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Recovery of PVA Using Polyethersulfone _PES_ Hollow Fiber

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					                 Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009




                  Recovery of PVA Using Polyethersulfone (PES) Hollow Fiber
                  Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part II: Effect of Carboxymethyl
                                  Cellulose (CMC) Concentration

                     Dr.Najat J. Saleh*, Amel Alhelaly* ,Dr.Jamal M. Ali* & Dr.Qusay
                                                Alsalhy*
                                                         Received on: 30/7/2007
                                                         Accepted on: 6/4/2008
              Abstract
                   Polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane with the molecular
              weight cut-off (MWCO) 20,000 was used for the recovery of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from
              the simulated wastewater. An attempt to study the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose as
              synthetic warp sizing agents on the PVA recovery was investigated in this case.
              Experimental results shown that PVA concentration in the retentate of PES hollow fiber
              membrane were lower with addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in PVA solution.
              Besides, higher trans-membrane pressure from 1.0 to 2.1 bars, solution temperature 50-75℃,
              and feed velocity 0.16-0.32 m/s, improved the PVA recovery in two different PVA solutions.
              PES hollow fiber ultrafiltration process was efficient for PVA recovery from the simulated
              wastewater using PVA solution with low carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) concentration as
              synthetic warp sizing agents.

              Keywords: Ultrafiltration membrane; hollow fiber; phase inversion method; polyethersulfone;
                        alcohol additive.


               ‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺘﺎﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬UF ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻭﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻉ‬PES ‫ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻏﺸﻴﺔ‬PVA ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﺍﻟـ‬
                                         CMC ‫ﻜﺎﺭﻴﻭﻜﺴﻲ ﻤﺜﻴل ﺴﻠﻴﻠﻭﺯ‬
                                                                                                    ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬
              ‫( ﺘﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬Ultra filtration) (PES) ‫ﺍﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﻟﻴﻤﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﻭﻓﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻴﺜﺭ ﺴﻠﻔﻭﻥ‬
              ‫00002( ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ‬MW) ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬                (Molecular weight cut-off) (MWCO)
              ‫( ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺘﻡ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺎﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻜﺎﺭﺒﻭﻜﺴﻴل ﻤﺜﻴل ﺴﻴﻠﻴﻠﻭﺯ‬PVA) ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻴﻨل ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل‬
              ‫ ( . ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬PVA)‫(ﻜﻌﺎﻤل ﻏﺭﻭﻱ ﻟﻠﺨﻴﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻟﻲ ﻓﻴﻨل ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل‬CMC)
              ‫( ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬PES) ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻓﻭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻻﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻭﻓﺔ‬PVA) ‫ﺍﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﺍل‬
              ‫1.2-1( ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬bar) ‫( ﺒﺎﻻﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ ﻤﻥ‬PVA) ‫( ﺍﻟﻰ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل‬CMC) ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬
              ‫( ﻤﻥ‬PVA) ‫ 23.0-61.0( ﻴﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ‬m/sec) ‫ 57-05( ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨل‬C°) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭل‬
              ‫( ﻤﻥ‬PVA) ‫( ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻭﻓﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻉ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬PES) ‫( ﺍﻏﺸﻴﺔ‬PVA) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﻴﻥ ﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬
                                                   . (CMC) ‫ﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻭﺍﻁﺊ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬


                  1. Introduction                                   biotechnological, pulp and paper, and
                     Ultrafiltration (UF) is currently              chemical     industries.   Membrane
                  used in very wide range of                        processes are also used extensively in
                  applications in the food processing,              the treatment of a variety of
                  pharmaceutical,           biomedical,             wastewater and effluent streams, both



              *Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology/ Baghdad

                                                             1008



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                  Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009     Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                               Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                       Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration



                  industrial        and         municipal.           complete removal of metal ions,
                  Ultrafiltration (UF) separation method             except for monovalent Cs+, could be
                  has been employed for recovering                   achieved as long as the SDS micelles
                  metals from waste effluents [1-9] and              were formed. They examined effects
                  organic pollutants from aqueous                    of added electrolyte NaCl and the
                  solution [10-11]. Bodzek et al. [12]               transmembrane pressure (TMP) on
                  succeeded in recovering mineral oil                metal rejection. The potential of this
                  by ultrafiltration (UF). Treatment of              UF process for the separation of
                  the oil/water emulsion systems using               binary metals involving Sr2+ or Cr3+
                  ultrafiltration (UF) was done by many              was particularly demonstrated using a
                  workers[13-17].                                    low-MWCO membrane (1000) and at
                      For example, Pastof et al. [8]                 a relatively low S/M ratio (< 5–10).
                  reported that ultrafiltration enhanced             Finally they studied the recovery and
                  by the addition of polymers soluble in             reuse of surfactant from the retentate.
                  water. It is a technique for the                        The textile industry uses synthetic
                  recuperation of heavy metals in                    warp sizing agents such as polyvinyl
                  wastewater streams. An analysis is                 alcohol (PVA), polyacrylate and
                  made of the influence of the                       carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in
                  molecular weight (inferior and                     cotton blends, in place of starch and
                  superior to the molecular weight of                natural gums. After weaving, the size
                  the polymer) cut-off of the membrane               agents must be washed out, which
                  and the quantity of the polymer on the             requires large volumes of wash water.
                  permeate flux and the recovery of                  These sizing agents are, however,
                  mercury. Their results show that with              expensive and nonbiodegradable;
                  a membrane with a cut-off inferior to              thus, they pose challenging waste
                  that of the combination metal                      treatment and/or recovery problems
                  polymer, the polymer concentration                 [18]. Lin and Lan [19,20] investigated
                  has no influence on the permeate flux,             recovery of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
                  whereas for the membrane with a                    by ultrafiltration (UF) from simulated
                  superior cut-off, there appears                    desizing        wastewater.        Batch
                  restrictions to the passing of water in            experiments using an UF cell were
                  accordance with the hydrodynamic                   conducted to investigate the effects of
                  model, and there is decreased                      operating pressure, temperature and
                  efficiency in the recuperation of                  mixer speed on the PVA retention,
                  metal. The removal of single metal                 filtration rate and the rejection
                  ions including Cs+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Co2+,              coefficient. In addition, observed that
                  Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cr3+ from aqueous                  an operating pressure over 2 bars is
                  solutions (up to 200 mg/l) by                      sufficient for efficient operation of the
                  ultrafiltration (UF) with the help of an           PVA recovery process, and operating
                  anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl                  temperature lower than 80°C was
                  sulfate (SDS) was investigated by                  significantly reduce the efficiency of
                  Juang et al. [9]. Their experiments                PVA recovery. Similar effect was also
                  were performed as a function of                    found for the mixer operating at speed
                  the membrane MWCO (1000–8000),                     below 500 rpm. Besides, their batch
                  material                    (polyamide,            experiments conducted to examine the
                  polyethersulfone), solution pH (2–12),             performance characteristics of the UF
                  and molar concentration ratio of the               membranes of the hydrophilic and
                  surfactant to metals (the S/M ratio,               hydrophobic types and of different
                  0.5–27). There results show that                   pore sizes. Performances of those


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                  Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009     Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                               Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                       Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration



                  membranes           using        several           2. Experimental Recovery of
                  characteristic parameters of the                   polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from
                  ultrafiltration process were compared.             simulated desizing wastewater
                  It was indicated that the ultrafiltration              The experimental system used for
                  performances of different membranes                UF experiments to recover polyvinyl
                  are not be easily judged by a single               alcohol (PVA) from simulated
                  characteristic parameter alone. In the             desizing wastewater is shown in
                  context of overall performances, it                Figure 1. The system consists of a
                  was found that the hydrophilic                     hollow fiber membrane module with
                  membranes to be superior to the                    length of 20 cm and has four
                  hydrophobic types and the UF                       polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber
                  membrane of a lower molecular                      membranes. The PES hollow fiber
                  weight cut-off (MWCO) is definitely                membranes had an effective surface
                  a better choice than that of a higher              area of 30 cm2 and a molecular weight
                  MWCO. In addition, they considered                 cut-off (MWCO) of 20,000 and are
                  the reduction of the pollution strength            able to use up to 125oC. An outside
                  of permeate in terms of chemical                   heating jacket used to keep the PVA
                  oxygen demand (COD).                               solution temperature constant and in
                      Porter [21] reported the recovery              order to keep the temperature of the
                  polyvinyl alcohol from the textile                 PVA solution in the membrane
                  process waste streams. Three filtration            module constant. The initial PVA
                  systems that are able to operate at                solution concentration was 2,000
                  100°C or above were described. Two                 mg/l, and carboxymethyl cellulose
                  systems are tubular. One uses carbon               concentration was 200 mg/l and the
                  tubes to support a zirconium oxide                 ultrafiltration process started after
                  membrane and the other uses stainless              heating 250 ml of the PVA solution to
                  steel tubes coated with a fused                    75oC. The PVA concentration in
                  titanium dioxide layer to support a                permeate and retentate was measured
                  zirconium hydroxide membrane. The                  by        a     UV-spectrophotometer
                  third system described is an                       (Shimadzu-UV 360, Japan) at
                  asymmetric        polyvinyl      sulfone           wavelength of 670 nm.
                  membrane in a spiral wound                         3. Results and Discussion
                  configuration. He described also the                     Separation performance is an
                  economics of the recovery process in               important parameter in the membrane
                  addition to presented is the                       separation processes and affected by
                  application of automated control to                many factors such as trans-membrane
                  the PVA recovery process and to the                pressure, solution temperature and the
                  recycle of bleaching rinse water to the            flow rate and the concentration of the
                  scouring process. In this study,                   feed solution. Effects of these factors
                  recovery of the polyvinyl alcohol                  on PVA recovery from the simulated
                  (PVA) from the simulated desizing                  wastewater are investigated. Figure 2
                  wastewater by polyethersulfone (PES)               shows the effect of two different
                  hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF)                  trans-membrane pressures on the PVA
                  membrane           is       investigated           concentration in the retantate at 75℃
                  experimentally. In addition to, an                 and 0.32 m/s feed velocity without
                  attempt was done to study the effect               addition carboxymethyl cellulose
                  carboxymethyl cellulose as additive                (CMC) as synthetic warp sizing
                  on the PAV recovery.                               agents in the PVA solution. Figure 2,
                                                                     shows that PVA concentration in the


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                  Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009     Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                               Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                       Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration



                  retentate increases with an increase of            on the PVA concentration, this fact is
                  the trans-membrane pressure from 1.0               that because pumping the solution on
                  to 2.1 bars. This is due to the                    the membrane surface sweeps away
                  distribution of the surface pores size             the accumulated solute (PVA), it
                  of PES hollow fiber membranes                      results in reducing the hydraulic
                  which        causes       concentration            resistance of the cake and the
                  polarization on UF membrane surface.               thickness of the boundary layer. In
                  Using carboxymethyl cellulose as                   any case, increasing feed velocity is
                  synthetic warp sizing agents in the                one of the effective methods to
                  PVA solution, the PVA concentration                control the effects of concentration
                  in the retentate is decreased with two             polarization. In Figure 7, the effect of
                  different trans-membrane pressure                  feed     velocity     on     the   PVA
                  from 1.0 to 2.1 bars compare with                  concentration is shown. It can be note
                  PVA solution without carboxymethyl                 that the feed velocity on the PVA
                  cellulose (CMC) with the same trend,               recovery decreased with addition of
                  Figure (3).                                        carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to the
                      The desizing operation is carried              PVA solution.
                  out at 70-85oC because of the PVA                   4. Conclusions
                  solution viscosity. The simulated hot                  PES hollow fiber ultrafiltration
                  desizing wastewater has a temperature              (UF) membrane with 20,000 MWCO
                  of 75 oC in this case. Figure 4 and                was used in this case in order to
                  Figure 5 show the effect of the                    recover polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from
                  solution temperature on the PVA                    the simulated desizing wastewater.
                  concentration in the retentate at 1.0              The investigation was conducted to
                  bar pressure and 0.32m/s feed velocity             evaluate      effects     of     process
                  for two different PAV solutions.                   parameters, such as trans-membrane
                  Figure 4 shows that increasing the                 pressure, solution temperature and
                  solution temperature from 50 to 75℃,               feed velocity on UF performance
                  the PVA concentration in the retentate             using PVA solution with and without
                  increases because of the reduction of              addition of carboxymethyl cellulose
                  the retentate viscosity at high                    (CMC) as synthetic warp sizing
                  temperatures. The PVA concentration                agents. Experimental results shown
                  in the retentate was improved using                that PVA concentration in the
                  PVA solution without addition of                   retentate, of PES hollow fiber
                  carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by                   membrane were lower with addition
                  the comparison with that used                      of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in
                  carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in                   PVA solution. Besides, higher trans-
                  Figure 5. It illustrates that UF                   membrane pressure from 1.0 to 2.1
                  efficiency increases with a decrease of            bar, solution temperature 50-75℃,
                  the solution viscosity and PVA                     and feed velocity 0.16-0.32 m/s,
                  solution without carboxymethyl                     improved the PVA recovery in two
                  cellulose (CMC). Figure 6 shows the                different PVA solutions. PES
                  effect of feed velocity (0.16 and 0.32             hollowfiber ultrafiltration process was
                  m/s) on the                                        efficient for PVA recovery from the
                  PVA concentration in the retentate at              simulated wastewater using PVA
                  operating temperature 75oC and 1.0                 solution with low carboxymethyl
                  bar pressure for PVA solution without              cellulose (CMC) concentration as
                  carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC).                     synthetic warp sizing agents.
                  There is an effect of the feed velocity


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                  Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009     Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                               Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                       Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration



                  Acknowledgment                                        Environ. Eng. ASCE, 121 (1995)
                    Ministry of Higher Education and                    645–652.
                  Scientific Research support this study.               [8]- Pastof M. R., Vidalb E. S.,
                  References                                            Galvhnb P. V., Ricoa D. P.,
                      [1]- Renaud M., Aulas F., Rumea                   Analysis of the variation in the
                      M., Recovery of Chromium from                     permeate flux and of the
                      Effluents Using Ultrafiltration.                  efficiency of the recovery of
                      Chem. Eng. J. 23 (1982) 137.                      mercury        by     polyelectrolyte
                      [2]- Scamehorn J.F., Christian                    enhanced ultrafiltration (PE-UF),
                      S.D., Ellington R.T., Use of                      Desalination, 151 (2002) 247-251.
                      micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration                 [9]- Juang R. S., Xu Y. Y., Chen
                      to remove multivalent metal ions                  C. L., Separation and removal of
                      from aqueous streams, in: J.F.                    metal ions from dilute solutions
                      Scamehorn, J.H. Harwell (Eds.),                   using              micellar-enhanced
                      Surfactant-Based         Separation               ultrafiltration, J. Membr. Sci., 218
                      Processes, Marcel Dekker, New                     (2003) 257–267.
                      York, 1989, pp. 29–51.                            [10]- Dunn R.O., Scamehorn J.F.,
                      [3]- Pramauro E., Bianco A.,                      Christian S.D., Use of micellar-
                      Barni E., Viscardi G., Hinze                      enhanced ultrafiltration to remove
                      W.L., Pre-concentration and                       dissolved organics from aqueous
                      removal of iron (III) from                        streams, Sep. Sci. Tech. 20 (1985)
                      aqueous media using micellar                      257–284.
                      enhanced microfiltration, Colloids                [11]- Christian S.D., Scamehorn
                      Surf. A. 63 (1992) 291–300.                       J.F., Use of micellar-enhanced
                      [4]- Tondre C., Son S.G., Hebrant                 ultrafiltration to remove dissolved
                      M., Scrimin P., Tecilla P.,                       organics from aqueous streams,
                      Micellar extraction: removal of                   in: J.F. Scamehorn, J.H. Harwell
                      copper (II) by micellesolubilized                 (Eds.),       Surfactant-      Based
                      complexing agents of varying                      Separation Processes, Marcel
                      HLB       using      ultrafiltration,             Dekker, New York, 1989, pp. 3–
                      Langmuir, 9 (1993) 950–955.                       28.
                      [5]- Scamehorn J.F., Christian                    [12]- Bodzek M., Konieczny K.,
                      S.D., El-Sayed D.A., Uchiyama                     The Ultrafiltration Membrane
                      H., Removal of divalent metal                     made of Various Polymers in the
                      cation and their mixtures from                    Treatment of Oil Emulsion
                      aqueous streams using micellar-                   Wastewaters, Waste Manage, 21
                      enhanced ultrafiltration, Sep. Sci.               (1992) 75.
                      Tech. 29 (1994) 809–830.                          [13]- Bansal I. K., Concentration
                      [6]- Huang Y.C., Batchelor B.,                    of oily and latex wastewaters
                      Koseoglu       S.S.,     Crossflow                using ultrafiltration inorganic
                      surfactant-based ultrafiltration of               membranes. Ind. Water Eng.
                      heavy metals from waste streams,                  13(10), (1976) 6.
                      Sep. Sci. Tech. 29 (1994) 1979–                   [14]- Matz R., Zisner E.,
                      1998.                                             Herscovici G., Pressure driven
                      [7]- Ahmadi S., Huang Y.C.,                       membrane processes in the
                      Batchelor B., Koseoglu S.S.,                      treatment of industrial effluents.
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                  Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009     Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                               Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                       Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration



                      Limiting amount of Tall Oil,                      [19]- Lin S. H. and Lan W. J.,
                      Colloids and Surf. 77 (1991) 99.                  Ultrafiltration   recovery     of
                      [16]- Gorzka Z., Kazmierczak M.,                  polyvinyl alcohol from desizing
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                      [17]- Lin S. H., Lan W. J.,                       Polyvinyl alcohol recovery by
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                                                                        Membr. Sci. 151 (1998) 45-53.




                              Figure (1) Schematic diagram of the experimental system
                                  used for hollow fiber ultrafiltration experiments




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             Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009                       Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                                                    Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                                            Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration




                                                          10000
                                                                                         2.1    bar
                       PVA concentration, mg/L



                                                                                         1      bar
                                                           8000



                                                           6000



                                                           4000



                                                           2000


                                                                  0   10   20     30      40       50     60      70      80
                                                              Time, min
                           Figure (2) Effect of trans-membrane pressure on the PVA concentration
                                           using (PVA: Water) as desizing solution


                                                          7000

                                                                                1 bar
                                                          6000                  2.1 bar
                                PVA concentration, mg/L




                                                          5000



                                                          4000



                                                          3000



                                                          2000

                                                                  0   10   20     30      40       50     60      70      80
                                                                                       Time, min


                           Figure (3) Effect of trans-membrane pressure on the PVA concentration
                                        using (PVA: CMC: Water) as desizing solution




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             Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009                                  Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                                                               Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                                                       Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration




                                                                                                   o
                                                             3600                             50 C
                                                                                                   o
                                  PVA concentration, mg/L



                                                                                              75 C
                                                             3200



                                                             2800



                                                             2400



                                                             2000


                                                                        0    10   20         30          40    50     60      70      80
                                                                                                  Time, min
                                         Figure (4) Effect of operating temperature on the PVA concentration
                                                        using (PVA: Water) as desizing solution



                                                            3300                                    o
                                                                                                 75 C
                        PVA concentration, mg/L




                                                                                                    o
                                                                                                 50 C
                                                            3000



                                                            2700



                                                            2400



                                                            2100



                                                            1800
                                                                    0       10    20        30          40    50    60      70       80

                                                                                                 Time, min


                                         Figure (5) Effect of operating temperature on the PVA concentration
                                                    using (PVA: CMC: Water) as desizing solution




                                                                                             1015




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             Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No.5, 2009                   Recovery Of Pva Using Polyethersulfone (Pes)
                                                                                Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes: Part Ii:
                                                                        Effect Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) Concentration



                                                  4000

                                                                                      0.16 m/s
                                                  3600                                0.32 m/s
                        PVA concentration, mg/L




                                                  3200



                                                  2800



                                                  2400



                                                  2000

                                                         0      10    20      30      40       50     60      70      80

                                                                                  Time, min
                                                  Figure (6) Effect of feed flow rate on the PVA concentration
                                                            using (PVA: Water) as desizing solution



                                                                               0.16 m/s
                                                  3200                         0.32 m/s
                        PVA concentration, mg/L




                                                  2800




                                                  2400




                                                  2000

                                                         0      10    20      30      40       50     60      70      80

                                                                                   Time, min
                                                  Figure (7) Effect of feed flow rate on the PVA concentration
                                                        using (PVA: CMC: Water) as desizing solution




                                                                              1016




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