12 – TUESDAY, April 20, 2010 The Standard www.standard.net.au www.standard.net.au The Standard TUESDAY, April 20, 2010 – 13
2 MONDAY, APRIL 25, 2005 COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE 3
The Turks had made a secret pact with the However, the sacrifice of the Anzacs had only became one of the world’s great sieges.
O test of a man’s character could be so
No test of a man’s character could be so cruel as that of war.
Gallipoli, that of war. And Gallipoli, which
Andcruel aswhich threw hundreds of thousands of men at
as one country up with the Germans as it
Germans hadanother teamedpactfor another War. Butone
made a secret
after this Great teamed lowed turf. Simpson and his donkey. Albert Jacka VC. Quinn’s of them died. On August 6, the Anzacs swarmed from their
On occasion, both sides took offensive
begun. The Gallipoli campaign lasted almost nine trenches, creating legends of the otherwise undistinguished
Post. The Nek.
The Anzac kit
each other with relativelyof thousands weaponry,at close
threw hundreds unsophisticated of men at became apparent that if But it were to push into Turkey
up for this Great War.the alliesbecame apparent months, transforming men into saints and the Turks embarked
actions. On May 19,1915 earned Victoria Crosses, on
that if the alliesland operation was needed. The plan was
that a significant were to push into Turkey that a
The first few days, in which 643 Australians were killed, turf. Lone Pine, whereattack in which 3000 of them died. On
scrubby razorbacks and gullies into hallowed
each otherand in challenging terrain, bred heroes of men. Men
quarters with relatively unsophisticated
involved the Anzacs days, in which 643 Australians anda massive
the Nek, where four waves of Australians were mown
of true grit. close what?
weaponry, atBut for quarters and in challenging for the British and French forces to come up from the plan
significant land operation was needed. The south- The first few seeking to establish posts on the high August not until shortly swarmed from their
down. It was 6, the Anzacs before the evacuation at the
ern extremity of the peninsula and the Australian and New ground as the Turks attempted to push them back into the
terrain, bred heroes of men.conceived by the British War was for the British and French forces to come up
The Dardanelles campaign was
Anzacs seeking chess end trenches, creating really understood the futility of
were killed, involved theinto a deadly game ofto
sea. But the battle degenerated of 1915 that Whitehall legends of the otherwise
Zealand forces to take the western side, landing at
The Dardanelles campaign was conceived by had from the southern extremity of the poignantBrighton
Council to break the impasse of the solid trench line that Beach. On April 25, 1915, at the dawn of a
moment played out over a remarkably high field characterisedTurks its plan, given the terrain and thePine, where seven
establish posts on the small ground as the by undistinguished Lone resources needed.
the formed across western Europe. It was thought an outflank-
British War Council to break the impasse of
solid trench line that allies driving through the
the ing operation, gained by thehad formed across
and the Australian and New Zealand forces toof
in history, thousands of Australians landed slightly north
the the western on what we now know as Anzac
take intended beach, side, landing at Brighton Cove.
punched up rises and chopped in back into the sea. But The Australians earned Victoria Crosses, and one
attempted to push them valleys. Ironically, Gallipoli,
whichbattle degenerated into a deadly game of
the sought to break the trench warfare of the Western
“what ifs” of Gallipoli are tantalising to ponder. But
Nek, where four waves of world history might
thing is certain. While the course of
UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT
western Europe. It wasthe Russiansan outflanking
Narrows would support thought and drive back the Beach. On April 25, 1915, at the dawn of a chess played of the world’s great sieges.
Front, became oneout over a remarkably small field mown down. It was not until shortly before
have been determined far more thoroughly on other battle- the
operation, gained by the allies driving through
moment of history, had only begun.
poignantthe sacrifice in the Anzacsthousands of The
Gallipoli campaign lasted almost nine months, transforming evacuation theatre of war has had such Whitehall
characterisedsidespunched upactions.and chopped grounds , no other at the end of 1915 that an impact on
On occasion, both by took offensive rises On May 19, AUSTRALIAN ISSUE UNIFORM NEW ZEALAND ISSUE UNIFORM
the Narrows would support the Russians and men into saints and scrubby razorbacks of gullies into hal-
Australians landed slightly northand the intended 1915 the Turks embarked on a massive attack in sought to the really underst ood the futility of its plan, given
in valleys. Ironically, Gallipoli, which which 3000 Australian psyche as Gallipoli. Australian soldiers were issued with The hats were made from
drive back the Germans. beach, on what we now know as Anzac Cove. break the trench warfare of the Western Front, the terrain and the resources needed. two types of hats. khaki felt fur. While the hats provided
excellent sun protection, they did not
The one shown here is
a slouch hat. protect the wearer from shrapnel.
Steel helmets were not
Gallipoli – our character forged
Some slouch hats were
pinned up on one side, others adopted until 1916.
were worn with a flat brim to give
maximum shade. The New Zealand uniforms had
The other type was more regimental variation than
a field service the Australian uniform. Private Edgar Robert Colbeck Adams of Mildura,
peaked round cap. Victoria. Private Adams enlisted
Both Australian September 14, 1914, aged 18, and
hats displayed took part in the landing on Gallipoli on 25,
the general April 1915 when it appears he was taken as a
service badge prisoner of war. He managed to send a message in
(the rising The rifle carried by Aussies a bottle that was picked up in Egypt on November
sun). was the Short Magazine Lee 1, 1915. The message read, “am prisoner about
Enfield MkIII with a pattern two miles from where we landed…” No official
1907 bayonet attached. record of Private Adams as a prisoner or any
The NZ rifles were either subsequent fate was ever received.
the same as above or the
LANDED APRIL 25, 1915 – EVACUATED DECEMBER 20, 1915
Photo courtesy of the Australian War Memorial (H14064).
The little Aussie battler The gear,
MLE Mk 1 – the long Enfield.
Webbing pouches were worn on top of the tunic
The story of Australia’s British-made At one point, AE2 surfaced amid fish- British sub on April 30. As AE2 uniform,
(easily seen above in the photo of Private Adams).
submarine AE2 would make for a ing boats to create panic amid the surfaced, a Turkish torpedo boat weapons carried
Each pouch carried three clips of cartridges. Every
dramatic movie. Commissioned in the Turks, as pictured in this painting by approached. AE2 was damaged as she clip had five cartridges. There were 10 pouches and
a further 50 cartridges were carried in paper
UK in February 1914, AE2 joined the Charles Bryant, which hangs in the dived hurriedly and she was further 30-40kg.
packets in the soldier’s back pack,
Sari Bair Ridge A ridge of jagged peaks. Chunuk Bair British troops and New Zealanders of second AIF convoy in Western Australian War Memorial. News that incapacitated by gunfire. Realising all taking the total to 200 cartridges.
Plugge’s Plateau Named after Kiwi The Anzacs unsuccessfully the Wellington Battalion took the peak Australia at the outbreak of war, the AE2 had reached so far into enemy was in peril, Lieutenant Henry Stoker
Colonel Arthur Plugge whose battalion attempted to capture the of Chunuk Bair on August 8, glimpsing The Nek A narrow ‘neck’ on Russell’s Top, presumably named by a veteran of The Australians wore a
the South African war who adopted the common Dutch term. destined for action in Europe. territory was greatly encouraging to sank his vessel. The 35 crew, whom uniquely Australian service dress
occupied it on April 25. The Turks called it ridge on the first day and the narrows in the distance tunic with four big pockets, cuffed
Traitorous Hill because of the Australian again in the August fighting. On August 7, 1915, the 8th and 10th Light Horse regiments made a Scrubby Knoll The furthest point reached by Australian the ground forces at Anzac Cove who Stoker had seen to safety before he
diversionary attack on the Turkish trenches less than 40 metres The AE2 was assigned to the were already being stymied. abandoned ship, were captured,
and cupped sleeves.
artillery there. troops on April 25, under Lieutenant Noel
away. Four waves went over the top, charging into machine-gun fire. Loutit, of the 10th battalion. Later that day,
Dardanelles campaign, initially envis- four of them to It allowed the soldier room to move and
Battleship Hill Of the 600 attackers, 234 were killed and 138 wounded. aged as a naval operation. On April 25, However, AE2 came to grief as she was more comfortable than the British
Also known as Big 700, its
Mustafa Kemal, the Turkish commander, die as prisoners pattern tunic that the New Zealanders wore.
established his headquarters there. 1915, as the Anzacs prepared to land sought to rendezvous with a of war. Distinctive unit
approximate height in feet. Named on the other side of the Gallipoli The New Zealanders wore Bed-roll or colour patch
Rhododendron Ridge from the warships that fired on
Pope’s Hill An isolated Australian position at the head of Monash The Australians
trousers while the Australians greatcoat
Valley, named after Lieutenant Colonel Harold Pope, of Peninsula, AE2 torpedoed and dam- wore ammunition (11th Battalion,
Named for the flowers, actually Turks moving over the crest. boots. wore breeches made of thick part of the 3rd
Oleanders, that bloomed here, the 16th battalion, who helped the Anzacs occupy the Quinn’s Post The key to the Anzac line where Australian aged a Turkish destroyer and pushed woollen cord. They were warm Back-pack carried Brigade from
W.A. (1st ashore)
They were comfortable, spare clothing and
the ridge was pivotal to the hill on the night of April 25. trenches lay on a crest of a cliff. The Turkish through the Narrows and into the Sea and comfortable, quite baggy spare ammunition
trenches were so close that Anzacs were cleverly designed boots,
fighting in the allies’ unsuccessful of Marmara. quite different to the
and fastened under the knee.
Calico bag carried
August offensive. The Auckland The Sphinx The steep spur at the end of the ridge of Russell’s said to look at the post “as a man looks at a British sealed pattern rations for two days
battalion was mown down as it Top named after the ancient monument familiar to haunted house”. A Turkish advance of a few This was a considerable effort as the boots worn by the Kindling wrapped in two sandbags
tried to advance to Chunuk Bair. the Anzacs in Egypt. metres would have endangered the entire sub dodged mines and attacks from New Zealanders. Puttees, a 3m long strip Pouch for entrenching tool
Anzac position. Major Hugh Quinn, of the the Turkish forts along the shore. While most of the boots of woollen cloth, wound from utensils and
Two pints of water
15th battalion, commanded the post from came with hobnails for the ankle to just below the knee, rations for a day.
late April until his death on May 29. traction, the boots worn were worn to provide protection and warmth
by the light horse did to the lower leg. However, they were uncomfortable
not have hobnails for and cumbersome. They were too hot in the summer
safety reasons and heat and they got torn up in the rough terrain.
On the left hip was a bayonet scabbard and When they got wet they caught mud and lice.
Courtney’s Post Named after Lieutenant Colonel Richard Courtney, 14th Battalion, these trenches at the head of Monash were known as an entrenching tool helv (handle for the head of
half-heavy boots. Many soldiers discarded them while at Gallipoli.
Valley were held by Australians until May 31 and afterwards by New Zealanders. which was carried in a pouch on the backside)
which was used by the soldier to dig himself in.
Johnston’s Jolly Named after Colonel George Johnston, whose 2nd Field Artillery Brigade guns were said to ‘jolly
up’ the Turks. A cemetery containing 148 graves, including 36 identified as Australian, lies nearby.
Lone Pine A popular song, On the trail of the Lonesome Pine, suggested a name for this plateau with its
The Australians and New Zealanders landed on the Gallipoli
peninsula dressed like this, although caps were more common on
What they ate
solitary pine tree. On 6 August, the 1st Australian Infantry Brigade attacked the Turkish trenches, April 25th. The Australian infantry carried a full kit, including
opening six days of bitter fighting in a maze of trenches. The Turks called it ‘Bloody Ridge’. bundles of kindling. Here, the Kiwi has abandoned his equipment,
TRENCH WAR FARE
as many of the troops did as they climbed the cliffs above the Bully beef, teeth-breaking biscuits, mushy vegetables and
Brown’s dip A depression where men of the 1st Australian Infantry Brigade gathered landing beaches. Soon, given the warm weather, troops discarded the occasional strip of fatty bacon were the staple diet of the
before the attack on Lone Pine during the August offensive. Named after
Lieutenant Colonel Edward Brown, of the 3rd battalion. their uniforms, pictures show the diggers often clad in only shorts diggers. Water was in short
and slouch hats. supply and the salty beef made
Chatham’s Post The southern-most point of the Anzac line, established in the troops even thirstier.
June 1915 and named after Lieutenant William Chatham of
the 5th Light Horse who first occupied it.
Leane’s Trench This trench, captured from the Turks on 31 July, was named
after Captain Ray Leane of the 11th Battalion, a member of THE BEST OF TIMES, THE WORST OF TIMES
NORTH BEACH one well-known South Australian family in the first AIF,
who led the attack.
The Anzacs experienced the best and worst of the Turkish climate. that bloated they can’t fly.” Bean added: “The men find the flies at
Monash Valley BRIGHTON BEACH When they landed in April the weather was mild and progressively present far worse than the Turks.”
The continuation of Shrapnel Gully, Tasmania Post Established on Holly Ridge by the got better. Australia’s official war historian Charles Bean wrote: Thousands of men were afflicted by dysentery,
named after Colonel John Monash, Light Horsemen in June 1915. “Every day since the landing the sky had been blue, the weather infections and other illness.
Queensland Point glassily smooth. The climate, which was that of an ideal health resort,
later commander of the Australian Anzac Cove The Turks fired upon the 9th battalion always brilliant but at first fresh and even cold, became steadily
And when the harshness of summer passed,
Corps but on Gallipoli leader of the Dozens of lifeboats towed into from Queensland, the first ashore at biting winds set in.
warmer, until in July the midday temperature in the shade was
4th Brigade, whose headquarters’ shore from troop ships landed at
4.30am, from this point. regularly between 83 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit.” Pictures show The weather played a critical role in the evac-
dugouts were in the cliffs at its this small cove somewhat north the men lying in the sun and enjoying the cooling waters off uation. Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary
head. It was here that General of the intentioned Z beach. sun-kissed beaches. of State for War, could see no-one breaking
Bridges was fatally shot. Troops were confronted by almost the stalemate, particularly as the dark, fore-
perpendicular cliffs which made the Shrapnel Gully But this did not accurately depict the wider horrors and realities of boding skies rolled in. A rainstorm struck on
Securing victory rather than The main route from Anzac Cover to the front line, war that became the routine. The weather became hotter, the tracks November 27, 1915, followed by the worst
counting casualties is the priority chances of reaching their objectives and trenches dustier, the men’s thirst could not be slaked, lice were blizzard for decades. Across the scrubby ter-
inland negligible. By the night of crowded with supply depots, rest camps and water
in times of battle, so establishing rampant – and then there were the flies. rain of the peninsula, troops suffered frostbite
Sunday, April 25, 16,000 men had points and subject to Turkish artillery fire. and the trenches became creeks of bobbing bodies.
an inventory of the dead and
wounded was problematic at Gallipoli. been landed, with a toll of more “The flies are simply unbearable,” wrote Private Cecil McAnulty. “They This precipitated the ingenious evacuation in which
than 2000 killed or wounded. This are here in millions, from the size of a pin’s head to great bluebottles barely a casualty was recorded.
The campaign for the Dardanelles was not
Artist Frank Crozier captures the
insignificant in its scope (about one million encampment on the beach where
beach area became the heart of the
men from both sides were involved). Neither Anzac position.
Weapons of battle
the 1st and 2nd Australian divisions
was the loss of life and injury. But it paled against were established. (AWM ART02161) Gallipoli, 1915: A landing scene at Anzac Cove.
the losses endured in other theatres, for instance on (AWM J03022)
the Western Front during World War I. Despite the
popular belief that Australia’s losses were more severe
than that of other countries at Gallipoli, the Turkish toll Key to the campaign relief map EQUIPMENT OF WAR
was of the proportions of a national tragedy. It is also “ANZAC STOOD AND STILL STANDS FOR RECKLESS VALOUR
The Anzac position after the August offensive. The Australians carried a standard issue .303-inch Short Magazine
thought that the number of Turkish casualties (below) is IN A GOOD CAUSE, FOR ENTERPRISE, RESOURCEFULNESS, Lee-Enfield rifle with bayonet. Both sides had machine gun positions,
understated with the true figure perhaps as high as 470,000. The Anzac position one week after the landing. Germans
Note too, the French lost more than Australia, and New Zealand, FIDELITY, COMRADESHIP AND ENDURANCE THAT WILL NEVER Troops leaving a transport ship at 6am for the landing at ANZAC Cove.
the Turks notably using them in the south at Helles to mow down the
British landing on April 25 and at the Nek. Crude, improvised grenades had about 40 planes Above: A Vickers machine-gun
per capita, experienced a mammoth toll. Of the 8556 Kiwis who ADMIT DEFEAT.” – Official World War I correspondent Charles Bean. The Turkish line after the August offensive. Courtesy of Australian War Memorial (J05589) were also exchanged between sides. Australian “bomb throwers” each with the latter get- taken ashore by the 6th battalion.
served, 7453 were killed or wounded (87 per cent). caught enemy grenades and lobbed them back. Makeshift factories ting the upper hand in
Various sources give different figures for some countries, but they generally agree on the Australian toll.
were established to make the bombs, the simplest one the “jam tin” the battle above shortly before the allies evacuated at the end of 1915.
bomb, made from cans filled with shell fragments and barbed wire cut The Dardanelles were heavily mined by the Turks, which scuttled the
Deaths at Gallipoli Gallipoli’s location The Anzac battle grounds The big picture Simpson and his donkey into small lengths. A little known aspect of the Gallipoli campaign was
the use of aircraft for surveillance and bombing. The British and
British/French naval operation to force through the Narrows to
Constantinople before the landings of April 25.
Country Deaths Wounded JOHN SIMPSON KIRKPATRICK, Private
War in the trenches
TURKEY IN EUROPE
EDIRNE (ANDRINOPLE) Tekke Besol Lance Corporal William Beech of the 2nd battalion invented
Turkey 86,692 128,000 Constantinople Seutari Point Tekke Tepe the periscope rifle in May 1915. The rifle was placed in a fixed
Britain 21,255 52,230 N Ghazi Baba Kuckanafarta Given Australians’ general disdain for estab- position so the upper-glass looked along rifle sights while the
Tekirdag ’A’ Beach Anafarta lishment figures it is not surprising that the sniper peered into the lower mirror.
France 9874 17,000 GREECE Sagir Buyukanafarta HOW TO SHOOT WITHOUT BECOMING A TARGET
Sea of Marmara HILL 10 best-known figure from the Gallipoli campaign is a
Australia 8709 19,441 Sulva SCIMTAR HILL A factory line was established for the periscope rifles, which
Salt B Beach
e h bloke with a donkey. Simpson, though, was very
NEWSPAPERS IN EDUCATION
93 Gulf of Sarsos
Bay lake CHOCOLATE HILL
Ismailoglu Chunuk Bair
much British, from northern England. Something of Mirrors reflect
the view in front
Wooden strut gives support to rifle barrel so
were particularly necessary given the
allies’ and Turks’ trenches were only
Gelibolu Nibrunesi GREEN HILL Tepe A a nomad, he enlisted while on a the digger does not need to show his arm metres apart in some places and
India 1358 3421 Samothrace Point SARI BAIR RANGE Z Beach a brief sojourn in Australia of the rifle down above the trench.
Lapseki ’B’ Beach HILL 60 April 25, 191 Bigali there was immense danger in
Koja to the mirror
. Aegean Sea Chementepe
Bright with the hope he could make some below
raising oneself above the
Helles Anzac area
Gababa Tepe money while serving on the western front and then parapet to shoot.
Australian military deaths Dardanelles HILL Q
Liz Zelencich shown in yellow Kilye bay return home to his dotting mother and sister. He
Kum Kale Chunuk Bair Nara Burnu landed with the AIF at Anzac on April 25, possibly in String is
Success in defeat
Tenedos Ari Burnu attached to
Program Co-ordinator TURKEY IN ASIA The Nek Boghali
the lifeboat recently restored by the Australian War Above: The headband said to have been trigger so the
Bezikir Bay (ANATOLIA) Lone Pine Kum Bay
Sudan War 9 (770 served overseas) ANZAC Cove Memorial. He soon attracted attention worn by Simpson’s donkey, ‘Murphy’,
The Cup Maltepe CANAKKALE and the purple cross awarded posthumously to
in his role as the animal-loving
(560) Australian fatalities at Gallipoli Gozetleme
Narrows stretcher-bearer, ferrying the
injured from the trenches.
the little beast. A certificate further states, ‘and for all the
donkeys used by John Simpson Kirkpatrick, for the exceptional
work they performed on behalf of humans while under continual
be fired with-
DIGGERS FOOL THE ENEMY IN CLEVER WITHDRAWAL
World War I 61,720 (331,781) Sari Saricaeli sniper fire
April 25, Sighlar He was shot dead during fire at Gallipoli during World War I (1915)’. The withdrawal from Gallipoli was Top can filled with water, rope punched into can
World War II 39,366 (575,799) Period Killed in Action Died of Wounds Died of Disease Total Deaths 1915 Bay directs the water drips
April 25-30, 1915 643 203 14 860 Gaba Tepe Nagara Achi Baba one of his morning journeys Presented to the Australian War Memorial at a ceremony probably the most successful part into the lower can
Korean War 339 (17,164) HIA
up Monash Valley. on 19 May 1997.
of the operation, mostly due to
May 1805 469 24 2298 Point Kephes catches reflection
Malayan emergency 36 (7000)
Madios Authorities “back home” in a bit of clever subterfuge.
June 265 199 9 473 Bay
British landings August 6 Private Simpson and his little donkey earned the admiration of from mirror
July 143 113 46 302 Australia used his image for everyone at the upper end of the valley. They worked all day and above and shows For weeks the Anzacs
Anzac landings August 6
Vietnam 520 (50,001) propaganda and this helped spur
August 2054 532 80 2666 W Beach
night throughout the whole period since the landing, and help the digger what is concealed from the Turks how
Turkish attacks May 18
Peace operations 7 September 145 163 91 399 rendered to the wounded was invaluable. in the rifle sight they were evacuating
April 25, h a legend. Continuous calls have
ANZAC landings April 1915 1915
October 82 84 115 281 been made to award him a troops by night. On the Sandbags
Furthest landings reached Narrows support rifle
November 295 184 120 599 m Kale April 25, 1915 posthumous VC. Simpson and last night “drip guns” like
Sources: The collection of the Australian War Memorial; The Story of Anzac, by Anzacs AprilAugust 6 Erenkoy
this deterred the Turks
Volumes 1 & II, CW Bean; Gallipoli by Les Carlyon; Major and Mrs Holt’s December 50 46 124 220 his donkey are immortalised
um Kale Left: Simpson’s aluminium identity disc on a leather thong which
Battlefield Guide to Gallipoli; The Gallipoli Story by Patrick Carlyon; A Guide January 16, 1916 0 19 42 61 Anzac and Sulva front from investigating the String attached to bottom
to the Battlefields Cemeteries and Memorials of the Gallipoli Peninsula by after August battles
Achilles with a bronze statue at the he wore around his neck. Stamped on front with owner’s details as
deserted Anzac trenches. can pulls down on trigger
Totals 5482 2012 665 8159 (8709*) tomb Yenimahalle
follows: ‘202 J SIMPSON C 3 F AMB C E’. when can is heavy enough
Ashley Ekins, Australian War Memorial and various other sources. We also Compiled by: Stuart Howie, New Kum Kale Australian War Memorial.
thank Robert Nichols and Craig Wilcox, from the memorial, for fact checking. Graphics: Kathryn Guy * This is the official revised estimate