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Civil War Techno-Lecture - Jacquelyn Whiting; Joel Barlow High School


									The War of
Northern Aggression
Lincoln’s name didn’t appear on the ballot in many southern states

December 20, 1860: South Carolina unanimously voted for secession followed by Alabama,
Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas (deep South)

Confederacy established on February 4, 1861, inaugurated reluctant Jeff Davis
                              Fort Sumter: Charleston Harbor, SC

                              Lincoln’s Pledge: ‚hold, occupy, and possess‛
                              federal property

                              April 12, 1861: Confederate Shore batteries
                              bombarded the fort to prevent provisional

                              Lincoln calls for 75,000 militia to put down
                              the insurrection

April 1861: Virginia, North
Carolina, Arkansas,
Tennessee (upper South)
joined the CSA
War Mobilization
• Raising armies: 2 million Union;
  800,000 Confederate

• Equipping the Troops: arming,
  clothing, feeding

• Confederacy impressed provisions and
  slave labor
  Southerners, according to a Georgia congressman,
  would "give up their sons, husbands, brothers<,
  and often without murmuring, to the army; but let
  one of their negroes be taken, and what a howl                                   Ohio Volunteers
  you will hear"

• Union Conscription
   Substitution or Commutation ($300)

• Financing the War
   Union: 21% wartime revenue from taxes; bond sales; printed paper money (legal tender)
   Confederacy: printed paper money (not legal tender); 5% revenue from taxes
   Inflation: 80% price increase in the North; 9000% increase in CSA
Securing Union Borders
DC bordered by slave states Virginia and Maryland

Lincoln sent troops to MD and suspended habeas corpus

Armed Union sympathizers in KY

Border States:
• 22 million people to the South’s 9
  million (including 3 million
• 90% of the US industrial capacity
• 2/3 of the nation’s railroad track

• Fighting for independence, home
  field advantage
• Vast land mass in which Union had to maintain supply lines and occupy
• Slaves freed whites to fight
• Defensive, short supply transport

                                  At the start of the war, the value of all manufactured goods produced in
                                       all the Confederate states added up to less than one-fourth of those
                                                                         produced in New York State alone.

  Opposing Advantages

Repeating rifle replaced smoothbore

Gatling Gun (predecessor to machine gun)

Strategic Changes:
Cavalry relegated to reconnaissance

Weapons Developments
Grand Union Strategy

                       Union blockade of
                       southern coast and
                       occupation of
                       Mississippi River

                       Lacked adequate ships
                       and men to ever be

                       ‚Forward to
                       (100 miles south of DC)

   Anaconda Plan
             Confederates encamped 25 mi from DC
             Amateur Armies
             Union General McDowell defeated
             Picnicking DC socialites
             McDowell out;
             McClellan in

Bull Run (Manassas Junction)
               McClellan’s peninsula plan: attack Richmond
               from the rear

               Lee given command of Army of Northern VA;
               goes on the offensive

               McClellan called back to DC; Union routed
               again at Bull Run

               September 17, 1862: single bloodiest day of the
               war (24,000)

               Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation

McClellan had ‚the shows;‛ Burnside
replaced him

122,000 Union against 78,500 Rebs;
Union lost 12,600 and CSA lost 5,300

Lee: ‚It is well that war is so terrible –
we should grow fond of it.‛

By December 1862 the war in the East
was a stalemate

Ambrose Burnside                               Stonewall Jackson                                    Robert E. Lee
(What is named after him?)                     ‚He sits there like a stone                          opponent of secession,
                                               wall!‛                                               courteous, genteel, fierce

                             William T. Sherman                          George B. McClellan
                             ‚I beg to present you as a               "You may find those who
                             Christmas gift the city of                will go faster than I, Mr.
                             Savannah.‛                                 President; but it is very
                                                                       doubtful if you will find
                                                                     many who will go further."
                                      1861-62: Grant stabilized MO & KY, moved south to TN
                                      Attacked by Rebels at Shiloh Church
                                      77,000 fought; 23,000 killed or wounded

                                      New Orleans taken by naval attack
                                      Union controlled most of the Mississippi River

Ulysses S. Grant
West Point grad, heavy drinker,
failed farmer and businessman and
one of the Union’s best leaders

In two days at Shiloh on the banks
of the Tennessee River, more
Americans fell than in all previous
American wars combined.

  Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing)
North: began with 40 warships; by
1865 had largest navy in the world

Southern coastline: 3,500 miles
Cruisers: blockade runners

Ironclads: Merrimac became the
Virginia, battled with Union
                                          CSS Manassas, 1861

                                     Naval War
I hear old John Brown knocking on the lid
of his coffin and shouting ‘Let me out! :et
me out!’ The Doom of Slavery is at hand.‛
Henry Stanton, 1861

                                       ‚I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to
                                      interfere with the institution of slavery in the
                                                               states where it exists.‛
                                                                        Lincoln, 1861

  Confiscation to Emancipation
African Americans constituted less than one percent
of the northern population, yet by the war’s end
made up ten percent of the Union Army. A total of
180,000 black men, more than 85% of those eligible,

Secession meets protection of property

Contraband: enemy property liable to

August 1861: Confiscation Act authorized
seizure of property used to aid rebellion             “free every slave – slay every traitor – burn
(only applied to slaves working for the                    every Rebel mansion, is these things be
Confederate army)                                              necessary to preserve this temple of
                                                                  freedom” – Thaddeus Stevens
July 1862: 2nd Confiscation Act, authorized
seizure of all rebel property, slaves joining             “to fight against slaveholders without
Union ‚forever free,‛ blacks can be enlisted
                                                           fighting against slavery, is but a half-
                                                       hearted business” – Frederick Douglass

   Confiscation to Emancipation
‚My paramount object in this struggle is to save the
Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I
  could save the Union without freeing any slave, I
 would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the
slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing
some and leaving other alone, I would also do that.‛

                  – Abraham Lincoln
Hooker crushed at Chancellorsville even though
outnumbered rebs 2:1; South lost Stonewall Jackson to
friendly fire

Grant unable to take Vicksburg

                         1863: a Turning Point
             Summer 1863:
Gettysburg   Lee, under
             pursued Union
             army north to

             In Gettysburg,
             rebs foraging
             for shoes meet
             Union cavalry

             July 1-3, 90,000
             Union against
             Lee’s 75,000;
             50,000 total

             Grant took

             Union secured
Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and
dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that
nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We
have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation
might live.

It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate,
we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above our
poor power to add or detract.

The world will little note, nor long
remember, what we say here, but it
can never forget what they did here.
It is for us the living, rather, to be
dedicated here to the unfinished
work which they who fought here
have thus far so nobly advanced.

It is rather for us to be here dedicated
to the great task remaining before us,
that from these honored dead we
take increased devotion to that cause
for which they gave the last full
measure of devotion, that we here
highly resolve that these dead shall
not have died in vain, that this
nation, under God, shall have a new
birth of freedom, and that
government of the people, by the
people, for the people, shall not
perish from the earth."
North                                 South
• Clothing manufacturing              • Shattered economy
  plummeted                           • Destroyed railroads
• War industry benefitted             • Cotton production plunged
• Railroads boomed (Pacific RR Act)   • Food shortages
• Raised protective tariffs           • Food impressed by CSA gov’t
• National banking system;            • Half of the soldiers left units by
  greenbacks                            1864 to help families
• Homestead Act: 160- acre land       • Trading food for cotton with
  grants                                northerners
• Morrill Land Grant Act: public
  land sale proceeds funded
• Contractor corruption and graft
  Inflation; wages lagged behind

The War’s Economic Impact
                                                     During the Battle of Antietam, Clara
                                                     Barton tended the wounded so close to
                                                     the fighting that a bullet went through
                                                     her sleeve and killed a man she was

                                                     United States Sanitary Commission

                                                     Nursing Corps: 3,200 women served
                                                     both sides

                                                     Barton founded American Red Cross
                                                     in 1881

                                                     Brazen departure from “proper sphere”

                                                     For every soldier killed, 2 died of
                                                     disease (gangrene, tetanus, typhoid,
                                                     malaria, dysentery)

                                                     Andersonville, GA CSA prison camp
                                                     3, 000/month (32,000 total) died by
                                                     August 1864

The war did not bring progress on political or economic equality;
men saw compelling reasons to abolish slavery, not to grant women’s suffrage
            September 1864
            Sherman took Atlanta

            March across GA into SC,
            ‚that hell hole of secession‛

            62,000 men, cavalry, and
            thousands of former slaves;
            60 mi wide front moved 10
            mi/day and forced the
            Confederacy’s collapse

The Union
March to
                                                                      Sherman: “make
                                                                      war so terrible…
                                                                      that generations
                                                                      would pass before
                                                                      they could appeal to
                                                                      it again”

Ruins of the Gallego Flour Mills, Richmond, Virginia, 1865
Alexander Gardner

        400 miles of ruin, $100 million of property damage

        “War is cruelty and you cannot refine it. Those who brought war into our
        country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out.” –
        William Tecumseh Sherman
Charleston RR Station after Sherman
Matthew Brady: The Ruins of Richmond
                                                        April 3, 1865
                                                        Union troops raised stars and
                                                        stripes over the Confederate
                                                        capital, Richmond

                                                        April 13
                                                        Lee surrendered; Grant paroled
                                                        his men; no one cheered

                                                        April 14
                                                        Grant declined attending the
                                                        theater with the Lincolns

Appomattox Courthouse, east of Lynchburg

                                                           More than three million men fought in the war.
                                           Two percent of the population—more than 620,000—died in it.
Lincoln’s box at
Ford’s Theater

Assassinated on
April 14, Died on
April 15

John Wilkes Booth
fled; captured
within two weeks
by Union troops
Execution of conspirators
Mary Surratt, Lewis Paine, David
Herold, and George Atzerodt
on July 7, 1865
John Wilkes Booth


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