The Anzac kit Gallipoli – our character forged (PDF)

					12 – TUESDAY, April 20, 2010                                                 The Standard                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Standard                     TUESDAY, April 20, 2010 – 13

2                                                                        MONDAY, APRIL 25, 2005                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE                                         3
                                                                                                                                                                                             The Turks had made a secret pact with the                                                                                        However, the sacrifice of the Anzacs had only                                                                       became one of the world’s great sieges.

                                                                                                                                    O test of a man’s character could be so
                                                                                                                              No test of a man’s character could be so cruel as that of war.
                                                                                                                                    Gallipoli, that of war. And Gallipoli, which
                                                                                                                              Andcruel aswhich threw hundreds of thousands of men at
                                                                                                                                                                                            The Turks
                                                                                                                                                                                                        as one country up with the Germans as it
                                                                                                                                                                                          Germans hadanother teamedpactfor another War. Butone
                                                                                                                                                                                            country after
                                                                                                                                                                                                            made a secret
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           after this Great teamed                                                                     lowed turf. Simpson and his donkey. Albert Jacka VC. Quinn’s of them died. On August 6, the Anzacs swarmed from their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On occasion, both sides took offensive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        begun. The Gallipoli campaign lasted almost nine trenches, creating legends of the otherwise undistinguished
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Post. The Nek.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Anzac kit
                                                                                                                              each other with relativelyof thousands weaponry,at close
                                                                                                                                   threw hundreds unsophisticated of men at                 became apparent that if But it were to push into Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                          up for this Great War.the alliesbecame apparent                                                                               months, transforming men into saints and                                                             the Turks embarked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           actions. On May 19,1915 earned Victoria Crosses, on
                                                                                                                                                                                          that if the alliesland operation was needed. The plan was
                                                                                                                                                                                            that a significant were to push into Turkey that a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          seven Australians
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The first few days, in which 643 Australians were killed, turf. Lone Pine, whereattack in which 3000 of them died. On
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        scrubby razorbacks and gullies into hallowed
                                                                                                                           each otherand in challenging terrain, bred heroes of men. Men
                                                                                                                              quarters with relatively unsophisticated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       involved the Anzacs days, in which 643 Australians              anda massive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the Nek, where four waves of Australians were mown
                                                                                                                              of true grit. close what?
                                                                                                                           weaponry, atBut for quarters and in challenging                  for the British and French forces to come up from the plan
                                                                                                                                                                                          significant land operation was needed. The south-                                                                                The first few seeking to establish posts on the high            August not until shortly swarmed from their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       down. It was 6, the Anzacs before the evacuation at the
                                                                                                                                                                                            ern extremity of the peninsula and the Australian and New                                                                  ground as the Turks attempted to push them back into the
                                                                                                                           terrain, bred heroes of men.conceived by the British War was for the British and French forces to come up
                                                                                                                               The Dardanelles campaign was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Anzacs seeking chess end trenches, creating really understood the futility of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        were killed, involved theinto a deadly game ofto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sea. But the battle degenerated                                     of 1915 that Whitehall legends of the otherwise
                                                                                                                                                                                            Zealand forces to take the western side, landing at
                                                                                                                              The Dardanelles campaign was conceived by had from the southern extremity of the poignantBrighton
                                                                                                                               Council to break the impasse of the solid trench line that   Beach. On April 25, 1915, at the dawn of a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  moment                                                               played out over a remarkably high field characterisedTurks its plan, given the terrain and thePine, where seven
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        establish posts on the small ground as the by                      undistinguished Lone resources needed.
                                                                                                                           the formed across western Europe. It was thought an outflank-
                                                                                                                               British War Council to break the impasse of
                                                                                                                               solid trench line that allies driving through the
                                                                                                                           the ing operation, gained by thehad formed across
                                                                                                                                                                                          and the Australian and New Zealand forces toof
                                                                                                                                                                                            in history, thousands of Australians landed slightly north
                                                                                                                                                                                            the the western on what we now know as Anzac
                                                                                                                                                                                          take intended beach, side, landing at Brighton Cove.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       punched up rises and chopped in back into the sea. But The Australians earned Victoria Crosses, and one
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        attempted to push them valleys. Ironically, Gallipoli,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       whichbattle degenerated into a deadly game of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the sought to break the trench warfare of the Western
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           “what ifs” of Gallipoli are tantalising to ponder. But
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Nek, where four waves of world history might
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       thing is certain. While the course of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Australians were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT
                                                                                                                           western Europe. It wasthe Russiansan outflanking
                                                                                                                               Narrows would support thought and drive back the           Beach. On April 25, 1915, at the dawn of a                                                                                    chess played of the world’s great sieges.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Front, became oneout over a remarkably small field                  mown down. It was not until shortly before
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       have been determined far more thoroughly on other battle- the
                                                                                                                           operation, gained by the allies driving through
                                                                                                                                                                                                        moment of history, had only begun.
                                                                                                                                                                                          poignantthe sacrifice in the Anzacsthousands of The
                                                                                                                                                                                            Gallipoli campaign lasted almost nine months, transforming                                                                                                                                     evacuation theatre of war has had such Whitehall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        characterisedsidespunched upactions.and chopped grounds , no other at the end of 1915 that an impact on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       On occasion, both   by took offensive rises On May 19,                                                                                                                                                                                                                               AUSTRALIAN ISSUE UNIFORM                                                      NEW ZEALAND ISSUE UNIFORM
                                                                                                                           the Narrows would support the Russians and                       men into saints and scrubby razorbacks of gullies into hal-
                                                                                                                                                                                          Australians landed slightly northand the intended                                                                            1915 the Turks embarked on a massive attack in sought to the really underst ood the futility of its plan, given
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in valleys. Ironically, Gallipoli, which which 3000                Australian psyche as Gallipoli.                                                                                                                                                                                  Australian soldiers were issued with                                                                  The hats were made from
                                                                                                                           drive back the Germans.                                        beach, on what we now know as Anzac Cove.                                                                                     break the trench warfare of the Western Front,                                                                            the terrain and the resources needed.                                                                                                                     two types of hats.                                                                                    khaki felt fur. While the hats provided
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  excellent sun protection, they did not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The one shown here is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a slouch hat.                                                                                         protect the wearer from shrapnel.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Steel helmets were not

Gallipoli – our character forged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Some slouch hats were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pinned up on one side, others                                                                             adopted until 1916.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            were worn with a flat brim to give
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            maximum shade.                                                                                          The New Zealand uniforms had
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The other type was                                                                                       more regimental variation than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a field service                                                                                         the Australian uniform.                   Private Edgar Robert Colbeck Adams of Mildura,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            peaked round cap.                                                                                                                                                   Victoria. Private Adams enlisted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Both Australian                                                                                                                                                   September 14, 1914, aged 18, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            hats displayed                                                                                                                                             took part in the landing on Gallipoli on 25,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the general                                                                                                                                       April 1915 when it appears he was taken as a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            service badge                                                                                                                                     prisoner of war. He managed to send a message in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (the rising                                                                                                     The rifle carried by Aussies      a bottle that was picked up in Egypt on November
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            sun).                                                                                                          was the Short Magazine Lee         1, 1915. The message read, “am prisoner about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Enfield MkIII with a pattern       two miles from where we landed…” No official
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1907 bayonet attached.           record of Private Adams as a prisoner or any
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The NZ rifles were either         subsequent fate was ever received.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the same as above or the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Photo courtesy of the Australian War Memorial (H14064).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The little Aussie battler                                                                                                                                  The gear,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MLE Mk 1 – the long Enfield.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Webbing pouches were worn on top of the tunic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The story of Australia’s British-made            At one point, AE2 surfaced amid fish-            British sub on April 30. As AE2                          uniform,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (easily seen above in the photo of Private Adams).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            boots and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 submarine AE2 would make for a                   ing boats to create panic amid the               surfaced, a Turkish torpedo boat                         weapons carried
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Each pouch carried three clips of cartridges. Every
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 dramatic movie. Commissioned in the              Turks, as pictured in this painting by           approached. AE2 was damaged as she                                                                                                                                                                       clip had five cartridges. There were 10 pouches and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            weighed between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   a further 50 cartridges were carried in paper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 UK in February 1914, AE2 joined the              Charles Bryant, which hangs in the               dived hurriedly and she was further                      30-40kg.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                packets in the soldier’s back pack,
                                                                                     Sari Bair Ridge A ridge of jagged peaks.                               Chunuk Bair British troops and New Zealanders of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     second AIF convoy in Western                     Australian War Memorial. News that               incapacitated by gunfire. Realising all                                                                                                                                                                                     taking the total to 200 cartridges.
   Plugge’s Plateau Named after Kiwi                                                                               The Anzacs unsuccessfully                                     the Wellington Battalion took the peak                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Australia at the outbreak of war,                the AE2 had reached so far into enemy            was in peril, Lieutenant Henry Stoker
   Colonel Arthur Plugge whose battalion                                                                           attempted to capture the                                      of Chunuk Bair on August 8, glimpsing                   The Nek A narrow ‘neck’ on Russell’s Top, presumably named by a veteran of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Australians wore a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the South African war who adopted the common Dutch term.                                                                                                                                   destined for action in Europe.                   territory was greatly encouraging to             sank his vessel. The 35 crew, whom                                                                                                                            uniquely Australian service dress
   occupied it on April 25. The Turks called it                                                                    ridge on the first day and                                    the narrows in the distance                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tunic with four big pockets, cuffed
   Traitorous Hill because of the Australian                                                                       again in the August fighting.                                                                                                      On August 7, 1915, the 8th and 10th Light Horse regiments made a                Scrubby Knoll The furthest point reached by Australian                                                                                                      the ground forces at Anzac Cove who              Stoker had seen to safety before he
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      diversionary attack on the Turkish trenches less than 40 metres                                                                                                                            The AE2 was assigned to the                      were already being stymied.                      abandoned ship, were captured,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and cupped sleeves.
   artillery there.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               troops on April 25, under Lieutenant Noel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      away. Four waves went over the top, charging into machine-gun fire.                                         Loutit, of the 10th battalion. Later that day,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Dardanelles campaign, initially envis-                                                            four of them to                                                                                                                                               It allowed the soldier room to move and
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Battleship Hill                                     Of the 600 attackers, 234 were killed and 138 wounded.                                                                                                                                     aged as a naval operation. On April 25,          However, AE2 came to grief as she                                                                                                                                                                              was more comfortable than the British
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Also known as Big 700, its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mustafa Kemal, the Turkish commander,                                                                                                                                            die as prisoners                                                                                                                                              pattern tunic that the New Zealanders wore.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  established his headquarters there.                                            1915, as the Anzacs prepared to land             sought to rendezvous with a                      of war.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Distinctive unit
                                                                                                                                                                                                  approximate height in feet. Named                                                                                                                                                                                                              on the other side of the Gallipoli                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The New Zealanders wore                                      Bed-roll or              colour patch
                                 Rhododendron Ridge                                                                                                                                               from the warships that fired on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Pope’s Hill An isolated Australian position at the head of Monash                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Australians
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 trousers while the Australians                               greatcoat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Valley, named after Lieutenant Colonel Harold Pope, of                                                                                                                   Peninsula, AE2 torpedoed and dam-                                                                                                                          wore ammunition                                                                                                                                                                            (11th Battalion,
                                 Named for the flowers, actually                                                                                                                                  Turks moving over the crest.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              boots.                                                                                               wore breeches made of thick                                                           part of the 3rd

                                 Oleanders, that bloomed here,                                                                                                                                                                                                          the 16th battalion, who helped the Anzacs occupy the                Quinn’s Post The key to the Anzac line where Australian                                              aged a Turkish destroyer and pushed                                                                                                                                                                                                                             woollen cord. They were warm            Back-pack carried                             Brigade from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       W.A. (1st ashore)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They were comfortable,                                                                                                                       spare clothing and
                                 the ridge was pivotal to the                                                                                                                                                                                                           hill on the night of April 25.                                                               trenches lay on a crest of a cliff. The Turkish                             through the Narrows and into the Sea                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and comfortable, quite baggy            spare ammunition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     trenches were so close that Anzacs were                                                                                                                                                                                                cleverly designed boots,
                                 fighting in the allies’ unsuccessful                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            of Marmara.                                                                                                                                                quite different to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and fastened under the knee.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Calico bag carried
                                 August offensive. The Auckland                                                                                                                                                                                          The Sphinx The steep spur at the end of the ridge of Russell’s                                              said to look at the post “as a man looks at a                                                                                                                                                                                          British sealed pattern                                                                                                                       rations for two days
                                 battalion was mown down as it                                                                                                                                                                                                              Top named after the ancient monument familiar to                                         haunted house”. A Turkish advance of a few                                  This was a considerable effort as the                                                                                                                      boots worn by the                                                                                                                    Kindling wrapped in two sandbags
                                 tried to advance to Chunuk Bair.                                                                                                                                                                                                           the Anzacs in Egypt.                                                                     metres would have endangered the entire                                     sub dodged mines and attacks from                                                                                                                          New Zealanders.                                                                                   Puttees, a 3m long strip                  Pouch for entrenching tool
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     carried eating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Anzac position. Major Hugh Quinn, of the                                    the Turkish forts along the shore.                                                                                                                         While most of the boots                                                                           of woollen cloth, wound from                                                           utensils and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Two pints of water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     15th battalion, commanded the post from                                                                                                                                                                                                came with hobnails for                                                                            the ankle to just below the knee,                                                      rations for a day.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     late April until his death on May 29.                                                                                                                                                                                                  traction, the boots worn                                                                          were worn to provide protection and warmth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            by the light horse did                                                                            to the lower leg. However, they were uncomfortable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            not have hobnails for                                                                             and cumbersome. They were too hot in the summer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            safety reasons and                                                                                heat and they got torn up in the rough terrain.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   On the left hip was a bayonet scabbard and                 When they got wet they caught mud and lice.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Courtney’s Post Named after Lieutenant Colonel Richard Courtney, 14th Battalion, these trenches at the head of Monash                                             were known as                          an entrenching tool helv (handle for the head of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            half-heavy boots.                                                                                 Many soldiers discarded them while at Gallipoli.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Valley were held by Australians until May 31 and afterwards by New Zealanders.                                                                                                 which was carried in a pouch on the backside)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   which was used by the soldier to dig himself in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Johnston’s Jolly Named after Colonel George Johnston, whose 2nd Field Artillery Brigade guns were said to ‘jolly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             up’ the Turks. A cemetery containing 148 graves, including 36 identified as Australian, lies nearby.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lone Pine A popular song, On the trail of the Lonesome Pine, suggested a name for this plateau with its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Australians and New Zealanders landed on the Gallipoli
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            peninsula dressed like this, although caps were more common on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               What they ate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                solitary pine tree. On 6 August, the 1st Australian Infantry Brigade attacked the Turkish trenches,                         April 25th. The Australian infantry carried a full kit, including
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                opening six days of bitter fighting in a maze of trenches. The Turks called it ‘Bloody Ridge’.                              bundles of kindling. Here, the Kiwi has abandoned his equipment,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               TRENCH WAR FARE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            as many of the troops did as they climbed the cliffs above the                                     Bully beef, teeth-breaking biscuits, mushy vegetables and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Brown’s dip A depression where men of the 1st Australian Infantry Brigade gathered                           landing beaches. Soon, given the warm weather, troops discarded                                    the occasional strip of fatty bacon were the staple diet of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  before the attack on Lone Pine during the August offensive. Named after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lieutenant Colonel Edward Brown, of the 3rd battalion.                                    their uniforms, pictures show the diggers often clad in only shorts                                                                   diggers. Water was in short
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and slouch hats.                                                                                                                   supply and the salty beef made
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Chatham’s Post The southern-most point of the Anzac line, established in                                                                                                                                                                                    the troops even thirstier.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             June 1915 and named after Lieutenant William Chatham of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the 5th Light Horse who first occupied it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Leane’s Trench This trench, captured from the Turks on 31 July, was named
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The conditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     after Captain Ray Leane of the 11th Battalion, a member of                              THE BEST OF TIMES, THE WORST OF TIMES
                                                                                                                                                                                   NORTH BEACH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       one well-known South Australian family in the first AIF,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     who led the attack.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The Anzacs experienced the best and worst of the Turkish climate.                            that bloated they can’t fly.” Bean added: “The men find the flies at
                                                                                                                                                                                   Monash Valley                                                                                                                                                                                       BRIGHTON BEACH                                                                                                                                                                                                        When they landed in April the weather was mild and progressively                             present far worse than the Turks.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ANZAC COVE
                                                                                                                                                                                   The continuation of Shrapnel Gully,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Tasmania Post Established on Holly Ridge by the                                             got better. Australia’s official war historian Charles Bean wrote:                           Thousands of men were afflicted by dysentery,
                                                                                                                                                                                   named after Colonel John Monash,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Light Horsemen in June 1915.                                           “Every day since the landing the sky had been blue, the weather                              infections and other illness.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Queensland Point                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               glassily smooth. The climate, which was that of an ideal health resort,
                                                                                                                                                                                   later commander of the Australian                     Anzac Cove                                                                           The Turks fired upon the 9th battalion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         always brilliant but at first fresh and even cold, became steadily
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          And when the harshness of summer passed,
                                                                                                                                                                                   Corps but on Gallipoli leader of the                  Dozens of lifeboats towed into                                                       from Queensland, the first ashore at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        biting winds set in.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             warmer, until in July the midday temperature in the shade was
                                                                                                                                                                                   4th Brigade, whose headquarters’                      shore from troop ships landed at
& casualties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.30am, from this point.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       regularly between 83 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit.” Pictures show                               The weather played a critical role in the evac-
                                                                                                                                                                                   dugouts were in the cliffs at its                     this small cove somewhat north                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the men lying in the sun and enjoying the cooling waters off                                 uation. Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary
                                                                                                                                                                                   head. It was here that General                        of the intentioned Z beach.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         sun-kissed beaches.                                                                          of State for War, could see no-one breaking
                                                                                                                                                                                   Bridges was fatally shot.                             Troops were confronted by almost                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the stalemate, particularly as the dark, fore-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         perpendicular cliffs which made the                         Shrapnel Gully                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          But this did not accurately depict the wider horrors and realities of                        boding skies rolled in. A rainstorm struck on
Securing victory rather than                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The main route from Anzac Cover to the front line,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      war that became the routine. The weather became hotter, the tracks                           November 27, 1915, followed by the worst
counting casualties is the priority                                                                                                                                                                                                      chances of reaching their objectives                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and trenches dustier, the men’s thirst could not be slaked, lice were                        blizzard for decades. Across the scrubby ter-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         inland negligible. By the night of                          crowded with supply depots, rest camps and water
in times of battle, so establishing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rampant – and then there were the flies.                                                     rain of the peninsula, troops suffered frostbite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sunday, April 25, 16,000 men had                            points and subject to Turkish artillery fire.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and the trenches became creeks of bobbing bodies.
an inventory of the dead and
wounded was problematic at Gallipoli.                                                                                                                                                                                                    been landed, with a toll of more                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    “The flies are simply unbearable,” wrote Private Cecil McAnulty. “They                       This precipitated the ingenious evacuation in which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         than 2000 killed or wounded. This                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   are here in millions, from the size of a pin’s head to great bluebottles                     barely a casualty was recorded.
The campaign for the Dardanelles was not
                                                                                                                                       Artist Frank Crozier captures the
insignificant in its scope (about one million                                                                                         encampment on the beach where
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         beach area became the heart of the
men from both sides were involved). Neither                                                                                                                                                                                              Anzac position.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Weapons of battle
                                                                                                                                    the 1st and 2nd Australian divisions
was the loss of life and injury. But it paled against                                                                               were established. (AWM ART02161)                                                                     Gallipoli, 1915: A landing scene at Anzac Cove.
the losses endured in other theatres, for instance on                                                                                                                                                                                    (AWM J03022)
the Western Front during World War I. Despite the
popular belief that Australia’s losses were more severe
than that of other countries at Gallipoli, the Turkish toll                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Key to the campaign relief map                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                EQUIPMENT OF WAR
was of the proportions of a national tragedy. It is also                                                                                      “ANZAC STOOD AND STILL STANDS FOR RECKLESS VALOUR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Anzac position after the August offensive.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Australians carried a standard issue .303-inch Short Magazine
thought that the number of Turkish casualties (below) is                                                                                      IN A GOOD CAUSE, FOR ENTERPRISE, RESOURCEFULNESS,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lee-Enfield rifle with bayonet. Both sides had machine gun positions,
understated with the true figure perhaps as high as 470,000.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Anzac position one week after the landing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Germans
Note too, the French lost more than Australia, and New Zealand,                                                                               FIDELITY, COMRADESHIP AND ENDURANCE THAT WILL NEVER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Troops leaving a transport ship at 6am for the landing at ANZAC Cove.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the Turks notably using them in the south at Helles to mow down the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            British landing on April 25 and at the Nek. Crude, improvised grenades                         had about 40 planes                Above: A Vickers machine-gun
per capita, experienced a mammoth toll. Of the 8556 Kiwis who                                                                                 ADMIT DEFEAT.” – Official World War I correspondent Charles Bean.                                                                                                       The Turkish line after the August offensive.                                                                   Courtesy of Australian War Memorial (J05589)                                                                                                                           were also exchanged between sides. Australian “bomb throwers”                                  each with the latter get-          taken ashore by the 6th battalion.
served, 7453 were killed or wounded (87 per cent).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          caught enemy grenades and lobbed them back. Makeshift factories                                ting the upper hand in
Various sources give different figures for some countries, but they generally agree on the Australian toll.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            were established to make the bombs, the simplest one the “jam tin”                             the battle above shortly before the allies evacuated at the end of 1915.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            bomb, made from cans filled with shell fragments and barbed wire cut                           The Dardanelles were heavily mined by the Turks, which scuttled the

Deaths at Gallipoli                                                                                                                 Gallipoli’s location                                                                                 The Anzac battle grounds                                                                       The big picture                                                                                                  Simpson and his donkey                                                                                                                             into small lengths. A little known aspect of the Gallipoli campaign was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the use of aircraft for surveillance and bombing. The British and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           British/French naval operation to force through the Narrows to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Constantinople before the landings of April 25.
Country                                                Deaths                                     Wounded                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 JOHN SIMPSON KIRKPATRICK, Private
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            War in the trenches
                                                                                                                                                                                  TURKEY IN EUROPE
                                                                                                                                                                                  EDIRNE (ANDRINOPLE)                                                                                                                                                                                                           Tekke Besol                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lance Corporal William Beech of the 2nd battalion invented
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sulva                                                                                                                                                                Tepe
 Turkey                                                  86,692                                        128,000                                                                                    Constantinople             Seutari       Point                                            Tekke Tepe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the periscope rifle in May 1915. The rifle was placed in a fixed
 Britain                                                 21,255                                         52,230                       N                                                                                                                 Ghazi Baba                                                                                                                                                Kuckanafarta                             Given Australians’ general disdain for estab-                                                                                                                                                                                                               position so the upper-glass looked along rifle sights while the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A Beac
                                                                                                                                                                                    Tekirdag                                                              ’A’ Beach                           Anafarta                                                                                                                                                    lishment figures it is not surprising that the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        sniper peered into the lower mirror.
 France                                                   9874                                           17,000                                        GREECE                                                                                                                                 Sagir                                                                                                                   Buyukanafarta                                                                                                                                                                         HOW TO SHOOT WITHOUT BECOMING A TARGET
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sea of Marmara                                                   HILL 10                                                                                                                                                                                 best-known figure from the Gallipoli campaign is a
 Australia                                                8709                                          19,441                                                                                                                              Sulva                                SCIMTAR HILL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A factory line was established for the periscope rifles, which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Salt                                                                                                  B Beach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e h                                                                                   bloke with a donkey. Simpson, though, was very
 New Zealand
                                                                                                             93                                    Gulf of Sarsos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bay            lake       CHOCOLATE HILL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ismailoglu                                                                                                                 Chunuk Bair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          much British, from northern England. Something of                                                                                                 Mirrors reflect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the view in front
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Wooden strut gives support to rifle barrel so
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              were particularly necessary given the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                allies’ and Turks’ trenches were only
                                                                                                                                                                                  Gelibolu                                                 Nibrunesi        GREEN HILL          Tepe                                                                                               A                                                                      a nomad, he enlisted while on a                                                                                                                                                  the digger does not need to show his arm                                                                  metres apart in some places and
 India                                                     1358                                            3421                           Samothrace                                                                                       Point                                                SARI BAIR RANGE                                                   Z Beach                                                                                 a brief sojourn in Australia                                                                                                                      of the rifle down              above the trench.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Lapseki                                                                   ’B’ Beach           HILL 60                                                                         April 25, 191                                             Bigali                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      there was immense danger in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Koja                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           to the mirror
                                                                                                                       .              Aegean Sea                                                                                                                                             Chementepe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Bright                                                                       with the hope he could make some                                                                                                                  below
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             raising oneself above the
                                                                                                                                                                                 Canakkale                                                                                                                           Yalova
                                                                                                                                                                Helles                               Anzac area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Gababa Tepe                                            money while serving on the western front and then                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          parapet to shoot.
Australian military deaths                                                                                                                                                    Dardanelles                                                                                                   HILL Q
Liz Zelencich                                                                                                                                                                                        shown in yellow                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kilye bay                     return home to his dotting mother and sister. He
                                                                                                                                                                         Kum Kale                                                                                                      Chunuk Bair                                                                                                                                        Nara Burnu      landed with the AIF at Anzac on April 25, possibly in                                                                                             String is

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Success in defeat
                                                                                                                                                           Tenedos                                                                                      Ari Burnu                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           attached to
 Program Co-ordinator                                                                                                                                                                                    TURKEY IN ASIA                                                                The Nek              Boghali
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the lifeboat recently restored by the Australian War                          Above: The headband said to have been                               trigger so the
                                                                                                                                                        Bezikir Bay                                        (ANATOLIA)                                                          Lone Pine                                                                                 Kum Bay
 Sudan War                                                     9                  (770 served overseas)                                                                                                                                              ANZAC Cove                                                                                                                                                                                                         Memorial. He soon attracted attention                           worn by Simpson’s donkey, ‘Murphy’,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            weapon can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The Cup               Maltepe                                                                                                                      CANAKKALE                                                                                       and the purple cross awarded posthumously to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              in his role as the animal-loving
 Boer War
 Boxer Rebellion
                                                                                                  (560)                            Australian fatalities at Gallipoli                                                                                                                                                                                                           Gozetleme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Narrows                                             stretcher-bearer, ferrying the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     injured from the trenches.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the little beast. A certificate further states, ‘and for all the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        donkeys used by John Simpson Kirkpatrick, for the exceptional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        work they performed on behalf of humans while under continual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            be fired with-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            out exposing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            hands to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             DIGGERS FOOL THE ENEMY IN CLEVER WITHDRAWAL
 World War I                                              61,720                              (331,781)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sari       Saricaeli                                                                                                                                                        sniper fire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    April 25,                                                                   Sighlar                                               He was shot dead during                           fire at Gallipoli during World War I (1915)’.                                                                                                        The withdrawal from Gallipoli was                      Top can filled with water, rope punched into can
 World War II                                             39,366                             (575,799)                             Period                Killed in Action       Died of Wounds     Died of Disease     Total Deaths                                                                                                                 1915                                                                        Bay                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           directs the water drips
                                                                                                                                    April 25-30, 1915           643                   203                 14               860                      Gaba Tepe                                                     Nagara                                                                 Achi Baba                                                                                    one of his morning journeys                       Presented to the Australian War Memorial at a ceremony                                                                                               probably the most successful part                                                     into the lower can
 Korean War                                                  339                               (17,164)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      up Monash Valley.                                 on 19 May 1997.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bottom mirror
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the operation, mostly due to
                                                                                                                                    May                        1805                   469                 24              2298                                                                                      Point                                                                                          Kephes                                                                                                                                                                                   catches reflection
 Malayan emergency                                            36                                (7000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Madios                                                                                                                                                                               Authorities “back home” in                                                                                                                                                                               a bit of clever subterfuge.

                                                                                                                                    June                        265                   199                  9                473                                                                                                                                                                                    Bay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            British landings August 6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Private Simpson and his little donkey earned the admiration of      from mirror

 Confrontation                                                15

                                                                                                                                    July                        143                    113                46               302                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Australia used his image for                          everyone at the upper end of the valley. They worked all day and    above and shows                                                                  For weeks the Anzacs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Anzac landings August 6
 Vietnam                                                     520                                       (50,001)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 propaganda and this helped spur

                                                                                                                                    August                     2054                   532                 80              2666                                                                                                          W Beach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        night throughout the whole period since the landing, and help       the digger what is                                                               concealed from the Turks how
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Turkish attacks May 18

 Peace operations                                              7                                                                    September                   145                   163                 91               399                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rendered to the wounded was invaluable.                             in the rifle sight                                                               they were evacuating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        April 25,                                  h                                                                                            a legend. Continuous calls have

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ANZAC landings April                                                                        1915                                       1915
                                                                                                                                    October                      82                     84               115                281                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  been made to award him a                                                                                                                                                                                    troops by night. On the                                                                                Sandbags
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Furthest landings reached                                              Narrows                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          support rifle
                                                                                                                                    November                    295                   184                120               599                                                                                                                                           m Kale April 25, 1915                                                                                    posthumous VC. Simpson and                                                                                                                                                                                 last night “drip guns” like
Sources: The collection of the Australian War Memorial; The Story of Anzac,                                                                                                                                                                 by Anzacs AprilAugust 6                                                                                                                                               Erenkoy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             this deterred the Turks
Volumes 1 & II, CW Bean; Gallipoli by Les Carlyon; Major and Mrs Holt’s                                                             December                     50                     46               124               220                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    his donkey are immortalised
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             um Kale                                                                                                                                                    Left: Simpson’s aluminium identity disc on a leather thong which
Battlefield Guide to Gallipoli; The Gallipoli Story by Patrick Carlyon; A Guide                                                     January 16, 1916              0                     19                42                 61             Anzac and Sulva front                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            from investigating the                               String attached to bottom
to the Battlefields Cemeteries and Memorials of the Gallipoli Peninsula by                                                                                                                                                                  after August battles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Achilles                                                                                                        with a bronze statue at the                           he wore around his neck. Stamped on front with owner’s details as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             deserted Anzac trenches.                             can pulls down on trigger
                                                                                                                                    Totals                     5482                  2012                665       8159 (8709*)                                                                                                                                   tomb                                  Yenimahalle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        follows: ‘202 J SIMPSON C 3 F AMB C E’.                                                                                                                                                                   when can is heavy enough
Ashley Ekins, Australian War Memorial and various other sources. We also              Compiled by: Stuart Howie,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             New Kum Kale                                                                                        Australian War Memorial.
thank Robert Nichols and Craig Wilcox, from the memorial, for fact checking.          Graphics: Kathryn Guy                                                                                    * This is the official revised estimate

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