affairs involving the PROMIS software - I would hope that it will eventually be
resumed.

In my own opinion, I would suspect that fear may a motivating factor in the suspension of this series,
especially after the detective who had been investigating the case stated that he:
        "doesn't want to continue on the case based on the number of people who have met
        an untimely demise while doing so".
Who knows, I hope that that isn't the case and that a new installment will be forthcoming in the near
future, as a concerned American it is extremely important that it at some point continue because Mr.
Baca is onto something BIG.

Now, since I feel that it is particularly relevant I am posting an email from said detective to an unnamed
third party who he was seeking advice from and specifically for the comments of said detective that I
have highlighted that should send a chill up the spine of all who read this:

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: X
        To: X
        Sent: Tuesday, April 01, 2008 1:44 PM
        Subject: Alvarez Triple Homicide
     Hello X

     My name is X and I'm with the Riverside County Sheriff's Department. I'm a homicide
     detective assigned to the cold case division. The Alvarez triple homicide was assigned
     to me a couple of months ago.

     For the past two months I have reviewed nearly a thousand documents of police
     reports, and spent many hours browsing the Internet for additional sources of
     information. As I am sure you can imagine, I feel a bit like Alice in Wonderland after
     falling down the rabbit hole. I no longer have a complete grasp on the real world.

     You should know first off, that I am an experienced investigator with 18 years on the
     Sheriff's Dept. and I consider myself pretty intuitive when it comes to filtering out the
     BS. After my first review of the police reports in this case, I wasn't sure why it
     remained unsolved for over 26 years. All of the players were identified and the Modus
     Operandi seemed to be well established. I couldn't understand why every few years
     the case was suddenly dropped and put back on the shelf.

     That's when Rachel Begley introduced me to the rabbit hole. After the countless hours
     I have now spent on her website and the numerous other conspiracy theorists
     websites, I'm having a very difficult time sifting through the BS.

     I have also spent much time on your website and I have found your investigations
     impressive and your opinions refreshing. That is why I am writing to you now. I do not
     make it a habit of talking to journalists about open homicide investigations, however, it
     appears you are much more educated about this particular case than I am.

     I know you are very busy and I understand the Alvarez triple homicide is a very small
     part of the Octopus, but I would be very interested in spending any time with you that
     you have available, in order to get some perspective on what I've read.

     Just so you understand where I am in this case. I am currently preparing a review and
     summary for my Sergeant. My conclusion will be that I do not wish to continue
     investigating this case, based on the number of people who have met an untimely
     demise while doing so.

     My actions in this matter go against everything I believe in, and this case is very
     difficult for me to walk away from, especially with the allegations that involve the
     deaths of Investigator Dave McGowan and his family. But I am conceding to a higher
     power (my wife) and trying to give her some peace of mind. I cannot look her in the
     eyes and tell her that I am willing to risk the life of my family by pursuing this.

     I am interested in your opinion. Am I just another lamb to the slaughter? Is the Puppet
     Master pulling my strings via Rachel Begley? Is this just a simple case of murder by
     Jimmy Hughes at the direction of John P. Nichols, or is it really much more than that?

     Thank you for your time and I look forward to hearing from you,

     Detective X
     RSO - Central Homicide
     (951) X desk
     (951) X cell




IV: Conclusion
It is with the hope of this humble blogger that this series as well as other damning information such as
that put forth by Mr. Tice, Mr. Tamm and other patriotic Americans who have risked all (and at times
paid with their careers and lives) all in order to get the truth out will encourage others to do the same.

It is long past time to bring attention to the history of grossly immoral and criminal acts that have been
perpetrated against the people of the United States by the very institutions that are supposed to be
protecting us. It is imperative that others begin to work independently (and together whenever possible)
to mount their own investigations into how the government has been weaponized by a pack of fascist
thugs so that they may reap the benefits at the expense of those who are not connected to an elitist
ruling class that is hell bent on maintaining the status quo.

Danny Casolaro did not have the most powerful tool against injustice and corruption available while he
was alive, the internet was only in its nascent stages and had he the ability that we enjoy due to
advances in technology he may very well still be alive and the criminal usurpers of our democracy and
violators of our constitution could be where they belong – in prison.

It is my hope that one with more influence, internal knowledge and resources than I have at my
disposal begin to not only do very serious investigative work but to also petition the new administration
of President Barack Obama for the following:
             1. An immediate cessation of all illegal, unconstitutional surveillance and data-
                 mining that has been ongoing against law abiding American citizens.

            2. The creation of an independent investigative body along the lines of the Church
                Committee imbued with sweeping powers to investigate abuses of intelligence
                both within the government as well as with private contractors who have
                collaborated in crimes against the republic and its citizens.

            3. A case by case federal investigation into ALL suspicious deaths of reporters and
                other individuals either directly or indirectly involved in the investigation of
                what has been done with the PROMIS software, NSA spying and Continuity of
                Government programs. Especially now that it has been revealed that the NSA
                has been actively spying on journalists and news organizations.

            4. A restoration of the rule of law as a bulwark against tyranny as was intended by
                our founding fathers who having full knowledge of how unaccountable despots
                behave risked all to lay the foundation of a free society where the highest
                ideals of liberty can be enjoyed by all.

            5. In iron tight regulatory system to ensure that such flagrant abuses of power
                 never be allowed to occur again in the future. The cloak of secrecy needs to
                 be removed and all government must be open to the scrutiny of those who it is
                 supposed to serve.

            6. The prosecution to the full extent of the law of those who are currently or who
                have in the past been involved in any criminal activity in relation to the
                aforementioned.
Truly, nothing else will suffice if we are to have any credibility as a nation based on laws.

                          To Be Continued.... with 'Part Four - The Octopus'...

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                                            Wackenhut
                             Return to The Secret Shadow Government
                               Return to FEMA - Federal Emergency
                                        Management Agency




                                            by Valentina Pop
                                              20 February 2009
                                          from EUObserver Website


EUOBSERVER / BRUSSELS
EU's judicial cooperation agency Eurojust will take the lead in finding ways to help police and
prosecutors across Europe to wiretap computer-to-computer phone conversations enabled by
programs such as Skype.
        "We will sit together with all member states to see how this can be done technically
        and legally," Joannes Thuy, Eurojust spokesman told this website.




                                   The EU wants to eavesdrop internet calls.
                                        (Photo: European Commission)

Mr Thuy stressed that the wiretapping would not affect "normal users", but would have to be carried
out only as part of a criminal investigation.

Eurojust's talks with prosecutors and police officials from member states, as well as legal experts
would be led by Italian prosecutor Carmen Manfreda.
        "There are 30 different legal systems all across the EU, so we expect the talks to take
        several months before first results are presented," Mr Thuy added.
Skype, a Danish-Swedish business developed by Estonian programmers that was sold to E-Bay in
2005 and has over 350 million customers worldwide, is said to be un-spyable by intelligence services.
In its press release, Eurojust says that,
          "Skype has so far refused to share its encryption system with national authorities."
However, Skype claims that it has,
      "extensively debriefed Eurojust on our law enforcement program and capabilities."

        "Skype cooperates with law enforcement where legally and technically possible. Skype
        remains interested in working with Eurojust despite the fact that they chose not to
        contact us before issuing this inaccurate report," Brian O'Shaughnessy, head of
        corporate communications at Skype said in a statement.
The Italian anti-mafia prosecutors requested Eurojust to coordinate this initiative, pointing that criminals
in Italy were increasingly making phone calls over the internet in order to avoid getting caught through
mobile wiretapping.

Bavarian authorities allegedly also attempted to wiretap Skype conversations and commissioned an IT
firm to do this, but were not successful, according to documents obtained by Piraten Party, a
movement promoting Internet freedom.

According to Eurojust, customs and tax police in Milan have overheard a suspected cocaine trafficker
telling an accomplice to switch to Skype in order to get details of a 2kg drug consignment.

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                                               by Ian Allen
                                               February 25, 2009
                                            from IntelNews Website


 Italian authorities are taking the initiative in a European Union (EU)-wide effort to terminate the tacit
 immunity of Voice-Over-Internet-Protocol (VOIP) communications from authorized interception.

 Italy‘s delegation to Eurojust, an EU coordination body tasked with combating transnational
 organized crime, issued a statement last weekend, promising to spearhead a project to,
          ―overcome the technical and judicial obstacles to the interception of internet
          telephony systems‖.
 The statement contains several references to Skype, a Luxembourg-based VOIP provider that has
 so far reportedly refused to share its communications encryption system with government
 authorities.

 Because of this, the latter have accused Skype of providing organized crime syndicates with the
ability to communicate without fear of their messages being intercepted.

There is some evidence that criminal and militant groups are switching to VOIP communications to
coordinate their operations. In November of 2008, the Pakistani militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba,
used VOIP software to communicate with the Mumbai attackers on the ground and direct the large-
scale operation on a real-time basis.

The distinguishing feature of VOIP-based communications, which form the technical basis of
popular communications software, such as Skype and Vonage, is that audio signals are converted
to data and travel through most of the Internet infrastructure in binary, rather than audio, format.
Furthermore, they are sometimes encrypted using algorithms of various strengths.

Additionally, VOIP data packets often travel through Internet networks looking for unused lines,
which may not necessarily be the shortest route to their destination. Consequently, a VOIP source
signal from New York to Los Angeles could easily reach its destination through, say, Reykjavik or
Bogota. What is more, binary data packets often split, with different parts following different routes to
a given destination and only reuniting at a switch close to the end destination.

This poses severe barriers to communications interception, as well as to the ability of law
enforcement and intelligence agencies to locate the source of target calls.

Companies like Skype point to the technical complexities of VOIP communications and argue that it
is often technically impossible to facilitate communications interception requests by government
authorities.

Skype in particular says it has repeatedly briefed EU law enforcement agencies about these
technical barriers, and that its policy is to cooperate with government interception requests ―where
legally and technically possible‖.

Technical issues aside, those in the know are aware of ongoing efforts by intelligence agencies to
bypass Internet service providers altogether, concentrating instead on intercepting VOIP messages
at the user end. Earlier this month, reports emerged that German authorities are using malicious
software installed surreptitiously on targeted computers to capture the content of VOIP-based
communications.

In January, the EU prompted European law enforcement agencies to resort to computer hacking
(termed ―remote searching‖ in official documents) in order to combat cyber crime. Britain‘s
Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) admitted that British law enforcement and intelligence
agencies already conduct ―a small number‖ of such operations every year.

In 2008, ―remote searching‖ was employed during,
        ―194 clandestine searches [...] of people‘s homes, offices and hotel bedrooms‖,
        ACPO said.
More recently, an anonymous industry insider alleged that the US National Security Agency (NSA)
is actively soliciting several companies in its search for a way out of the technical challenges posed
by Skype‘s strong encryption and peer-to-peer network architecture.

The unnamed source claimed that NSA is,
       ―offering billions to any firm which can offer reliable eavesdropping on Skype IM and
       voice traffic [...]. They are saying to the industry, you get us into Skype and we will
       make you a very rich company‖, said the source.
If accurate, these allegations show that initiatives such as the one by Eurojust, above, which aim at
establishing operational interfaces between law enforcement, intelligence and telecommunications
organizations, are simply one facet of a broader effort to intercept VOIP communications.

While reaching out to VOIP providers, European and American intelligence agencies are
simultaneously engaged in projects -often of dubious legality- to circumvent these providers
altogether, focusing instead on end-point eavesdropping.

These attempts will continue for as long as encrypted, peer-to-peer VOIP remains an attractive
option for consumers.




       Has Skype’s VOIP Encryption Been Broken?
                                             by Ian Allen
                                             August 28, 2009
                                         from IntelNews Website




                                                NSA HQ

I have explained before that the US National Security Agency (NSA) and other intelligence agencies
have found it impossible to intercept Skype‘s instant messaging and voice traffic.

Like other voice-over-Internet protocol (VOIP) communications providers, Skype uses technology
that converts audio signals to data, and transports them through most of the Internet infrastructure in
binary, rather than audio, format. Furthermore, Skype uses very complex algorithms to encrypt its
customers‘ communications.

Skype has repeatedly pointed to the technical complexities of VOIP communications, arguing that it
is often technically impossible to facilitate communications interception requests by government
authorities.

There are rumors among communications interception specialists that the NSA is offering billions to
anyone who can come up with a reliable eavesdropping model for Skype.
Remarkably, on August 25, a Swiss software developer released what he claims is the source code
of a program for tapping into encrypted Skype communications. I don‘t know whether the source
code (essentially a trojan) is effective.

He claims it is. If this is confirmed, then several people in Fort George F. Meade, Maryland, will be
really close paying attention.

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                                        Security Agency




                                                by rohit
                                             October 03, 2009
                                  from AsiaPacificGlobalThoughtz Website


 Intelligence agencies have asked the government to consider blocking Skype. The popular
 global VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) engine are refusing to share the encryption code that
 prevents Indian investigators from intercepting conversations of suspected terrorists.

 During the 26/11 Mumbai attacks VOIP was extensively used by the terrorist to communicate
 with their bosses, which made it extremely difficult for the security agencies to track the terrorists
 and intercept their calls.

 Most VOIP providers, use an encryption mechanism to encode the voice message while
 transmitting the messages, this is done to prevent anyone from illegally getting into someone
 else conversation. But this encryption also proves to be a hassle for all the security agencies, as
 it prevents them from intercepting call also.

 The Cabinet Committee on Security has accepted the recommendation in principle but has not
 set a date for initiating action.

 Since Skype is not registered in India, Indian authorities will have to block the gateways here. to
 prevent Skype from working, however this might not be a complete solution, Skype can route
 traffic through other service providers.

 What surprises me is what prevents Skype from sharing the code with India, when it has already
 done so with the US and China. If its in the interest of the nation, its should be justified.
   Spooks Want Government to Block
               Skype
                                       by Mohua Chatterjee
                                            October 3, 2009
                                       from TimesOfIndia Website


NEW DELHI
Intelligence agencies have asked the government to consider blocking Skype as operators of the
popular global VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) engine are refusing to share the encryption
code that prevents Indian investigators from intercepting conversations of suspected terrorists.

The Cabinet Committee on Security has accepted the recommendation in principle but has not
set a date for initiating action. The urgency to track Skype calls stems from the fact that terrorists
- as the 26/11 attacks in Mumbai showed - are increasingly using VoIP services.

The shift to VoIP has been prompted by the growing ability of intelligence agencies to intercept
mobile and other calls.

Like the BlackBerry service, VoIP operators send their signals under a specific code which
makes it difficult for others to decipher. Sources said Skype has shared its encryption code with
the US, China and other governments but is refusing to accept similar Indian requests.

Since Skype is not registered here, Indian authorities have been forced to mull the drastic option
of blocking its gateways here. This, however, may not be entirely effective as Skype can route
traffic through other service providers. The agencies feel blocking the gateways will at least
serve as a signal to local service providers against carrying traffic from Skype or any other
similar service provider which does not share the encryption code with the government.

Sections 4 and 5 of the Telegraph Act gives government the right to grant license for any kind of
telephony and also the right to intercept.

Last year, government amended Section 69 of the Information Technology Act to empower itself
to take over servers of Net and telecom service providers and demand the encryption code.

This may still be no remedy against recalcitrant overseas service providers who usually have
their servers abroad.

Last year, the government had a similar run-in with,
              Canada's Research in Motion, BlackBerry makers and service providers
              the UAE-based satphone operator Thuraya
Indian agencies are also keeping their fingers crossed, not sure whether the department of
telecom - with a stake in sectoral growth - would like to lean on VoIP service providers on the
issue of sharing encryption code.

Besides, there's also a feeling that the government would be wary of people's response to the
snapping of Skype. The free service is used by a vast majority of urban middle class Indians for
communicating with families and friends spread across the world.

Last year, TRAI had sent a recommendation (with data from 2007), that Skype and Goggle
should be asked to pay a license fee, after being brought within the license regime.
However, government turned it down saying they were not based in India.

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                                             Internet?




                                            by Lewis Page
                                             12 February 2009
                                         from TheRegister Website


Counter Terror Expo News of a possible viable business model for P2P VoIP network Skype
emerged today, at the Counter Terror Expo in London.

An industry source disclosed that America's super-secret National Security Agency (NSA) is
offering "billions" to any firm which can offer reliable eavesdropping on Skype IM and voice traffic.

The spybiz exec, who preferred to remain anonymous, confirmed that Skype continues to be a
major problem for government listening agencies, spooks and police. This was already thought to
be the case, following requests from German authorities for special intercept/bugging powers to
help them deal with Skype-loving malefactors.

Britain's GCHQ has also stated that it has severe problems intercepting VoIP and internet
communication in general.

Skype in particular is a serious problem for spooks and cops. Being P2P (Peer-to-peer), the
network can't be accessed by the company providing it and the authorities can't gain access by
that route. The company won't disclose details of its encryption, either, and isn't required to as it is
Europe based.

This lack of openness prompts many security pros to rubbish Skype on "security through
obscurity" grounds: but nonetheless it remains a popular choice with those who think they might
find themselves under surveillance. Rumor suggests that America's NSA may be able to break
Skype encryption - assuming they have access to a given call or message - but nobody else.

The NSA may be able to do that: but it seems that if so, this uses up too much of the agency's
resources at present.
       "They are saying to the industry, you get us into Skype and we will make you a
       very rich company," said the industry source, adding that the obscure encryption
       used by the P2Pware is believed to change frequently as part of software
         updates.
The spyware kingpin suggested that Skype is deliberately seeking to frustrate national listening
agencies, which seems an odd thing to do - Skype has difficulties enough getting revenues out of
its vast user base at any time, and a paid secure-voice system for subversives doesn't seem like
a money-spinner.

But corporate parent eBay, having had to write down $1.4bn already following its $2.6bn purchase
of Skype back in the bubble-2.0 days of 2005, might see an opportunity here. A billion or two from
the NSA for a backdoor into Skype might make the acquisition seem like a sensible idea.

We asked the NSA for comment, particularly on the idea of simply buying a way into Skype, but
hadn't yet received a response as of publication.




Taliban Using Skype Phones to Dodge MI6
by Glen Owen
13 September 2008
from DailyMail Website


Taliban fighters targeting British troops in Afghanistan are using the latest ‗internet phones‘ to
evade detection by MI6, security sources said last night.

Skype, a popular piece of consumer software that allows free calls to be made over the web, has
been adopted by insurgents to communicate with cells strung out across the country.

Unlike traditional mobile calls, which can be monitored by RAF Nimrod spy planes, Skype calls –
the commercial application of a technology called Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) – are
heavily encrypted.

Voice calls are broken into millions of pieces of data before being sent down the line and
reassembled by the other caller‘s computer.

The British and American governments are investing considerable resources to crack the codes,
and in the UK the Government is introducing legislation to force internet service providers to log
all web activity by subscribers, which could then be turned over to the security services on
demand.

The disclosure comes as the 8,000 British troops in Afghanistan are facing attacks almost daily
from an increasingly well co-ordinated Taliban.
        ‗The trouble with this technology is that it is easily available but devilishly hard to
        crack,‘ the source said. ‗The technology can now be accessed on mobile internet
        devices and the country‘s mobile phone network is expanding rapidly.‘
Skype was created in 2003 and three years ago was bought by eBay for £1.4billion. It has
300million accounts and at any one time, more than 12million people are using the service.

Sir David Pepper, the head of GCHQ, the British Government‘s top-secret listening post, has told
MPs that internet calls are ‗seriously undermining‘ his organization's ability to intercept
communications.

Skype said last night it did not want to comment.

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                                  National Security Agency




                                          by Robert Poe
                                           February 24, 2009
                                        from Voip-News Website

Skype Ltd. has long insisted that intercepting bad guys' conversations is not its concern. It's not
a real phone company, because it doesn't own its own phone lines, cables or network.

That, Skype claims, makes it exempt from regulations like CALEA (Communications Assistance
for Law Enforcement Act), which requires U.S. phone companies to provide law enforcement
agencies with the ability to wiretap their users.

Now, however, Skype is under pressure in Europe to help authorities eavesdrop on calls
criminals make using its service. One big question remains, though: whether the Internet VoIP
company could do so even if it wanted to.

The latest pressure came in the form of an announcement by Eurojust, which coordinates efforts
to fight cross-border and organized crime in the European Union. The announcement said the
organization's Italian division was coordinating a Europe-wide investigation of the use of Internet
VoIP systems such as Skype.

The impetus for the effort came from instances of Italian criminals, including arms and drug
traffickers, organized crime and prostitution rings, using Skype to avoid detection. The goal of
the investigation, which will include all 27 members of Eurojust, is to overcome legal and
technical hurdles to interception of Internet telephony systems.

In fact, there is currently no legal basis for intercepting Internet VoIP calls. Law enforcement
agencies can get court orders for tapping landline or cellular calls.

And Skype itself agrees that calls by its users that travel to and from the PSTN (public switched
telephone network) are subject to wiretap laws, though it claims compliance is solely the
responsibility of carriers on whose networks the calls originate or terminate. But there are no
such laws covering calls that travel only over the Internet.

Even if efforts like that of Eurojust lead to the enactment of such laws, the technical obstacles to
intercepting Skype calls would be considerable.

Difficulties in knowing where the Internet caller is physically located might or might not be a
problem, depending on whether the laws limited the geographic scope of intercepts. A bigger
problem would be Skype's encryption. According to what little is known about the system, it is
difficult to break, and would be even if Skype were actively participating in the effort.

The main difficulty is that the encryption happens only between the two callers' Skype clients,
which generate encryption keys and pass them to each other. Skype's servers have nothing to
do with the actual encryption - their main function is confirm to each caller's client software that
the other is a legitimate user. Likewise, the calls themselves don't pass through any Skype
equipment or network, and Skype likely wouldn't be able to decrypt them if they did.

Failed attempts to break Skype's encryption in fact contributed to the pressure for action in
Europe. In particular, an IT firm that Bavarian authorities hired to try to crack Skype was unable
to do so. In its statement, Eurojust claimed that Skype won't share its encryption system with
authorities.

Skype stated in response that it has,
       "extensively debriefed Eurojust on our law enforcement program and
       capabilities." It added that it "cooperates with law enforcement where legally and
       technically possible."
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                                             by Jaanus
                                            October 21, 2005
                                        from ShareSkype Website


Ever since Skype was launched, we have said it is, and will remain, secure. Your Skype-to-
Skype calls, chats and other communications are end-to-end encryped.

What sometimes happens is that after claiming this, we get asked "you say you're secure... so
prove it". That's a valid question -- anyone can claim anything about their own product. We have
recognized that you want more assurance than we say ourselves. So we did a comprehensive
external security review of Skype, focusing on its encryption methods.
We're happy to report that the work is now complete and you can see the full report from Skype
security center. There's also an executive summary available. Note that while the full report was
compiled by Dr. Tom Berson from Anagram Laboratories, the summary is written in-house by
Skype based on the full report.

In short, the conclusion of the report is that Skype uses standards-based methods and a sound
design to secure its users, software and system, and does what it says - is secure. Of course,
security is never "done", so security continues to be an important track in all Skype
developments and operations.

Who are Tom Berson and Anagram anyway?

In their own words:
         Anagram Laboratories is an information security consultancy based in Palo Alto,
         CA. Anagram was founded in 1986, back before information security was cool.

        Dr. Thomas A. Berson, Anagram's owner, has more than 35 years experience in
        cryptology and computer security.
Tom is a long-time veteran information security expert widely respected by his peers in the
security industry. This is a standard method of doing this type of research - you don't just want to
get anyone "off the street" to do it for you because the name is unknown in the industry and the
quality cannot be trusted.

Our selection process for finding the right person and company to do the Skype security review
started more than a year ago, and we're happy to have ended up working with Dr Berson.

As Skype and its software and services evolve, so does the need for security and similar
reviews. This won't remain the last one, but we're happy to get our security review process off
the ground with this report.

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                                      The Last Circle
                                                  by Carol Marshall
                                                  from Lycaeum Website


         The LAST CIRCLE, by Cherie Seymour aka Carol Marshall is helpful to everyone who is trying
          to get an understanding of where this came from and how the New World Order is planning on
          using discoveries from the concentration camps in Germany, the human genetic guinea pigs in
         Japan, and the Gulags of the USSR to eliminate 4/5s of the world's population... and in doing so,
                               set themselves up as the only rulers of Planet Earth.




 Table of Contents:
 Introduction & Chapter 1
 Chapter 2
 Chapter 3
 Chapter 4
 Chapter 5
 Chapter 6
 Chapter 7
 Chapter 8
 Chapter 9
 Chapter 10
 Chapter 11
 Chapter 12
 Chapter 13
 Chapter 14
 Chapter 15

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      INTRODUCTION
      RE: "The Last Circle"

      The following condensed version of The Last Circle was provided in October 1996 to a secret
      Investigative Committee comprised of Congress people, lawyers and former POW‘s at their
      request. I originally contacted Congresswoman Maxine Waters in Washington D.C. and offered
      information relative to CIA drug trafficking, but was told the information was too complex and
would I mind putting the information into a newspaper story, get it published and send it to her
office?

I agreed and contacted a local newspaper reporter who, after reading portions of the material,
decided it needed to be reviewed by individuals who had special knowledge of CIA drug
trafficking, arms shipments, and biological warfare weapons.

After a brief meeting with these individuals, former Special Forces soldiers from the Vietnam
era, they asked for copies of the manuscript, guaranteed an immediate congressional inquiry,
and advised me NOT to place the information on the Internet as they feared the information
could be, in their words, "taken as just another anti-government conspiracy."

I condensed the manuscript into the attached treatise, covering information relative to THEIR
focus, and sent it to them along with key documents. Shortly afterward, they re-contacted me
and set up elaborate security measures to insure my safety. As of this writing, I‘ve had no need
to institute those measures.

I have in my possession five boxes of documents, obtained from a convicted
methamphetamine chemist whose closest friends were a 20-year CIA operative and a former
FBI Senior-Agent-in-Charge of the Los Angeles and Washington D.C. bureaus. The
labyrinthine involvements of these people and their corporate partners is revealed in this
manuscript, along with information obtained by Washington D.C. journalist Danny Casolaro
prior to his death in 1991.

A great deal of investigation still needs to be accomplished. I have neither the financial means
nor the ability to obtain "evidence" for "prosecution." I am simply an investigative writer, placing
this information into the public forum in hopes that someone, somewhere, will grasp the
significance of the data and initiate a full-scale investigation with subsequent subpoena power.

With subpoena power, government agents can testify (some kept anonymous in this manuscript)
who would otherwise lose their jobs and retirement if they came forward. Witnesses can be
protected and/or provided immunity, and financial transactions of government and underworld
figures can be scrutinized.

To date, I have not had more than one hour conversation with anyone associated with any
Congressional investigation, and therefore am extremely limited in my ability to present the
information I have. Much of what I learned during my five-year investigation cannot at this point
be inserted into a manuscript. I must be assured the information and witnesses will be handled
appropriately.

I personally do not believe the Department of Justice will ultimately "prosecute" this or any other
drug trafficking case if it involves government officials. But I have made the effort to put forth
enough information to generate interest and show good faith. I hope it will be of some value to
the American public.

Please keep in mind as you read the attached pages that the complex corporate structures and
technological projects described herein "may" have been nothing more than an elaborate
smoke and mirrors cover for narcotics trafficking.

This aspect of my investigation was corroborated by several government investigators, one of
whom was a House Judiciary investigator, who spent three years investigating the Inslaw stolen
software case and said in response to my findings:
"There‘s some great information here. You did a very good investigative job, I have to
commend you on that. I realize it‘s only a fraction of everything you have. What you have done,
you have put the pieces of the whole thing together. Little bits and pieces of things that I
have known about, that I had theorized about, you have found answers to those specific
questions." (See Chapter 13 for entire conversation). That investigator is now in the White
House Office of Drug Control Policy.

To those interested, nearly everything noted in the attached manuscript is supported by
documents or tape recorded interviews. Some are extremely bulky and not quoted extensively
in the manuscript, such as lengthy FBI wire tap summaries.

I wish to thank Garby Leon, formerly Director of Development at Joel Silver Productions,
Warner Bros. in Burbank, California for tirelessly prompting me to get a first draft of The Last
Circle written in 1994 and helping me with countless tasks during our joint investigation of the
death of Danny Casolaro.




                        THE LAST CIRCLE
                                       By Carol Marshall

                                              1994

NOTE:

This is a FIRST DRAFT, bare-bones, unpolished manuscript without prose, characterizations
etc.

CHAPTER 1
For the deputies of the Mariposa Sheriff‘s Department, the awakening occurred on June 24,
1980, when deputy Ron Van Meter drowned in an alleged boating accident on Lake McClure.
The search party consisted mainly of three divers, deputies Dave Beavers, Rod Cusic and Gary
Estep. Although adjacent counties offered additional divers, sheriff Paul Paige refused outside
help, even a minisubmarine offered by Beavers‘ associate.

In the shallow, placid waters of Lake McClure, Van Meter‘s body was not recovered that week,
and indeed would not be found until ten years later, in September, 1990 when his torso,
wrapped in a fish net and weighted down by various objects, including a fire extinguisher,
washed ashore a few hundred yards from where Sergeant Roderick Sinclair‘s houseboat had
once been moored.

Van Meter‘s widow, Leslie, had been at home baking cookies when she was notified of her
husband‘s disappearance. She was an Indian girl who had no affinity with sheriff Paul Paige.
The horror began for her that day also. Her home was ransacked and her husband‘s briefcase
and diary were seized by the Mariposa Sheriff‘s department. Only she and a few deputies knew
what Van Meter‘s diary contained. He‘d told his wife he‘d taken out a special life insurance
policy two weeks before, but after the search that was missing also.

Leslie was taken to a psychiatric clinic for evaluation shortly after the incident. The story
surfaced years later, one tiny bubble at a time. The self-involved little community of Mariposa
did not cough up its secrets gladly. On March 23, 1984, Leslie Van Meter filed a Citizen‘s
Complaint with the Mariposa County Sheriff‘s department alleging that the Sheriff‘s office had
been negligent and unprofessional in their investigation of her husband‘s disappearance. His
body had still not been found, despite private searches by Sergeant Beavers and other friends
of the missing deputy. She wanted the case reopened.

Paul Paige was no longer sheriff, but newly elected Sheriff Ken Mattheys responded by
reopening the investigation. Investigator Raymond Jenkins, a Merced College Police Chief, and
retired FBI agent Tom Walsh from Merced, were notified by Sheriff Mattheys in October, 1984
that the Van Meter case had been reopened and he wanted their help in cleaning up the
Sheriff‘s Department.

Their investigation led them straight to the doorstep of MCA Corporation (Music Corporation of
America), parent company to Curry Company, the largest concessionaire in Yosemite National
Park. A major drug network had surfaced in the park, compelling one park ranger, Paul
Berkowitz, to go before the House Interior Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation to
testify about drug distribution by Curry Company officials.

Ed Hardy, the president of Curry Company, was closely associated with Mariposa County
officials, in particular, Mariposa District Attorney Bruce Eckerson, County Assessor Steve
Dunbar, and Congressman Tony Coelho, whose district encompassed Mariposa and the Park.
The annual camping trips that the three men took together was encouraged by the local
townsfolk because most of Mariposa‘s tax base emanated from Curry Company. Coelho and
Hardy were regular fixtures around town, seen at most of the social events. Coelho even
cooked and served spaghetti dinners for the whole town annually at the Mariposa Fair Grounds,
and purchased property in partnership with one member of the Mariposa Board of Supervisors.
In fact, Mariposa was one of the first places he bid farewell to after resigning from Congress to
avoid an investigation of his finances.

Meanwhile, investigator Raymond Jenkins had followed the drug trail from Yosemite back to the
Mariposa airport, where sheriff’s deputies were seen regularly loading and unloading packages
from planes in the dead of night.

One Indian girl complained bitterly about deputies using the Sara Priest land allotment
(reservation) to grow marijuana and operate methamphetamine labs. Jenkins, by now retired
from the position of Police Chief of Merced College, was called in to interview the Indian girl.
That same day, as a favor, he provided me with copies of his notes. I followed up with a tape
recorded interview at her home in Bear valley. Her father and uncle operated a small auto
dismantling business on the reservation in Midpines, and after locating them and gaining their
confidence, the uncle drove me out to Whiskey Flats, the site of the marijuana and
methamphetamine lab operations. That week I rented a horse and rode down into the rocky,
isolated valley of Whiskey Flats. Brush and shrubbery tore at the saddle on the horse and at
the end of the dirt path I encountered three snarling Rottweiler dogs who put the horse into a
frenzied lather.

Nevertheless, I managed to photograph the irrigation system, artesian spring and pond from
which the water was supplied as well as various points of identification for future
reconnaissance. I later returned in a four-wheel drive pickup truck and managed to view the
trailer and lab shack.

The tape recorded interview with the Indian girl, the photos and notes from my discovery were
provided to the Stanislaus County Drug Task Force, but jurisdictionally, they couldn‘t enter
Mariposa County without authority of the Mariposa Sheriff‘s department. It was a catch 22
situation. Ultimately I provided the same information anonymously to several related agencies.
It was not until 1993 that the fields were eradicated, and 1994, before the labs were raided.
However, no arrests of any deputies were ever forthcoming. In fact, no arrests occurred at all,
except for a few non-English speaking Mexican nationals who had handled the "cooking." The
head of the Los Angeles Drug Enforcement Agency noted to a local newspaper that the meth
lab was part of a large California drug network, but they were unable to identify the kingpins.

On July 6, 1985, Mrs. Van Meter filed a "Request for Official Inquiry" with the State of California
Department of Boating and Waterways stating that no satisfactory investigation was ever
conducted into the matter of her husband‘s disappearance.

That same month, shortly after a meeting at Lake McClure with Mrs. Van Meter, Sheriff
Mattheys mysteriously resigned from his position at the Mariposa Sheriff‘s Department.
Mattheys revealed to reporter Anthony Pirushki that he had been ordered by two county
supervisors and the county‘s attorney "to stay away from the Van Meter investigation." But that
was not the reason he resigned. The whole story would not surface until seven years later
when a reporter for the Mariposa Guide interviewed him.

However, while still in office, Mattheys and his internal affairs investigators had learned the
reason for Van Meter‘s disappearance. A few weeks prior to his death in 1980, Van Meter had
driven to the Attorney General‘s office in Sacramento and reported drug dealing and other
types of corruption within the Mariposa Sheriff‘s Department. This, according to his friends
whom he had confided in, deputies Dave Beavers, a fifteen year veteran of the sheriff‘s
department, and Rod Cusic, a seventeen year veteran. Both deputies were ultimately forced
out of the department and retired on stress leave.

On that same day, reserve deputy Lucky Jordan had driven to the Fresno office of the FBI to
report similar information. According to Jordan, they had split up and reported to separate
agencies in the event "something" happened to one of them.The crux of the story was State
Attorney General Van De Kamp‘s response to the requested investigation by Ron Van Meter.
When Ron returned home from Sacramento, he was confronted by Sheriff Paige. Paige had
received a call from the Attorney General informing him of the visit and its contents, and the
sheriff was livid about Van Meter‘s betrayal. Van Meter had been photographing and
journalizing drug activity by deputies at Lake McClure. He was part of a California State
Abatement Program which involved harvesting and eradicating marijuana fields in Yosemite
National Park and adjacent counties. Instead, the harvested marijuana was being stored in
abandoned cars and towed out of town by a local wrecker under contract with the sheriff‘s
department. It was also being distributed at a hidden cove at Lake McClure.

On June 24, 1980, frustrated and angry at the Attorney General for betraying him, Van Meter
had borrowed a boat and was on his way to arrest the deputies at Lake McClure himself. He
never returned. The investigation of Van Meter‘s "accident" was initially handled by Sergeant
Roderick Sinclair, who could not have known on that fateful day that in exactly three years,
three months, and nineteen days, he would enter the Twilight Zone where his own private hell
awaited him.

******
The first substantial hint that a tentacle of the Octopus had slithered into Mariposa County
occurred on March 5, 1983 when a Mariposa County Sheriff‘s vehicle scouting Queen Elizabeth
II‘s motorcade route rounded a curve in the Yosemite National Park foothills, crossed a highway
and collided head on with a Secret Service car, killing three Secret Service agents. CHP
(California Highway Patrol) Assistant Chief Richard Hanna reported that the collision occurred
at 10:50 a.m. between Coulterville and La Grange on Highway 132 about 25 minutes ahead of
Queen Elizabeth‘s motorcade. CHP Sergeant Bob Schilly reported that Mariposa County
Sheriff‘s Sergeant Roderick Sinclair, 43, was driving with his partner, Deputy Rod McKean, 51,
when "for some reason, [he didn‘t] know why," Sinclair crossed the center line and hit the
second of the three Secret Service cars, which went tumbling down a 10foot embankment.

The three Secret Service agents killed in the collision were identified as George P. LaBarge, 41,
Donald Robinson, 38, and Donald A. Bejcek, 29. Sinclair, who had sustained broken ribs and a
fractured knee, was first stabilized at Fremont Hospital in Mariposa, then transported several
days later to Modesto Memorial Hospital.

Years later, several nurses who had been present when Sinclair was brought into Fremont
Hospital confided that Sinclair had been drugged on the day of "the Queen‘s accident" as it
became known in Mariposa. For months Sinclair had been receiving huge daily shots of
Demerol, "enough to kill most men," according to one billing clerk. Some former deputies who
had feared punitive measures if they spoke up, later corroborated the story of the nurses.

Meanwhile, Assistant U.S. Attorney James White in Fresno ordered Dr. Arthur Dahlem‘s files
seized to prove Sinclair‘s drug addiction. Sinclair‘s Mariposa doctor and close friend had been
prescribing heavy sedatives to him for years. When White attempted to prosecute Sinclair for
criminal negligence, he was called into chambers during the federal probe and told by U.S.
District Court Judge Robert E. Coyle to "drop the criminal investigation" because Sinclair‘s drug
problem was not relevant to the prosecution and the drug records could not be used in court.
Judge Coyle‘s reasoning was that no blood tests had been taken on Sinclair at the Fremont
Hospital on the day of the accident, therefore no case could be made against him.

In fact, the blood tests HAD been taken, but later disappeared. A significant piece of
information relative to Judge Coyle‘s background was passed to me during my investigation of
the Queen‘s accident by retired FBI agent Thomas Walsh. Allegedly, the Judge was once the
attorney of record for Curry Company (owned by MCA Corporation) in Yosemite National Park.
I later learned, in 1992, that Robert Booth Nichols had strong ties to MCA Corporation through
Eugene Giaquinto, president of MCA Corporation Home Entertainment Division. Giaquinto had
been on the Board of Directors of Nichols‘ corporation, MIL, Inc. (Meridian International
Logistics, Inc.) and also held 10,000 shares of stock in the holding corporation. MIL, Inc. was
later investigated by the Los Angeles FBI for allegedly passing classified secrets to overseas
affiliates in Japan and Australia. It is interesting to note, though unrelated, that shortly afterward,
the Japanese purchased MCA Corporation, one of the largest corporate purchases to take
place in American history.

Relative to the Queens accident, in the civil trial that followed the tragic accident, Judge Coyle
ruled that both Sinclair and the deceased Secret Service agents were at fault. Mariposa County
was ordered to pay 70 percent of the claim filed by the widows, and the Secret Service to pay
30 percent. The county‘s insurance company paid the claim, and ironically, Sinclair was
subsequently promoted to Commander of the Mariposa Sheriff‘s Department where he is still
employed as of this writing.

In an interview on March 7, 1988, at Yoshino‘s Restaurant in Fresno, former U.S. Attorney
James White recalled that the original CHP report on the Queens accident was sent to the
State Attorney General‘s office (Van De Kamp) in Sacramento. The report was first received by
Arnold Overoye, who agreed with White that Sinclair should be prosecuted. But when the report
crossed Van De Kamp‘s desk, he told Overoye and his assistant to discard it trash it.

Van De Kamp then appointed Bruce Eckerson, the Mariposa County District Attorney, to take
charge of the investigation and submit a new report. Coincidentally, Bruce Eckerson‘s
disclosure statements on file at the Mariposa County Courthouse indicated that he owned stock
in MCA Entertainment Corporation. White added that ALL of the crack M.A.I.T.S. team CHP
officers involved in the original investigation either resigned or were transferred (or fired)
afterward. The CHP Commander and the Deputy Commander who supervised the M.A.I.T.S.
investigation also resigned as did Assistant U.S. Attorney White himself after the coverup took
place.

However, White noted that before he resigned, he quietly filed with Stephan LaPalm of the U.S.
Attorney‘s office in Sacramento the transcripts of the trial and an affidavit which listed the
"hallucinatory" drugs Sinclair had used prior to the accident. I privately continued with the
Queen‘s accident investigation, interviewing deputies Dave Beavers and Rod Cusic who had
been privy to Sinclair‘s drugged condition on the day of the accident.

Beavers, who was the first deputy to arrive on the scene, maintained four years later, in 1987,
that he was cognizant of Sinclair‘s condition, but when he was questioned by James White he
was NOT ASKED about the drugs. (James White had by then been ordered to drop the criminal
investigation and stay away from the drug aspect of the case).

In January 1988, deputy Rod Cusic strode into the offices of the Mariposa Guide, a competitor
newspaper to the Mariposa Gazette, and stated that he was "told by Rod Sinclair to lie to a
Grand Jury" about Sinclair‘s drug addiction and the resulting Queen‘s accident. Cusic added
that he officially disclosed this to the Fresno FBI on April 26, 1984 and again on October 9,
1987. In 1987, Cusic also noted that he witnessed a booby trapped incendiary device explode
at Rod Sinclair‘s home during a visit to his residence. Additionally, earlier on, Sinclair allegedly
barricaded himself inside his home and booby trapped the property, as witnessed by numerous
deputies who tried to persuade him to come out.

While reviewing old newspaper clippings from the Mariposa Gazette, I discovered an odd
sidebar to the story. In December, 1984, during the Queen‘s accident civil trial in Fresno, U.S.
Attorney James White had introduced testimony that Sinclair‘s vehicle contained "a myriad of
automatic weapons including a booby trapped bomb" when the collision occurred on March 5,
1983. It was not until 1991 that I discovered the depth of the cover-up.

A CBS television executive and a Secret Service agent who had ridden in the third car of the
Queen‘s motorcade in 1983, arrived in Mariposa to enlist my help in putting the pieces of the
puzzle together on the Queen‘s accident. The Secret Service agent‘s best friend had been the
driver of the car in which all three agents were killed. I signed a contract with the television
executive for the sale of the story then drove them to the site of the accident, then to the site of
where the damaged vehicle was stored near Lake McClure. The Secret Service agent broke
down at the sight of the vehicle, remembering the gruesome appearance of his dead friend in
the front seat. He turned, tears welling in his eyes, and said, "His heart burst right through his
chest and was laying in his lap when I found him."

Dave Beavers joined us the next day. As did former sheriff Ken Mattheys. Beavers did not know
that the same Secret Service agent whom he was sitting with in the car was the man who had
tried to pull Sinclair out of the sheriff‘s vehicle on the day of the accident. There had been a
scuffle, Beavers insisting that Sinclair go to the hospital with "his own people," and the Secret
Service ultimately conceding. The Secret Service agent reflected sadly that they didn‘t know to
ask the hospital for blood tests on Sinclair that day, didn‘t know of his drug addiction. By the
time the case went to court, the records at the hospital were gone.

Two weeks after the agent left Mariposa, I received a packet containing copies of Sinclair‘s
drug records for three years prior to the accident. They were the same records that U.S. District
Court Judge Robert Coyle had disallowed in the Queen‘s accident trial. But it was not until
producer Don Thrasher, a ten year veteran of ABC News "20/20," came to town, that I learned
of Sinclair‘s background, or the extent of his addiction.

By chance, at a book signing engagement at B. Dalton Bookstore, I had mentioned to the
manager, Shaula Brent, that my next book contained information about the Queens accident.
Surprised, Shaula blurted out that she had worked at Fremont Hospital when Sinclair was
brought in from the accident. Shaula recounted the following: Rod Sinclair was brought into
Fremont Hospital and placed in a room with an armed "FBI" agent outside the door. Sinclair
had been receiving huge shots of Demerol in the arm every day prior to the accident, by order
of Dr. Arthur Dahlem. Shaula noted that Sinclair was a big man and the amount of Demerol he
had been receiving would have killed most men. After the Queen‘s accident, all drugs were
withdrawn from Sinclair, and employees, including Shaula, could hear him raving aloud for days
from his hospital room. The employees at the hospital were instructed not to speak about or
repeat what took place at the hospital while Sinclair was there.

Because Shaula and her friend, Barbara Locke, who also worked at the hospital, were
suspicious about Sinclair‘s hospital records, they secretly took photostats of the records "before
they were destroyed by the hospital." Blood HAD been drawn on Sinclair on the day of the
Queen‘s accident, and he HAD been under the influence, according to Shaula. Shaula gave the
names of six nurses who were witness to Sinclair‘s condition at the time he was brought into
Fremont Hospital. When his body was finally drug free, Sinclair was transported, against his
wishes, to Modesto Hospital.

******

In January, 1992, the final pieces to the puzzle fell into place. Sinclair‘s background had been
the key all along. Producer Don Thrasher had interviewed the Secret Service agent and,
although the information he obtained would not be used in his production, he advised me to
follow up. The Secret Service corroborated the following profile: Sinclair‘s father had been a
military attaché to General Douglas MacArthur during World War II. (I had privately mused how
many of MacArthur‘s men later became arms of the Octopus). In Japan, after the war, Colonel
Sinclair (sr.) supervised the training of selected Japanese in intelligence gathering operations.

According to the Secret Service, he was an "international figure," highly regarded in the
intelligence community. Rod Sinclair, Jr. attended school in Japan during this time. He later
reportedly worked in the Army C.I.D. in a nonmilitary or civilian capacity, allegedly receiving
training at Fort Liggett in San Luis Obispo, a training center for military intelligence operations.

Could it have been possible for Colonel Sinclair, Sr. to have called upon old friends in high
places to rescue his son, Rod, from the Queen‘s accident investigation? Did the Octopus have
enough power to alter an investigation of the death of three Secret Service agents? According
to the Secret Service agent in Los Angeles, it did. And he intended to tell the story after he
retired.

Menu     Chapter 2
INTRODUCTION
RE: "The Last Circle"

The following condensed version of The Last Circle was provided in October 1996 to a secret
Investigative Committee comprised of Congress people, lawyers and former POW‘s at their
request. I originally contacted Congresswoman Maxine Waters in Washington D.C. and offered
information relative to CIA drug trafficking, but was told the information was too complex and
would I mind putting the information into a newspaper story, get it published and send it to her
office?

I agreed and contacted a local newspaper reporter who, after reading portions of the material,
decided it needed to be reviewed by individuals who had special knowledge of CIA drug
trafficking, arms shipments, and biological warfare weapons.

After a brief meeting with these individuals, former Special Forces soldiers from the Vietnam
era, they asked for copies of the manuscript, guaranteed an immediate congressional inquiry,
and advised me NOT to place the information on the Internet as they feared the information
could be, in their words, "taken as just another anti-government conspiracy."

I condensed the manuscript into the attached treatise, covering information relative to THEIR
focus, and sent it to them along with key documents. Shortly afterward, they re-contacted me
and set up elaborate security measures to insure my safety. As of this writing, I‘ve had no need
to institute those measures.

I have in my possession five boxes of documents, obtained from a convicted
methamphetamine chemist whose closest friends were a 20-year CIA operative and a former
FBI Senior-Agent-in-Charge of the Los Angeles and Washington D.C. bureaus. The
labyrinthine involvements of these people and their corporate partners is revealed in this
manuscript, along with information obtained by Washington D.C. journalist Danny Casolaro
prior to his death in 1991.

A great deal of investigation still needs to be accomplished. I have neither the financial means
nor the ability to obtain "evidence" for "prosecution." I am simply an investigative writer, placing
this information into the public forum in hopes that someone, somewhere, will grasp the
significance of the data and initiate a full-scale investigation with subsequent subpoena power.

With subpoena power, government agents can testify (some kept anonymous in this manuscript)
who would otherwise lose their jobs and retirement if they came forward. Witnesses can be
protected and/or provided immunity, and financial transactions of government and underworld
figures can be scrutinized.

To date, I have not had more than one hour conversation with anyone associated with any
Congressional investigation, and therefore am extremely limited in my ability to present the
information I have. Much of what I learned during my five-year investigation cannot at this point
be inserted into a manuscript. I must be assured the information and witnesses will be handled
appropriately.

I personally do not believe the Department of Justice will ultimately "prosecute" this or any other
drug trafficking case if it involves government officials. But I have made the effort to put forth
enough information to generate interest and show good faith. I hope it will be of some value to
the American public.
Please keep in mind as you read the attached pages that the complex corporate structures and
technological projects described herein "may" have been nothing more than an elaborate
smoke and mirrors cover for narcotics trafficking.

This aspect of my investigation was corroborated by several government investigators, one of
whom was a House Judiciary investigator, who spent three years investigating the Inslaw stolen
software case and said in response to my findings:

"There‘s some great information here. You did a very good investigative job, I have to
commend you on that. I realize it‘s only a fraction of everything you have. What you have done,
you have put the pieces of the whole thing together. Little bits and pieces of things that I
have known about, that I had theorized about, you have found answers to those specific
questions." (See Chapter 13 for entire conversation). That investigator is now in the White
House Office of Drug Control Policy.

To those interested, nearly everything noted in the attached manuscript is supported by
documents or tape recorded interviews. Some are extremely bulky and not quoted extensively
in the manuscript, such as lengthy FBI wire tap summaries.

I wish to thank Garby Leon, formerly Director of Development at Joel Silver Productions,
Warner Bros. in Burbank, California for tirelessly prompting me to get a first draft of The Last
Circle written in 1994 and helping me with countless tasks during our joint investigation of the
death of Danny Casolaro.




CHAPTER 2
By this time three consecutive grand jury foreman's had sought help from the Attorney General,
to no avail. It came to pass that one of the deputies, Dave Beavers, was having trouble
obtaining his "stress leave" pay and hired a Jackson, California lawyer to represent him in the
case. The lawyer, Ben Wagner, not only interviewed Beavers, but began interviewing other
deputies who corroborated Beavers' story. Most of them, thirteen in all, had at one time or
another testified before the grand jury and subsequently been forced out of the department.
Interestingly, none of the deputies knew "why" the others had been been placed on stress leave
or resigned until Wagner finally assembled them together and the story was aired.

At that point some of the former grand jury members were called in to confirm the testimony of
the individual deputies. Most refused to speak up, but a few corroborated the deputies' story.
Ultimately, after numerous meetings, the group of deputies and grand jurors formed and later
incorporated an organization they called D.I.G. (Decency in Government).

By now, Wagner was carrying a gun inside and out of Mariposa for the first time in his life and
writing letters to the Attorney General, the FBI, and even President Ronald Reagan. One
response was forthcoming, from a special agent at the Fresno Department of Justice, Division
of Law Enforcement. This agent listened to Kay Ritter, a former grand jury foreman and several
deputies after reviewing Wagner's evidence.

Wagner was contemplating a huge civil rights lawsuit against the county of Mariposa, but it was
imperative that he first understand "why" the attorney general refused to help these people.
When the special agent drove to Sacramento and reviewed the files within the attorney
general's office emanating from Mariposa, and talked to some of the office staff there, he
learned that everything pertaining to Mariposa was automatically "trashed" when it crossed the
A/G's desk.

Disgusted, the agent called Ben Wagner and told him "Go ahead with the lawsuit." He had no
idea why all the grand jury documents had been trashed, but he was convinced no help would
be forthcoming from the attorney general's office.

On November 20, 1987, Wagner filed with the U.S. District Court in Fresno the first of two
lawsuits, later revealed in a Sacramento newspaper to be the largest civil rights lawsuits ever
recorded in California history. Newspaper reporters and television crews flocked to Wagner for
interviews. In one instance, Wagner, former Sergeant Dave Beavers and others stood in front
of the Fresno FBI building while being interviewed by Channel 3 Sacramento News.

On camera, without hesitation, Beavers recalled observing deputies carrying packages of
drugs from the Gold Coin Saloon, a notorious drug hangout, and placing the packages in the
trunk of their patrol car. A subsequent raid indicated the drugs had been stored by the owner in
a historic underground tunnel once used by the infamous bandit, Juaquin Murietta, to escape
the sheriff's posse.

Meanwhile, on February 10, 1988, attorney Wagner filed at the U.S. District Court in
Sacramento a Writ of Mandamus against John Van De Camp, the State Attorney General;
George Vinson, regional director of the Fresno FBI; George Deukemejian, then Governor of
California, and David F. Levi, United States Attorney for refusing to investigate corruption in
Mariposa County.

The citizens of Mariposa were choosing sides, writing letters to the editor, arguing amongst
themselves, and being interviewed on the sidewalks by news media. D.I.G. was the talk of the
town. On February 17, 1988, Capitol News Service in Sacramento ran a story entitled, "Law &
Order Failing on Hill County," by Jerry Goldberg. The article noted that Capitol News Service
had had discussions with several Attorney General staff members who "stonewalled questions
about any investigation of charges or direct answers on the willingness of Van de Kamp to
meet with the citizen's group [D.I.G.]."

Goldberg mentioned the "Queen's accident" in his article: "The Fresno case charges
destruction of records on individuals [Commander Rod Sinclair] involved in the case. This
includes possible information about the fatal accident which occurred in the area [of Mariposa
County] when an escort vehicle involved in the visit of Queen Elizabeth in 1983 [crashed.]"

Goldberg went on to note that "several people had received threats about dangerous things
happening to them if they continued to stand up to the sheriff and district attorney." A San
Joaquin County official, who asked not to be named, told Goldberg that a key element to the
problems in Mariposa County "related to the fatal accident which occurred to Queen Elizabeth's
escort vehicle."

On February 19, 1988, Ben Wagner's wife, a legal secretary, sent a letter to President Ronald
Reagan at the White House. The Wagners did not live in Mariposa County, indeed, lived far
away in Jackson County, unfettered by corruption, yet they saw fit to take it upon themselves to
write for help. That emotionally gripping letter was headed, "Restoring Equal Rights to the
Citizens of Mariposa County." It read as follows:

        "Dear President Reagan:

        I am writing to you not only as the wife of an attorney, but as a citizen of the
        United States. My initial concern is that you personally receive this letter and
        enclosures, as many residents of Mariposa County have literally placed their
        lives, and the lives of their families in jeopardy by coming forth to expose the
        local government corruption detailed herein. I understand that your time is at a
        premium, however, your immediate attention regarding these matters is of the
        utmost importance, and respectfully requested.

        "In August, 1987, our office was approached by several ex-deputies and
        individuals from Mariposa County requesting assistance in redressing unlawful
        and corrupt activities by officials and departments within their local government,
        and failure on the part of the State Attorney General John Van De Kamp, the
        Office of the Attorney General, and our Federal agencies, to investigate these
        alleged activities.

        "What we found through our initial investigations and accumulation of evidence
        into these allegations was appalling. It took us time to realize that in fact, the
        Constitution of the United States had been suspended in this county.

        "The organization, Decency in Government [D.I.G.], was formed, and on
        November 20, 1987, the first multimillion dollar Civil Rights suit was filed in
        Fresno. We felt media coverage would lay a solid ground of personal safety for
        other complainants to come forth. This coverage proved to be successful, and
        on February 11, 1988, the second Civil Rights suit was filed, along with the
        filing of a Writ of Mandamus in Sacramento.

        "I have enclosed copies of these suits, including several newspaper articles
        regarding the situation. Since 1979, many residents, including individuals,
        sheriff's deputies, groups, organizations, members of Grand Juries and Grand
        Juries have taken their complaints to the Office of the Attorney General, State
        Attorney General John Van De Kamp and Federal authorities for investigation.

        "These agencies have continuously and blatantly failed to redress the
        grievances of these citizens. What appears to be a consistent procedure of one
        Arnold O. Overoye, of the State Attorney General's Office, is to refer the
        complaints directly back to the local agencies to whom the complaints were
        made.

        "Over the years, this has perpetrated threats, intimidation and fear by these
        local officials to the complaining individuals. There has also been questions
        regarding the disappearance of citizens possessing incriminating evidence,
        and the incompletion or failure to investigate `homicides' and `suicides'.

        "Further, it has recently come to our attention, that Mr. Overoye's `procedure,'
        and the inaction of State Attorney John Van De Camp and Federal agencies is
        not limited to Mariposa County, but in fact, expands to a number of foothill
        counties who are experiencing the same types of local corruption.
"The grievances of these citizens, as you will note in paragraph IV of the WRIT
are:

                 (1) Violation of Individual Civil Rights
                 (2) Abuse of discretion in the prosecution of
                 criminal complaints
                 (3) Intentional obstruction of the due course of
                 Justice
                 (4) Malicious prosecution
                 (5) Bribery
                 (6) Intimidation of Grand Jury members and
                 witnesses
                 (7) The deprivation of property
                 (8) Illegal and unlawful land transaction
                 (9) The failure to arrest and prosecute
                 those involved in illegal drug sales,
                 including individuals employed by the
                 County of Mariposa
                 (10) Violation of Property Rights
                 (11) Conspiracy to impede and obstruct
                 criminal investigations
                 (12) Homicide
                 (13) Attempted homicide
                 (14) Rape
                 (15) Battery
                 (16) Perjury.

"Why Mr. President, are we bound to the laws of this country, and our officials
are not? Life in Mariposa is as if the citizens were being held in detention, and
the local agencies, the criminals, were running the county.

"Needless to say, residents feel it is a way of life to literally arm themselves and
their homes against their government! I have been in these people's homes,
and have witnessed the arsenal of weapons they feel they must possess to
protect themselves and their families.

"My husband must travel in, around and out of this county [Mariposa] with an
armed escort. He is transported during `the midnight hours' to interview
Plaintiffs and witnesses.

"I ask you, Mr. President, what country are we living in? We should certainly
make sure that our backyard is clean before we boast to the Soviets regarding
the Civil Rights of Americans.

"On January 19, 1988, my husband took two witnesses, Kay Ritter, a former
Mariposa Grand Jury Forewoman and Robert Ashmore, an ex-deputy, to Mr.
[George] Vinson, the Regional Director of the FBI in Fresno. The testimony,
both oral and documentary, took approximately 3 hours to present. To this date,
the FBI has failed to redress the grievances of these complainants, and Mr.
Vinson did not even have the courtesy to return my husband's phone calls. It
came to our understanding, through a reliable source, that Mr. Vinson felt the
complaints had `no substance.'
         "Mr. President, my husband has been a trial attorney for 14 years. He certainly
         wouldn't waste his time or expertise, or the time of these witnesses, if he felt
         there was `no substance' to the contents of their testimony. However, this
         attitude by Attorney General Van De Camp, his office, and Federal agencies is
         typical and consistent.

         "Shortly after this incident, a major drug dealer contacted our office with
         valuable information detailing the sale of illegal drugs to county officials,
         and wanted information regarding the Federal Witness Program. Mr. Vinson,
         knowing this by telephone messages, again failed to return my husband's
         inquiries.

         "There is evidence by another credible witness, who was informed by the FBI,
         that should they get involved now, it would be `bad publicity,' and `they have let
         the problems in Mariposa get too far out of hand.'

         "You may wonder why my husband and I became dedicated to the citizens of
         this county. We certainly don't foresee large amounts of money at the end of
         this case. Our investment in time and expenditures exceeds $40,000 to date.
         What we do see are people, just like you and I, who have been suppressed by
         their own `elected ' officials, with no help or assistance from Attorney General
         Van De Kamp, his office, or Federal agencies. If someone doesn't help them,
         they will continue to live under these conditions, which I could never imagine
         would exist in America.

         "My husband is not a righteous individual, nor is he perfect. None of us are you
         know. He also doesn't believe that he can solve the problems of the world.
         However, being an attorney, he is an officer of the Court, and he feels a
         professional obligation to uphold the laws of the State, and to maintain the
         freedom of the citizens of this country.

         "This is, however, more than I can say about a number of `representatives' and
         officials, who have failed to perform their appointed duties of their office, and
         are paid by the taxpayers. Through my involvement in this case, I have found,
         to my repulsion, that my lifelong conception of our government's representation
         of the `people,' its vested authority and ability to uphold Civil Rights, and its
         duty to maintain the laws and the Constitution, has been only an shattering
         illusion.

         "Our system has failed, Mr. President. And by its failure, has crushed and
         destroyed the lives of many innocent, law abiding people. Why? There is an
         answer. And we will utilize every legal avenue to find it. We will not be
         discouraged, or give up in our effort to restore the Constitution of the United
         States in Mariposa County, and other foothill communities. We will continue
         until the answer is found. Even if it means presenting the problem to you, Mr.
         President, on the steps of the White House.

         "Our best regards to Mrs. Reagan. Respectfully yours,

         Vivian L. Wagner."

******
Shortly before Ben Wagner's first scheduled appearance in U.S. District Court in Fresno on
behalf of D.I.G. (Decency in Government), Wagner received an obscure response from
"Chuck" at the Reagan White House. Wagner excitedly called Kay Ritter and Dave Beavers,
myself and a few others to note that a meeting with "Chuck" was scheduled that week. It was to
be a somewhat secret meeting as requested by the White House.

However, the day after meeting with "Chuck," Wagner unplugged his phone and walked out on
his law practice and his home in Jackson, California, taking nothing with him except his clothes
and his wife, never to be seen again. I was later told that Jerry Goldberg of Capitol News
Service did the same, on the same day, and I was never able to locate either of them again.

Menu     Chapter 3




CHAPTER 3
The last remnants of the D.I.G. group were beginning to call themselves "The Loser's Club,"
resembling forlorn characters out of a Stephen King novel. They had squared off against a
labyrinthine evil so incomprehensible, they didn't know what they were fighting. It was time to
bring in some outside help.

During a strategy meeting in Jackson, California, Ben Wagner had received an impressive 700
page report commissioned by the Tulare City Council. The report, compiled by Ted Gunderson,
a former Los Angeles FBI agent, was in depth and straightforward about deputies receiving
payoffs and distributing drugs in the small farm-town of Tulare. Wagner had given me a copy
for my files.

On an impulse, I picked up the phone and called Gunderson's telephone number listed at the
top of the attached resume. The resume was impressive. He'd worked as SAC (Senior Special
Agent in Charge) at Los Angeles FBI headquarters, Washington D.C. headquarters and in
Dallas, Texas. It would be two years before I would grasp the significance of the Dallas
connection. After retiring from the FBI, he'd worked for F. Lee Baily, Esq., then formed his own
investigative agency in Los Angeles county.

I left a message with the answering service and he returned the call a few days later. His voice
was open, attentive, devoid of the bureaucratic hollowness I had come to expect from FBI
agents. We talked briefly, mostly about the problem DIG was experiencing in Mariposa. I said I
needed help, anticipating his next question. But none came forth. Instead, a clipped
knowingness entered his tone, as if nothing more should be said on the phone. He agreed to
meet with me at his home a few weeks later and we hung up.

Unknown to me at the time, I had taken a quantum leap in the direction of the Octopus when I
contacted Ted Gunderson. The mystery of the Mariposa cover-ups would soon be divulged
through an associate of his, a former member of "The Company" in nearby Fresno, California.

******

On November 30, 1991, Ted Gunderson opened the door at his Manhattan Beach home and
ushered us into a small living room cluttered with toys. He made no explanation for the toys
scattered around the floor and the couch, but offered coffee and donuts, then proceeded to eat
most of the donuts himself. I had expected someone dripping with intrigue, instead he was
classic in the sense of an investigator; rumpled shirt and slacks, nervous movements,
distracted behavior. We sat on the couch bunched together amongst the toys. Gunderson
pulled a kitchen chair up in front of us, leaned over and began stuffing his mouth with cheese
and crackers, all the while talking, his body in perpetual motion. He was a big, handsome man
with an aging face and tussled silver hair. He seemed entirely unaware of his appearance or
the appearance of his home, but his pale eyes were intelligent and probing. Intuitively, I knew
he was more than he appeared to be.

A young woman, perhaps early thirties, entered the room brushing long blond hair, still wet from
the shower. Her faded jeans and sun-drenched appearance reminded me of friends I'd known
growing up in Newport Beach. Gunderson introduced her as his "partner," as she seated
herself silently on the floor next to him. The flush on her face brought a fleeting prescience to
me that they had been making love shortly before the meeting.

Ray Jenkins recounted the Mariposa story for several hours, with the rest of us digressing to
insert a fact here or there. The investigation had led beyond Mariposa into MCA Corporation,
and various State and Federal levels of government. I noted that Danny Casolaro's research
had started at the eastern end, in Washington D.C., yet he had been preparing to travel to
California for the rest of the story, before his death three months earlier.

Gunderson listened carefully, occasionally interrupting to ask questions, then motioned us to
follow him to the backyard. There we stood in a circle in the middle of his yard while he
surveyed the area. Satisfied that he was not being watched, he agreed to come to Mariposa,
with media, and perform a citizens arrest on the corrupt officials. He pulled a frazzled piece of
paper from his pocket and gave me a list of telephone numbers to write down. They were
numbers to telephone booths at various locations in the vicinity of his home. Each booth had
been coded 1,2,3,4, or 5. He instructed that the next time I called him, he would give me the
code number of the booth and a time to call. I would then call him at the designated booth.

Eight hours later, I handed him a copy of my first book, as a courtesy, then left Manhattan
Beach loaded with newspaper clippings and documents, mostly relating to Casolaro's
investigation of the Octopus. One packet was titled, "The Wonderful Weapons of Wackenhut,"
others related to the Inslaw affair, Iran/Contra and various savings and loan scandals.

In the van, reviewing the documents, I wondered what relationship they had to Mariposa
County and why I was given the packet. The documents were far ranging, beyond anything I
had heretofore imagined. But within days of my visit to Gunderson, I would be introduced to the
Octopus.

******

The following morning, at 7:30 a.m., I received a collect call from a man who identified himself
as Michael Riconosciuto (pronounced Riconoshooto). Riconosciuto, calling from the Pierce
County jail in Tacoma, Washington, said he had been informed by Gunderson that I was
investigating a corruption/drug ring in Mariposa County. For 45 minutes Riconosciuto related
the names of those in charge of methamphetamine operations in Mariposa, Madera and
Fresno counties.

A ton of methamphetamine had been seized in the area of my investigations, according to
Riconosciuto. Richard Knozzi was a high level "cooker" and Jim DeSilva, Ben Kalka, and
others were medium level distributors or lieutenants. Kalka was currently serving time in a
Pleasanton prison; 900 pounds of methamphetamine had been seized under his control.

"Who's behind this ring?" I asked. Riconosciuto paused for a moment, then took a deep breath.
"It's The Company. Arms get shipped to the Contras, the Afghanistan rebels
[Mujahaden], the Middle East. You know, to fight the Soviet influence. But the Contras and
the Mujahaden don't have money to pay for arms, so they pay with drugs, cocaine or
heroin. The Company handles the drug end of it in the U.S ..."

"What's The Company ...?," I asked. Riconosciuto interrupted, "Wait a minute. It's a long story.
You have to start at the beginning." Concerned that Riconosciuto might have to hang up, I
hurriedly pushed for answers. "Arms for drugs, do you have proof?"

"Oh, yeah. It's a self-supporting system, they don't have to go through Congress ..."

"Michael," I pressed, "who ships the arms?" Riconosciuto quieted for a moment, gathering his
thoughts. "Let's start with Wackenhut. I didn't play ball with Wackenhut so they poisoned the
well for me. I'm in jail because I worked for Wackenhut. The government has put together a
very simple drug case against me ... as if that's what I'm about, just a druggie."

"Tell me about Wackenhut."

"It's a security corporation headquartered in Coral Gables, Florida. Wackenhut provides
security for the Nevada nuclear test site, the Alaskan pipeline, Lawrence Livermore Labs, you
know, all the high security government facilities in the U.S. They have about fifty thousand
armed security guards that work for minimum wage or slightly above.

"On the other hand, on the Wackenhut board of directors, they have all the former heads of
every government agency there ever was under Ronald Reagan and George Bush; FBI, CIA,
NSA, Secret Service, etc.

"You know, they've got retired Admiral Stansfield Turner, a former CIA director; Clarence Kelley,
former FBI director; Frank Carlucci, former CIA deputy director; James Rowley, former Secret
Service director; Admiral Bobby Ray Inman, former acting chairman of President Bush's foreign
intelligence advisory board and former CIA deputy director. Before his appointment as
Reagan's CIA director, the late William Casey was Wackenhut's outside legal counsel ..."

I interrupted him, wanting to know where HE fit into the picture?

"Well, I served as Director of Research for the Wackenhut facility at the Cabazon Indian
reservation in Indio, California. In 198384 I modified the PROMISE computer software to be
used in law enforcement and intelligence agencies worldwide. A man named Earl Brian was
spearheading a plan for worldwide use of the software, but essentially, the modified software
was being pirated from the owners, Bill and Nancy Hamilton."

I asked, "So how did that cause your arrest?" Michael was articulate, but his story was
becoming complicated. He continued. "I signed an affidavit for the Hamiltons stating that I had
been responsible for the modification. The House Judiciary Committee on Inslaw was
investigating the theft of the software and I was afraid I would be implicated since I had
performed the modification. Nine days later, in an attempt to discredit my testimony, I was
arrested for allegedly operating a drug lab."

I didn't want to push Riconosciuto on the subject of a drug lab at that point, but voiced my
foremost concern. "Will the House Judiciary Committee be bringing you in to testify?"

"Eventually, yes."
"Are you in any danger where you are right now?" I was unaware at the time that Riconosciuto
had been recruited at Stanford University into the CIA nearly twenty years earlier, and danger
was a matter of fact in his life.

"Oh, you bet! Several of the jail guards here moonlight for Wackenhut here in Tacoma."
Riconosciuto went on to discuss the Wackenhut setup. "Basically, what you have is a group of
politically well connected people through Wackenhut who wanted to get juicy defense contracts
when Ronald Reagan got elected president. And they did! They also preyed on high tech start
up companies, many of them out of Silicon Valley in California.

"They saw technology that they wanted and they either forced the companies into bankruptcy
or waited on the sidelines, like vultures, and picked them up for pennies after they were
bankrupt."

I made profuse notes as Riconosciuto spoke, not knowing where he was leading, but assuming
his narrative would eventually intersect with my investigation of government sanctioned
drug operations. Finally it did. According to Riconosciuto, Wackenhut Corporation "made
inroads" into the methamphetamine operation. A man named Richard Knozzi allegedly
headed major government sanctioned meth laboratories in Fresno, Madera and Mariposa
counties. A man named Al Holbert, a former Israeli intelligence officer with U.S.
citizenship, was the liaison or connection between the Knozzi operation and the U.S.
government.

In subsequent documents obtained from Michael's secret hiding place in the California desert, I
located documents which indicated Michael had first been recruited into the CIA by Al Holbert.
However, during this first of many phone conversations with Riconosciuto, I found myself
searching for a beginning, something concrete to get a foothold. "Michael, is there any proof
that you worked at Wackenhut?"

Michael responded diffidently. "CNN recently ran a piece, and they filmed a location shot from
the parking lot of the casino. Then they aired another location shot on the [Cabazon]
reservation of just an expanse of bare land, blue sky, sand and sagebrush. Then the narrator
says, `Here on the Indian reservation is where Michael Riconosciuto claims to have modified
the PROMISE software.' They didn't show the tribal office complex, they didn't show the
industrial park. They showed a bare expanse of land, like I had a computer out in a teepee in
the middle of the desert! The government is doing a character assassination on me. I'm fair
game now that I'm in jail, because I've raised too many provocative questions, you know, and
they're trying to relegate me to the area of delusion ..."

******

For three months Riconosciuto called daily from the Pierce County jail in Tacoma, Washington.
At his request, I attached a tape recorder to my phone and unraveled a complicated web of
illegal overseas arms shipments, espionage, CIA drug trafficking, biological warfare
development, computer software theft, money laundering and corruption at the highest levels of
government.

Throughout this time span, I also obtained every newspaper and magazine article I could lay
my hands on relative to Riconosciuto's background and contacts. Riconosciuto had been
communicating regularly with journalist Danny Casolaro prior to his death on August 10, 1991
when Danny's nude body was found in the bathtub of room 517 of the Sheraton Hotel in
Martinsburg, West Virginia. His wrists had been slashed ten or twelve times. No papers were
found in his hotel room or in his car, though he was known to cart a briefcase and files
everywhere he went. An XActo blade found in the bathtub was not sold locally and his briefcase
is still missing to this day.Casolaro was working on a book entitled, "Behold a Pale Horse,"
which encompassed the October Surprise story, the Inslaw computer software case, the
Iran/Contra affair, the B.C.C.I. scandal, and M.C.A. entertainment corporation, all overlapping
and interconnecting into one network which he dubbed, "The Octopus."

He told friends that he "had traced the Inslaw and related stories back to a dirty CIA 'Old Boy'
network" that had begun working together in the 1950's around the Albania covert operations.
These men had gotten into the illegal gun and drug trade back then and had continued in
that business ever since.

Before his death, Danny had made plans to visit the Wackenhut Corporation in Indio, California,
and even considered naming his book, "Indio."

Menu    Chapter 4




CHAPTER 4
The history of Wackenhut Corporation is best described from its own literature. An outdated
letter of introduction typed on Wackenhut letterhead once sent to prospective clients provided
me with the following profile:

        (Excerpted)

        "Wackenhut Corporation had its beginnings in 1954, when George R.
        Wackenhut and three other former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of
        Investigation formed a company in Miami, Special Agent Investigators, to
        provide investigative services to business and industry.

        "The approach was so well received that a second company was formed in
        1955 to apply the same philosophy to physical security problems. In 1958 the
        companies were combined under the name of Wackenhut Corporation, a
        Florida company. From the outset, George Wackenhut was President and chief
        executive officer of the enterprise. Wackenhut established its headquarters in
        Coral Gables, Florida in 1960, extending its physical security operations to the
        United States government through formation of a wholly owned subsidiary,
        Wackenhut Services, Incorporated. This was done in order to comply with
        federal statute prohibiting the government from contracting with companies
        which furnish investigative or detective services.

        "In 1962, Wackenhut operations extended from Florida to California and Hawaii.
        On January 1, 1966, the company became international with offices in Caracas,
        Venezuela, through half ownership of an affiliate.

        "The Wackenhut Corporation became public in 1966 with over-the-counter
        stock sales and joined the American Stock Exchange in 1967. Through
        acquisitions of subsidiaries and affiliates, now totaling more than 20, and
        expansion of it contracts into numerous territories and foreign countries, the
        Wackenhut Corporation has grown into one of the world's largest security and
        investigative firms.
         "In 1978 acquisition of NUSAC, a Virginia company providing technical and
         consulting services to the nuclear industry, brought Wackenhut into the fields of
         environment and energy management. In 1979, Wackenhut acquired Stellar
         Systems, Inc., a California company specializing in outdoor electronic security.

         "The executive makeup of the company reflects the stress Mr. Wackenhut
         placed on professional leadership. The Wackenhut Corporation is guided by
         executives and managers with extensive backgrounds in the FBI and
         other military, governmental and private security and investigative fields.

         "The principle business of the company is furnishing security and complete
         investigative services and systems to business, industry and professional
         clients, and to various agencies of the U.S. Government.

         "Through a whollyowned subsidiary, Wackenhut Electronic Systems
         Corporation, the company develops and produces sophisticated
         computerized security systems to complement its guard services.

         "Major clients of Wackenhut's investigative services are the insurance industry
         and financial interests. These services include insurance inspections, corporate
         acquisition surveys, personnel background reports, pre-employment screening,
         polygraph examinations and general criminal, fraud and arson investigations.

         "The wide variety of services offered by Wackenhut Corporation also includes
         guard and electronic security for banks, office buildings, apartments, industrial
         complexes and other physical structures; training programs in English and
         foreign languages to apply Wackenhut procedures to individual clients needs;
         fire, safety and protective patrols; rescue and first aid services; emergency
         support programs tailored to labor-management disputes, and pre-departure
         screening programs widely used by airports and airlines.

         "The company now has some 20,000 employees and maintains close to 100
         offices and facilities with operations spread across the United States and
         extending into Canada, the United Kingdom, Western Europe, the Middle
         East, Indonesia, Central and South America and the Caribbean."

******

On the surface, Wackenhut Corporation seemed innocuous enough, but through documents
later obtained from Michael Riconosciuto, I learned there was another, darker side to
Wackenhut operations, at the Cabazon Indian reservation near Indio, California.

Because Indian reservations are sovereign nations and do not come under federal jurisdiction,
Wackenhut International had formed a partnership and entered into a business venture with the
Cabazon Indians to produce hightech arms and explosives for export to third-world countries.
This maneuver was designed to evade congressional prohibitions against U.S. weapons being
shipped to the Contras and middle eastern countries.

In the early 1980's, Dr. John Nichols, the Cabazon tribal administrator, obtained a department
of Defense secret facility clearance for the reservation to conduct various research projects.
Nichols then approached Wackenhut with an elaborate "joint venture" proposal to manufacture
120mm combustible cartridge cases, 9mm machine pistols, laser-sighted assault weapons,
sniper rifles and portable rocket systems on the Cabazon reservation and in Latin America. At
one point, he even sought to develop biological weapons.
Again, through Michael Riconosciuto's files, I later obtained interoffice memorandums and
correspondence relating to biological technology, but more on that in chapter 10. Meanwhile, in
1980, Dr. John Nichols obtained the blueprints to Crown Prince Fahd's palace in Tiaf, Saudi
Arabia, and drafted a plan to provide security for the palace.

The Saudis were interested enough to conduct a background check on the Cabazons.
Mohammad Jameel Hashem, consul of the Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington,
D.C., wrote former South Dakota Senator James Abourezk at his offices in Washington D.C.
and noted,

         "According to our black list for companies, the Cabazon Band of Mission
         Indians/Cabazon Trading Company and Wackenhut International are not
         included."

Translated, that meant that neither the Cabazons or Wackenhut were Jewish-run enterprises.

George Wackenhut's political leanings were once described in a book entitled, "The Age of
Surveillance, The Aims and Methods of America's Political Intelligence System," by Frank J.
Donner (Knopf, 1980), pp. 424425 as such:

         "The agency's [Wackenhut] professional concerns reflect the political values of
         its director, George Wackenhut. A rightist of the old blood, he selected as his
         directors an assortment of ultras prominent in the John Birch Society, the ASC,
         and other rightwing groups. The agency's monthly house organ, the
         `Wackenhut Security Review,' systematically decried the subversive inspiration
         in virtually all the protest movements of the sixties, from civil rights to peace.
         This vigilance earned the publication the accolade of rightwing organizations,
         including (in 1962) the George Washington Honor Medal and the Freedom
         Foundation Award at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania; and (in 1965 and 1966) the
         Vigilant Patriots Award from the All American Conference to Combat
         Communism."

******

Of all the articles written about Wackenhut Corporation, probably the most provocative was
written by John Connolly for SPY magazine, published in September 1992, pp. 4654. Connolly,
a former New York police officer turned writer, began his story with the following introduction:

         "What? A big private company one with a board of former CIA, FBI and
         Pentagon officials; one in charge of protecting nuclear weapons facilities,
         nuclear reactors, the Alaskan oil pipeline and more than a dozen American
         embassies abroad; one with longstanding ties to a radical rightwing
         organization; one with 30,000 men and women under arms secretly helped
         Iraq in its effort to obtain sophisticated weapons? And fueled unrest in
         Venezuela? This is all the plot of a new bestselling thriller, right? Or the ravings
         of some overheated conspiracy buff, right? Right? WRONG."

Connolly highlighted George Wackenhut as a "hardline rightwinger" who was able to profit from
his beliefs by building dossiers on Americans suspected of being Communists or left-leaning
"subversives and sympathizers" and selling the information to interested parties. By 1965 ,
Wackenhut was boasting to potential investors that the company maintained files on 2.5 million
suspected dissidents one in 46 American adults then living.
In 1966, after acquiring the private files of Karl Barslaag, a former staff member of the House
Committee on UnAmerican Activities, Wackenhut could confidently maintain that with more
than 4 million names, it had the largest privately held file on suspected dissidents in America.

Connolly wrote that it was not possible to overstate the special relationship that Wackenhut
enjoys with the federal government. Richard Babayan, claiming to be a CIA contract
employee, told SPY that

        "Wackenhut has been used by the CIA and other intelligence agencies for
        years. When they [the CIA] need cover, Wackenhut is there to provide it
        for them."

Another CIA agent, Bruce Berckmans, who was assigned to the CIA station in Mexico City, but
left the agency in January 1975 (putatively) to become a Wackenhut international operations
vice president, told SPY that he had seen a formal proposal submitted by George
Wackenhut to the CIA offering Wackenhut offices throughout the world as fronts for CIA
activities. In 1981, Berckmans joined with other senior Wackenhut executives to form the
company's Special Projects Division. It was this division that linked up with exCIA man Dr.
John Phillip Nichols, the Cabazon tribal administrator, in pursuit of a scheme to
manufacture explosives, poison gas and biological weapons for export to the contras
and other communist fighting rebels worldwide.

SPY also printed testimony from William Corbett, a terrorism expert who spent 18 years as a
CIA analyst and is now an ABC News consultant in Europe. Said Corbett,

        "For years Wackenhut has been involved with the CIA and other
        intelligence organizations, including the DEA. Wackenhut would allow the
        CIA to occupy positions within the company [in order to carry out]
        clandestine operations."

Additionally, Corbett said that Wackenhut supplied intelligence agencies with
information, and it was compensated for this "in a quid pro quo arrangement" with
government contracts worth billions of dollars over the years.

On page 51, in a box entitled, "Current and Former Wackenhut Directors," SPY published the
following names:

               "John Ammarell, former FBI agent
               Robert Chasen, former FBI agent
               Clarence Kelly, former FBI director
               Willis Hawkins, former assistant secretary of the Army
               Paul X. Kelley, four-star general (ret.), U.S. Marine Corps
               Seth McKee, former commander in chief, North American Air Defense
                Command
               Bernard Schriever, former member, President's Foreign Intelligence
                Advisory Board
               Frank Carlucci, former Defense Secretary and former deputy CIA
                director
               Joseph Carroll, former director, Defense Intelligence Agency
               James Rawley, former director, U.S. Secret Service
               Bobby Ray Inman, former deputy CIA director"

Menu    Chapter 5
CHAPTER 5
Danny Casolaro's body was found at 12:30 p.m. in a blood-filled bath tub by a hotel maid who
called the Martinsburg police. The body contained three deep cuts on the right wrist and seven
on the left wrist, made by a single edge razor blade, the kind used to scrape windows or open
packages. At the bottom of the bathwater was an empty Milwaukee beer can, a paper glass
coaster, the razor blade and two white plastic trash bags, the kind used in wastepaper baskets.
On the desk in the hotel room was an empty mead composition notebook with one page torn
out and a suicide note which read:

        "To those who I love the most, please forgive me for the worst possible thing I
        could have done. Most of all, I'm sorry to my son. I know deep down inside that
        God will let me in."

There were no other papers, folders, documents of any sort, nor any briefcase found in the
room. Danny's wallet was intact, stuffed with credit cards. The body was removed from the tub
by Lieutenant Dave Brining from the Martinsburg fire department, and his wife, Sandra, a nurse
who works in the hospital emergency room. The couple, who often moonlighted as coroners,
took the body to the Brown Funeral Home where they conducted an examination. Charles
Brown then decided to embalm the body that night and go home, rather than come back to
work the next day, Sunday.

No one in Danny Casolaro's family had been notified of his death at that time, nor had they
requested the body be embalmed. When Casolaro's family learned of the death, they insisted it
was not a suicide and called for an autopsy and an investigation. Though the body had already
been embalmed, an autopsy was performed at the West Virginia University Hospital by a Dr.
Frost. The findings indicated that no struggle had taken place because there were no recent
bruises on the body. The drugs found in Casolaro's urine, blood and tissue samples were in
minute amounts but they were also unexplainable by his brother, Tony, who is a medical doctor.

According to Tony Casolaro, Danny did not take drugs or have any prescriptions for the drug
traces of Hydrocodone and Tricyclic antidepressant that were found in the body. No pill boxes
or written prescriptions were found. Dr. Casolaro searched through his brother's Blue Cross
records and found no record of the prescriptions or doctor visits.

During the autopsy of the body, Dr. Frost had found lesions within the brain which were
characteristic of Multiple Sclerosis. It was possible that Danny was having blurring of vision, but
Dr. Frost downplayed the possibility that this contributed to any suicide. Of particular interest,
was Frost's observation that the deep razor wounds on Danny's wrists were inflicted "without
any hesitation marks." However, the lack of hesitation did not indicate one way or the other
whether they were or were not self-inflicted. Investigators and police never found Danny's
missing briefcase.

On August 6, 1991, Casolaro's housekeeper, Olga, helped Danny pack a black leather tote bag.
She remembered he also packed a thick sheaf of papers into a dark brown or black briefcase.
She asked him what he had put into the briefcase and he replied, "I have all my papers ..." He
had been typing for two days, and as he left the house, he said, "Wish me luck. I'll see you in a
couple of days."

            th
By August 9 , Casolaro's friends were alarmed. Noone had heard from him and Olga was
                                                                         th
receiving threatening phone calls at Danny's home. On Saturday, August 10 , Olga received
another call, a man's voice said, "You son of a bitch. You're dead." After learning of Danny's
                                                                      th
death, Olga recalled seeing Danny sitting in the kitchen on August 5 with a "heavy man ...
wearing a dark suit. He was a dark man with black hair he turned towards the door, I saw he
was dark skinned. I told police maybe he could be from India."

At 3:00 p.m. on Friday, the day before Danny's death, Bill Turner, a friend and confidante, met
Danny in the parking lot of the Sheraton Hotel to deliver some papers to him. The papers
allegedly consisted of two sealed packages which Turner had been keeping in his safe at home
for Danny, and a packet of Hughes Aircraft papers which belonged to Turner.

Danny had appeared exuberant to most of his friends before his death, noting that he was
about to "wrap up" his investigation of The Octopus. Casolaro was trying to prove that the
alleged theft of the Inslaw computer program, PROMISE, was related to the October Surprise
scandal, the Iran-Contra affair and the collapse of BCCI (Bank of Credit and Commerce
International).

                                                                                th
Turner later admitted to police that he had indeed met with Danny on August 9 , but at that
time he refused to specify what time and would not describe what was in the papers he
delivered to Danny. I later learned that Turner had been investigating discrepancies involving
his former employer, Hughes Aircraft Company. The documents he had delivered from his safe
to Danny had been sealed, with Casolaro's name written across the seal, and he claimed not to
have known what they contained. Nevertheless, it is feasible to assume that Turner may have
known who Danny was preparing to meet that evening at the Martinsburg Hotel because, for
reasons of his own, Turner apparently wanted Danny to show the Hughes Aircraft documents
to whoever he was meeting with.

Turner later noted to reporters that he was "scared shitless" about information he had seen
connecting Ollie North and BCCI. "I saw papers from Danny that connected back through the
Keating Five and Silverado [the failed Denver S & L where Neil Bush had been an officer]," he
said.

To his friend, Ben Mason, Danny showed a 22point outline for his book. Included in the
information he shared with Mason were papers referring to Iran-Contra arms deals.
Photocopies of checks made out for $1 million and $4 million drawn on BCCI accounts held for
Adnan Khashoggi, and international arms merchant and factotum for the House of Saud, and
by Manucher Ghorbanifar, an arms dealer and Iran-Contra middleman, were presented.

"The last sheet," noted Mason, "was a passport of some guy named Ibrahim." Casolaro had
emphasized that Ibrahim had made a big deal of showing him (Casolaro) his "Egyptian"
passport. "Ibrahim" was obviously the informant whom Olga, Casolaro's housekeeper, had
seen sitting in the kitchen with Danny on August 5th. Hassan Ali Ibrahim Ali, born in 1928,
was later identified as the manager of Sitico, an alleged Iraqi front company for arms
purchases. Casolaro had obtained these papers from Bob Bickel, who in turn obtained
them from October Surprise source Richard Brenneke.

Ari BenMenasche, a self proclaimed Israeli military intelligence officer, was responsible for the
tipoff to an obscure Lebanese magazine about what later became known as the IranContra
scandal. After Casolaro's death, Menasche called Bill Hamilton, the president of Inslaw
Company and creator of the PROMISE software. (Hamilton had been in daily contact with
Casolaro until about a week prior to his death).

Menasche claimed that two FBI agents from Lexington, Kentucky, had embarked on a
trip to Martinsburg to meet Casolaro as part of their investigation of the sale of the
PROMISE software to Israel and other intelligence agencies.Ben Menasche told Hamilton
that one of the FBI agents, E.B. Cartinhour, was disaffected because his superiors had
refused to indict high Reagan officials for their role in the October Surprise. Ben Menasche
claimed the agents were prepared to give Casolaro proof that the FBI was illegally using
PROMISE software.

It is highly unlikely that the two FBI agents were en-route to Martinsburg to GIVE anything to
Casolaro, but they may well have been on their way to obtain HIS documents and those
belonging to Bill Turner. If, in fact, Danny had disclosed to any one of the many "sources" he
had developed during his investigation, that he was turning over his documents to the
Lexington FBI, that may well have alarmed a few of them.

Casolaro was also investigating Colonel Bo Gritz's expose of CIA drug trafficking, and had
requested to meet with a former police officer who had information on Laotian warlord Kuhn
Sa's Golden Triangle drug trade proposal to the U.S. He had learned through a Sacramento
Bee newspaper article, dated June 2, 1990 that Patrick Moriarty, the Red Devil fireworks
magnate convicted of laundering political contributions and bribing city officials in Sacramento,
had been subpoenaed to testify on behalf of Gritz at his trial in Las Vegas where he was tried
for using a false passport. Gritz was acquitted of the charges.

Moriarty's lawyer, Jan Lawrence Handzlik, told the Bee that Moriarty had paid Gritz to make
business trips to China, Singapore and other parts of Asia. Gritz said his business trip to
Asia in July 1989 was for the purpose of negotiating an oil interest that he and Moriarty had
set up between the People's Republic of China and Indonesia.

It is noteworthy that Patrick Moriarty is the longtime (30 years) partner of Marshall
Riconosciuto, Michael Riconosciuto's father. They owned several California businesses
together, two of which were Hercules Research Corporation, of which Michael was a
partner, and Pyrotronics Corporation.

******

Casolaro at one time considered the title of "Indio" for the book he was writing about "The
Octopus." His death occurred just days before he planned to visit the Cabazon Indian
reservation near Indio, California. Though his notes did not divulge what role the Cabazons
may have had in the conspiracy, Casolaro listed Dr. John Phillip Nichols, the Cabazon
administrator, as a former CIA agent.

A source of information which Danny may have read is entitled, "DARK VICTORY, Ronald
Reagan, MCA, and the Mob," by Dan E. Moldea. Moldea named this unholy alliance "The
Octopus" in his book.

Numerous publications reporting on Casolaro's death corroborated that one of his sources
included Michael Riconosciuto, a "44yearold former hightech scientist who had connections
with Wackenhut Corporation ..." What brought Casolaro to Riconosciuto was an affidavit signed
by Riconosciuto claiming that when he worked on the WackenhutCabazon project, he was
given a copy of the Inslaw software by Earl Brian for modification. Riconosciuto also swore that
Peter Videnieks, a Justice Department official associated with the Inslaw contract, had visited
the WackenhutCabazon project with Earl Brian.

Earl Brian was a businessman and Edwin Meese crony who served in Governor Ronald
Reagan's cabinet in California. The $6 million in software stolen from William and Nancy
Hamilton, coowners of Inslaw Company, was allegedly sold by the Justice Department through
Earl Brian to raise off-the-books money for covert government operations.
On May 18, 1990, Riconosciuto had called the Hamiltons and informed them that the Inslaw
case was connected to the October Surprise affair. Riconosciuto claimed that he and Earl Brian
had traveled to Iran in 1980 and paid $40 million to Iranian officials to persuade them NOT to
release the hostages before the presidential election in which Reagan became president of the
United States.

Riconosciuto's information created a domino effect in Washington D.C., opening numerous
investigations and causing a media blitz. At that time, Casolaro headed the Hamilton's private
investigation of the theft of their software and he had regular communication with Riconosciuto.

Former U.S. Attorney General Elliott Richardson, the Hamilton's attorney, subsequently sent
Riconosciuto an affidavit to sign, to be filed by Inslaw in federal court in connection with
Inslaw's pending Motion for Limited Discovery. The affidavit, Case No. 8500070, entered into
court records, resulted in Riconosciuto's arrest within days. It read as follows:

        "I Michael J. Riconosciuto, being duly sworn, do hereby state as follows:

        "(1) During the early 1980's, I served as the Director of Research for a joint
        venture between the Wackenhut Corporation of Coral Gables, Florida, and the
        Cabazon Band of Indians of Indio, California. The joint venture was located on
        the Cabazon reservation.

        "(2) The Wackenhut-Cabazon joint venture sought to develop and/or
        manufacture certain materials that are used in military and national security
        operations, including night vision goggles, machine guns, fuelair explosives,
        and biological and chemical warfare weapons.

        "(3) The Cabazon Band of Indians are a sovereign nation. The sovereign
        immunity that is accorded the Cabazons as a consequence of this fact made it
        feasible to pursue on the reservation the development and/or manufacture of
        materials whose development or manufacture would be subject to stringent
        controls off the reservation. As a minority group, the Cabazon Indians also
        provided the Wackenhut Corporation with an enhanced ability to obtain federal
        contracts through the 8A Set Aside Program, and in connection with
        Government owned contractor operated (GOCO) facilities.

        "(4) The Wackenhut-Cabazon joint venture was intended to support the needs
        of a number of foreign governments and forces, including forces and
        governments in Central America and the Middle East. The Contras in
        Nicaragua represented one of the most important priorities for the joint venture.

        "(5) The Wackenhut-Cabazon joint venture maintained close liaison with
        certain elements of the United States Government, including
        representatives of intelligence, military and law enforcement agencies.

        "(6) Among the frequent visitors to the Wackenhut-Cabazon joint venture were
        Peter Videnieks of the U.S. Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., and a
        close associate of Videnieks by the name of Earl W. Brian. Brian is a private
        businessman who lives in Maryland and who has maintained close ties with the
        U.S. intelligence community for many years.

        "(7) In connection with my work for Wackenhut, I engaged in some software
        development and modification work in 1983 and 1984 on the proprietary
        PROMIS computer software product. The copy of PROMIS on which I worked
came from the U.S. Department of Justice. Earl W. Brian made it available to
me through Wackenhut after acquiring it from Peter Videnieks, who was then a
Department of Justice contracting official with responsibility for the PROMISE
software. I performed the modifications to PROMIS in Indio, California; Silver
Spring, Maryland; and Miami, Florida.

"(8) The purpose of the PROMIS software modifications that I made in 1983
and 1984 was to support a plan for the implementation of PROMIS in law
enforcement and intelligence agencies worldwide. Earl W. Brian was
spearheading the plan for this worldwide use of the PROMISE computer
software.

"(9) Some of the modifications that I made were specifically designed to
facilitate the implementation of PROMIS within two agencies of the
Government of Canada; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and the
Canadian Security and Intelligence Service (CSIS). Earl W. Brian would check
with me from time to time to make certain that the work would be completed in
time to satisfy the schedule for the RCMP and CSIS implementations of
PROMIS.

"(10) The proprietary version of PROMIS, as modified by me, was, in fact,
implemented in both the RCMP and the CSIS in Canada. It was my
understanding that Earl W. Brian had sold this version of PROMIS to the
Government of Canada.

"(11) In February 1991, I had a telephone conversation with Peter Videnieks,
then still employed by the U.S. Department of Justice. Videnicks attempted
during this telephone conversation to persuade me not to cooperate with an
independent investigation of the government's piracy of Inslaw's proprietary
PROMIS software being conducted by the Committee on the Judiciary of the
U.S. House of Representatives.

"(12) Videnieks stated that I would be rewarded for a decision not to cooperate
with the House Judiciary Committee investigation. Videnieks forecasted an
immediate and favorable resolution of a protracted child custody dispute being
prosecuted against my wife by her former husband, if I were to decide not to
cooperate with the House Judiciary Committee investigation.

"(13) Videnieks also outlined specific punishments that I could expect to
receive from the U.S. Department of Justice if I cooperate with the House
Judiciary Committee's investigation.

"(14) One punishment that Videnieks outlined was the future inclusion of me
and my father in a criminal prosecution of certain business associates of mine
in Orange County, California, in connection with the operation of a savings and
loan institution in Orange County. By way of underscoring his power to
influence such decisions at the U.S. Department of Justice, Videnieks informed
me of the indictment of these business associates prior to the time when that
indictment was unsealed and made public.

"(15) Another punishment that Videnieks threatened against me if I cooperate
with the House Judiciary Committee is prosecution by the U.S. Department of
Justice for perjury. Videnieks warned me that credible witnesses would come
forward to contradict any damaging claims that I made in testimony before the
         House Judiciary Committee, and that I would subsequently be prosecuted for
         perjury by the U.S. Department of Justice for my testimony before the House
         Judiciary Committee."

It is noteworthy that in January, 1992 when I obtained boxes of Michael Riconosciuto's hidden
documents, included in those documents were handwritten pages of telephone numbers
belonging to various Washington D.C. dignitaries. One number, "(202) 4260789" was listed as
belonging to "PV," but it was no longer in service.

******

Danny Casolaro was, of course, intent on interviewing Peter Videnieks. A strange coincidence
occurred during the week prior to his death. While sitting in a pub, having a beer, a man named
Joseph Cuellar approached him and they began talking. At some point during the conversation,
Danny disclosed the contents of his investigation and expressed a desire to interview Peter
Videnieks.

To Danny's astonishment, Cuellar, claiming to be a Special Forces operative, said he could
arrange a rendevous between Peter Videnieks and Casolaro. Cuellar's connection to Peter
Videnieks allegedly came through Videnieks' wife, Barbara, who was the executive assistant to
the powerful West Virginia Democratic Senator, Robert Byrd. Byrd played a major role in
the effort to have the CIA move some of its administrative offices to Charlestown, 20
miles from Martinsburg, on the Virginia border. It was apparently through Barbara Videnieks
that Cuellar intended to arrange the interview.

Casolaro confided to friends that he was unnerved by this supposedly chance meeting. He met
with Cuellar at other times that week, but it is unknown whether he ever spoke with Videnieks.
To date, that question remains unanswered.

Significantly, Elliot Richardson, the respected former U.S. Attorney General representing Inslaw,
called for the appointment of a special counsel to look into the death of Casolaro.

Menu     Chapter 6




CHAPTER 6
At Michael Riconosciuto‘s trial in Tacoma Washington, Peter Videnieks testified that while
working for the Justice Department he had contact with the PROMISE software. He "conducted
the competitive contract competitive procurement for acquisition of the services to implement
PROMISE.

         "Under cross examination he testified that "it required preparation of a request
         for proposals issuance of that document to industry ... negotiating, selecting,
         and awarding the contract. Then after award, administering the contract to see
         that the work that the government paid for was properly performed."

So, essentially, Videnieks administered the Inslaw contract with the government. His
employment record included work with the Internal Revenue Service as a revenue officer from
1964 to 1967. From 1967 to 1972 as a contract specialist with NASA. From 1972 to 1973 with
Customs as a contract specialist. From 1973 through 1975 back at NASA as a contract
specialist. From 1975 through 1981 as a contract specialist with Customs, supervisory at this
time. From 1981 through September, 1990, with the Department of Justice as a contract
specialist. And from September 1990 through present (January 1992) as a supervisory contract
specialist at Customs again.

Thomas Olmstead, Riconosciuto‘s attorney, showed Videnieks the Inslaw affidavit signed by
Riconosciuto. Videnieks said he had seen the affidavit prior to court, but testified that he‘d
never heard of the WackenhutCabazon joint venture and never visited the WackenhutCabazon
facility in Indio, California. He also testified that he‘d never met Earl Brian.

Olmstead asked Videnieks if he knew Robert Chasen [Executive Vice President of
Wackenhut]? Videnieks testified that he knew him "by name since he was head of Customs for
about a three-year period, from about 1977 through 1980. I met him once in the line of my
duties."

Interestingly, according to his resume, Robert Chasen was Commissioner of Customs in
Washington D.C. from 1969 to 1977, then Executive Vice President of Wackenhut from
1981 to present (1991). And Peter Videnieks, a contract officer at Customs in Washington D.C.
from 1972 to 1974, then again at Customs from 1976 to 1981, said he did not know Robert
Chasen. How could that be? Videnieks had worked in the same department with Chasen, off
and on, for at least three years.

Videnieks also testified that he met Chasen in the line of his duties sometime between 1977
and 1980. Yet, Chasen no longer worked at Customs between 1977 and 1980?

Olmstead asked Videnieks to reiterate his position with the PROMISE software.

        "I worked on the [PROMISE] contract. ... The procurement was assigned to me
        by a lady named Patricia Rudd. ... My function was to conduct a competitive
        procurement, negotiate an award of contract, and then administer the contract."

        Olmstead: "What time frames are we talking when you were ...?"

        Videnieks: "We‘re talking about from the day that I reported for duty at Justice,
        which was in September 1981, through about 1985."

        Olmstead: "Are you familiar with Hadron Company?" (This was a loaded
        question because Earl Brian, who Videnieks testified he did not know, owned
        Hadron Company at the time of the court proceedings.)

        Videnieks responded, "Yes, I am."

        Olmstead: "Have you done work for Hadron Corporation in your procurement
        contract?"

        Videnieks: "I supervise currently a contract specialist who is administering a
        contract with Hadron."

        Olmstead: "Prior to supervising someone, did you personally handle that
        particular contract?"

        Videnieks: "I have administered well over a hundred contracts, maybe a couple
        hundred or several hundred over my career, and I don‘t recall whether I have
        or not."
         Olmstead: "And you have never given a deposition in regards to the Inslaw
         matter?"

         Videnieks: "My recall is not that good. Like I said, I have administered
         hundreds of contracts, and I may or may not have administered one with
         Hadron."

         Again Olmstead asked Videnieks if he knew Earl Brian?Videnieks responded,
         "No, sir."

         Olmstead: "Do you know who owns Hadron?"

         Videnieks: "I really don‘t. I‘ve heard I mean, I don‘t want to speculate now. He
         may be an officer with Hadron. He may be."

         Olmstead: "You don‘t recall any questions in any depositions at all regarding
         that?"

         Videnieks: "I do recall questions along these same lines. But again, from
         general knowledge, I think he is an officer or has been an officer with Hadron."

         Olmstead: "In fact, in your deposition, you admitted you knew that he was an
         officer of Hadron, didn‘t you?"

         Videnieks: "I would like to see my transcript from my deposition as to what I
         said ..."

         Olmstead went on to question Videnieks about "Modification No. 12" of the
         PROMISE software. Videnieks stated that he knew what Modification No. 12
         was, but repeatedly refused to discuss it until someone produced the original
         Inslaw contract. Finally, under pressure to give a general recollection, he said it
         dealt with the twelfth modification to the PROMISE software.

         Olmstead asked, "Were you personally chastised as a result of Modification No.
         12 in the way you handled that?"

         Videnieks: "Please define `chastised.‘"

         Olmstead: "Were you told that you took, converted, and stole six million
         dollars worth of Inslaw software through the way you handled
         Modification No. 12?"

         Videnieks: "A judge in the bankruptcy court ruled that. Since then the
         record was erased. And that language should not be the way a nonlawyer like
         me understands, it is no longer in existence ..."

******

It is necessary to digress here to disclose the magnitude of the apparent government coverup
relative to Riconosciuto‘s case. About two weeks before Riconosciuto‘s trial began, I had
received a call from Michael asking me to contact Brian Leighton, a former assistant U.S.
Attorney in Fresno, whom Michael claimed to have provided information to. Michael was
lining up his ducks. Essentially his defense rested on his ability to prove he worked for the
U.S. government in intelligence operations, but his lawyer was behind schedule in making
the contacts.

Brian Leighton had been instrumental in prosecuting 29 members of a drug/arms
organization called "The Company." The Company had been written up in the San
Francisco Chronicle on April 28, 1982 under the heading "Story of Spies, Stolen Arms
and Drugs." According to reporter Bill Wallace, The Company consisted of (quote)
"about 300 members, many of them former military men or ex-police officers with nearly
$30 million worth of assets, including planes, ships and real estate."

The article went on to say that "federal drug agents said the organization had imported
billions of dollars worth of narcotics from Latin America, and was also involved in
gunrunning and mercenary operations." Specialized military equipment consisting of nine
infrared sniper-scopes, a television camera for taking pictures in darkness, 1500 rounds of
small arms tracer ammunition for night combat, a five foot remote control helicopter, and secret
components from the radar unit of a Sidewinder guided missile were stolen from the U.S.
Naval Weapons Station at China Lake in the Mojave Desert.

Federal agents said some of the stolen equipment was going to be used to make
electronic equipment for drug smugglers and some was traded to drug suppliers in
Columbia. Twenty nine members of the Company were indicted by the Fresno federal
grand jury in 1981. Amongst those indicated was Andrew "Drew" Thornton, 40, a former
narcotics officer.

On September 13, 1985, the Los Angeles Times published the story of Thornton‘s death,
entitled, "Former Narcotics Officer Parachutes Out of Plane, Dies with 77 Pounds of Cocaine."
The article said Thornton was indicted in 1981 for "allegedly flying a plane to South
America for a reputed drug ring known as `The Company.’" In an interview with the Los
Angeles Times, Brian Leighton said, "I‘m glad his parachute didn‘t open. I hope he got a hell of
a high out of that ..."

Thornton‘s mysterious death was discussed at length in a book written by Sally Denton entitled,
"The Blue Grass Conspiracy." Part of The Company was headquartered in Lexington,
Kentucky. Prosecutors in Lexington, Fresno, California (Brian Leighton), and Miami,
Florida were working together in a joint effort to bring down The Company.

The San Francisco Chronicle noted that in January, 1982, Gene Berry, a state prosecutor in
Charlotte Harbor, Florida, was shot in the face as he answered his door. Police
subsequently arrested Bonnie Kelly as Berry’s murderer. Bonnie’s husband, Mike
McClure Kelly, was a suspected member of The Company who later pleaded guilty in the
Fresno, California case.

In Michael Riconosciuto‘s documents, I discovered a letter dated March 24, 1982, written on
Cabazon letterhead to Michael McClure at Hercules Corporation from Art Welmas, President
of the Cabazon Band of Indians. Copies (cc:) were also noted to Marshall Riconosciuto and
Michael Riconosciuto. The letter complimented McClure‘s competence in presenting a clear
and lucid explanation of a power pack under development at Hercules. (Hercules was owned
by Marshall Riconosciuto, Michael Riconosciuto and Patrick Moriarty, the Red Devil fireworks
mogul. More on Moriarty later.)

Throughout Michael’s documents, I found references to Michael McClure and Bonnie
Lynne G. Kelly. Michael’s code word for Mike McClure was "Gopher."
Journalist Danny Casolaro had been communicating regularly with Michael Riconosciuto and
obviously learned about The Company. It is not to be overlooked that coincidentally or not, Ari
BenMenashe (a former Israeli intelligence agent who lived in Lexington, Kentucky) told Bill
Hamilton that two Lexington FBI agents had been en-route to meet with Danny at the
Martinsburg Hotel on the day of his death. The Company was headquartered in Lexington.
Danny was not meeting with the FBI relative to PROMIS, he was preparing to turn over drug
trafficking information on The Company.

BenMenashe further told Hamilton that one of the agents, E.B. Cartinhour, was angry that the
Justice Department was not pursuing Reagan administration officials for their role in the
October Surprise.

******

Meanwhile, it was necessary to contact Brian Leighton to corroborate Riconosciuto‘s story that
he had been instrumental in helping Leighton identify members of The Company.

I did not directly contact Leighton, who had resigned from the U.S. Attorney’s office
shortly after the prosecutions and entered into private law practice, but asked the Secret
Service agent in Los Angeles who had visited my home regarding the "Queen‘s accident" in
Mariposa (mentioned in the first chapter of this book) to run a check on Riconosciuto.

Instead, he called Brian Leighton and when I checked back with him, he acknowledged talking
to Leighton about Riconosciuto. Leighton confirmed to the Secret Service agent that he
recalled a three hour face to face meeting with Riconosciuto and remembered him well.
He gave specific details of Riconosciuto’s cooperation with the U.S. attorney’s office. I
thanked the Secret Service agent and hung up.

I next contacted a retired police officer and colleague in the Mariposa investigation, and asked
him to put me in touch with someone trustworthy in government who could corroborate
Leighton‘s information. The contact was made and this individual agreed to call Brian Leighton
to see if he could glean further details of Michael‘s cooperation with the U.S. attorney‘s office.
For purposes of anonymity, this source will be identified as "R.J." When I checked back, he
confirmed that Leighton did indeed remember Michael’s help with the case and, in fact,
said Michael led law enforcement officers to a marijuana cache belonging to members of
The Company.

At that point I was satisfied that Michael had been operating within the framework of The
Company and had spoken accurately about his cooperation with Brian Leighton. I called
Thomas Olmstead, Michael‘s attorney, and related the above information.

Two weeks later, on January 15, 1992, at Michael‘s trial in Tacoma, Washington, Brian
Leighton testified that the case in question involved the theft of military equipment from the
China Lake Naval Weapons Center in California.

         "The FBI and Naval Intelligence Service began the investigation," he said, "and
         there were several people that were targets of the investigation. One of those
         targets began cooperating with us and then it became a DEA and FBI
         investigation. The thefts occurred in 1979 and 1980, and the case continued on
         for a couple of years."

Leighton testified that he "could not recall ever meeting personally with Mr.
Riconosciuto and he didn’t know if he spoke to him personally or spoke to him through
a government agent." Under cross examination, Leighton testified that he thought
Riconosciuto was brought to him by an agent Barnes from the Oakland or San Francisco office
of the FBI, but he couldn’t remember exactly ..."

After Leighton‘s testimony, Michael called me and asked, "What happened?" I was astonished
at Leighton‘s testimony. What was at stake here? Michael speculated that Leighton was
operating out of fear. He said Leighton retired from the U.S. Attorney‘s office shortly after
prosecuting members of The Company, and recalled that the prosecuting attorney in Florida
had been shot in the head.

I called the Secret Service officer and R.J. individually and asked them to repeat what Leighton
had told them before the trial. They both repeated verbatim what Leighton had told them the
first time about Michael Riconosciuto. I said it appeared Leighton had perjured himself in court.
Neither could understand why?

******

In August 1994, I received from a friend of Bill Hamilton‘s (President of Inslaw) a Declaration,
signed by Hamilton, which stated that,

         " ... On or about April 3, 1991, I spoke by telephone with Mr. Brian Leighton, an
         attorney in private practice in Fresno, California. He stated that during the early
         1980‘s, while serving as an Assistant United States Attorney in Fresno,
         California, he had investigated a nationwide criminal enterprise known as `The
         Company,’ which was engaged in illegal drug trafficking on a massive
         scale.

         "Mr. Leighton told me that,

                 (A) Michael Riconosciuto had furnished Mr. Leighton
                 `valuable intelligence’ on illegal drug activities and The
                 Company
                 (B) Mr. Leighton had been unable to use the information in
                 prosecution but
                 (C) the failure to use Mr. Riconosciuto‘s intelligence
                 information was not because of any fault of Mr. Michael
                 Riconosciuto"

Also mentioned in the affidavit was corroboration of Riconosciuto‘s work in the defense and
national security fields. Section six of the affidavit noted that during the course of a
telephone conversation with Robert Nichols on or about April 18, 1991, Hamilton learned
that Nichols had attended a meeting that had been organized by a Colonel Bamford, an
aide to General Meyer, then Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Others participating in
the meeting were department heads from Department of Defense scientific facilities.

Michael Riconosciuto was the principal presenter to this group of seniorlevel national
security research and development officials. According to Nichols, Riconosciuto made a day
long presentation to this meeting of scientists lasting from approximately 9 a.m. until
approximately 4 p.m., answering questions from the participants and filling the halls of the
conference facility with his handprinted notes on the scientific and technical issues that arose in
the course of his presentation.

I was able to locate in Riconosciuto‘s files, a letter written on July 20, 1983 from Tom Bamford,
Vice President of Research and Development at FMC Corporation in Santa Clara, California to
William Frash in Escondido, California. At that time, Frash, a retired USMC Colonel, was
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Lilac Corporation.

Essentially, the letter expressed enthusiasm for the potential application of technologies
being proposed to FMC Corporation by Meridian Arms, and called for a list of all active
participants in the joint venture. At that time Riconosciuto was vice president of Meridian Arms.
Bamford added, " ... You may want to do this only for Mike at this stage."

Frash hastened to respond to Bamford on July 27, 1983 to apprise him of a meeting between
himself and Michael Riconosciuto, Robert Booth Nichols, Peter Zokosky and Patrick Moriarty
(Michael‘s father‘s business partner) regarding "energy transfer phenomena." A proposal was
underway to outline technology in the form of patents applied for jointly between Meridian Arms
and FMC. Frash noted that the technology would "supercede all existing world patents in the
field."

"Had we patented previously, it would only have announced our `edge‘ in the field," he wrote.
Three of the four major patents that would be forthcoming were,

        (1) the application of Perturbation Theory to enhanced energy transfer
        (2) the application of stationary methods with powders and aerosols to
        enhanced energy transfer
        (3) the application of Perturbation Theory to hydrodynamic flow regimes

It is noteworthy that the submarine propulsion system depicted in the movie, "Hunt for Red
October" utilized this theory. Frash concluded, "Tom, as you well know, Mike‘s tried and true
value is in the field of high voltage and electrostatics and their application. The meetings in San
Jose highlighted application of this technology in over one hundred areas that are in-house
FMC." He added, " ... Per your reference to meetings in Washington, D.C., I assume the
meetings with Dr. Fair, Admiral Renkin and the ACCOM people will suffice in this matter. In
closing we are very enthused, Tom, and we look forward to an expeditious closing. Sincerely,
William Frash."

Frash‘s payment for putting together the above referenced joint venture, if successful, would be
$500,000 for the first fifteen million invested, or $166,666.66 for only five million invested, a one
hundred thousand dollar per year salary for a period of 20 years, and a 2% share in the gross
profits. This, according to a Letter of Understanding sent to and signed by Robert Booth Nichols
and Michael Riconosciuto in July, 1983.

In questioning Michael Riconosciuto about the FMC agreements, he said he attempted to break
away from Robert Nichols in 1984.

        "The guy nearly got me terminated," declared Riconosciuto. "At the time I was
        working with Nichols on a proposal to FMC Corporation, which is Food
        Machinery Corporation, they produced the Bradley Personnel Carrier. I‘ve got a
        complete papertrail on the technology that was being presented. We
        conducted a test demonstration of an enhanced airfield device which I
        developed. We also conducted a test of a hydrodynamic implosion type
        of explosive device.

        "The implosion device settled the Nevada Test Range by about 30 feet. The
        Lawrence Livermore Labs and the Gallup Ordinance people built a prototype of
        the device, but they overbuilt it because they wanted an impressive
        demonstration. It created an international incident because the demonstration
        was picked up by Soviet monitoring satellites.
       "Anyway, the bona fides were established. The next thing was to get the
       business done and get me into harness in a program. I was all for it, but Bob
       [Nichols] started getting spooky on me. He wanted to receive the setup of our
       end offshore, in Singapore. He wanted to receive $20 million dollars in cash in
       Singapore, and he wanted to use certain of the technology overseas,
       namely in Australia, OK?

       "Bob started drinking a lot. He was obviously under a lot of pressure from
       somewhere, and his façade of respectability started to crack. About that time
       Bob began pressuring me to do things a certain way. We‘d already been
       approved at the executive level by FMC. But we still had to go through the legal
       department and FMC is a publicly held stock corporation. So we still had to go
       through the shareholders for about eight months, which put us about a year
       away from consummating the deal.

       "So, I asked Bob for some extra money to meet my everyday expenses, but
       Bob said, `Hurry up and get the business done and then you‘ll have plenty of
       money.‘ I tried to explain to Bob that there was no way he could expedite this
       thing, and so on and so forth. Well, Bob became really overbearing. And that‘s
       when he demanded that I state things in the contract proposal to FMC which
       would have been misstatements, to the point of being illegal. That‘s when I
       started having second thoughts about it.

       "There were other people involved in the development of that technology. Bob
       wanted me to pay him out of my share and make no reference to the other
       people in the agreement. But when you‘ve got the University of California and
       the University of Chicago having 16 percent of your company, having 16
       percent of Hercules Research and Interprobe, you know, how could I
       misrepresent the interests of my dad, Moriarty and [Admiral] Al Renkin in a
       deal with a U.S. publicly held corporation [FMC]?

       "At that time, Riconosciuto had been Vice President of Meridian Arms, a
       subsidiary of Meridian International Logistics. But he was also technical
       advisor for F.I.D.C.O. (First Intercontinental Development Corporation) of
       which Nichols was on the Board of Directors. Noted Riconosciuto, "I walked
       into F.I.D.C.O. in equal good faith. And that also turned sour because Bob
       wanted me to illegally take embargoed technology out of the United
       States, to run an operation with embargoed armaments and high
       technology outside of the United States.

       "So I walked out on Bob. And Bob put the heat on me and they wouldn‘t leave
       me alone. When I got remarried [to Bobby Riconosciuto], they continued to
       harass me by putting out false intelligence reports on me to law
       enforcement ..."

I asked Michael why he didn‘t fight back? Michael responded,

       "You don‘t seem to understand. All my involvements were under closely
       controlled situations. There‘s only one time in my life when I was planning on
       doing something off-color, and it never went anywhere. All the rest of the time,
       everything was under complete controls. I never took any elective actions.
       Everything was, you know, on direct orders. And I got to the point where I
       balked with Bob Nichols and that‘s when he went ballistic on me."
Riconosciuto said he was in the process of cleaning up his life in Washington state when a
private investigator from Inslaw contacted him.

         "I didn‘t want to get nailed for piracy of that software, so I talked to my attorney,
         who talked to the Inslaw attorneys, and I gave them a declaration. And about
         that time, Peter Viedenieks, who was an associate of both Robert Booth
         Nichols and Dr. John Nichols, called me and told me I was my own worst
         enemy. He said if I didn‘t cool it, if I didn‘t stonewall any further requests for
         information from the House Judiciary Committee, I was going away forever. I
         told Viedenieks that I was already in too deep, and he repeated that `I was my
         own worst enemy.‘ Seven days later I was arrested on drug charges."

******

Ted Gunderson was one of the few "cooperating" witnesses at Michael‘s trial. Through his
affidavit and testimony, Ted hoped to supply the defense with needed corroboration of
Michael’s covert government sanctioned activities. Unfortunately for Michael, Ted could not
disclose numerous activities which had included Robert Booth Nichols. At one time
Gunderson, Nichols and Riconosciuto had been inseparable, like the three musketeers. But,
Nichols was currently under investigation by the Los Angeles FBI for alleged
involvement in organized crime in the U.S. and abroad.

Fortunately, however, Gunderson‘s resume added credibility to the provocative affidavit he
entered into court on Michael‘s behalf. He had been Senior Special Agent in Charge (SAC)
at Los Angeles FBI headquarters from 1977 to 1979 when he retired from the FBI and went
to work as chief investigator for F. Lee Bailey, Esq. Prior to that, from 1960 to 1965,
Gunderson was Special Agent Supervisor at FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C..
Interestingly, amongst a prestigious list of positions nationwide, he was also SAC from 1973
to 1977 in Dallas, Texas (where he became friends with Clint Murchison, Jr., according to
his live in partner, J.M.. J.M. stated in phone interviews that she and Gunderson
attended parties with Murchison in Dallas, and Gunderson phoned him often from their
Manhattan Beach home).

In 1979, Gunderson received the Alumni Highest Effort Award in the Field of Law Enforcement
from Sigma Alpha Epsilon Social Fraternity at the University of Nebraska. In 1979, he also
received the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of Nebraska in recognition of
distinguished and devoted service to his country.

Gunderson‘s handwritten affidavit, submitted to Michael‘s lawyer on September 27, 1991, read
as follows (excerpted):

         "I, Ted L. Gunderson, make the following free and voluntary statement. No
         threats or promises were made to get me to make this statement. I was born
         11/7/28 at Colorado Springs, Colorado.

         "In early 1986, I met one Ralph Olberg through a friend of mine, Bill Sloane.
         Sloane is a former official with HUD. Sloane was appointed by President
         Ronald Reagan to the HUD position after the president was elected in 1980.

         "Olberg is a prominent American businessman who was spearheading
         procurement of U.S. weapons and technology for the Afghanistan rebels.

         "In late Spring or early summer of 1986, Ralph Olberg, one Tim Osman,
         Michael Riconosciuto and I met in a room at the Hilton Hotel, Ventura Blvd.,
Sherman Oaks, California. I accompanied Michael Riconosciuto, and Osman
and Olberg were together. We were there to discuss Olberg‘s role with the
worldwide support network involving the Mujahaden, Afghanistan Resistance
Movement against the Soviets.

"In particular we discussed the ability of the Mujahaden’s willingness to field
test weapons, new and esoteric in the field and to return a research
report, complete with photos.

"We also discussed the capture and/or defection of high ranking Soviet military
personnel who had sensitive compartmentalized information and the availability
of their briefings. We discussed one person who was a Soviet defector and
was a communications officer who had detailed information of the highest
levels of Soviet military C3I (Command Control Intelligence and
Communications).

"We also discussed the Soviet directed weapons system referred to in the
conversation as `Blue Death.‘ Michael and I were told by Olberg that witnesses
stated the corpses did not decay even after being exposed and unburied for six
months.

"We discussed the possibility of Michael analyzing one of these units
captured in the field by the Afghan rebels for the purpose of having
Michael help their technical experts develop effective countermeasures.

"We discussed a military joint venture in Turkey to produce specialized
ammunition. We discussed a lobbying effort to legally obtain Stinger II missiles
as well as the various Stinger post and Stinger alternates. Michael was to
formulate a plan to sanitize the electronics of any Stingers that would be at risk
of Soviet capture so any information gained from a captured Stinger could not
be effectively used against the U.S. or NATO forces.

"This report was to be presented to a Congressional position as support for the
lobbying effort to convince Congress to legally sanction the shipment of
these missiles to the Afghan rebels.

"We discussed Michael‘s proposed modification of Chinese 107 MM rockets
and how to reconfigure the package into a backpack portable effective artillery
counter battlery system.

"We discussed Michael‘s connection with the Chinese weapons position,
Norinco, to provide the basic components for the unassembled rocket system.
We discussed the modification and assembly of these 107 MM rockets and
their launchers at a facility in Pakistan known as the Pakistan Ordinance
Works.

"It was my understanding from the discussion that we were working on a legally
sanctioned arms assistance project to the Afghan rebels and that Ralph Olberg
was working through the Afghan desk at the State Department as well as
through Senator Humphreys office. "This was subsequently confirmed by
journalist Danny Casolaro who was recently `suicided.‘

"Olberg indicated a potential turf battle problem with certain factions of the CIA
and his group MSH (Management Science For Health). In negotiations and/or
         lobbying efforts with Congress, the CIA MSH people were arguing that Ralph
         and Tim Osman‘s group did not truly represent the leadership of the Afghan
         rebel resistance.

         "Tim and Ralph proposed calling their people and having an unprecedented
         leadership meeting in Washington D.C. to prove that their group did in fact
         represent the full leadership of the Mujahaden.

         "When I recently called Ralph, he denied that the above meeting had taken
         place and then after prodding, he finally admitted to it and he asked me not to
         talk about it. This five page statement is true and correct to the best of my
         knowledge. Ted L. Gunderson."

******

Later in my investigation, I obtained from Michael Riconosciuto‘s files in the desert, a
handwritten note from "T.G." to "Michael" which read as follows: "Raymond is arriving at LAX
7:55 p.m. Air Canada via Flight 793 from Toronto. Will have to go through Customs. This will
give us another member for our drug/arms operation." The note gave a telephone number
where "T.G." could be reached. "Raymond," referred to in the note, is presumably Raymond
Lavas, Gunderson‘s former forensic‘s expert during his tenure in the FBI.

******

Michael‘s trial was not going well. He called and asked me to contact R.J. and bring him to my
house. Michael was ready to talk he wanted me to set up a phone conversation in which he
could preliminarily open negotiations for entry into the Federal Witness Protection
Program. I was out of my depth here. I had no idea whether R.J. would cooperate with such a
request. Nevertheless, I called him and related Michael‘s proposal. He said he had no authority
to approve such a request, but he would take the information and pass it along.

He arrived at my home early the following week and Michael called as scheduled. Excerpts
from that first tape-recorded conversation went as follows: (Michael did most of the talking)

         " ... In the Fresno area, there was a group of people known as the Fresno
         Company, and the Bernard brothers were involved in it and Jamie Clark was
         involved and all of these people seemed to have charmed lives ...

         "The Company was originally out of Lexington, Kentucky and Mena,
         Arkansas. Brian Leighton was the assistant U.S. Attorney who was the most
         effective person in formulating a strategy in the Justice Department to go after
         these people.

         "We recognized what they were, for what they were, at that time, and there
         were a few ATF guys down in Los Angeles that recognized them for what they
         were, OK? Here was a group of over 300 people, most of them ex-law
         enforcement and ex-military, ex-intelligence people involved in a major
         drug and smuggling operation. And they were involved in compromising
         activities. The bottom line was espionage.

         "And all Leighton served to do was vaccinate the group against further
         penetration. Just hardened them. And all the major sources that were
developed from inside turned up dead. A federal judge in Texas turned up
dead.

" ... This is a nasty bunch of people. And they‘re still alive and well. Now where
that dovetails into my current situation, is in 1984 I was involved with Robert
Booth Nichols who owns Meridian Arms Corporation and is a principle in
F.I.D.C.O., First Intercontinental Development Corporation. The CEO of
FIDCO is George Pender and Bob Maheu was Vice President ...

"FIDCO was an NSC [National Security Council] corporate cutout. FIDCO
was created to be the corporate vehicle to secure the financing for the
reconstruction of the cities of Beirut and Damour in Lebanon. And they were
working out of an office in Nicosia, Cyprus.

" ... And here I got involved with a group of people that were all high profile and
should have been above reproach. FIDCO had a companion company called
Euramae Trading which operated througout the Middle East. I came in contact
with the PROMISE software (unintelligible). Euramae had a distribution
contract with several Arab countries and I was asked to evaluate the hardware
platforms they had chosen. That was IBM/AS400 stuff ...

" ... That had come from IBM Tel Aviv but it came through a cutout, Link
Systems, because they couldn‘t deal directly with the Arabs.

"And I came across a guy named Michael T. Hurley and I thought he worked
for the State Department but it turned out he was incountry attache for the DEA
in Nicosia, Cyprus. [Nicosia is the capital of the island of Cyprus, off the coast
of Lebanon]. Now, the DEA had no real presence in Lebanon. Neither did
anybody else, including the Israelis. They had their usual network of contacts
but it was very ineffective. The only way to penetrate that situation, was to
get into the drug trade.

"Euramae got into the drug trade and I was told that it was a fully
sanctioned NSC directed operation, which it turns out that it was ... All
those operations were bonafide and all the people who were in them were
definitely key government people, although they were not who they said they
were.

"They all worked for different agencies other than was stated. Probably part of
the normal disinformation that goes with that. And I was technical advisor for
FIDCO and we had auspices through the government of Lebanon to get in and
out of Lebanon.

"But as far as going to the eastern part of Lebanon, unless you were
connected with the drug trade, your chances were slim coming out
unscathed ... They built a network throughout the Bekaa Valley, and
[Robert Booth] Nichols ... he is under Harold Okimoto from the Hawaiian
Islands.

"Harold Okimoto was represented to me as being an intelligence person,
which he is. He has worked under the auspices of [Frank] Carlucci for
years. [Carlucci was former CIA deputy director and former Defense
secretary]. Apparently Harold performed services for the U.S. government
         during World War II. He‘s of Japanese ancestry. I guess he was rewarded for
         services well done.

         " ... Harold operates through a company called Island Tobacco Corporation. He
         has contracts for all the condiments at all the casinos in Atlantic City, in Reno,
         in Vegas, in Macao, China ... he‘s got contacts in Honolulu, the Orient ... a
         couple of Jews he knows in Bankok ... and there is a casino, no a city about 15
         miles north of Beruit that Harold has his fingers in.

         "When FIDCO was wheeling and dealing on financing for the reconstruction of
         the infrastructure of Beirut, they were making sweetheart deals with Syrian
         mobsters and the brother of the president of Syria, Hafez Assad.

         " ... The intelligence people in their infinite wisdom decided to capitalize on the
         longstanding battle between Rifat Assad and his group and the Jafaar family.
         Selectively they were backing both people, but they were also playing them off
         against one another, developing networks. They got a bunch of prominent
         Syrians thoroughly compromised and they were in tow in the intelligence game.
         And they had people that could get me in and out of the Bekaa Valley, even out
         of certain areas of Syria.

         "From an intelligence standpoint, it was a success. But to maintain the
         credibility of those intelligence operations the heroin had to flow. To
         make it real. And the stuff was starting to accumulate in a warehouse
         outside of Larnaca. "I personally was in a warehouse where Hurley and
         George Pender and George Marcobie (phonetic spelling) told me there was
         upwards of twentytwo tons. And even though it was packaged for shipment,
         the smell of it in that closed warehouse was overpowering. You know, white
         heroin like that has a certain odor because of the way it‘s processed.

         "They had authorization for what they called `controlled deliveries’ into
         the United States. And they would target certain cities and then follow the
         stuff out, ostensibly unmasking the network and conducting
         prosecutions.

         "However, the operation became perverted at the U.S. end of the pipeline.
         Controlled heroin shipments were doubled, sometimes tripled, and only
         one third of the heroin was returned to the DEA.

         "At a certain transfer point at the airport in Larnaca, the excess baggage
         from the original controlled delivery would be allowed to go through. I
         was given the names of the narcotics people who were handling that. But
         there were a couple of agents who were on the up and up, and they had
         suspicions.

         "An intelligence agent who worked with DIA is now deceased. His name was
         Tony Asmar and he got on to the operation early on, and started going toe to
         toe with Hurley [DEA]. He died in a bomb blast and it was ascribed to terrorists.
         And it actually was terrorists who did it, but his cover was deliberately blown.
         Myself and others suspected Hurley and Bob Nichols and Glen Shockley were
         responsible for that ... "

******
After researching Michael Riconosciuto‘s information, R.J. noted to me that Michael gave
mostly valid information, but he could not prove that Michael had been involved. He did,
however, verify (through Customs) that Michael HAD been in Lebanon, but he could not
verify the details of the drug operation.

Michael responded (on a taped message to R.J.) by visually recounting the DEA
apartment/condo in Nicosia, Cyprus:

       "The DEA had a condo, I think it was on Columbra (phonetically spelled) Street,
       in Nicosia, Cyprus [off the coast of Lebanon].

       "They had a ham radio station there. It was an ICOM single side band amateur
       radio setup, with a linear ..."

       "Were you actually there?" I asked. Michael quipped, "Yes, I was there," then
       continued. "I can describe the antenna system, on the top floor and the way it‘s
       wired up and everything. Unless you were there, you wouldn‘t know it was
       ICOM equipment.

       "Now, the game plan with Euramae and Hurley‘s operation ..." Pause. " ... You
       need to understand that the airport in Lebanon was closed down. I took the
       ferry from Larnaca to Jounieb. Now Jounieb was slightly south of where the
       casino city was and the casino city was intact. Beirut was a nightmare, and so
       was Damour, because the PLO destroyed the infrastructure by burrowing
       bunkers, and there was no water, electricity or phones. It was a combat zone.

       "The Syrian mob controlled the Casino du Liban in a little city north of Beirut. It
       was used as a front by narcotics people. Island Tobacco, owned by Harold
       Okimoto, sells all the cigarettes there. Now, I could give you the names of the
       families. They pitted them off against one another. F.I.D.C.O. was to finance
       the reconstruction of the infrastructure of the cities of Beirut and Damour. Deals
       were cut as to who got what concessions. There were certain families, like the
       ElJorr family that had to be placated. And there was Rifat Assad and his group.
       "Tony Asmar figured out what was going on with Hurley, that they were
       shipping `noncontrolled’ loads of heroin back to the U.S.. They killed
       Tony ..."

       "What were the names of the people you were working for over there?," I
       asked. Michael‘s time was always limited on the phone.

       "Ok, there was a man named Maurice Ganem. He had a relative, either a
       brother or a cousin, who is a senior DEA official with Michael Hurley. I
       can‘t remember his name right now. Anyways, Maurice was agency, you
       know, in country, in Lebanon. And Maurice and I and George Pender worked
       together."

       "Which agency? CIA or DEA?," I asked.

       "CIA." Michael continued. " ... And then there was Danny Habib. Danny Habib
       and Bob Nichols worked out of Cario (phonetic spelling) and Italy."

       "And Bob was NSA or ..." "No, Bob was NSC at that time."
         "George Pender and Bob Clark were the high level contacts on all of this. Bob
         Clark got drummed out because he was clean. And McFarland then took over,
         OK?"

         "Uh huh."

         "So, it was George Pender and McFarland and Michael McManus [Assistant
         to President Reagan at the White House]."

         I asked, "What was your involvement with that particular operation?"

         "I handled communications protocol. All the communications and financial
         transactions. If I could get my records on line I could show all the money
         flows, everything."

******

Michael called back later that day and we continued our conversation. He was intent on talking
to someone in FinCen (Financial Crimes Enforcement Network).

         " ... The keystone cops are working on my defense. You know it‘s really an
         ordeal. Have you talked to R.J. again?"

         "No Mike, he‘s not giving much information."

         "Listen, tell him that not only am I willing to polygraph, but I need some expert
         help and I think he needs some expert help. In the league we‘re playing in, the
         only guys we can get that have the wherewithall are with FinCen. That stands
         for Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. Get me a technical guy that speaks
         my language."

         "Alright, Mike ..."

         "I‘m talking about Swift Chips. That stands for Clearing House Interbank
         Payment System, Ok?"

         "Right."

         "Im mad, OK?"

         "Uh huh."

         "I‘m real mad. The government has all my files and records. They‘ve got all of
         my optical storage disks. Each of those optical storages, 130 of them, contains
         20,000 plus pages. They jacked me around so bad ..."

         "Mike ..."

         " ... Get an expert that speaks my language, and I‘ll tell him everything I know
         and he can do so much damage, they won‘t need my testimony or anything
         else."
"Mike, everything you know about what?"

"Tell R.J. it goes all the way back to the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas and
Castle Bank. Norm Caspar ... Resorts International Bank ..."

"How‘d you get this stuff?"

"I handled the money for them, OK?"

"For who?"

" ... For the Wackenhut people. For Norm Caspar who was a Wackenhut
employee during all of this. Now, there was the Workers Bank in Columbia. I
can‘t pronounce the Spanish name for it, I just know it as Workers Bank. I set
up their virtual dead-drops ..."

"What‘s that?"

"It‘s a way to get around A.C.H. reconciliations on a daily basis. It‘ll take an
expert, you know, I can‘t even talk to a normal human being about this ..."

"O.K."

" ... And the bottom line here is Bob Nichols and Gilbert Rodriguez,
Michael Abbell, whose now an attorney in D.C., but he was with the
criminal section of the Justice Department and Harold Okimoto, and Jose
Londodo, and Glenn Shockley are all in bed together. (Three years after
this conversation, Michael Abbell was indicted for laundering money for the
Cali Cartel).

"Now Ted Gunderson ..."

"Mike, have you got any paperwork on that?"

"Now, wait a minute. Gunderson was physically with me when Wayne Reeder,
Peter Zokosky and his wife and several of Wayne Reeder‘s lieutenants, Bob
Nichols and his wife, Harold Okimoto, George Pender, Deborah Pender, Dill
Pender, and myself were all together ..."

" ... Where?"

" ... At Wayne Reeders country club, golf club, in Indio, California. And Bob
discussed openly in front of Ted Gunderson and myself and everyone present
bragged about Glenn Shockley and Jose Londono having 3,500 soldiers. It‘s
now almost double that ..."

"What does that mean? What are the soldiers?"

Mike: "R.J. will know what it means."

"Alright. OK."
"This took place in 1983. I have correspondence on the things we were doing.
But I was in fear of my life because Bob was starting to act irrational. The guy
was getting drunk all the time, waving a gun out of the car window, shooting in
the air, you know, just really doing a mind trip on me. I‘ve been on the run ever
since ..."

"Listen, Mike, what do you need from FinCen?"

"If I had help from the FinCen people, I could reconstruct my files. Tell them
that I need two types of computers. I need a VAX 11730 set up with two RLO II
disks; one RA80 and a TU80 tape drive. That‘s one package. And then I need
a VAX 3900 computer. Now the reason why I need the older, slower VAX and I
know where to get all this stuff, no problem, I‘ve got the VAX‘s in Southern
California, but I need a place to set them up and somebody to operate them,
and just follow my instructions."

"Alright."

"Now, the VAX Series 3900 machine ... it‘s too complicated to go into what
mass storage devices, but those are the two levels of machines I need.

"Ok, I‘m thinking about going to visit your wife in Southern California, do you
want us to bring those computers up here?"

"No, No! No, leave them where they‘re at. Tell R.J. to find someone at FinCen.
If we move them around, we‘re going to wreck them. I‘m not trying to talk down
to R.J., but this is too far above him."

"Mike, Raymond Lavas turned some of your disks over to the Jack Brooks
investigative committee (House Judiciary Committee on Inslaw)."

"Yeah, I know. There‘s no data on those disks. What that is, is that is a subset
of VAX B.M.S., OK? What I do is I modify some of the VAX BMS routines to
activate a one time pad encryption scheme. That‘s why I have to have two
RLO2 drives on the VAX 11730, because one RLO2 Platter is a system
planner, the other one is the one time pad. The data is on a 1625 BPI 9 track
tape on the TU80 tape drive. That‘s the system configuration."

"If you say so."

"Now, R.J. needs to put me in touch with somebody he trusts at FinCen.
There‘s about 120 experts there. There are a few guys there that speak my
language.

"What‘s the encryption key?"

"Well, they‘re ten digit numbers ... it‘s a one time pad, but it has a
pseudorandom, prime number expansion system ..."

"Mike, do you have access to PROMISE through this system?"

"What? Oh, I‘ve got access to PROMISE, I‘ve got access to FOIMS ..."
         "Well, PROMISE is the one that‘s going to get you off the hook in court."

         "Ok, I understand that. But PROMISE and FOIMS are one and the same. Now
         they will say no, that‘s not true, but in Virginia where the FBI has their center,
         and where the Justice Department has a center in D.C., they‘re both Amdahl
         mainframes, OK?"

         "Yes."

         " ... You see, I want that RLO II Platter out of the hands of the Brooks
         Committee and into the hands of somebody who‘ll do with it what I tell them to
         do. I don‘t want somebody to run it up without first getting my instruction."

         "Does it have to be that particular one?"

         "Yes, either that or it will take me six months to rewrite the subset. They want
         me to give them the codes to unravel everything. If I did, they wouldn‘t know
         what to do with it anyway. They‘d make a mess out of things."

         "Mike, what are you going to provide to FinCen?"

         "I’m going to show them how these boys handled the life blood of the
         cash flow on a day to day basis. I’m going to unmask the whole
         operation ..."

         "Anything specific on Robert Booth Nichols?"

         Mike: "Nichols is Harold Okimoto’s godson. He’s also Renee Hanner’s
         (phonetic sp.) boy, and Wolfgang Fosog’s (phonetic sp.) boy."

         " ... And who are they?"

         "The FinCen people will know. There‘s also Octon Potnar "

         "Alright. Well, if I‘m going to play around with this, I don‘t want to be in the
         dark ... I could end up like Danny. I‘ve got to know what I‘m dealing with ."

         "If you get the right guy at FinCen, he‘ll jump at this, OK? We‘ve got to start
         right now. We‘re talking about some time getting things up and rolling to where
         we‘re fluid and flexible and functional in their system internationally. They‘ll be
         able to watch the daily transactions ..."

******

Michael continued to request of R.J. that he be connected with someone "trustworthy" at
FinCen, to no avail. He also requested to be placed into a Witness Protection Program, again
offering to assemble his computer equipment in a secret location and provide FinCen with a
day by day view of Mob (and MCA Corporation) illegal banking transactions.

According to Michael, before his arrest, he had been handling gold transfers, money
laundering, "virtual dead drops," altered ACH daily reconciliations and other
transactions for various underworld figures including Robert Booth Nichols, Harold
Okimoto, George Pender, Wayne Reeder, Michael A. McManus, Norm Caspar, Gilbert
Rodriguez, Jose Londono, Glen Shockley, and others.

Michael continued to call and give me taperecorded (at his request) messages to pass on to
R.J. The man accepted the messages, but they just went down the big, black hole and never
emerged again.

One message in particular later became significant to me. The message from Michael to R.J.
went as follows: (Quote)

        "There are three dozen C130’s down at the Firebird Lake Airstrip on the
        Gila Indian Reservation in Arizona. Check out J & G Aviation, it’s an FBO.
        The Fresno Company is alive and well down there.

        "The real activity is not at Mirana, it’s at Firebird Lake Airstrip. Other
        airlines operating at Firebird are Beigert, Macavia International, Pacific
        Air Express, Evergreen and Southern Air.

        "Question to R.J.: How much cocaine or heroin can be transported in a
        C130? Do you want the C130, or do you want the guys who orchestrate it?

        "Do a matrix link analysis, then sit down and pick the targets. Otherwise,
        you will tip off the others and the proof will dry up.

        " ... Brian Leighton made 29 arrests out of five hundred within the Fresno
        Company. All Leighton succeeded in doing was to `vaccinate’ the Fresno
        Company against further penetration."

Riconosciuto said he had a fragile window into this organization (The Company), but Leighton
and others were causing the window to close by being too public about their investigation.

The message continued regarding Robert Booth Nichols: "Bob Nichols runs Glen
Shockley. Glen Shockley runs Jose Londono. I [Michael] sat with Bob Nichols and Mike
Abbell. Bob handed him $50,000 cash to handle an internal affairs investigation that the
Justice Department conducted which would have led to the extradition of Gilbert and
Miguel Rodriguez and Jose Londono.

"Bob Nichols told me [Michael] that it was necessary to `crowbar‘ the investigation because
they were `intelligence people.‘

"Michael wanted to hand The Company and Bob Nichols over to FinCen in exchange for
entry into the Witness Protection Program, but nothing was forthcoming from R.J.

It was two years before I learned who Mike Abbell, Gilbert Rodriguez and Jose Londono were.
Abbell had worked in the criminal division of the Justice Department, according to Bill
Hamilton. Hamilton added that, to his knowledge, Abbell had left the DOJ in 1982 and went
directly into the Bogota, Columbia law offices of Kaplan and Russin.

A member of our loosely coalesced investigative team, George Williamson, a former San
Francisco Chronicle reporter, obtained Abbell‘s background from library directories: From 1973
to 1979 Abbell was staff assistant to the Assistant U.S. Attorney General. From 1979 to 1981
he was the Director of the Office of International Affairs of the Criminal Division of the
Department of Justice.
After leaving the Department of Justice in 1982, Abbell became counsel at the law firm of
Kaplan, Russin and Becchi, with offices in San Francisco, California Bogota, Columbia
Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic Bangkok, Thailand Tapai, Taiwan New York
Madrid, Spain and Miami, Florida.

As of this writing, Abbell was listed as working in his own firm with a partner named Bruno
Ristau (Ristau and Abbell) in Washington D.C. Ristau was also formerly with the law firm of
Kaplan, Russin and Becchi. And from 1958 to 1963 he was an attorney in the Internal Security
Division and Civil Division of the Department of Justice. He was also with the DOJ from 1963 to
1981 where he was Director of the Office of Foreign Litigation. Ristau speaks German, Polish,
Spanish and French. He was Chairman of the Division of International Law of the Washington
D.C. Bar from 1971 to 1973. In the American Bar Association from 1981 to 1984, he was
Chairman of the Committee of Private International Law Practice. He is also a member of the
American Society of International Law. Ristau is obviously a heavyweight in the field of
international law.

A TIME magazine article, dated July 4, 1994, described Gilbert Rodriguez as a "leader of the
Cali [Columbian drug] cartel, which controls 80% of the world’s cocaine trade." The
newly elected president of Columbia, Ernesto Samper Pizano, was accused of taking $3.7
million in campaign funds from Rodriguez, which in effect, put Samper in league with
Columbia‘s drug lords.

Three audio tapes of conversations between Rodriguez and Samper‘s campaign manager,
Santiago Medina, had been handed over to U.S. State Department officials before the election,
but nothing was done. DEA officials were furious, stating to TIME that "No one did
anything. They [the State Department] allowed this travesty to take place. Everybody,
including the U.S. government, is participating in this coverup."

The State Department responded, "We can‘t interfere with elections."

I pulled out a book from a dusty corner of my library entitled, "Cocaine Politics" by Peter Dale
Scott and Jonathan Marshall, and looked up the name Gilbert Rodriguez. On page 83, Gilberto
Rodriguez Orejuela and Jose Santacruz Londono were mentioned as part of the early
leadership of the Cali cartel. On page 88 it was noted that the "Calibased Ocampo and
Gilberto Rodriguez had been the principal targets of a major DEA Centac investigtion that
resulted in indictments of Rodriguez in Los Angeles and New York in 1978."

At that time, President Jimmy Carter‘s Human Rights foreign policy in Latin America distanced
the CIA under Stansfield Turner (later a Wackenhut Board Director) from any deathsquad
interdiction. The Carter administration was also reportedly reluctant to go after Ocampo
because of its determination in 1977 to sign a Panama Canal treaty with General Torrijos, even
though Torrijos and family members were heavily involved at the highest levels of the world
cocaine trade.

The Cali cartel, described in a 1983 Customs report, laundered its profits through Miami
banks, one of which was Northside Bank of Miami, owned by Gilberto Rodriguez.
Rodriguez popped up again as the leader of a delegation to the "cocaine summit conference" in
Panama City in the early 1980‘s. Yet, Rodriguez’s name was subsequently removed from
DEA reports under the Ronald Reagan administration. In fact, according to disgruntled
DEA agents, some of whom suspected they were stumbling into a CIA connection, the
case was never pursued past the indictment level and the Centac 21 task force was
totally dismantled when Reagan and Bush came to office.
So, Gilbert Rodriguez and Jose Londoño were revealed to be high ranking members of the Cali
drug Cartel in Colombia. I wondered if they were also CIA intelligence operatives? Or CIA drug
operatives? Or both, as Manuel Noriega had been? Noriega had ultimately been ousted when
he chose to back the violent Medellin cartel, George Bush‘s target. If in fact Gilberto Rodriguez
had been compromised and forced to cooperate with U.S. officials after his 1978 indictment,
and taking into account his strategic position of leadership in the Cali cartel and his alleged
funding of the newly elected president of Columbia in 1994, it would indeed place the U.S.
government in a powerful controlling position within the cartels today. In fact, it would place CIA
drug operatives behind the election of the president of Columbia! The implications were
earthshaking.

******

It is important to point out here that, on August 5, 1991, Michael Riconosciuto had called
Bill Hamilton at Inslaw and asked him to obtain information on former DOJ official Mike
Abbell. Riconosciuto planned to trade information on Abbell, Rodriguez, Nichols and
others to the FBI in exchange for entry into a Witness Protection Program.

But Hamilton, pressed for time and not comprehending the significance of the "drug" connection,
had turned the investigation over to Danny Casolaro. Riconosciuto had stressed to
Hamilton that Abbell’s activities might be risky to track and he should not take the
information lightly.

That same day, August 5, Casolaro called Bob Bickel, the Texas oil engineer who once
worked as an informant for the Customs Bureau, to discuss Mike Abbell. Bickel later
confirmed that Casolaro had in fact discussed Abbell, Nichols and Rodriguez at length
during that last phone conversation. And he added, "Danny confronted Robert Booth
Nichols about his relationship with Mike Abbell."

Hamilton and Casolaro secretly devised a plan whereby Danny would conduct an inquiry with
the Department of Justice, but would couch a number of other inquiries in with the Mike Abbell
inquiry to avoid alerting authorities to the real "focus" of their search.

An October 15, 1991 Village Voice investigative piece, entitled "The Last Days of Danny
Casolaro," by James Ridgeway and Doug Vaughan, shed further light on Casolaro‘s
investigation during those last five days: (Note that most of Danny‘s last calls focused on "drug
                                       th
connections.") On Monday, August 5 ,

         "Riconosciuto called Bill Hamilton from his jail in Tacoma. He wanted some
         information about a former Justice Department attorney [Mike Abbell],
         and warned Hamilton that getting the information might be dangerous.
         Hamilton called Casolaro to help him find out about the attorney.

         "That same day, Danny called Bob Bickel to say that he was "getting
         close to the source, and he would soon go to Martinsburg and bring back
         the head of the Octopus."

Tuesday, August 6: Casolaro had been typing steadily since Monday, and by afternoon, he‘d
finished. Olga, his housekeeper, helped him pack a leather tote bag. She also remembered him
packing a thick sheaf of papers into a dark brown or black briefcase. Danny walked out the
door saying, "I have all my papers ... Wish me luck. I‘ll see you in a couple of days." That was
the last time Olga saw Casolaro alive.
Wednesday, August 7: According to Inslaw records, Casolaro called the Hamiltons in the
afternoon, and was put on hold. Before Hamilton could get free, he had hung up. At some time
on that same day, Riconosciuto called Hamilton again to ask for the information about the
Justice Department lawyer [Mike Abbell]. Hamilton called Casolaro, but he had already
left for Martinsburg.

Thursday, August 8: Casolaro called Danielle Stalling and asked her to set up appointments for
him the next week with a former police officer, now employed as a private investigator, to learn
more about the Laotian warlord Kuhn Sa’s proposed Golden Triangle drug trade.

Friday, August 9: By now Hamilton was starting to worry. I talk to Danny everyday," Hamilton
said. "I had never [gone without speaking to him for so long] before, so I called Bob Nichols in
Los Angeles and asked whether he had heard from Danny recently."

Nichols told Hamilton "Yes," he had spoken with Danny late Monday night [August 5th] and he
had been "euphoric." Nichols told Hamilton he (Nichols) was taking off for Europe that evening.

It was at that point that Olga, Danny‘s housekeeper, received four or five threatening phone
calls. The first was about 9 a.m., a man‘s voice, in good English, said, "I will cut his [Danny‘s]
body and throw it to the sharks."About a half hour later, another call came in. "Drop dead," the
man‘s voice said.

Saturday, August 10: At 12:30 that afternoon, a maid knocked on the door of room 517 at the
Sheraton Martinsburg Inn. Nobody answered, so she used her passkey to open the door;
though it had both a security bolt and a chain lock on the inside, neither one was attached.
When she glanced into the bathroom, she saw a lot of blood on the tile floor and screamed.
Another hotel maid came into the bathroom and saw a man‘s nude body lying in the bloodfilled
tub. There was blood not only on the tile floor but splattered up onto the wall above the tub as
well. The police were called to the scene.

At 8:30 p.m. that night, unaware that Danny‘s body had been found, Olga, Danny‘s
housekeeper, returned to Casolaro‘s house to look for him. The phone rang. A man‘s voice said,
"You son of a bitch. You‘re dead." It was not until Monday, August 12, that authorities notified
family and friends that Danny Casolaro was dead.

                                                                            th
Had Danny in fact called Robert Booth Nichols on Monday, August 5 , and confronted
him about his relationship with Mike Abbell? Had he told Nichols he planned to meet
with FBI officials from Lexington, Kentucky? And what about FBI agent Thomas Gates,
Nichols‘ antagonist? SPY magazine‘s article on Danny Casolaro indicated that he spoke with
Gates three days before his death, relating a conversation in which Nichols had warned
him to abandon the investigation.

Riconosciuto later conceded that he had tried repeatedly to reach Hamilton and Casolaro
between August 5 and 10th to warn them NOT to mention Abbell or Rodriguez to Nichols,
but it had been too late. Bill Hamilton told one investigator that he did NOT know WHY
Riconosciuto was inquiring about Mike Abbell - until AFTER Danny‘s death.

Bob Bickel’s confirmation that Danny WAS trailing Mike Abbell in the last days before
his death indicate that Danny may have unknowingly stepped into the largest narcotics
trafficking/intelligence operation the world.

******
Another in-depth article came to my attention which further corroborated Danny’s
investigation of Gilberto Rodriguez. "The Strange Death of Danny Casolaro," by Ron
Rosembaum in Vanity Fair‘s December 1991 issue included an interview with Michael
Riconosciuto. According to Rosenbaum, Danny‘s investigations were taking him into areas that
involved dangerous knowledge and dangerous characters. It was Danny‘s habit of "bouncing"
Riconosciuto‘s stories off Robert Nichols that put him in peril, Riconosciuto told Rosenbaum.
One of the things he reportedly "bounced" involved a major heroinrelated sting
operation.

Another involved Riconosciuto’s claim about an "effort by the Cali cocaine cartel to
derail the extradition of an alleged Columbian kingpin called Gilberto."

Nichols "went ballistic," according to Riconosciuto, when Danny bounced the Gilberto
(Rodriguez) matter off him. Riconosciuto said he tried to warn Danny. "I called from that day on
it was on a late Monday Tuesday, Wednesday, all the way through the weekend when they
found Danny [dead]," he said. "Every day I was calling the Hamiltons, asking if anybody had
heard from Danny. And I was frantic."

Labeled by Rosenbaum as the "resident demon of the labyrinth," Riconosciuto said "Danny‘s
theory was different from the typical megaconspiracy theory. Danny was dealing with real
people and real crimes."

Rosenbaum asked Riconosciuto about the germ warfare technology he had found in Danny‘s
notes. Riconosciuto admitted that he had learned about "horrible things" going on at the
Cabazon Indian reservation but did not elaborate on the subject. Wrote Rosenbaum, "This is
the labyrinth [that] Riconosciuto was leading Danny into the one he died in."

Just days before his death, Danny had planned to visit the reservation. In his notes were cryptic
references to slowacting brain viruses like Mad Cow Disease, which could be used against
targeted people by slipping the virus into meat pies. Riconosciuto told Rosenbaum that
Danny was "concerned" that he may have been a target of this virus. "That was one of the
reasons he [Danny] had such an obsession with this story. He felt he had been hit by these
people."

Accordingly, Riconosciuto filled Danny‘s head with allegations of Robert Booth Nichols‘ sinister,
international covertworld connections. He painted a picture linking Nichols to organized
crime syndicates, the fearsome Japanese Yakuza, and various CIA and British
intelligence plots emanating from Nichols’ friendship with "a legendary Bondish Brit
known as `Double Deuce’ [Sir Denis Kendall]."

Riconosciuto said Nichols was the key to Danny‘s Octopus. But Danny was receiving warnings
from Riconosciuto‘s counterpart as well. Robert Booth Nichols had flown to Washington D.C.
from Puerto Rico to warn Danny to stay away from Riconosciuto.

Danny‘s girlfriend, Wendy Weaver, had been present at one of the meetings at the Four
Seasons Hotel bar when Nichols issued the warning:

        "You don‘t know how bad this guy Riconosciuto is ... he might not get you
        today, he might not get you next month. He might get you two years from now.
        If you say anything against him he will kill you."

Nichols repeated the warning several times, said Weaver.
         "At least five times." Weaver described Nichols as "very charming, very
         handsome," but said "it [the meeting] was a weird night, so weird."

Another friend of Danny‘s met Nichols at a luncheon at Clyde‘s in Tysons Corner where Nichols
allegedly informed them that he had just been asked to become "minister of state security" on
the island of Dominica. Reportedly, the island was going to be transformed into a CIA base.
The friend, who spoke to Rosenbaum on condition of anonymity, said Nichols was "very slick,
very civilized-appearing" ... "oozing intrigue," but he added that he had never witnessed a
performance like the one that ensued.

After lunch Danny had pulled his friend aside and showed him a purported FBI wiretap
summary on Nichols. The summary was part of FBI agent Thomas Gates’s affidavit in
Nichols’ slander suit against him. The summary linked Nichols to the Yakuza and to the
Gambino crime family as a money launderer.

Danny‘s friend had been shocked. "You just put me in a meeting with this man and didn‘t tell
me what the hell why didn‘t you tell me before?," he asked Danny. Danny said he wanted to
see how Nichols would react. The friend told Rosenbaum, "In other words, he gaffed me with a
hook and tossed me in the water to see if the Octopus would move!"

Danny HAD in fact been receiving death threats on the phone. One threat reported by his
housekeeper, "You‘re dead, you son of a bitch," which came hours AFTER Danny‘s body had
been found, ruled out Danny himself as a possible source of the threats. And his prophesy to
his brother, Tony Casolaro, "If anything happens to me it won‘t be an accident," made it
unmistakably clear that Danny did, indeed, feel threatened.

Nevertheless, Danny appeared upbeat to most of the people he talked to prior to his death. Dr.
Tony Casolaro, a specialist in pulmonary medicine, told Vanity Fair that he didn‘t believe his
brother committed suicide because Danny was so excited and upbeat about his investigation
on that last Monday when he saw him.

The autopsy examination of Danny‘s brain had revealed possible symptoms of Multiple
Sclerosis, but friends and family dismissed this as irrelevant because Danny had never
complained of symptoms or, to their knowledge, known of the disease, if he had it.

Tony was also troubled by a number of facts, one of which was Danny‘s current papers and
files which he took to West Virginia were missing from his motel room. His body had been
embalmed even before family members were notified of the death, and the motel room had
been commercially cleaned before any type of investigation, other than a cursory look at the
death scene by police, could occur.

In his Vanity Fair article, Ron Rosenbaum wrote that he had obtained one of Casolaro’s
surviving notebooks and found mentioned under the heading of August 6, four days
before Danny’s death, the name "Gilberto." It read: "Bill Hamilton August 6. MR ... also
brought up `Gilberto.’" Rosenbaum did not speculate publicly who Gilberto might be, but it
was obviously Gilberto Rodriguez, head of the Cali Cartel, at that time deeply involved with
Michael Abbell, formerly of the Department of Justice.

******

A dozen or so drafts of Casolaro‘s proposed manuscript along with notes and phone bills had
been sent to the Western Historical Manuscript Collection at the University of Missouri by his
brother, Dr. Tony Casolaro. Tony Casolaro had sent the material to the University because, at
one time, the IRE (Investigative Reporters and Editors) Association, headquartered at the
University, had researched the fatal car bombing of reporter Don Bolles in Arizona.

Bolles had been researching a mob connected gold smuggling operation in that state. Through
Tracy Barnett at IRE, I learned that a graduate student at the University had been assigned to
catalog all Danny‘s material for eventual insertion into a data base. In contacting the graduate
student, who by then (September 1994) worked for ABC in Houston, Texas, I learned that few
if any journalists had inquired about the notes.

But, interestingly, Chief Assistant U.S. Attorney Steve Zipperstein from Los Angeles, working
for the Department of Justice, had requested copies of Danny‘s NOTES, but declined Danny‘s
phone records. The graduate student noted that the notes and drafts of Danny‘s proposed
manuscript focused on a Cabal of intelligence people who, originally consisting of
numerous names, were subsequently narrowed down to about eight. One of those
names was Glen Shockley. Shockley, of course, was listed on the Board of Directors of
F.I.D.C.O. along with Robert Booth Nichols.

Shockley was also a corporate partner in Meridian International Logistics, headed by
Nichols. Shockley was also a CIA contract employee (according to several sources) who
allegedly "ran Jose Londoño" of the Cali Cartel. This according to Riconosciuto’s taped
interview with government agents while negotiating for Witness Protection.

I purchased everything of any significance pertaining to Danny‘s writings and documents,
including the FBI wire tap summaries which corroborated everything I had learned to date.

In reviewing the summaries, it became apparent that the FBI had inadvertently stumbled
onto a CIA drug trafficking operation which included high ranking La Cosa Nostra
figures, the Gambino crime family and the Japanese Yakuza.

One affidavit in support of an application to intercept wire communications over the telephone
listed names of those to be intercepted: Robert Booth Nichols, Eugene Giaquinto (then
President of MCA Corportion Entertainment Division, and corporate partner with Nichols
in Meridian International Logistics), Angelo Commito, Edward Sciandra, Michael Del Gaizo,
Joseph Garofalo, and others.

The purpose of the interceptions was to determine "source, type and quantity of
narcotics/controlled substances, methods and means of delivery, and the source of
funding for purchasing of narcotics/controlled substances."

The intercepted conversations read like a "Who’s Who" of organized crime. It was also
apparent that Eugene Giaquinto enjoyed a special relationship with John Gotti.

******

Ann Klenk, a long time friend of Danny Casolaro‘s and former associate of Washington D.C.
columnist Jack Anderson, held all his personal notes which were not sent to the University. In a
September 14, 1994 phone interview, she noted that the last time she talked to Danny, that last
Monday before his death, he told her he‘d cracked the Inslaw case.

         I asked her, "Do you think he resolved that?"

         Ann responded, "Oh, yes. I KNOW he did. He TOLD me he did. He said, `Ann,
         I broke Inslaw.‘ And I said, `Geez, Danny that‘s great!‘ But, I never asked him
         what he found because he was very despondent about it. He said, `You can
         have it. You and Jack [Anderson] can have the story. I don‘t even want it.‘"

         Ann said Danny was disgusted and related their last conversation: "I said,
         `Danny, you worked on this [so long] and now you don‘t want it?‘ He said, `It‘s
         just a little piece of the puzzle anyway.‘ See, Inslaw led him into this, but
         Danny quickly became more involved with the drug aspects ... with the
         CIA aspects, with the Wackenhut aspects."

         I said, "I know what you mean, because I followed the same trail."

******

Danny‘s proposed drafts and notes obtained from Western Historical Manuscript Collection at
University of Missouri revealed information never published in mainstream media. Typewritten
and handwritten lists of contacts included names and telephone numbers of Ted Gunderson,
Raymond Lavas, Robert Nichols, Peter Zokosky, Bob Bickel, Fahim Safar, Earl Brian, Peter
Dale Scott, Art Welmus, John Vanderwerker, Jack Blum, Dr. Harry Fair, Bill Hamilton, Bob
Parry, Bill McCoy, and numerous others.

Most of Danny’s drafts focused on the Southeast Asian heroin connection, CIA drug
money used to finance the Contras, and the ability of terrorists to send missiles
containing dangerous chemicals and biological diseases into the U.S.

One typewritten draft, entitled, "Behold, A Pale Horse," described an "international cabal [in
Southern California] whose freelance services covered parochial political intrigue, espionage,
sophisticated weapon technologies that included biotoxins, drug trafficking, money laundering
and murder-for-hire." According to Danny, the cabal continues today, "its origins spawned thirty
years ago in the shadow of the Cold War."

Casolaro‘s June - July (1991) phone bills told a story of their own. Having followed Danny‘s
investigative trail for three years, I had an entire directory of phone numbers relating to his
inquiries. Most obvious were Danny‘s numerous calls prior to his death to Robert Booth Nichols
in Los Angeles. Most of the calls from Washington D.C. to Los Angeles lasted an average of
one to two hours, invariably in the wee hours of the morning 1:50 a.m., 12:36 a.m., 1:13 a.m.,
12:18 a.m., etc.

It was also apparent that Danny was riding a seesaw with Nichols and Riconosciuto. He would
talk to one, then the other, often on the same day, back and forth for months. Then suddenly,
he cut off Riconosciuto and his calls to Nichols increased in frequency.

Other phone numbers matched those of Ted Gunderson, Alan Boyak, a lawyer in Utah, Bo
Gritz, Heinrich Rupp and Chuck Hayes, a self-professed (on the Internet) CIA operative. Danny
often called Hayes immediately after he spoke with Nichols. Oddly, Hayes never came forward
during the official investigation of Danny‘s death to disclose the content of those conversations.

******

Within six months of Casolaro‘s death, Riconosciuto was again attempting to trade information
in exchange for entry into a Witness Protection Program. But this time, instead of using
Casolaro or Bill Hamilton, he was using me to make the contacts.
At Riconosciuto‘s request, I contacted a man whom I will identify as N.B. at the BATF (Bureau
of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms) in San Francisco. Michael had advised me to call this agent
because the BATF was "Treasury Department" as was FinCen.

I set up the phone meeting and Riconosciuto called the San Francisco BATF collect, as
scheduled. N.B. listened attentively to Michael, then ran a check on him through the
departmental computer system. Shortly thereafter, I received an unnerving phone call.

N.B. advised me in strong terms to "get out of this" while I still could. He said I would end up
getting subpoenaed as a witness if I didn‘t discontinue my investigation. He added that
sometimes people got killed or committed suicide when they got involved with Michael
Riconosciuto or Robert Booth Nichols.

N.B.‘s computer inquiry had bounced back on him. His superior in the BATF had been notified
by someone from another agency he didn‘t say who who had instructed N.B. that he was to
have NO further contact with Michael Riconosciuto or me.

When I related this conversation to Michael, he indicated no surprise, but immediately wanted
to be put back in touch with R.J. He needed someone in the government with access to his files
to verify his credibility and get that information back to Tom Olmstead, his attorney. Regarding
the computer inquiry, Riconosciuto explained as follows:

        "I know what‘s happening here. Tell R.J. if he uses FOIMS, Field Office
        Information Management System, and if he leaves an audit trail, he‘s going to
        be exposed. There are all sorts of different levels of flags on my name.
        Whenever the computer gets a hit, the issuing agency is notified as to who
        made the request and from where it came."

        "Mike," I asked, "how can he get around that? I don‘t understand ..."

        "Listen, whenever there‘s a hit on one of those flags, whether it‘s a want or [a]
        warrant, or whether it‘s simply an administrative interest, unbeknownst to the
        user who‘s making the request, his access is audited. Tell R.J. before he starts
        making inquiries, no matter how discreet he thinks they are, that he should
        have someone totally uncoupled from him to enter into FOIMS."

        "Alright."

        "Now," Michael continued, "if he goes into NCIC or NADDIS, ah, NCIC is the
        least dangerous as far as making inquiries, because NADDIS can track just like
        FOIMS ..."

        "Alright."

        "Now, on NCIC there is a `nonelectric‘ filing on me and he can make the
        request that way without alerting anyone. If he has trouble checking anything
        out, tell him I can help him along."

        "He can‘t call you at the jail. How can he get in touch with you?"

        "Through my attorney. The minute he [R.J.] gets a line on me, ask him to notify
        my attorney. Tell him he can check my attorney out through the government.
        Tom has excellent records with the government."
        "Alright."

        "Explain to R.J. that I know PROMISE, I know FOIMS inside out. I helped
        develop that internal tracking audit trail ..."

I had lost all hope of R.J. rescuing Michael Riconosciuto, and I think in his heart, Michael knew
that too, but I passed the information along as requested. R.J. politely accepted the information
as he always did, then I never heard from him again.

Menu    Chapter 7




CHAPTER 7
Through one of Michael's contacts, I was able to obtain the corporate documents on F.I.D.C.O.
Corporation (First Intercontinental Development Corporation). This formidable organization lead
me straight to the head of The Octopus. The Board of Directors of FIDCO consisted of the
following principles:

        (1) Robert Maheu, Sr, Vice President, Director former FBI agent, former CEO
        of Howard Hughes Operations, senior consultant to Leisure Industries.

        (2) Michael A. McManus, Director, Vice President and General Counsel to
        FIDCO former Assistant to the President [Reagan] of the United States at
        the White House in Washington D.C.

        (3) Robert Booth Nichols, Director, Sr. Vice President and Chairman of
        Investment Committee Chief Executive Officer of R.B.N. Companies,
        International, a holding company for manufacturing and development of high
        technology electronics, real estate development, construction and international
        finance.

        (4) George K. Pender, Director former Director of Pacific Ocean area of Burns
        & Roe, Inc., an international engineering & construction corporation with active
        projects on all seven continents of the world. Senior engineer consultant to
        Burns & Roe, Inc.

        (5) Kenneth A. Roe, Director Chairman and President of Burns & Roe, Inc.,
        International engineers and Constructors, a family corporation owned by
        Kenneth Roe and family. Major current project of the company is the
        engineering design and construction of the U.S.A. Fast Breeder Nuclear
        Reactor Plant in conjunction with Westinghouse Electric Corporation which is
        responsible for the nuclear system supply of steam. Construction value of
        present business backlog of Burns & Roe, Inc. is in excess of six billion U.S.
        dollar.

        (6) Frances T. Fox, Vice President and Director former General Manager of L.A.
        International Airport, former Director of Aviation for Howard Hughes Nevada
        operations, now called Summa Corporation, City Manager of San Jose,
        California.
        (7) Clint W. Murchison, Jr. Director Owner of the Dallas Cowboys NFL
        football team.

        (8) William M. Pender, Director and Sr. Vice President licensed contractor,
        State of California.

        (9) Glen R. Shockley, Director Consultant to Fortune 500 Companies in
        business management. Internationally known as financial consultant in funding.

The list of directors was accompanied by a letter dated January 11, 1983 on FIDCO letterhead
originating out of Santa Monica, California addressed to Robert Booth Nichols in Marina Del
Rey, California. The letter, signed by George K. Pender, briefly referenced a copy of a
resolution resulting from a meeting of the Board of Directors of FIDCO.

On April 13, 1983, Robert Booth Nichols wrote a letter to Joseph F. Preloznik in Madison,
Wisconsin, outlining proposed arms projects, one of which was to build a two story building of
approximately 7500 square feet with concrete walls and floors to house the "R & D position." (I
later found the R & D facility referenced in a 1981 Wackenhut Interoffice memorandum as a
companion facility to Wackenhut to be constructed on the Cabazon Indian reservation for the
assembly of shell casings, propellants, war heads, fuses, combustible cartridge cases and
other weapons systems).

Nichols wrote to Preloznik, "Should there be any questions with regard to my credibility,
verification can be made through F.I.D.C.O. I have enclosed a copy of that appointment."

If in fact, F.I.D.C.O. was a vehicle of The Octopus, then the tentacles of its Board of Directors
lead straight to the head. Clint Murchison, Jr. of Dallas, Texas was the son of Clint Murchison,
Sr. who, according to Dick Russell, author of the book, "The Man Who Knew Too Much," (pp.
521523) was cut from the same political cloth as H.L. Hunt.

Wrote Russell:

        "Back in 1951, after General Douglas MacArthur was relieved of his Korean
        command by President Truman, H.L. Hunt accompanied MacArthur on a flight
        to Texas for a speaking tour. Hunt and Murchison were the chief organizers
        of the pro-MacArthur forces in Texas. They would always remember the
        general standing bareheaded in front of the Alamo, urging removal of the
        `burden of taxation' from enterprising men like themselves, charging that such
        restraints were imposed by `those who seek to convert us to a form of
        socialistic endeavor, leading directly to the path of Communist slavery.'"

According to Russell, Hunt went on to set up a Mac-Arthur-for-president headquarters in
Chicago, spending $150,000 of his own money on the general's reluctant 1952 campaign,
which eventually fell apart as MacArthur adopted the strident rhetoric of the right wing.

        "Still, connections were made," wrote Russell, "Charles Willoughby, for
        example, was a regular part of the MacArthurHunt entourage and undoubtedly
        was acquainted with Murchison as well." Both [the Hunts and the Murchisons]
        cultivated not only powerful people on the far right, but also J. Edgar Hoover,
        Richard Nixon, organized crime figures, and Lyndon Johnson, whose rise to
        power emanated directly from his friends in Texas oil.
        "Like Hunt, Murchison was an ardent supporter of Senator Joseph
        McCarthy's anticommunist crusade. McCarthy came often to the
        exclusive hotel that Murchson opened in La Jolla, California, in the early
        1950's. So did Richard Nixon and J. Edgar Hoover.

        "In 1961, after Nixon had lost the presidential election to JFK the previous year,
        Murchison sold Nixon a lot in Beverly Hills for only $35,000 a lot Murchison
        had financed through a Hoffa loan which Nixon sold two years later for
        $86,000.

When Hoover visited the (Murchison) Hotel Del Charro, as he did every summer between 1953
and 1959, Murchison picked up his tab. That amounted to about $19,000 of free vacations for
the FBI Director over those years.

Whether Hoover knew it or not, almost 20 percent of the Murchison Oil Lease Company in
Oklahoma was then owned by Gerardo Catena, chief lieutenant to the Genovese crime
family.

By the autumn of 1963, a major scandal was brewing around Bobby Baker, whom Vice
President Lyndon Johnson had made secretary of the Senate Democrats in 1955, when LBJ
was majority leader. LBJ called Baker "my strong right arm, the last man I see at night, the first
I see in the morning."

On October 8, 1963 Baker was forced to resign, as a Senate investigation of his outside
business activities began producing sensational testimony on numerous questionable deals.

        "Baker's deals were tightly interwoven with the Murchison family and the
        Mob," wrote Dick Russell. "What first attracted the attention of Senate
        investigators was a lawsuit brought against Baker in 1963 by his associates in
        a vending company, alleging that he failed to live up to certain bargains. Those
        associates were, for the most part, Las Vegas gamblers; one of them, Edward
        Levinson, was a lieutenant of Florida mobster Meyer Lansky, whose Fremont
        Hotel in Vegas was financed through a Hoffa loan.

        "Baker, it later turned out, did considerable business with the Mob in Las Vegas,
        Chicago, Louisiana, and the Caribbean. Through Baker, Levinson had also
        gotten to know Clint Murchison."

        "Clint Murchison, Jr. [listed on the Board of Directors of FIDCO] tried to
        persuade the Senate Rules Committee in 1964 that his own real estate
        dealings with Jimmy Hoffa in Florida were `hardly relevant' to the Baker
        investigation."

Robert Maheu (Senior Vice President and Director of F.I.D.C.O.), was also mentioned in
Russell's book, "The Man Who Knew Too Much," (pp. 190). Wrote Russell: "Back in 1960, with
then vice president Richard Nixon serving as the White House's liaison to the CIA's Cuban
operations, the CIA had initiated its long series of assassination attempts against Castro. The
`cutouts' in the operation started with Las Vegas billionaire Howard Hughes's righthand
man, Robert Maheu, who got in touch with organized crime leaders Sam Giancana,
Johnny Rosselli, and Santos Trafficante, Jr. They in turn enlisted the direct assistance of
Cuban exiles ..."

Throughout my conversations with Michael Riconosciuto the names of Robert Booth Nichols,
George Pender, Glenn Shockley and Michael McManus (other directors of F.I.D.C.O.) cropped
up repeatedly, but I found few references to them in any published books or magazines.
Riconosciuto often stated that George Pender and Glenn Shockley were CIA officials,
which I later corroborated through Peter Zokosky, a partner of Robert Booth Nichols's.

In August, 1994, I did, however, manage to obtain three significant letters with the signatures of
Michael A. McManus and George Pender on them.

The following letters on F.I.D.C.O. confirm its presence in Lebanon.

Letter No. 1 Written on White House letterhead stationary, dated, June 29, 1983, from Michael
A. McManus, Assistant to the President (Reagan) to George K. Pender in Santa Monica,
California:

        "Dear George:

        It was good to see you again. I appreciate the update you and your associates
        gave me concerning the status of your efforts in the rebuilding of Lebanon.

        "Without question FIDCO seems to have a considerable role to offer
        particularly in the massive financial participation being made available to the
        government of Lebanon.

        "As you are aware, the United States government is providing financial aid. We
        are very interested in the success of the rebuilding effort in Lebanon. I will
        appreciate your continuing to keep me posted. Best personal regards.
        Sincerely,

        Michael A. McManus, Assistant to the President."

It is interesting to note that in 1982, one year before the above letter was written, Israel invaded
Lebanon in a bid to crush the PLO strongholds there and install the Gamayel family in power.
At that time TelAviv was supporting the ultraright Christian Phalange militia . It was the
Christian Phalangist militia which first brought Lebanon into the heroin trade. And the
powerful Christian Gamayel family which led the way in turning to outside forces for money,
guns and political support. Foremost among those sources was the international heroin
trafficking network.

This according to Bill Weinberg, editor of High Times magazine, who wrote the indepth article,
"The Syrian Connection" in March 1993. Weinberg also noted that as far back as 1955, U.S.
Senate Judiciary Committee hearings learned that Sami el Khouri, the Gamayel's chief of
finances, was importing raw Turkish opium into Lebanon, where it was processed into
heroin and then shipped to Sicily for reexport throughout America and Europe.

El Khouri controlled the Gamayel family's shipping lines, trading, trucking and air freight
companies. El Khouri's machine was the Lebanese wing of the French Connection the
wing that continued to do business with the Sicilians in a bid to propel the Gamayel family to
power.

After the Israeli invasion, the Lebanese Parliament elected to the presidency Bechir
Gamayel who had long been on the CIA payroll. But before he could take office, Bashir was
killed by an assassins bomb, and Bechir's brother, Amin, was installed as president.
The following letter from George Pender, President of FIDCO, to President Amin Gamayel in
Beirut is printed in its entirety here.

Letter No. 2 Written on F.I.D.C.O. letterhead stationary, dated July 12, 1983, from George K.
Pender, President of FIDCO, to President Amin Gamayel, Presidential Palace, Beirut,
Lebanon.:

        "Dear Mr. President:

        I had visited Beirut in February and May, 1983 to discuss FIDCO participation
        in the redevelopment of Lebanon. These meetings were held with the
        Chamouns, Maurice Ghanem and Mourad Baroudy. Of particular interest is
        the fact that FIDCO offered to arrange the financing of projects considered,
        provided they were in the government sector. Unfortunately, the response, to
        date, is dragging and a golden opportunity for Lebanon is slowly dying.

        "I had made no effort to see you at that time as I thought it more prudent to
        delay until I had something more tangible to present. I expressed specific
        interest in the rebuilding of Damour and Alkhyam. FIDCO has presented these
        projects to an international Trust with whom we have a close relationship, and
        we are very confident that we can arrange the funding under International
        Chamber of Commerce format, provided FIDCO can negotiate turnkey
        contracts on both projects. We are ready, willing and able to proceed
        immediately on this basis.

        "I understand you will be at the White House on July 22nd. Would it be possible
        for me to meet with you in Washington, D.C. on July 21st briefly so that I may
        personally present our interest in Lebanon? As per copy of attached letter, the
        White House is actively interested in our efforts.

        "For your personal information, I was a good friend of Bechir. I was with him in
        Beirut in 1976 when the Syrian Army came in to police. When he later visited
        the United States on a speaking tour, my wife and I went to Framingham,
        Massachusetts to meet with him. I miss him tremendously.

        "I would appreciate your reply as soon as possible. You can also reach me via
        telex 652483 RBN [Robert Booth Nichols] ASSOCS LSA. Thank you for
        your time and consideration. Sincerely yours,

        George K. Pender."

I cannot stress enough the importance of this letter From George Pender to Amin Gamayel. In
the very first paragraph of Pender's letter he noted that "Maurice Ghanem"