Technical review Gold Cyanide monitoring continued for AngloGold Ashanti’s metallurgical plants in southern Africa, Tanzania and Mali, and this work will be extended to the Ghanaian operations in the current year. Some preliminary work was also done for Randgold Resources’ Loulo project in Mali, which is scheduled to begin production in the second half of 2005. Together with AngloGold Ashanti, Technical review Mintek began a THRIP-funded project to investigate various environment-related aspects of cyanide usage, including the vapour pressure of HCN, the stability of Prussian Blue-type precipitates in backﬁll, the Scale-up work on gold-based catalysts under Project fate of thiocyanate in the environment, and cyanide AuTEK destruction by ultraviolet light. Work continued towards 9 the accreditation of analytical methods for cyanide, and A programme of testwork was completed as part of the mintek annual report 2005 Mintek plans to apply for pre-feasibility study on the Burnstone gold project (South ISO 17025 certiﬁcation for Rand) for Vancouver-based Great Basin Gold. The work, cyanide analysis later in which consisted of gravity separation and preg-robbing 2005. tests on a composite sample of borehole cores, showed that more than 90 per cent of the gold could be recovered by gravity separation followed by carbon-in-leach. The Gas-phase sampling metallurgical testwork was carried out in conjunction with to determine cyanide MDM Ferroman, which is responsible for process and volitilisation rates plant design. at a tailings storage facility In early 2005, Great Basin initiated a feasibility study on the project with the aim of reaching a development decision within 12 months. Should the project go ahead, Burnstone will be the ﬁrst new gold producer on the South Rand gold ﬁeld in over 40 years. Small-scale batch and continuous testwork, involving milling and ﬂotation to produce a copper concentrate and leaching of the tailings for gold recovery, was carried out for European Minerals’ Varvarinskoye project in Kazakhstan. A bankable feasibility study was completed by MDM Ferroman in November 2004, and construction of the project is under way, with the ﬁrst gold pour scheduled for the end of 2006. Mintek now has the capacity to produce catalysts, in batches of up to 20 kg, in a form suitable for a wide range of industrial applications, and is ready to collaborate with end-users in the pollution control, chemical processing and fuel cell industries to design gold-based catalysts for their speciﬁc needs. Work on nano-monolayer-protected gold clusters for drug delivery is in progress with the Universities of Liverpool and Parma (Italy), and an investigation into the manufacture of nanoﬁbres by electrospinning has begun . These materials have a very high surface area, and have potential for use in biosensors as well as catalysts. An investigation was conducted into the effects of key growth parameters on the size and shape of gold nanoparticles produced by biosynthesis. In order for A scanning electron microscope image of nanoﬁbres biosynthesis to compete with existing chemical and physical methods, techniques need to be developed mintek annual report 2005 that can control the particle size to a very narrow range, RIP testwork using the Minix gold-selective resin was as well as produce uniform shapes. A project was carried out to recover gold from a copper leach residue begun with the University of the Free State to identify for Cominco Engineering Services Ltd. the biomolecules that are responsible for the reduction Project AuTEK — the collaborative initiative to develop reaction and subsequent nanoparticle formation, which novel industrial uses for gold and increase local could lead to a more controlled process. Another project, beneﬁciation — is now in its ﬁfth year. The work on at Rhodes University, is undertaking an initial screening catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation has reached of micro-organisms for their potential for synthesising 10 product development stage. One of the potential platinum nanoparticles. applications is in respirators, where the AuTEK catalyst The AuTEK biomedical programme, which originally Technical review has the advantage of retaining its activity for much focused on anti-tumour drugs, has broadened its longer than the conventional hopcalite catalyst, as well investigations to include anti-HIV and anti-malarial as the ability to function in humid conditions. Prototype agents, in collaboration with seven local and six respirators using the AuTEK gold-based catalyst will European universities. Screening work and toxicological be submitted to the NIOSH (US) for evaluation and studies are continuing, and in-vivo testing will start accreditation early in 2006, and the ﬁrst commercial towards the end of 2005. Work has been initiated with production is expected in 2007. NECSA on radio-labelling to investigate the mode of action of various compounds. One of the major achievements of Project AuTEK has been the establishment of a pool of skilled researchers Gold labelling of neurologically active pentapeptides for cancer research with strong international links. The number of researchers has grown from ﬁve in the year 2000 to more than 50, and collaborative links have been forged with nine local universities and more than a dozen overseas in six countries. Two PhD and eight MSc degrees have already been completed, and another 30 postgraduate projects are registered. AuTEK researchers have made 68 contributions in international journals and conferences. The launch of AuTEK Americas is planned for late 2005. AuTEK’s budget has grown from R1-million to just over R14-million in 2005, and the project has been very A major piloting campaign was completed on a 500 t bulk sample from a new project in the eastern Bushveld Complex, to provide metallurgical data as inputs into the feasibility study, and to determine the most appropriate concentrator design and the performance criteria. Two different MF2 conﬁgurations were evaluated, and the minimum product speciﬁcations were attained with both circuits. Metallurgical variability testwork, to determine the factors that inﬂuence metal recoveries, was carried out as input to the pre-feasibility study by Ridge Mining on (Top and bottom) A pilot plant campaign for a feasibility the Sheba’s Ridge project. The study was completed study on a new PGM project in March 2005, and Mintek will also be involved in work for the bankable feasibility study on the project, which is scheduled for completion by the end of 2006. Similar work was performed for Aquarius Platinum’s Everest South project - Mintek previously ran piloting campaigns to determine the design parameters for the Everest South concentrator, which is due to be commissioned at the end of 2005. Technical review Bench-scale investigations were done as part of the pre-feasibility studies for African Platinum’s Leeuwkop project, and for the Boikgantsho joint venture between Anooraq Resources and Anglo American Platinum. A major programme of work on PGM ores from many 11 different sources, was carried out to evaluate the use of dense media separation (DMS) for the up-front rejection mintek annual report 2005 of waste material and to compare the ﬂotation recoveries from DMS concentrate and ROM material. successful in leveraging additional funding, which now accounts for 40 per cent of the budget. A considerable Mintek has commissioned a dedicated milling and contribution has been made by the NRF through THRIP, ﬂotation mini-plant, which is used mainly for reagent for building infrastructure and expertise. During the evaluation and comparative testwork. The plant period under review, these funds were used to acquire has a throughput capacity of 100 kg/h, and is easily a RAMAN/Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscope and conﬁgurable and economical to run. It is proving to be an ASAP surface area analyser for studying adsorbed useful for testwork where many different conditions need species on catalyst surfaces. In 2004 the DST approved to be evaluated, or in cases where there are only limited a R5-million grant for an atomic force/scanning tunnelling quantities of material available, such as from borehole microscope for the fundamental characterisation of cores. Examples of the kinds of work undertaken include nanoparticles, and a further R3.7-million in 2005 for a an independent evaluation of gangue depressants for high-resolution SEM and nuclear magnetic resonance a reagent manufacturer, and continuous rougher rate spectrometer. These facilities make Mintek a leading tests on UG2 samples containing various amounts centre for nano-research in South Africa. of waste to evaluate the potential beneﬁts of dense media separation. The infrastructure for the main 1 t/h Platinum Group Metals milling and ﬂotation pilot plant was also upgraded and modernised. Exploration and development work on new platinum group metals projects in South Africa continued at a high Two major collaborative research projects are under level during 2004/2005, and Mintek’s testwork facilities way, supported by industry partners. The ﬁrst involves were heavily utilised. a comparison of preconcentration methods for UG2 and the universities of Bayreuth and Leeds. Signiﬁcant progress was made in the ThermoCalcTM work, and investigations of the experimental phase diagrams are ongoing, with the current focus on resolving anomalies found in the binary diagrams. A major effort is being made to identify a niche opportunity for testing prototype alloys. Mintek participated in an Innovation Fund project, managed by the CSIR, on the addition of platinum to coatings on nickel-based superalloys. The conventional aluminising process produces a nickel aluminide coating. Platinum additions result in a mixture of higher- Mini-plant work on the evaluation of ﬂotation reagents order phases that strengthen and extend the life of the coating. This effect has long been known, but is not well ores, and the second is looking at a number of generic understood. This project will be resumed if an industrial problems encountered in the PGM smelting industry. partner can be found. Science Vote-funded research is being undertaken Mintek is participating in a second Innovation Fund- mintek annual report 2005 on the classiﬁcation of UG2 tailings, optical sorting of sponsored project at the University of Cape Town on non-UG2 ores, new ﬂotation cell technologies, and the the development of platinum-based jewellery alloys. fundamentals of milling processes. During the year under review, the properties of a range of Funding has been approved for a THRIP project, which compositions based on 95%Pt, were evaluated for their will start in the 2005 ﬁnancial year, to investigate the suitability for use by small-scale jewellers. This work will limiting factors in the PGM smelting process. All three of continue during 2005/2006. the major platinum producers are supporting the project, Mintek has entered into an agreement with Johnson which will include studies such as ﬂow behaviour, the 12 solid phases, disengagement of the matte from slag, Matthey Catalysts to act as a test facility for the Smopex® technology. Smopex is a new metal scavenging system interactions between the furnace gases and refractory that uses polyoleﬁn-base ion exchange ﬁbres with high Technical review materials, and matte liquidus temperatures. loading capabilities to recover low levels of precious A long-term DC furnace campaign was initiated to metals from process streams. With a local testing facility, recover PGMs from revert tailings and other wastes for the costs of transporting the test solutions will be lower, one of the platinum producers. This material is difﬁcult and there will be less chance of the solutions ageing. to process conventionally because of its high chromium and low base-metal sulphide content. By the end of the DC arc smelting of PGM revert tailings period under review, over 5 000 t of a planned 10 000 t had been processed. As well as being a major service work project, this exercise is serving to demonstrate the smelting stage of the ConRoast process, which involves the smelting of primary platinum-bearing feed materials in a DC arc furnace, with the PGMs collected in an iron alloy. A paper entitled “DC arc smelting of difﬁcult PGM-containing feed materials” was presented at the International Platinum Conference in September 2004. The programme on the development of PGM-based analogues of the nickel-based superalloys is now in its ﬁfth year. This work is supported by the three major platinum producers Anglo Platinum, Impala Platinum and Lonmin Platinum, with collaborating institutions being Japan’s National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) completed, and industrial scale-up trials (approximately 2 t) were carried out in order to validate the properties achieved in laboratory. Prototype fasteners were produced from some of the industrial bars by hot forging and thread cutting, in order to demonstrate the properties of the alloys. Overseas visits have been made to several stainless steel manufacturers in order to identify a partner with which to commercialise the alloy. Trials of the “smart” rockbolt or SmartboltTM, which undergoes a phase transformation when strained and can thus be monitored to provide warning of impending dangerous rock conditions, continued at a deep-level gold mine. Mintek is negotiating with a manufacturer of Ferronickel product from the Shevchenko laterite roof support systems to introduce the bolt in the mining smelting campaign industry. Further investigations are planned to tailor the properties to the conditions speciﬁc to different mining operations (eg. gold and platinum). The development Ferrous Metals of the Smartbolt was funded by the SIMRAC, which is Mintek acted as manager, assisted by Bateman Metals, continuing to support it through commercialisation. GBM Minerals Engineering Consultants, and Wardell The Mineral Density Separator (MDS) was used Technical review Armstrong International (WAI), for the preliminary extensively to characterise iron ore samples for Kumba feasibility study on Oriel Resources’ Shevchenko Resources’ Sishen Expansion Project. The project, ferronickel project in Kazakhstan. Based on the positive which will boost Sishen’s production from 28 Mt/a to results, Oriel commissioned a Deﬁnitive Feasibility Study 38 Mt/a by 2009, is based on a new jigging technology (DFS), with Bateman as lead engineers, partnered by to upgrade ore that was previously unmarketable. The ThyssenKrupp company Polysius, WAI and Mintek. As MDS separates material into different density fractions 13 part of the study, about 190 t of calcined lateritic ore was at densities exceeding 4.0, and the results can be used mintek annual report 2005 smelted in Mintek’s DC arc pilot plant at power levels to evaluate and predict the efﬁciencies of dense-media of up to 1.5 MW, producing 11.5 t of ferronickel alloy at and jigging operations, as well as to design and optimise nickel grades and recoveries in line with targets. processing plants. The DFS, which will be completed in the third quarter of 2005, is based on a smelter plant with an initial installed capacity of two 80 MW twin-electrode DC arc furnaces, followed by a third furnace after the third year of operation. Subject to a positive outcome, construction could start during the second quarter of 2006, with the Graph illustrating the response of Smartbolts under multiaxial loading ﬁrst ferronickel production by early 2008. At full capacity, the project would produce 140 000 t of ferronickel per annum. A “pre-concept” study was completed on the production of ferrochromium at the Voskhod mine in Kazakhstan. At the end of the year under review, Oriel commissioned Mintek to carry out a scoping study to design and cost a chromite beneﬁciation ﬂowsheet. Mintek is in the ﬁnal phase of a three-year project, funded by the Innovation Fund/NRF, to develop a low-nickel austenitic stainless steel for structural applications. Welding, corrosion, and cold formability tests were other South African organisations to participate in and to compete for funds under the EU’s Framework Programmes is facilitated by the SA-EU S&T Co- operation Agreement signed in 1996. Large-scale piloting of Mintek’s heap bioleaching technology for primary copper sulphide ores is scheduled to begin at the Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex in southern Iran in the second half of 2005. Mintek has completed a detailed engineering design of the plant, and three pilot heaps, each of about 25 000 t, are under construction with leaching of the ﬁrst heap scheduled to start in October. As part of the preparations for the campaign, two 6 m columns with “intelligent” temperature proﬁle control, which simulates the temperature regime within a full-scale heap, were run at Mintek under the conditions that will be employed on-site. The process has been designed utilising state-of-the-art mathematical modelling of the transport phenomena in heaps, and a control strategy has been developed and mintek annual report 2005 implemented on Mintek’s Star Control System platform Bioleaching columns with “intelligent” temperature that is designed to steer the operating conditions along proﬁle control, for simulating conditions in a full-scale an optimal path throughout the duration of the process. leach heap The heaps will be instrumented to monitor parameters such as copper dissolution, bacterial activity and acid consumption, and changes made to the operating regime Non-ferrous Metals to optimise the rate and extent of copper dissolution, control the heap pH and copper concentration in the 14 Mintek has been appointed as co-ordinator of the pregnant solution, and satisfy bacterial oxygen demand. bioleaching work package in the European Union’s BioMinE project, part of the EU’s Sixth Framework The project is being conducted in terms of a collaborative Technical review Programme (FP6). The project will provide the agreement between Mintek and the National Iranian opportunity for Mintek and other South African Copper Industries Company (NICICO) that was organisations to interact with the European scientiﬁc announced last year (Annual Report 2004). community in capacity-building and developing the next generation of biotechnology techniques for minerals processing. Tapping of magnesium metal during the ﬁnal piloting run BioMinE is an integrated project, involving 35 partners on the Mintek Thermal Magnesium Process from 14 different countries, that focuses on innovative biotechnology-based processes for recovering or removing metals from primary and secondary materials. The primary objective of the bioleaching package is to provide solutions to the technical constraints that currently limit the broader commercial applications of bioleaching technologies. R&D activities focus on improvements in the performance and cost-effectiveness of bioleaching processes, the wider application of bioleaching to low-grade, complex and waste metal resources, and innovations that will minimise environmental impact and enhance sustainability. In addition to the EU FP6 funding, Mintek’s contribution to BioMinE is also being supported by a major strategic investment by the DST. The ability of Mintek and The programme, which will run for about 18 months, is aimed at proving the technology at a large scale, and generating reliable operating information for commercial- scale operations. Mintek, in association with an industry partner and funded by BioPAD, is engaged in a major R&D project on the tank bioleaching of zinc sulphides. Various microbiological and engineering strategies have been examined with the aim of signiﬁcantly reducing processing costs, and progress on the engineering side has led to a patent application for a novel bioleach process conﬁguration. A second BioPAD-funded project involves the development of a novel and effective technique for Process development work for the Kolwezi Tailings innoculating bacteria into leach heaps for rapid start- Project – manganese removal up and improved metal recoveries. The principle has now been proven at the laboratory scale, and testwork Congo Mineral Developments (Adastra Minerals) in in 6 m columns will be conducted with the objective of support of a deﬁnitive feasibility study, which is being demonstrating the process under conditions applicable undertaken by Murray & Roberts and GRD Minproc, on to commercial-sized heaps. Given a successful outcome, the Kolwezi Tailings Project in the DRC. Most of the work Technical review the next stage would involve piloting at a mine site. was concerned with manganese removal from the cobalt electrolyte and the precipitation of cobalt salts, but some R&D work on the Mintek Thermal Magnesium Process solvent extraction and copper electrowinning work was has been completed successfully. During an eight-day also undertaken. The Kolwezi project, which consists of run in November 2004, about 30 t of feed material 112.8 Mt of high-grade oxide tailings, has the potential were smelted in the DC pilot plant, and the magnesium to be one of the world’s largest and lowest-cost cobalt 15 extracted as vapour for delivery to the condenser. producers. mintek annual report 2005 Fifteen taps of liquid magnesium, totalling 3 500 kg of Preliminary comminution and metallurgical testwork was magnesium metal, were carried out from the condenser started on the Kalukundi copper-cobalt deposit in the during online operation. The crude magnesium was DRC. High recoveries were obtained for both copper of a consistently better quality than that produced by and cobalt, and larger-scale testwork is planned for the conventional thermal processes, particularly with regard current year. This work forms part of the project feasibility to calcium. study, managed by MDM Ferroman, for Africo Resources The new condenser, which was designed to prevent the Ltd. build-up of dross that limited previous runs to about 20 Leaching testwork was carried out for Casmin SPRL, hours of continuous operation, performed extremely well, which is constructing a cobalt processing plant at achieving continuous production with an efﬁciency of Kambove in the DRC, and sulphate and carbonate salts 85 per cent. The robustness of the process was shown produced for testing in the market. Limited leaching by the ability of the condenser to withstand a furnace testwork was also conducted for Metorex’s Ruashi-Etoile shutdown - for example, to clear a blocked feed port or copper cobalt project. to add an electrode section - and immediately re-start magnesium production and tapping. Laboratory-scale milling and ﬂotation work was conducted on samples from the Hunters Road nickel This campaign demonstrated, for the ﬁrst time, the deposit in Zimbabwe in order to evaluate the variability feasibility of a continuous atmospheric process for of the ore. The results showed that a composite of the thermal magnesium production. Technically, the process ore zones could be treated to obtain a ﬁnal concentrate is now ready for scaling up to a demonstration- and meeting the grade and recovery speciﬁed by the Bindura further to an industrial-size operation. Nickel Corporation. Further work was recommended to A major programme of testwork was carried out for optimise the ﬂowsheet and conditions. Preliminary work was done for Mopani Copper Mines (Botswana) on the development of a ﬂowsheet for the puriﬁcation of cobalt electrolyte, and piloting work is planned for 2005. A number of concentration methods, including magnetic separation, heavy media separation and ﬂotation, were tested for upgrading samples from Caledonia Mining’s Nama cobalt project in northern Zambia. At the end of the period under review, Vancouver-based Formation Capital Corp. commissioned Mintek to develop a hydrometallurgical ﬂowsheet for its Idaho Cobalt Project (ICP). The ICP, a high-grade primary cobalt deposit unique to North America, is currently in the bankable feasibility and advanced permitting stage of development. Recovery of uranium by ion exchange (top), and precipitation of uranium peroxide (U3O8) A pilot Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC) was installed and operated at Anglo American Research Laboratories mintek annual report 2005 to compare the performance with conventional mixer- settlers for extracting zinc from pregnant leach solution generated by leaching Zincor tailings. The chemical performance of the extraction and stripping circuits in both equipment conﬁgurations was identical, and it was demonstrated that the BPC is a viable alternative contactor to mixer-settlers in terms of recoveries. 16 Removal of manganese from zinc electrolyte using air/SO2 on a large batch scale was tested successfully for Kumba Resources. This technology, which will allow Technical review the company to process zinc concentrates with a higher manganese content than it is able to at present, will probably be implemented in 2005. and could potentially minimise the very large volumes of solutions on ion exchange plants. An investigation into Comminution, heavy liquid separation and leaching the use of the ﬁbres for gold recovery, which involves testwork were carried out as part of a feasibility grafting the Minix gold-selective active group onto the study, managed by Green Team International (GTI) of ﬁbre, was also started. Johannesburg, on the oxide zinc mineralisation at Sierra Mojada, Mexico, for Metalline Mining Co. An industrial-scale melting trial was performed to manufacture an Al-10%Ti master alloy using Al-Ti A project on ion exchange ﬁbres for metal recovery concentrate produced in the 200 kVA DC arc furnace. was initiated under the technology bilateral agreement This work forms part of a three-year project sponsored with Belarus, and funded by the Innovation Fund. The by the Innovation Fund to research the production of initial focus was on the removal of copper from cobalt additives (grain reﬁners and hardeners) for aluminium electrolyte. The ﬁbres were prepared by the Institute and titanium alloys by aluminothermic reduction of of Physical Organic Chemistry (IPOC) of the National oxides in a DC arc furnace. The properties of the alloy Academy of Sciences of Belarus, and evaluated at (grain reﬁning efﬁciency and the dissolution rates) were Mintek with encouraging results. Follow-up work will be found to be comparable to those of a commercial master done with Bateman to compare the costs of ﬁbres versus alloy. However, the viability of the new process will be conventional resins. Ion exchange ﬁbres have a great determined by whether it is more cost effective to use the kinetic advantage over granular ion exchangers, due to Al-Ti concentrate as a source of titanium units compared a short diffusion track of the absorbable ion in the ﬁbre, to using titanium scrap. Industrial Minerals Metallurgical testwork was carried out on about 6 t of ore from the Langer Heinrich uranium project in Namibia in support of the bankable feasibility study, conducted by GRD Minproc, for Australian company Paladin Resources. The work included feed preparation by scrubbing and attritioning, alkaline (carbonate) leaching at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperature, ion exchange and precipitation of uranium peroxide. The calcined products generally contained about 90 per cent U3O8, and complied with published speciﬁcations for uranium concentrates. At the beginning of May 2005, Paladin approved the development of the project, which will be the ﬁrst conventional uranium mining operation to be developed outside of Canada in the past twenty years. Uranium production is scheduled to begin in September 2006. Milling, thickening and pressure ﬁltration tests on Bench-scale leaching and recovery work was begun on kimberlite tailings process development for Aﬂease Gold and Uranium’s Technical review Dominion uranium project. Laboratory-scale work was undertaken for AngloGold Ashanti to assist with upgrading the uranium circuit at Vaal River Operations. AngloGold Ashanti plans to upgrade the South Uranium Plant to maintain uranium 17 production for at least an additional 11 years by exploiting mintek annual report 2005 the by-product uranium reserves associated with its new Moab Khotsong Shaft. The movement and handling of radioactive material in South Africa is subject to the Nuclear Energy Act (NEA). Mintek is registered with the National Nuclear Regulator (NNR), and is authorised by the DME to possess and process source material (natural uranium ore or U3O8) with a uranium content not exceeding 50 kg at any one projects in Gabon. The work, which consists of scrubbing, time. Separate transport and (in the case of material screening, gravity concentration, and density separation from outside South Africa) import permits are obtained tests on about ﬁfty 500 kg samples each month, is from the DME for each sample brought to Mintek. Before expected to continue until the end of 2005. CVRD, the permits are granted, the NNR ascertains the level of which is also developing the Moatize coal project in radioactivity of the sample, and that the exporting country Mozambique and exploring for diamonds and various will accept the processed material back at the end of the metals in Angola, has entered into an MOU with Mintek, project. The transport company must also be registered whereby Mintek will act as the “preferred supplier” of with the NNR. Mintek’s environmental ofﬁcer has passed testwork for the company’s projects in Africa. the examinations set by the NNR to be registered as an Pilot-scale gravity and magnetic separation testwork was ofﬁcial Radiation Protection Ofﬁcer. done on an alluvial chromite sample from Zimbabwe, and A major programme of testwork was begun to evaluate the sample was successfully upgraded to foundry sand ore samples from CVRD’s manganese exploration speciﬁcations. Quality, environment and safety Mintek holds certiﬁcation for the ISO 9001 (Quality), ISO 14001 (environment), and OHSAS 18001 (Safety and Health) standards, CERTIFIC conﬁrming its commitment to T EM AT I YS ON S deliver high-quality products and services that meet international ISO 9 standards in these areas. In 1: 00 addition, the Analytical Services 200 0 SGS Division is certiﬁed to ISO 17025 (Testing Laboratories). CERTIFIC T EM AT I Mintek’s integrated programme YS ON S Checking the level of radioactivity in a uranium ore of continual improvement in sample quality, environment, safety and ISO health is ofﬁcially driven by these 00 SGS 14 standards, and its performance 1 Attritioning, magnetic separation, and two pilot-scale is monitored by international mintek annual report 2005 DMS runs were conducted to develop a ﬂowsheet for an auditors. EM CERTIFIC AT T I andalusite deposit in Spain. YS ON S Mintek’s Environmental Routine sample characterisation, using sizing and heavy Management System underwent ISO liquid separation, was carried out on various kimberlitic surveillance audits in August 00 SGS 18 ores for De Beers. An 800 t sample from Jwaneng in 2004 and February 2005. 1 Botswana was upgraded in the dense media separation Integrated QES internal audits plant after milling to various size fractions at Anglo were also held to ensure that 18 American Research Laboratories. A bulk sample of all the environmental aspects of Mintek’s activities kimberlite from an arid area was milled, and thickening are addressed and managed by means of Standard Operating Procedures, and that the requisite Technical review and pressure ﬁltration tests carried out in conjunction with an equipment vendor, to test the feasibility of recycling emergency procedures are in place. water from the tailings back to the processing plant. In August 2004, SGS (SA) Ltd audited the safety system and programme and certiﬁed Mintek to An audit was performed on the milling circuit at Foskor, the international standard OHSAS 18001. A safety and recommendations made for improving the liberation. surveillance audit was carried out in February 2005. A computer simulation study, using JKSimMet, was used to evaluate proposed modiﬁcations to the comminution A Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate of 1.1 was achieved in April 2005, and the current target is less circuit at Vergenoeg ﬂuorspar mine, and a mass-balance than 1.0. Two of the eight injuries in the past twelve reconciliation carried out for Samquartz. months were reportable injuries. A behavioural safety programme was introduced in 2004, and further reductions in the accident rate are anticipated. The CDFR target was reduced from 15 per cent to 10 per cent in September 2004. The new target was consistently achieved until January 2005, when some issues regarding deliveries and invoicing increased the CDFR. These issues were identiﬁed and corrective action taken, and Mintek’s Corporate Quality team continues to closely monitor these areas to ensure that services to clients remain at a high standard.