Civil War Politics - The Civil War by suchenfz

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									The Civil War
   Civil War Politics
           The Election of 1860
• Four candidates ran for
  president in 1860 including
  Abraham Lincoln who
  represented the recently formed
  Republican Party

• The Democratic Party was
  divided over the issue of slavery.

• Although Lincoln emerged
  victorious, he failed to win the
  majority of the popular vote.

• The election proved to be the
  final act needed to convince
  Southern states to secede.
 The Founding of the Confederacy
• Fearing the federal government
  would further infringe on their
  rights, South Carolina became the
  first state to secede from the Union
  on December 20th, 1860.

• By early January Mississippi,
  Florida, Alabama, Georgia,
  Louisiana and Texas also seceded.

• In February of 1861, delegates
  from the secessionist states drafted
  a constitution.

• Jefferson Davis was unanimously
  elected as president of the
  Confederacy.
 Southern Reason For Secession
• Alarmed at shift in political balance

• Horrified at victory of Republican Party that threatened
  slaveholders

• Angry over Free-Soil criticism and abolition and northern
  interference (Underground Railroad and John Brown)

• Felt secession would go unopposed…North couldn’t afford to
  cut economic ties

• End dependence on North…could focus on trade with Europe
  (NO MORE TARIFFS)

• Morally they were right…could freely leave Union and
  government was infringing on their rights.
Blue: Union
Yellow: Border States (Slave states remaining in
Union)
Dark Red: Original 7 Confederate States
Light Red: Confederate States by May, 1861
    LincoLn’s earLy presidency
• Vowed to preserve the
  Union at all cost…did not
  want to abolish slavery.

• Lincoln did not want to
  anger Border States (MD,
  DE, KY, and MO)

• Cabinet:
  – Stanton: Secretary of War
  – Chase: Secretary of
    Treasury
  – Seward: Secretary of State
       Attack on Fort Sumter
• Fort Sumter was one of only two
  southern forts that remained in
  Union hands in the spring of 1861.

• The Confederates demanded the fort
  be surrendered but Lincoln refused.

• Lincoln denied requests to rearm the
  fort, however, so the Union would
  not be seen as an aggressor.

• Jefferson Davis therefore had to
  make the decision to open fire on
  Fort Sumter officially beginning the
  Civil War on April 12th, 1861.
    The Fort Sumter Dilemma
• Abraham Lincoln                    • Jefferson Davis

  – Rearming Fort Sumter would          – If he chose to allow the
    risk potential hostilities and        Union garrison to remain at
    paint the federal government          Fort Sumter he would
    in a negative light causing           damage the Confederacy’s
    more states to secede.                image as a sovereign nation.

  – Order evacuation and be seen        – If he ordered the attack he
    as recognizing the                    risked a potential war with
    Confederacy’s legitimacy and          the United States instead of
    appear weak to his political          a peaceful secession.
    party and the nation.
           Northern Response
• After Fort Sumter, Lincoln had
  shown the South to be
  aggressors

• Lincoln calls initially for 75,000
  volunteers from each Union
  state

• Soon after Lincoln calls for
  Southern ports to be blockaded

• Eventually Lincoln issues a call
  for 3 year volunteers since
  militias would not be sufficient
                   The Union
• Strengths                     • Weaknesses
  – Strong banking, industry,     – Poor military leadership
    manufacturing.                  at beginning
  – More railroads                – Divided over abolitionist
  – Strong navy                     movement
  – Experienced government        – Did not have as strong a
  – Large population= high          cause to fight for
    amounts of soldiers.
          The Confederacy
• Strengths                      • Weaknesses
  – Trade relationships with       –   Smaller population
    Europe                         –   Weaker navy
  – Better military officers       –   Large slave population
  – Long Coastlines                –   Not industrialized
  – Fighting on their own soil
  – Convinced of a just cause
Confederate Chances and Assets
1. Border state secession

2. Upper Mississippi Valley
   states turning against the
   Union
3. Northern defeatism
   leading to an armistice
   ("Copperheads”)

4. England & France
   breaking the blockade.
   Problems with the Confederate
            Government
• Constitution largely copied
  Union…except it permitted
  slavery

• Jefferson Davis president, but
  CSA did not want a central
  authority.

• Davis constantly at odds with
  his cabinet and legislature.

• Lacked Lincoln’s political
  savvy
 Confederate and Border States
• By early May 4 more states
  secede…VA, AR, TN, NC
• Border States prove vital to
  the Union, Maryland placed
  under martial law.
• Western counties of
  Virginia remain with
  Union…form state of WV
  in 1863
• Lincoln forced to allow
  border states maintain
  slavery…no public talk of
  abolition.
               Virginia Secedes
• In April of 1861, Virginia seceded due to
  its unwillingness to fight against other
  Southern states.

• This dealt the Union a major blow since
  Virginia was heavily populated and
  relatively industrialized.

• The loss of Virginia also cost the Union
  the leadership of Robert E. Lee who
  despite being against secession refused to
  fight against his home state.

• Richmond the capital of Virginia would
  become the capital of the Confederacy.
       LincoLn’s Views on war
• - Lincoln in Aug. 22, 1862 to Horace Greeley:
• "My paramount object is to save the Union, and is not
  either to save or destroy slavery... If I could save the
  Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I
  could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it, and
  if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others
  alone, I would also do that."
             Role of Europeans
• The British
   – Supported the South until
     Emancipation Proclamation
   – Why?
   – Almost go to war with Union after
     Trent Affair
   – Confederate Navy built in Great
     Britain
• The French
   – Napoleon III unfriendly to the
     Union
   – Attempt to conquer Mexico, placed
     brother Maximilian on the
     throne…later abandoned
   – U.S. did not want to go to war with
     France.
                              Union Army
• Initially northern armies comprised of
  volunteers with each state given a quota based
  on population 90% of Union army.

• 1863, Congress passed federal conscription law
  for first time in U.S. history…
  a. Purpose: To make up for fewer numbers of
  volunteers.
  b. Policy unfair as wealthier youth could hire
  substitutes for $300.

• Draft caused biggest stir in Democratic
  strongholds of North, inc. NYC.
    – New York Draft Riot in 1863 sparked by Irish-
      Americans cost nearly 500 lives lost and buildings
      burned.

• Large bounties for enlistment also offered by
  federal, state, & local authorities.

• About 200,000 deserters of all classes in North;
  South similar
              Confederate Army
• South initially relied mainly on volunteers
• Smaller population meant numbers troops smaller
• Confederacy forced to conscript men between ages
  of 17 & 50 as early as April, 1862; a year earlier
  than the Union.
• Rich men could hire substitutes or purchase
  exemption.
• Mountain whites refused to enlist
                           Union War Economy
•   Raising money in the North
•
        1. First income tax in nation s history levied; relatively small but still raised millions
           -- Paid for 2/3 of the wars cost
•
        2. Excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol substantially increased by Congress.
•
        3. Morrill Tariff Act of 1861 -- Raised low Tariff of 1857 about 10%
           a. About the level of the Walker Tariff of 1846.
           b. Tariff rates later raised due to demands of revenue and protection during war.
           c. Protective tariff came to be associated with Republicans for next 70 years.
•
        4. Greenbacks
           a. About $450 million issued at face value to replace gold.
           b. Supported by gold; value determined by nation s credit.
           c. Though fluctuating during the war, they held value well after Union victory.
•
        5. Sale of bonds through U.S. Treasury: marketed through private banking house of Jay
           Cooke & Co. which receive commission of 3/8 of 1% on all sales.
•
        6. National Banking System authorized by Congress in 1863
           a. Designed to establish standard bank-note currency.
           b. Sold gov’t bonds.
           c. Banks that joined the National Banking System could buy bonds and
              issue sound paper money backed by the system.
           d. The first national-type banking institution since Jackson killed the BUS
              -- Lasted for 50 years until the Federal Reserve System.
                    Union War Economy
• War-time prosperity in the North
•
      1. Civil War produced first millionaire class in U.S. history.
         a. New factories protected by the new tariff emerged.
         b. Beginning of the "Gilded Age" dominated by "Robber Barons"

      2. New labor-saving machinery spurred expansion while best laborers fought war.
         a. Sewing machine
         b. Mechanical reapers numbered 250,000 by 1865
•
      3. Petroleum industry born in PA in 1859
•
      4. Westward movement :
         a. Homestead Act of 1862
         b. Gold seekers (NV, CA) -- would later constitute a formidible mining
            frontier with the completion of the transcontinental railroad.
         c. Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
         d. Pacific Railway Act (1863) -- established a transcontinental railroad to be built
            connecting northern states and territories to California.
           Confederate Economic
                 Problems
• 1. Customs duties cut-off to Union blockade

• 2. Gov’t issued large amounts of bonds sold at home & abroad
  = $400 million.

• 3. Significant raise in taxes and 10% tax on farm produce.
   – a. Most states rights Southerners against heavy direct taxation by
     central gov t
   – b. Direct taxation accounted for only 1% of gov t revenues.

• 4. Biggest source of revenue: printed large amounts of paper
  money
   – a. "Runaway inflation" as treasury cranked out more than $1 billion
   – b. Inflation of currency coupled with tax on farm produce worked
     until the end of the war for the Confederacy.
          Union Wartime Policies
1.    Blockade proclaimed when Congress not in session shortly after Fort Sumter.
          -- Action later upheld by Supreme Court.
2.   Increased size of federal army and navy
3.   Extended volunteer enlistment to three years
4.   Directed his sec. of treasury to advanced $2 million without appropriation or security
5.    Suspended writ of habeas corpus so that anti-Unionists could be summarily arrested.

6.   Arranged for "supervised" voting in Border States
7.   Federal officials also suspended certain newspaMotive: Saving the Union required side-
     stepping some areas of Constitution.
8.   pers and the arrest of their editors for
     obstructing the Union war cause.
9.   Signed a bill outlawing slavery in all the national territories even though it conflicted
     with
     the Dred Scott decision.
10. Generally, civil liberties and constitutional rights were respected during war.
       -- Few political opponents were arrested.
11. Jefferson Davis, unlike Lincoln, unable to exercise arbitrary power

								
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