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					Introduction to Phonetics &
Phonology


           Dr S.J. Hannahs
    Lecture 1 -- SEL1006/SEL8117
         Semester 1, 2009-10
         Newcastle University
Structure of the module

 One hour lecture per week


 One hour seminar per week (compulsory)


 End-of-semester two-hour exam in January
What is phonetics?
What is phonetics?


Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.
What is phonetics?


Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.

 a) how they’re produced (articulatory
  phonetics)
What is phonetics?


Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.

 a) how they’re produced (articulatory
  phonetics)
 b) their physical characteristics (acoustic
  phonetics)
What is phonetics?


Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.

 a) how they’re produced (articulatory
  phonetics)
 b) their physical characteristics (acoustic
  phonetics) and
 c) how they’re perceived (auditory phonetics).
What is phonetics?



      In this module we’ll concentrate on:

a) how they’re produced (articulatory phonetics)
Sound/symbol correspondence
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough thought
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think   those
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think   those     thistle
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think   those     thistle    thong
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
          Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think    those    thistle    thong

church
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
           Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think    those       thistle   thong

church   chemistry
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
           Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think    those       thistle   thong

church   chemistry    loch
Sound/symbol correspondence
The need for a transcription system
           Consider written English

enough through thorough thought bough

think    those       thistle     thong

church   chemistry    loch     Cheryl
International Phonetic Alphabet
IPA


 Devised in the 19th Century to help describe
  the sounds of languages independently of a
  language’s orthography (= writing system).

 Under continuous revision.


 Last major revision was in 1993.
Sound/symbol correspondence

 enough through thorough thought bough
   [ʌf]    [u:]     [ə]    [ɔ:]  [aʊ]

 think        those     thistle    thong
 [θ]         [ð]        [θ]       [θ]

 church   chemistry   loch    Cheryl
 [tʃ]     [k]           [x]   [ʃ]
Transcription – the art of reducing
speech to writing
 Don’t be influenced by English spelling!!
 Transcribe what is, not what ‘ought’ to be
 For instance, speech sounds can influence
  neighbouring sounds:
     i[n] Newcastle
     i[m] Bolton
     i[ŋ] Carlisle

 Trust your ears, not your years of education!!
Transcription – the art of reducing
speech to writing

 Remember: a word in isolation may be
  spoken differently to a word in connected
  speech
     to = [tu:]
     give it to him = [gɪv ɪt tə ɪm]
Transcription – the art of reducing
speech to writing

 Remember: a word in isolation may be
  spoken differently to a word in connected
  speech        compare
     to = [tu:]
     give it to him = [gɪv ɪt tə ɪm]
    International Phonetic Alphabet
                  IPA

Nota bene! The current IPA chart appears in
 Davenport & Hannahs (2005:xvi)
Seminars


 Will begin next week, not this week


 Next week’s seminar exercises will be: Exx 1-
  5, in Davenport & Hannahs, Ch. 2, p.17

 In the meantime, read Chapters 1 & 2 of
  Davenport & Hannahs