BiomechConsiderationsinChoosinganAthleticShoe.ppt - Biomechanical

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BiomechConsiderationsinChoosinganAthleticShoe.ppt - Biomechanical Powered By Docstoc
					Biomechanical Considerations
in Choosing an Athletic Shoe
               Form Fits Function
   Evolving technology, training specialization, sports
    medicine advancements and commercialism
    contribute to changes in athletic shoe construction
   Different physical activities place different
    biomechanical demands on the human body
   Athletic shoe manufacturers are forever trying to
    come up with better products, more marketable
    products, and innovative products
   Shoe manufacturers make many different types and
    models of shoes to meet the needs of their
                 Last Construction
Last – The template or model
of a shoe; the general shape of
the shoe is determined by the
shape of the last on which it is
Running shoes generally have
one of three last constructions;
Straight, Curved, or Modified
The last can be constructed in
one of several ways;
Board, Slip, or Combination
               Last Construction (cont.)
   Straight – larger base with more support materials;
    suited for severe overpronaters

   Modified – hybrid shape between straight and
    curved; this is the most common last seen in the
    construction of running shoes

   Curved – smaller curvilinear shaped construction;
    most appropriate for supinated feet; lightweight
    construction at the expense of stability; most
    common construction of track shoes
Anatomy of an Athletic Shoe
    Anatomy of an Athletic Shoe- 3 Main Components
   Upper – uppermost portion of the shoe; typically
    comprised of lightweight breathable materials;
    often reinforced with additional materials for
    support and aesthetics

   Outsole – the very bottom of the shoe, composed
    of various rubber materials (i.e. high carbon rubber
    for durability or light weight low density rubbers to
    minimize weight, or combination of the two)
         Anatomy of an Athletic Shoe- 3 Main
                Components (cont.)
   Midsole – situated between the upper and the outsole;
    primary role is shock absorption; manufacturers often
    build accessory or adjunctive components into the
    midsole, i.e. pronation controls, air or gel chambers;
    must also be flexible and must transfer force to
    forefoot during gait; this portion of the shoe has
    undergone the most amount of change over the past
    few decades

    • EVA – (ethylene vinyl acetate); lightweight, soft and flexible,
      can be constructed with different densities within the same

    • Polyurethane Foam – more stable and durable compared to
      EVA; excellent shock absorption, but more firm, heavier and
Midsole Adjunctive Components
                   A pronation control device
                    has been added to the
                    midsole of this “Motion
                    Control” New Balance shoe
                   Note the wide, relatively
                    straight last construction
                    typical of pronation control
                    shoes and the generous
                    midsole foam
                   Also note the outsole design
                    that takes into account a
                    rearfoot strike and a
                    metatarsal break
Midsole Adjunctive Components (cont.)

                        In this shoe, Nike has
                        introduced a midsole
                        comprised of varying
                        pressured air chambers
                        supported with
                        structural materials to
                        enhance the function
                        of the shoe
 Categories of Running Shoes
Neutral Cushioned Shoe – designed
for runners with a neutral to high arched
foot who do not over pronate; these shoes are softer and
more flexible in construction, and do not have any adjunctive
components built into the midsole to control pronation

Stability Shoe – also known as cushioned stability shoes;
often have some pronation control support may be
incorporated into midsole; designed for runners with a
normal to slightly low arch, mild to moderate pronators or
for heavier runners that want cushioning, durability and control
       Categories of Running Shoes (cont.)

 Motion Control Shoes – rigid, highly supportive and
largely inflexible shoes; these shoes have motion control
devices built into medial rearfoot midsole to block
excessive pronation; built on a wide, straight last;
designed for moderate to severe over-pronators with flat
feet, and for heavy runners desiring more support
     Running Shoe Examples

  Saucony          Asics      Brooks
motion control   cushioning   stability
Cross Training Shoes
Various Specialty Shoes

 Recreational Walking     Track Sprint

Tennis Shox

                        Nike Free
              Analyzing the Athletes Shoe
   Gait Analysis – Can be invaluable in analyzing an athletes gait
    patterns, and therefore shoe need
   Running Gait pattern may significantly differ from walking gait
    pattern, and can be difficult to pick up without high speed video
    • i.e. A runner who mildly over pronates during walking may pronate very little
      while running due to decreased time in stance phase

   Shoe Analysis – wear of outsole can be helpful but the material of
    the outsole must be considered. Also most runners will strike with
    lateral heel and will likely wear there quicker. Midsole analysis may
    show greater compression either medially or laterally, and may result
    in the heel cup being deviated inwardly

   Shoe recommendations must also take into account the size and
    habits of the runner. One runner who over pronates may have a
    greater motion control need than another who over pronates based
    on size or time spent in stance phase (running speed)
   Wilusz, P. Podiatry Today; Volume 18 Issue 10
   O’Connor, F and Wilder, R (2001). Textbook of
    Running Medicine, McGraw Hill
   Pribut, S. Separating the Buzz from the
    Biomechanics; Podiatric Management, Oct 2004
   Dilbert

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