Ronald Reagan - PowerPoint

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					  Ronald
  Reagan

The Rise of the
   Modern
 Conservative
  Movement
•   Born in Illinois, 1911
•   Active in college.             Ronald Reagan
•   Lifeguard, Radio Announcer
•   Went to California to launch
    an acting career during the
    Great Depression
•   Successful actor
•   Eventual president of the
    Screen Actors Guild (Union
    for Actors)
•   Became increasingly
    conservative in face of
    radical socialists and
    communists in the movie
    industry
•   Switched from Democratic
    to Republican Party in the
    late 50s/early 60s
Modern Conservative Evolution
        1930s-1960s
• New Deal opponents
• Eisenhower and „Modern Republicanism‟
• 1964 - Barry Goldwater (AZ) conservative Senator.
   – Opposed government activism
   – Opposed social security
   – Opposed Federal Civil Rights laws (not necessarily
     local or state)
   – Demanded military buildup to defend against
     Soviet attack
• Opposed Great Society - extension of New Deal.
   – Overextension of what needs government could or
     should meet
Conservative Evolution and
      Organizations
             • Young Americans for
               Freedom
             • William F. Buckley
             • Barry Goldwater
             • Disenchanted
               Southern Democrats
             • Some „fringe‟
               organizations
               – John Birch Society
                 (though most -
                 including Reagan, et al
                 - distanced themselves
                 from this group)
  Richard Nixon & the Welfare
             State
• Trimmed social welfare
  programs of the Great Society
• Did not cut them altogether
• Established OSHA (Office of
  Safety and Health
  Administration)
• Established EPA
  (Environmental Protection
  Agency)
• NEW FEDERALISM - Re-
  distributed federal monies to
  states
   – Covertly gutted high $
      federal programs of their
      „liberal‟ intent by
      redirecting funding
Social Issues and Conservatism
              • Rapid cultural change of
                the 1960s
              • Opposition to Warren
                Court decisions
                 – „criminal rights‟
                 – Church-state issues like
                   school prayer
                 – Privacy rights/issues
              • Rock music
                 – Openly sexual, drug-
                   oriented, rebellious
              • Widespread Use of illegal
                drugs
Social Issues and Conservatism
• Radical and increasingly
  violent student protests
• Reagan strongly opposed
  FSM (Free Speech Movement
  - radical) on UC-Berkeley
  campus
   – Dismissed UC president
• Opposed „sexual‟ revolution
   – Said Birth control pill
     encouraged promiscuous
     behavior
Social Issues and Conservatism
               • 1973 Roe v. Wade Supreme
                 Court decision
                  – Legalized abortion by striking
                    down state laws prohibiting
                    abortions
                  – Launched modern pro-life
                    movement (aka „anti-
                    abortion‟)
               • Opposed emerging gay rights
                 movement
               • Opposed radical feminism
               • Blamed these for decline of
                 traditional nuclear family
                  – Rising divorce rate
                  – „No-fault‟ divorce laws
                    (ironically passed during
                    Reagan‟s term in California)
Social Issues and Conservatism

• Civil Rights:
   – Federal government laws =
     end of state mandated
     segregation
   – Opposed forced and
     unreasonable integration
     (forced busing)
   – Opposed Affirmative Action
     quotas - said it was reverse
     discrimination
   – Democratic Blue Collar
     Workers - called “Reagan
     Democrats”
The 1980
Election
The New Conservative Coalition
      The NEW RIGHT
• The NEW RIGHT - a political coalition of:
  – Conservative evangelical Christians
  – Moral Majority founded by Rev. Jerry Falwell -
    Baptist minister (founder - Liberty University -
    Lynchburg, VA)
       • To restore Christian Values in America
  –   Southern Democrats
  –   Reduction of Social Programs
  –   Called for reduction in size and scope of government
  –   “Reagan Democrats”
  –   Favored return of US military prominence
  –   Patriotic focus
The 1980 “Revolution”
           • Nixon Victories in 1968
             and 1972 early
             indicators of change
           • Carter‟s series of
             „Unfortunate‟ Events
           • Carter‟s perceived
             mishandling of major
             challenges
           • Reagan‟s ability to
             communicate - “The
             Great Communicator”
           • Few simple well-
             articulated idea
     Right Turn



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Map 30.4 Presidential Election of 1980 (p. 903)
 Ronald Reagan



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    The Reagan Revolution and
    the First Inaugural Address
“In the days ahead I will propose removing the
   roadblocks that have slowed our economy and
   reduced productivity. Steps will be taken aimed
   at restoring the balance between various levels of
   government. Progress may be slow, measured in
   inches and feet, not miles, but we will progress.
   It is time to reawaken this industrial giant, to get
   government back within its means, and to lighten
   our punitive tax burden. And these will be our
   first priorities, and on these principles there will
   be no compromise.” - Ronald Reagan 1981
Supply-Side Economics a.k.a
      “Reaganomics”
             • Cut taxes to put more money
               into the hands of businesses
             • Cut taxes on the wealthiest
               Americans
             • Lower taxes = more
               investment in the “supply
               side” of the economy
             • Would:
                – promote and create new jobs
                – encourage capital investment,
                  and
                – lead to stimulated industrial
                  growth
  Cutting Government
Regulation - “deregulation”
              • Continued Carter’s
                programs to deregulate
                key industries
              • Energy, Transportation
                and Banking Industries
              • Challenged Air Traffic
                Controllers in 1981 -
                Fired those who refused
                to go back to work after
                a strike.
Slowed Federal Growth - New
 Federalism (Reagan-style)
                • Limiting government
                   – Eliminated public service
                     jobs,
                   – reduced unemployment
                     compensation,
                   – lowered welfare benefits,
                   – raised fees for Medicare
                     patients
                • Federal domestic
                  spending still grew for a
                  couple of years
 Reagan and
Military Buildup
• Sharp increase in military
  spending = buildup
• New weapons and new
  technology
• Neoconservatives (Neo-
  cons = Dick Cheney, Don
  Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz,
  Condoleeza Rice, Richard
  Armistead, Colin Powell,
  etc.)
• Strategic Defense Initiative
  (SDI) = better known as
  Star Wars
Reagan and the
  Cold War
• Called Soviet Union
  the “evil empire”
• Reagan - Cold
  Warrior
  –   Lebanon
  –   Libya
  –   Grenada
  –   El Salvador
  –   Nicaragua (Contra
      rebels supported by
      US)
     Reagan: Economic
   Recession, and Recovery
• 1981-1982 Recession
• Inflation slowed, consumer spending
  increased
• Stock market grew
• Federal deficit grew even as domestic
  spending decreased
• National debt = $909 billion in 1980 ---
  $3.2 trillion in 1990
Election of 1984
Patriotic Renewal
         • “It’s Morning in America,
           Again”
         • 59% of popular vote
         • Second largest electoral
           victory in history
         • 1984 Olympics in Los
           Angeles
         • Communist-bloc countries
           boycotted
         • 1986 - 100th anniversary
           of Statue of Liberty
         • 1987 - 200th anniversary
           of the Constitution
    Other issues 1984-1988
• AIDS Awareness
• Women’s Movement stalled (ERA failed
  in 1982)
• Supreme Court conservatives
  – Sandra Day O’Connor
  – Anthony Kennedy
  – Antonin Scalia
  – Chief Justice William Rehnquist
     More issues: 1984-1988
• Farm Crisis - foreclosures
• Manufacturing shift - from metal and textiles
  (overseas = outsourcing due to labor costs)
• Service sectors continued to grow
• Wealthiest Americans flourished in the 1980s
• Jan 28, 1986 - Space Shuttle Challenger
  exploded shortly after take off
                     Scandal
• S & L Crisis                • Iran Contra Scandal
• Savings and Loan            • Selling arms (to Iran) for
  institutions deregulated      the release of hostages
  and some corrupt              to support Nicaraguan
  individuals used this to
  make huge personal            Contras
  fortunes                    • Covered up
• S & L’s collapsed in late   • Reagan admitted
  1980s                         covering up
• $2.6 billion in savings     • No long term impact
  lost
                              • “Teflon” president.