Robots by pengtt


									Robots in the Real World

        Science Fiction
         Science Fact
       Design & control

         "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland   1
           University of Glamorgan
     Robots - Science Fiction
The concept of a robot                               Fetch me
has been around for a                                 a beer…
while either in the form
of Mankind's ideal
tireless worker...

...or a machine with the objective of taking over

A few classics...
                    "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland              2
                      University of Glamorgan
          Science Fiction Classics
•   1923: Karel Capek, coins the term Robot
•   Robbie the Robot (1956 MGM Forbidden Planet)
•   K9 (Dr Who 1970’s)
•   R2D2, C3PO (Star Wars 1977 etc.)
•   Terminator (1984 & 1991)
•   Lt. Cmdr. Data (Star Trek 1997)
•   Bender (Futurama 1998)
•   Kryten (Red Dwarf 1990’s)
    The vast majority of science fiction robots are humanoid in
    appearance, but superhuman in some way (strength / Intellect),
    they are ‘universal’ robots, as versatile as a human, with many
    functions / uses.
                        "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland                3
                          University of Glamorgan
        Robots - Science Fiction
How are they Controlled?
• All of these fictional robots are portrayed as being -
  totally autonomous
• The co-operative ones are subservient and obey
  Asimov’s three laws;
    A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction allow
     a human being to come to harm.
    A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings, except
     where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
    A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such
     protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.
 The less co-operative ones have their own objectives!
                      "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland            4
                        University of Glamorgan
           Robots - Science Fact
Robots around today
• Production
   – Factory line - common - fixed.
• Military use
   – Mine Clearance - sweeping pre-planned routes
   – Bomb defusing - ‘barrow’ used to inspect suspicious packages
   – unmanned aircraft - covert operations by theUS Army -
• Commercial
   – Atomic Power-plant inspection - (high radiation levels)
   – ROV’s for underwater repairs, welding at extreme depths, exploration
     - e.g. titanic tunnel/pipe inspection (environment)
• Medical
   – Zeus & da Vinci systems used in NYU Hospital undergoing clinical
     FDA trials - heart surgery - reduced post-op
                        "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland                  5
                          University of Glamorgan
          Robots - Science Fact
• Recreational / Domestic
   – Robotic Hoover's / lawn mowers - toys
   – Abio robotic dog - A form of simulated emotions, limited
     ability to learn... at a price ... Sapphire Violet, Mazeran
     Green and Everest White special Anniversary Editions for

  All of these robots tend to be specialised rather than
  generic -common theme with modern technology? -
  computers specialised
                      "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland               6
                        University of Glamorgan
          Robots - Science Fact
How are they Controlled?
• Human controlled (in vital missions - deft touch)
• Or very simple -repetitive tasks
• Relatively simple autonomous - Abio

• Autonomous robots are very limited - navigation
• Problems -
   – processing power - sight/machine vision
   – other ways of sensing GPS, ‘dead reckoning’ optical
     systems, beacons - depending on the environment
                      "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland       7
                        University of Glamorgan
    Pathfinder & Sojourner
• July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder landed
• The Sojourner rover was the first free-ranging robotic
  rover to operate on the surface of another planet.
• The mission lasted 3 times longer than expected &
  Sojourner operated 12 times its design lifetime of 7
• Mission returned 2.3 billion bits of information,
  including 550 images from the rover & learned that at
  some point in the past Mars probably had liquid water
  on the surface.

                   "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland      8
                     University of Glamorgan
         Previous Rover missions
• The Russians placed a remote control vehicle on the
  moon called Lunakhod 1 (Luna 16). It landed on
  November 11, 1970 covering an area of about 80,000
  square metres. Even though there was only a 3
  second signal delay, that rover proved very difficult to
•   NASA built rovers for use on the moon initially Apollo
    15 (July 30, 1971) later Apollo 16 and 17.
• Sojourner proved that small rovers can actually
  operate on Mars and that a semi-autonomous
  vehicle can be remote controlled from another planet.
                     "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland      9
                       University of Glamorgan
     Robots - Sojourner Design
• Special suspension system with rotating joints
  designed to follow the contours of the ground, top
  speed to 0.6 meters (1.9 feet) per minute.
• Six-wheel chassis combined with suspension system
  made the robot stable with uneven surfaces up to 45
• Rover solar powered with additional battery packs.
• Rover included a number of science packages for a
  variety of experiments, including some designed to
  evaluate sojourner as a guide to the designing future
                   "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland      10
                     University of Glamorgan
     Robots - Sojourner Control
• A panoramic camera was used to survey the site and
  to assist Sojourner's ‘driver in controlling the robot
• One command and telemetry transmissions per
  Martian day between the lander and earth operators.
• 11 minute signal delay,so Sojourner operated using a
  form of supervised autonomous control. Goal
  locations sent to the rover and Sojourner then
  navigated to these locations.
• Sojourner had three motion sensors along its frame
  to detect excessive tilt and stop the rover before
  getting close to toppling over.
                    "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland     11
                      University of Glamorgan
                  Lego Robots
More than toy ...
• Robolab version of the software is a cut down version of
  LABVIEW, the programming environment for Mars
  Pathfinder Mission using the G graphical programming
• Used in a number of universities for simulations.
• Mechanically simple - and versatile - wide range modular
  ‘technic’ components - a modular concept NASA has been
  proposing since 1950’s

                    "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland       12
                      University of Glamorgan
             Robots Summary
   Design and Control two very important issues

• Problems of movement, task - shielding radioactivity
• Physical limitations- size, weight.

• Degree of autonomy - type of control
• Navigation (Global, Local, Personal)

                   "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland        13
                     University of Glamorgan
                Robots - Future
• NASA - Mars Exploration Rover Mission, Cornell
  University is responsible for building the twin Illius
  rovers being launched in 2003, arriving Mars 2004

• Nanobots - research ongoing into gears/ mechanics

                     "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland        14
                       University of Glamorgan
Material was sourced from a number of websites;

General Source of Robotics Information

The Robotic Lawnmover

Watch the movie for the 2004 landing!

Sojouner information from JPL, Cal.Tech. and NASA.

                             "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland        15
                               University of Glamorgan
Robot construction starts now!

          "Mars or Bust" Iain Sutherland   16
            University of Glamorgan

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