The Spatial Development Framework (SDF) should seek to guide the overall spatial distribution
 of the current and desirable land uses within the Municipalities, in order to give effect to the
 vision, goals and objectives of the IDP.
 The function of the District SDF is therefore two-fold:
    To strategically guide spatial development over the long term to the benefit of all local
    municipalities within the context of the greater District Vision (long term focus).
    To provide guidelines for the implementation of land use management and control (short to
    medium term focus).

 The Umzinyathi District Municipality (UD) does not have a balanced spatial structure with great
 variances in spatial indicators between the various local municipalities. The SDF’s primary focus
 is therefore aimed at providing a strategic focus towards rectifying the imbalances of past
 It should be noted that the information contained in this SDF does not represent the Reviewed
 SDF for Umzinyathi District Municipality. SDF proposals will be extensively reviewed during
 February 2005 with the Representative Forum.



      The District lies between the main N3 corridor between Durban and Gauteng, and the
      Coastal Corridor, running along the east coast. This places the District at an economic
      disadvantage in terms of its ability to benefit from passing trade. The Dundee area
      (Endumeni), in the north of the District, is however centrally placed within this area,
      between the two corridors, and is at the confluence of roads through the District. This
      provides the ideal spatial framework for the functioning of Endumeni as an administrative
      and service centre. Similarly, in the south of the District, Umvoti (Greytown) is well
      placed, in terms of location and road infrastructure, to function as a regional service
      centre. Both Msinga and Nquthu, are however rural in nature and they are dependent on
      the other two Municipal areas for economic services. (Refer to Map 1 for Municiapal
      This spatial setting results in a District with the economically stronger Municipalities at the
      northern and southern ends, rather than in the centre. As a result, the strong economic
      “pulls” to the ends of the District also result in economic linkages to larger towns in
      adjacent Districts. For example, Estcourt, in the Uthukela District, is closer to Umvoti than
      Dundee (Endumeni) is, in the Umzinyathi District.


      The following factors (as indicated on Map 2) have an influence on the spatial functioning
      of the District:
Spatial Development Framework                                       Umzinyathi Municipality
          Historical development imbalances with much of the social and other infrastructure
          being located in Endumeni and Umvoti. Msinga and Nquthu are underdeveloped in
          Connectivity and access varies considerable with especially Msinga enjoying very poor
          external connectivity.
          Land use patterns differs considerably between the northern and southern areas of the
          Tourism opportunities abound throughout the District, although these are better
          utilized in Endumeni than the other Local Municipalities.


 Within the District, there is a clear hierarchy of places. This hierarchy has been created by a
 combination of different factors such as historical influences, economic factors and topography.
 In the North of the District, Dundee is the highest order place, which in planning terms can be
 described as the Primary Node. In the south is Greytown, which can be described as a
 Secondary Node.

 The main road linkages in the District are the R33 forming a North / South Corridor (Dundee–
 Vryheid), followed by the R68 eastwards from Dundee through Nquthu to Melmoth, and the R74
 linking Greytown to Stanger through Kranskop.

 The concept of a hierarchy of places, comes from the Rural Services System Model, which is
 contained in the Provincial Growth and Development Strategy. It is based on four types of
 centres, i.e.:

    Primary node.
    Secondary node.

 In terms of the above model, a hierarchy of places exists, as illustrated below:

 Figure 3.2: Rural Services System Model: Hierarchy of Places

                               REGIONAL CENTRE (RC)
                         RURAL SERVICES CENTRES (HUBS)
                            RURAL SATELLITE CENTRES
                               SMALL SETTLEMENTS

 For the purposes of the District Spatial Development Framework, the above model is condensed
 as follows: (Numbers in the diagram relate to the numbers in the illustration above.)

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Spatial Development Framework                                         Umzinyathi Municipality

 Figure 3.3: Hierarchy of Places: Spatial Development Framework

                                                            1. PRIMARY      DUNDEE
                                                            2. SECONDARY    GREYTOWN,
                                                              NODE          TUGELA FERRY,
                                                                            NQUTHU, GENCOE
                4                                           3. HUBS         POMEROY,
                                                            4. SATELLITES   Smaller
                                                                            Settlements within
                                                                            the sphere of
                                                                            influence of each

 An indication of the range and level of services available at each level of the hierarchy is shown
 below. It should be noted that the use of resources and powers could lead to the provision of
 some of the functions needed for an operational service centre. The other services depend on
 private sector initiative and may not emerge until the Government has provided a certain
 threshold of infrastructure and services at the centres.

                                                                                         Page 3   3
Spatial Development Framework                                                     Umzinyathi Municipality

Table 3.1: Types of Centres
 Satellite                     •  Mobile Service        •  To be located at          •  Mobile clinic point.
 (Tertiary Centre)                coordination             most accessible and       •  Community Hall
                               •  Information              convenient locations      •  Mobile offices.
 These are small emerging         services                 within rural villages.    •  Small taxi rank
 centres located within        •  Social and            •  Develops around           •  Limited shopping
 settlements. They serve          support services         existing distance of      •  Community facilities.
 to connect the                                            community.                •  Primary school.
 settlements with the                                   •  May be located at a       •  Cluster boxes
 secondary and primary                                     store, tribal court,      •  Telephone boots
 nodes and tens to locate                                  taxi rank, etc.           •  Multi-purpose centre.
 along or at the                                        •  Place to be               •  Petrol station.
 confluence of transport                                   convenient for            •  Informal trading posts.
 routes of different levels.                               mobile services           •  Small shopping outlets.
 Hub                           •   Higher order         •  Usually located at        •  All land uses that can
 (Secondary Centre)                and more                intersection of major        be located at a
                                   permanent               movement routes              satellite.
 Secondary centres in the          services             •  Should be an area         •  Clinic
 context of Umzinyathi         •   Serves as a             with economic             •  Secondary school.
 Municipality are                  distribution            growth potential          •  Lower order shopping.
 characterized by a higher         centre                                            •  Satellite police station.
 level of diversity                                                                  •  Administrative offices.
 compared to the                                                                     •  Light industry
 satellites. They are also
 located along major link
 roads and performs both
 administrative and
 commercial functions.
 Node                          •   Link the             •   Tends to locate at       •   Diverse commercial
 (Primary Centre)                  municipal area           the confluence of            uses.
                                   with the region          district roads and       •   Diverse forms of
 Primary centre refers to          and even global          along major rivers.          industry.
 the main administrative           village.                                          •   Offices.
 and commercial centre         •   Long distance                                     •   Administrative
 within the municipal area.        taxis.                                                functions.
 It performs a range of        •   Commercial and                                    •   All uses found at a
 services and is                   administrative                                        satellite and a hub.
 characterized by a higher         centre.
 differentiation of land
 Tertiary Web                  •   Rural residential    •   Remote areas.            •   Residential.
                                   areas with                                        •   Subsistence agriculture
 These are sparsely                limited access to
 populated settlements.            services and
                                   social facilities.
 Secondary Web                 •   Rural residential    •   Along local access       •   Residential
                                   and the                  roads linking to         •   Subsistence agriculture
 Medium density rural              associated               district roads.          •   Emerging nodes.
 settlements.                      public facilities.
 Primary Web                   •   Rural residential    •   Along major link         •   Rural residential
                                   with a range of          roads and at the         •   Subsistence agriculture
 Higher density rural              the associated           confluence of major      •   Satellites.
 settlements.                      public facilities.       roads.

Source: Umvoti Municipality Spatial Development Framework 2003.
The concept is based on the Hubs having “threshold” for the provision of services this includes the
satellites linked by local communication and road infrastructure, as illustrated in the following

                                                                                                       Page 4      4
Spatial Development Framework                                      Umzinyathi Municipality

  Figure 3.3: Hub and Satellite Thresholds



     In order to manage the development of the District, it is important that a SDF be utilized.
     Many different role-players are influential in the spatial development of the District,
     including service providers, investors, traditional leaders and others. It is important that a
     common SDF guides decisions and activities related to development, based on a common
     “picture” of the spatial structure of the Local Municipalities and the District.

     The SDF for the District is based on the combination of the SDF of each of the Local
     Municipalities in the District, namely:

     Each of these SDFs are in turn based on Development Principles outlined in relevant
     legislation and policy documents, the most important of which are:
         The Development Facilitation Act.
         The Provincial Growth and Development Strategy.
         The Provincial Spatial Growth and Development Framework.
         The National Environmental Management Act.

     These and other important pieces of legislation and policy, as well as strategy documents
     and most IDPs, outline the guidelines for spatial development.

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Spatial Development Framework                                         Umzinyathi Municipality

     The following spatial guidelines are applicable to the District:
        Correct historically distorted spatial patterns.
        Promote integrated development in rural and urban areas.
        Promote the development of residential and employment opportunities, in close
        proximity to each other.
        Optimize existing resources.
        Promote a diverse combination of land uses.
        Promote compact cities and discourage urban sprawl.
        Assist in correcting historically distorted settlement patterns and optimize the use of
        existing settlement patterns.
        Encourage environmental sustainable development.
        Meet the basic needs of people in an economically and environmentally efficient
        Provide security of tenure and different tenure options.
        Co-ordinate land development to minimize conflict and stimulate competition.
        Support a rapid release of land for development.
        Ensure that the disturbance of eco-systems and the loss of bio-diversity are avoided or
        Avoid or minimize pollution and degradation of the environment.
        Avoid the disturbance of landscapes and sites that are part of the Nation’s cultural


4.2.1 Change in hierarchy in certain places
      The spatial composition of the District necessitates and warrants the strategic upgrading
      of certain nodes in certain places in order to positively effect service delivery and
      concentrate investment over the long term.

      The following table depicts the proposed strategic change in the classification of places.
      Table 4.1: Proposed Hierarchy of Places

                       Endumeni          Umvoti        Msinga                  Nquthu
       Primary Node    Dundee/Glencoe
       Secondary       Glencoe           Greytown      Tugela Ferry            Nquthu Village
       Hubs            Wasbank           Kranskop      Keates Drift, Pomeroy   Ngolokodo
                                                       uMsinga Top             Nondweni
                                                       ,Mashunka               Isandlwana
                                                       Nhlalakahle, Mkhapula   Qhudeni
                                                       Dolo, Chwaka
                                                       Masabeko, Rorks Drift
       Satellites      De Jagersdrift    Makhabeleni   Mzweni                  Ncepheni, Hlalazkazi
                       Vegkop            Matimatolo    Ngubevu                 St. Augistine, Jabavu
                       Tayside                         Nhlonga                 Ndindindi, Patsoane
                       Malonjeni                                               Mphazima, Mkhonjane
                       Kwa Telaphi                                             Mafitleng, Hlati Dam
                                                                               Maduladula, Haladu

      Strategically it is important to upgrade Nquthu and Tugela Ferry to the status of
      “Secondary Node” due to the following reasons:

          Both nodes have very poorly serviced hinterlands covering vast areas.

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Spatial Development Framework                                       Umzinyathi Municipality
         Government services can be regarded as a scarce resource that should be located
         optimally for maximum benefit. The concentration of these services will create the
         critical economies of scale within these nodes to attract further investment.

4.2.2 Confirm Dundee as Primary Node
      The role of Dundee as primary node should be further confirmed within the context of
      the District and the neighboring areas.

      Dundee offers significant infrastructure, connectivity, private sector investment and
      administrative support. It is envisaged that this role can be further emphasized through:

         The promotion of Dundee as administrative centre by ensuring proper representation
         by all major government departments, especially the Department of Trade and

         The   promotion of educational facilities such as:
          •     Technical and specialized schools with boarding facilities.
          •     Technical college and/or skills development centre.
          •     A regional technicon.
          •     The promotion of retail trade.

      These strategies should ensure that private sector investment be attracted in the form of
      banks, retail, the hospitality and tourism industries.

4.2.3 Confirm of Secondary Nodes
      The Secondary Nodes are the places of convergence and activity where a variety of
      services are rendered to the rural communities of Umzinyathi.

      Each of these nodes are discussed briefly. Greytown
        Greytown is the main or primary centre within Umvoti Municipality. It performs a range
        of functions. This location of the municipal offices and offices of various other
        government departments establishes Greytown as an administrative service centre,
        while the location of commercial establishments with a wide threshold and providing a
        range of goods accounts for the commercial centre role of this town.

        Greytown is facing a number of development issues with the following being the
        priority issues:

           Expansion of the CBD.
           Development of new residential precincts.
           Revitalization of the derelict industrial zones. Nquthu
        The Nquthu Area is characterized by a rural settlement pattern with a relatively small
        central node in the form of Nquthu Village. Although centrally located, Nquthu Village
        lacks certain infrastructure to become a dominant force in the Umzinyathi District. The
        reason for this characteristic can be found in the existence of larger towns in proximity
        to Nquthu Village.

        Nquthu Village is only 50km by road from Dundee and will therefore tend to remain in
        subordinate position in respect of Dundee as the District Centre.

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Spatial Development Framework                                        Umzinyathi Municipality

         The R68 provides Nquthu Village with an indirect link to Ulundi and directly with
         Melmoth. The distance between Nquthu Village and Ulundi and Melmoth respectively,
         suggests that these two towns will have little bearing on the local economy of Nquthu.

         From the aforesaid it can de deduced that the local economy of Nquthu will be
         influenced by the presence of surrounding larger urban settlements which have a far
         more diversified infrastructure that that of Nquthu. This will influence economic
         development within the Nquthu Area in a negative manner. Tugela Ferry
         Tugela Ferry is the main node in the Msinga Local Municipality which is supported by
         settlements such as Keates Drift and Pomeroy. Msinga is primarily characterized by
         subsistence agriculture as main activity. Further the area is very inaccessible.
         Development proposals hinge around the improvement of access and the further
         development service delivery within Tugela Ferry, Keats Drift and Pomeroy.


      The North-South access along the R33 should be improved between Keats Drift and
      Helpmekaar as this road provides a critical linkage to the whole of Msinga.

      Other roads to be upgraded include:
         Dundee – Nyanyadu via coal mines.
         Dundee – Tholeni.

      While it is often considered desirable to create bypasses around towns, this should be
      avoided in the District. “Passing traffic” is required to build the presently underdeveloped
      local economies. The flow of traffic through the towns (Hubs) should not be hindered,
      however safety measures must be part of all road planning.
      Wherever possible, rural access roads should emanate from the Hubs rather than directly
      from the corridors.


      The spatial differentiation of land uses are discussed in District Context in the following
      sections per land use. It is however important to note that these land uses are also
      described in the Local Municipality IDP’s and that the following discussion only deals with
      the strategic spatial direction to be followed within the District.

4.4.1 Residential
       It is imperative that all residents gain access to land and housing within their current
       places of habitation, where reasonably possible, whether this place is a rural village or a
       major town. This aspect is therefore addressed within the Local Municipality IDPs.

       From a District perspective it is important that land uses be developed in support of each
       other. Residential development should therefore not be encouraged in places where
       livelihoods of people cannot be sustained.

       New residential establishments are therefore supported in the Primary and Secondary
       nodes only. This proposal has relevance on extraordinary growth and it is obvious that
       all places should allow for expansion to cater for natural growth.

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Spatial Development Framework                                      Umzinyathi Municipality

4.4.2 Industrial
      Industries have traditionally settled close to natural resources. Two distinct patterns are
      evident in the District:
          Widespread mining and industrial development associated with the coal industry.
          This is however in decline.
          Timber associated industry in Umvoti.

      In terms of District wide development the following is proposed:
          Industrial development that are not directly associated with a natural resource
          should be encouraged in the Primary and Secondary nodes. Focus should be placed
          on light and service industries.
          Agro industries can develop at all hierarchical levels of towns, but preferably in the
          rural areas, close to resources and to people with an agricultural skills base.
          Small service industries should be encouraged in all hubs.
          A comprehensive investment incentive strategy will be compiled by UD to encourage
          such growth.

4.4.3 Administration
      The administrative seats of the Umzinyathi municipalities are as follows:

      Table 4.2: Administrative seats of Municipalities.
                MUNICIPALITY                     ADMINISTRATIVE SEAT
       Umzinyathi DM                        Dundee
       Endumeni                             Dundee
       Umvoti                               Greytown
       Nquthu                               Nquthu
       Msinga                               Tugela Ferry

      Government departments have not adopted the District hierarchy of places to date and it
      is subsequently proposed that the District should maintain strong influence in all
      government departments’ choice of location when opening an office.

      The rationale of the proposal is to create activity nodes within each town by focusing
      administrative services at places of convergence, thereby encouraging supporting land
      uses, i.e. trade, to settle at those places.
      The development of administrative conditions should take place in the following
      preferential spatial sequence:
          All Nodes should be serviced first.
          All Hubs should be serviced as a second priority.
          Other places.

4.4.4 Commercial
      Commercial activities are well developed in Dundee, Greytown and reasonably well in
      Nquthu and Tugela Ferry.
      It is therefore proposed that commercial development be encouraged in the hubs in the
      following ways:
          Strengthening activity nodes through the placement of government functions.
          Encouraging settlement by making suitable land available.

                                                                                        Page 9   9
Spatial Development Framework                                       Umzinyathi Municipality
            Place marketing.

4.4.5 Health Services
        The table overleaf summarizes the distribution of health services.

        Table 4.3: Distribution of health services.
                       TOWN                                HOSPITAL
         Dundee                                 Dundee Hospital
         Tugela Ferry                           Church of Scotland Hospital
         Nquthu                                 Charles Johnson Memorial Hospital
         Greytown                               Greytown Hospital

4.4.6 Forestry and Commercial Agriculture
       One of the major potential areas for the economic development of the District is the
       Agricultural Sector. As a result, care must be taken to protect good agricultural land and
       to build the “farming infrastructure”.
       In addition to the existing commercial farming areas in the District, the potential new
       areas, including areas for irrigation, must be identified and protected. In particular, this
       includes those areas along the major watercourses, as illustrated on the Spatial
       Development Framework.
       Forestry can have negative environmental impacts. As a result, extension of the forestry
       areas should be subject to environmental scans and assessments in terms of the relevant

4.4.7 Conservation
        A number of areas in the District need to be preserved for conservation purposes. These
        include “conservation-worthy” areas totaling 19 000 hectares in the District, two Natural
        Heritage Sites (Fugitives Drift and Hlathikhulu), 18 conservation sites of significance and
        four wetlands.
        In addition, the disaster prone areas along the river course need to be protected,
        particularly in Msinga and Nquthu, where landslide and flooding occur.


Specific attention must be given to the following aspects on shortcomings during the SDF review
workshop scheduled for February 2005 i.e.
        Integration with neighbouring Districts.
        National and Provincial policy impacts on the hierarchy of places.
        Indicators of IDP priorities and projects on the SDF.
        Development of the Rural areas.
        Informed decisions on transport route development.
     The above were not adequately addressed in the 2003 review and will therefore receive the
     necessary attention.

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Spatial Development Framework                                     Umzinyathi Municipality

The Spatial Framework for the UD is determined by all development agents active in the District.
The role of the UD is the coordination of these development activities through participating
planning and the facilitation of certain functions.

The greatest impact of the SDF is the promotion of Secondary Nodes and Hubs among all
development agents as development nodes. This sing strategy should promote service delivery
and access to opportunities to the disenfranchised communities within the District.

                                                                                     Page 11 11

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