Helping to Win the Fight Against Aidsp.8 by dfsiopmhy6

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									                                                     •
                                           Winter 2004 Number 16




Helping to Win the
Fight Against Aids p.8
      Congestion Charging
                In London
          Can it Work in Sao Paulo? p.12
       Letter From the President, Michael Replogle




       Celebrating ITDP’s
       20th Anniversary
       Two Decades of Growth

                                        O
                                                  ne of life’s greatest satisfactions   1989. Since 1992, when we hired him
                                                  is to help give birth to some-        as Executive Director and moved our
                                                  thing, nurture it, struggle with      headquarters to New York, Walter has
                                        its growing pains, and to see it take           been a most able steward of the organi-
                                        wing and soar on its own. I’ve enjoyed          zation.
                                        that experience with the Institute for             Thanks to that leadership, ITDP has
                                        Transportation and Development                  grown into a true global player, making
                                        Policy (ITDP).                                  a difference in the lives of millions of
                                           Little did I realize in June 1984, that      people worldwide. With a staff of 19
                                        a few phone calls to other bike activists       and an annual budget of $1.6 million,
                                        could – in less than 5 years – result in        ITDP exercises influence far dispropor-
                                        the recycling of over 10,000 bicycles to        tionate to its resources, as it did in its
                                        bolster health and education projects           early days. Countless volunteers, staff,
                                        and capitalize a bicycle assembly indus-        board members, and supporters who
                                        try in Nicaragua that thrives to this           have allowed ITDP to grow and prosper
                                        day. The Bikes Not Bombs campaign               with such success deserve our heartfelt
                                        gave thousands of Americans a positive          thanks. Our influence is due in no small
                                        way to oppose U.S. militarism and               part to the fact that ITDP has for two
                                        imperialism while strengthening sus-            decades attracted and cultivated the
                                        tainable development.                           involvement of innovative social entre-
                                           Less than a year later, on May 1,            preneurs who have gone on to be key
                                        1985, a dozen environmental and bike            players in relevant institutions around
                                        activists gathered in a Takoma Park,            the world, including the UN, World
                                        Maryland, living room to launch ITDP.           Bank, leading transportation and envi-
                                        We were witness to the export of                ronmental NGOs, transportation agen-
                                        America’s car-dependent sprawl devel-           cies, and governments.
                                        opment worldwide. We saw the need to               ITDP is needed more than ever.
                                        assert a different vision for America – at      Worldwide motor vehicle ownership
                                        home and abroad – a dream for sustain-          and use is soaring, spurring $50 a barrel
                                        able global development, attentive to           oil and an appalling toll in lives and
                                        impacts of transportation choices               environmental destruction. Yet the
                                        on the environment and on the                   number of people worldwide lacking
                                        equity of economic and community                access to private motor vehicles – and
                                        development.                                    dependent on walking, bicycling, and
                                           Formed to support efforts promoting          public transportation – continues to
                                        transportation for low-income people in         grow faster still. Global pressure for
                                        Nicaragua, Haiti, Mozambique, and               transportation reform grows, with the
                                        worldwide, ITDP worked for years out            Kyoto Protocol now coming into force
                                        of the basement of my home, where
                                        Walter Hook labored as an intern in                         continued on p. 4

2 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
c o n t e n t s sustainabletransport
 Winter 2004                                                   Number 16                    is a publication of:
                                                                                             The Institute for
Articles                                                                        Transportation and Development Policy
                                                                                        115 W.30th St., Suite 1205
                                                                                           New York, NY 10001
    8                                                                            Tel. (212) 629-8001 • Fax (212) 629-8033
   Using Bicycles to Save Lives                                                    mobility @ itdp.org • www.itdp.org
                                                                                Editor: Lisa Peterson
                                                                                Art Direction: Cliff Harris
   12
                                                                                Board of Directors:
   Congestion Charging:
                                                                                Michael Replogle, President
   Can it Work in Sao Paulo?                                                    Environmental Defense
                                                                                Matteo Martignoni, Vice President
   16                                                                           International Human Powered
   The California Bike Coalition Comes of Age                                   Vehicle Association
                                                                                Karen Overton, Treasurer
                                                                                Recycle-A-Bicycle
   18                                                                           Ariadne Delon-Scott, Secretary
   Countering Car Culture,                                                      Specialized
   One Trip at a Time                                                           Greg Guenther
                                                                                Guenther Consulting
   22                                                                           David Gurin
                                                                                Ryerson University
   What to Do about Urban Highways:
                                                                                Walter Hook
   Lessons from Mexico City                                                     Executive Director, ITDP
                                                                                John Howe
   24                                                                           Transport Consultant
   BRT’s Great Leap Forward                                                     Gerhard Menckhoff
                                                                                World Bank, retired

                                                          Features              V. Setty Pendakur
                                                                                Chairman, Global Committee on
                                                                                International Planning and NMT
                                                                          2     Transportation Research Board

                                  Twentieth-Anniversary Letter                  Enrique Peñalosa
                                                                                Former Mayor, Bogotá, Colombia,
                                      from ITDP’s President, Michael Replogle   President, Por el Pais Que Queremos
                                                                                Geetam Tiwari
                                                                          5     IIT Delhi
                      Letter From the Executive Director                        Jay Townley
                                                                                Jay Townley & Associates, LLC
                                            Automobile Dependency and the
                                    Global Culture War: Lessons from Bogotá     All views expressed in the articles in this
                                                                                publication are the views of the authors and not
                                                                                necessarily the views of ITDP. Sustainable
                                                                          6     Transport welcomes submissions of articles about
                                                                                non-motorized transportation and information about
                                                                  New Titles    sustainable transportation activities worldwide.


                                                                       30       ITDP is a non-profit advocacy, research and
                                                                                project-implementing agency which seeks to
                                                                 News Briefs    promote the use of non-motorized vehicles
                                                                                (NMVs), improve public transit and support the
cover photos:                                                                   broader implementation of sustainable transporta-
Top: With bicycles, health workers at Worcester Hospice                31       tion policies worldwide. ITDP is registered in the
                                                                                United States as a charitable agency eligible for
in South Africa now reach 15 times more patients -             Bulletin Board   tax-deductible contributions under the Internal
by Trevor Samson                                                                Revenue Service code. Members include bicycle
Bottom: Congestion charging sign, and bus in London -                           activists, transportation planners, economic devel-
by Lloyd Wright                                                                 opment specialists, small businesspeople, environ-
                                                                                mentalists and other professionals, primarily but
                                                                                not exclusively U.S. citizens.



                                                                                                                                      3
                                                  continued from p. 2                in three years, bicycle use can be
                                                                                     increased eight-fold (to 4 percent) by
                                      and with governments facing rising             reclaiming public space from parked
                                      demands for transparency in trans-             cars, providing safe walkways, cycle
                                      portation decision-making and                  paths, and curb cuts, and linking these
                                      accountability for environmental,              to bus rapid transit system improve-
                                      health, and fiscal impacts.                    ments.
                                         While many trends still run the                ITDP’s work to organize and
                                      wrong way, ITDP is playing an increas-         improve non-motorized transportation
                                      ingly important role in changing the           vehicle production and design contin-
                                      course of worldwide transportation and         ues to grow in its impact. Our
                                      urban development policies. ITDP has           California Bike cooperative marketing
                                      spurred global interest in bus rapid tran-     efforts in Africa are respected by the
                                      sit (BRT), advancing initiatives in a          global industry, which is taking notice
                                      dozen cities worldwide in the past sev-        and joining in support. Our improved
                                      eral years that promise to quickly             cycle rickshaw designs in India contin-
                                      improve the efficiency and effectiveness       ue to spread among more manufactur-
                                      of urban transportation for tens of mil-       ers, resulting in nearly one hundred
                                      lions of people. Mayors and transport          thousand modernized vehicles now in
                                      officials are clamoring to adopt the suc-      use, showcasing sustainable transporta-
                                      cessful practices of Bogotá and Curitiba       tion for Taj Mahal tourists and
                                      to improve life in cities from Jakarta,        spurring sustainable mobility in cities
                                      Hyderabad and Chengdu in Asia to Dar           across Asia, with improved working
                                       es Salaam and Capetown in Africa.             conditions and higher incomes for
                                          With BRT, we are bringing the              rickshaw drivers.
                                        other keys to effective urban trans-            ITDP’s leadership in adaptive reuse
                                        portation – managing street space and        of brownfields and management of sub-
                                         traffic to encourage walking and            urban hypermarkets in central and east-
                                         bicycling.                                  ern Europe has helped slow the spread
                                            Car-Free Days are spreading world-       of sprawl in several countries where ris-
                                          wide, helping communities recognize        ing motor vehicle use and abandon-
                                          their capacity to manage growth in         ment of contaminated sites threatens
                                           traffic that - left unchecked - harms     urban vitality.
                                           urban livability.                            In this era of globalization, with ris-
                                               Road and area pricing policies        ing tensions between America and the
                                            are coming into vogue, spurred by        rest of the world over the impacts of
                                             ITDP’s outreach and the recent          U.S. policies on the environment and
                                             experience of London where a            human rights, it is increasingly more
                                              road user fee has cut congestion,      important to strengthen linkages
                                              traffic, and vehicle air pollution     among groups world-wide working for
                                               in the central area by 30 percent,    more sustainable development. A year
                                               15 percent, and 12 percent            ago, we helped launch ITDP
                                                respectively, and peak hour bus      Europe/SUSTRAN, a Berlin-based
                                                use has increased 38 percent.        non-governmental non-profit organiza-
                                                    Bicycle and pedestrian           tion with a common mission to that of
                                                 friendly policies are increasing-   ITDP, but with a predominantly
                                                 ly recognized as core trans-        European base of support. And we con-
                                                  portation strategies by trans-     tinue to strengthen networks like SUS-
                                                  portation decision-makers,         TRAN that help link local reform ini-
                                                   thanks to ITDP’s global pro-      tiatives into a regional and global
                                                   motion of non-motorized           movement.
                                                    transportation planning.            On its twentieth birthday, ITDP’s
                                                    Bogotá’s experience under        mission remains more timely than ever.
                                                     former Mayor Enrique            And with your help, its capacity
                                                     Peñalosa – a member of          to meet that mission will continue
                                                      ITDP’s board – shows how       to grow.❖

4 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
Letter From the Executive Director, Walter Hook



Automobile Dependency and
the Global Culture War:
Lessons from Bogotá
   For the 20th Anniversary of the Institute for                     anything. You aren’t constantly reminded that the other guy
Transportation and Development Policy, Sustainable                   is richer than you. If you didn’t go to Harvard, didn’t get
Transport brings our readers up to date on exciting current          a great job, the church is more comfortable than the
projects, but in the context of two decades of efforts.              shopping mall.
   After twenty years of struggle, it is clear to me that sustain-      While suburban culture was born in America, it is one of
able transport isn’t only about getting people to ride their         our most successful exports.
bikes and take public transit. The problem of automobile                In much of the developing world, cities were historically
dependence runs much deeper. It is a symptom of the degra-           the outposts of colonial control, and ’indigenous’ culture was
dation of our communities for the sake of profit, the transfor-      primarily village culture. Urban architecture was a testament
mation of our everyday life into a commercial transaction,           to the cultural superiority of colonial powers. Urban space
and the means by which working people have been turned               was a space of oppression, where foreign colonialists and their
against one another. Switching to hydrogen cars isn’t going          local partners huddled behind walls topped by concertina
to solve this.                                                       wire. Only recently, after colonialism ended, as late as the
   America is a country divided not between rich and poor            1960s in Africa, has it been possible for an indigenous urban
but between ‘red’ automobile-dependent communities and               culture, an indigenous architecture, to emerge. Only now are
‘blue’ urban communities. But Americans in both ‘red’ states         developing countries beginning to mould their cities around
and ‘blue’ states are reacting to the same domination of our         their own cultures.
culture by corporations and crass consumerism.                          But the allure of foreign money is powerful. Today,
   Growing up in a modest Post War Washington DC suburb,             American-style shopping malls, gas stations, and residential
before I could afford a car, I felt completely trapped. Without                                    subdivisions are spreading across
an automobile, I couldn’t go to a store, visit a friend, or                                               the world’s cities from Dar
go to school. So I worked long hours at a mindless                                                             es Salaam to Budapest
job to pay for the car. In the US, to have full cit-                                                              to Delhi to Beijing.
izenship, you’re forced to own a car, forced to                                                                     The domination of
be a consumer, endlessly buying gasoline, car                                                                        these cities by the
parts, oil changes, parking spaces. Americans                                                                        motor vehicle
spend one dollar in five, and hours of our                                                                           and the shopping
spare time, keeping our cars running. When                                                                          mall, the restruc-
the oil came from Texas and the cars from                                                                          turing of public
Detroit, maybe this wasn’t so bad. But increasing-                                                              space around the
ly, our oil comes from Saudi Arabia, Russia, and other                                                      needs of soulless global
’thriving democracies’. In ten years, no doubt the US auto                                            capitalism and the few that can
industry will be outsourced to China.                                                  afford it, rather than human needs, has been
   With a bicycle, I can go almost everywhere without paying         only too easy, leaving more and more cities degraded, hostile,
anything. I can at least partly escape the control over my life      crime-ridden, and automobile-dependent.
by the marketplace. But US traffic engineers have done                  Just as in the United States, this is giving birth to a cultur-
everything they can to make bicycling unsafe, to force me to         al reaction. But while in the US this reaction is (mis)directed
become a full-time consumer of automobile culture. That’s            at ’liberal elites,’ in the developing world, global capitalism
why for me, the bicycle is a symbol of freedom.                      and automobile dependence are spelled Wal-Mart, Ford,
   Where I grew up, if you wanted to hang out with other             GM, Exxon, Pizza Hut, and McDonalds. There, the cultural
people, you had two main options: the shopping mall and the          reaction is directed against the United States.
church. At the shopping mall, you are what you can afford.              Enrique Peñalosa, the former mayor of Bogotá, is an urban
People know where you stand just by looking at the shoes on          visionary. He fundamentally transformed the culture of fear
your feet, the clothes on your back, the watch on your wrist,        and violence that dominated the city of Bogotá. His leader-
the latté you drink, the car you drive. At church, you can
sing songs, hang out with girls, and you don’t have to pay                                   continued on p. 31

                                                                                                                                       5
                             China’s Traffic Law Falls Short                unfriendly overhead bridges. The lack of       drivers. The World Bank and local
                             for Pedestrians and Cyclists                   details in the new law has allowed             authorities could provide dedicated
                                                                            provinces such as Sichuan to enact dra-        lanes to separate private cars, buses,
                                Faced with an explosive growth in           conian penalties and restrictions              and cycle rickshaws, increasing speeds
                             automobile use and a “survival of the          against pedestrians and cyclists while         for all modes and reducing accidents.
                             fittest” approach to driving, China’s          insisting – probably correctly – that the         Improving cycle rickshaws, as was
                             Government enacted their first Law on          provisions do not violate the new law.         done through an ITDP project in India
                             Road Traffic Safety last October, taking          In addition, the effectiveness of the       (see story, this issue), increases safety
                             effect from May 1. While it has far fewer      new law is reliant on local enforcement        for rickshaw passengers and drivers,
                             automobiles than the United States (80         and interpretations, especially by traffic     speeds the vehicles and provides more
                             per 1000 people compared to 779 per            police. Where traffic police remain indif-     comfort and dignity for drivers.
                             1000 in 2003), China’s death rate per          ferent to the needs of pedestrians and            Visit www.worldcarfree.net to send a
                             capita from traffic crashes is 8 times         cyclists, the new law is routinely flouted.    letter urging World Bank President
                             worse. The Chinese Center for Disease                                                         James Wolfensohn to stop the Bank’s
                             Control found that 90 percent of traffic                                                      promotion and financing of rickshaw
                                                                            Stop World Bank Pressure to
                             problems are due to driving against traf-                                                     bans in Dhaka.
                                                                            Ban Rickshaws
                             fic regulations.
                                The new law, however, brings mixed              Under pressure from the World Bank,        Feeding Bogotá’s TransMilenio
                             blessings for pedestrians and cyclists.         the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh will ban
                                                                                                                           with Non-Motorized Transport
                             While laws on liability for crashes,            cycle rickshaws on a key corridor start-
                             drunk driving, and compulsory third             ing December 17. The announcement             by Carlos Felipe Pardo
                             party insurance are aimed at improving          extends a trial ban that began on Mirpur
                                                                                             Road in December of              Bogotá’s world-renowned public
                                                                                             2002, and is part of a plan   transit system has won a new ally in
                                                                                             to ban rickshaws over         promoting sustainable transportation
                                                                                             120km of roadway. In          around the city. INSSA, an industry that
                                                                                             1998, less than 9% of         has imported and built bicycles since
                                                                                             vehicular transport was       1980, has started to develop a bicycle
                                                                                             by car but required over      taxi that is intended to take Trans-
                                                                                             34% of road space, while      Milenio passengers safely to and from
                                                                                             the 54% traveling by rick-    stations. The project began several
                                                                                             shaw took up only 38% of      months ago, and Javier Ossa (INSSA’s
                                                                                             road space. Cycle rick-       manager) has begun to develop a quali-
                                                                                             shaws are a non-pollut-       ty standard (ISO 9000-like) for passen-
                                                                                             ing method ideal for short    ger bicycle taxis in Colombia. He has
                                 Xi’an, August 2004: Car drivers failing to stop for         trips; banning them push-     also developed a legislative project that
                                 pedestrians at a crosswalk; a violation of Article 47       es passengers into            proposes bicycle taxis as an additional
                                of the Road Traffic Safety Law effective from 1 May.         motorized vehicles. The       public transport vehicle and system, and
                                                                                             ban also eliminates an        has presented the project in the City
                                                                                             employment source for         Council for approval.
                             pedestrian safety, the same legislation some of the city’s poorest residents                     The initial proposal to operate the
                             also requires pedestrians to use without providing an alternative income.                     bicycle taxis is based on a zoning of the
                             bridges, tunnels, signals or crosswalks            The short-term benefits of eliminating     city (in neighborhoods near Trans-
                             wherever they are available, but fails to       rickshaws, such as increased motor            Milenio) in order to determine quantities
    photo: Karl Fjellstrom




                             specify how far pedestrians are expect- vehicle speeds, can be achieved with                  of vehicles per zone based on their
                             ed to walk to use these facilities, or set sustainable methods that do not nega-              demand. Currently, motorized taxis are
                             limitations on the use of pedestrian- tively impact rickshaw passengers and                   providing this service for people who

6 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
                                                                                        Left: Bicycle taxis provide an
                                                                                        emissions-free feeder for TransMilenio.
                                                                                        Below: Indoor bicycle parking is another
                                                                                        way TransMilenio has improved
                                                                                        non-motorized access.




live far from the station, and many oth-    Associated Press. "We want to stop the       and Fontana Unified School District con-
ers are walking. Using bicycle taxis as a   demolitions and preserve the character       tinue to debate the issue of providing
feeder system for TransMilenio has          of the area."                                sidewalks along routes to two schools,
many benefits, from creating jobs, to           The historic quarter was home to         Karen’s which has 3,700 students, and a
increasing passenger volumes, to            about 200,000 Jews before World War          neighboring school with just over 1,000
decreasing CO2 and other emissions.         II, when about half of the city’s Jewish     students.
   TransMilenio itself is also continuing   population were killed or deported to           City Manager Ken Hunt told the Sun
to encourage improved non-motorized         camps.                                       that the city has set aside $175,000 this
access to the system. It has developed          “This district is not only a memorial    fall for sidewalks in the area. But he
a secure, indoor bicycle parking facility   place, not only a beautiful district with    maintains that, in a broader sense, pro-
with 800 parking spaces which was first     a unique atmosphere, but also the            tecting schoolchildren from traffic
introduced in the newest terminal.          home and natural environment of a liv-       injuries is not the city’s responsibility.
   The bicycle parking facilities have      ing Jewish community,” OVAS repre-              Area parents are less concerned with
their own entrance with wide turnstiles     sentatives said in a statement released
that bicycles easily wheel through.         last month.
Cyclists pay the same fare as normal
users, bicycle parking is included.         California City Held Liable for
TransMilenio plans to include bicycle
                                            Traffic Death
parking in all of its new transfer termi-
nals in the next phase of construction.        A San Bernardino County jury recent-
                                            ly found the City of Fontana legally
                                            responsible for the death of a 14-year-
Citizens Fight to Protect
                                            old girl who was killed by a motorist
Budapest’s Jewish Quarter
                                            while walking home from school. The
                                                                                                 Cycling to school on the N2
   A Hungarian civic group launched a       attorneys representing Karen Cruz’s
campaign to save Budapest’s historic        parents argued that Fontana failed to
Jewish quarter from being torn down for     act on reports that lack of sidewalks        the legal details than with interventions
new development. The civic group            created a hazard for students walking in     that will protect their children from
OVAS is trying to save more than a          heavy vehicle traffic before and after       deadly traffic.
dozen buildings.                            school. The jury, in an unprecedented           “I already experienced one death,
   "Some 16 buildings have already been     decision, found the city 75% liable for      from that girl. I saw her die,” a Fontana
                                                                                                                                      top ohoto: INSSA




sold to developers, who have permis-        Karen’s death, while awarding $37.5 mil-     resident told the paper. “It’s sad, the
sion to demolish them," Peter Marinov, a    lion to her parents.                         Karen incident, but it’s going to be sad-
spokesman for the group, told The              Six weeks after the decision, the city    der if this occurs again.”❖

                                                                                                                                   7
                                                                        Many poor African countries are in the fight of

          Using Bicycles                                                their lives against HIV/AIDS and maternal and
                                                                        infant mortality. While experts agree that lack
                                                                        of affordable transport services is a key part of

            to Save Lives                                               the problem, scalable and sustainable solutions
                                                                        have been elusive. Recent experience from
                                                                        ITDP’s Access Africa program and other pro-
                                                                        jects clearly shows that bicycles can play an
                                             By Aimée Gauthier          important role in reaching health-related
                                                                        Millennium Development Goals and poverty
                                                                        reduction targets.
                                                                           Two million people a year are dying from AIDS in
                                                                        Africa. In Tanzania, for example, 7 people out of
                                                                        100 have AIDS, compared to less than 1 in 100 in
                                                                        the US. Some 300 million women worldwide are
                                                                        disabled or chronically ill as a result of poor health
                                                                        care during pregnancy and lack of emergency obstet-
                                                                        ric care. When a child’s mother or father becomes
                                                                        chronically ill, disabled, or dies, the whole family is
                                                                        at risk of becoming destitute.
                                                                           There are three basic bottlenecks facing health
                                                                        care delivery in Africa: the lack of medical personnel,
                                                                        the cost of medicine, and the cost of transport. While
                                    Photo: Health workers on bicycles   the cost of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for
                                        have cut travel times by 60%    HIV/AIDS patients was initially a major problem, in

8 SustainableTransport /Fall 2004
                                                HIV, which can then spread. But this       to care for patients in their own homes
                                                approach was not working in Africa         rather than in hospitals.
                                                where trained medical personnel are          The time of a highly-trained doctor
                                                few, where little money is available to    or nurse is extremely valuable, so they
                                                build new hospitals and clinics, where     need access to the best and fastest vehi-
                                                most patients do not own motor vehi-       cles that the program can afford. For
                                                cles, roads are poor, and villages are     shorter distances, and for lower level
                                                spread far apart.                          nurses, outreach workers, AIDS educa-
                                                  "AIDS care, as we practice it in the
  Without adequate transport, people are
                                                North, is about elite specialists using
 often forced to access health care by foot.
                                                costly tests to monitor individual
                                                patients," says Dr. Charles Gilks of the
recent years the cost of the medication WHO. "It's irrelevant in a place like
has dropped by 98%, and donors have Uganda, where there is one physician
stepped in to help make supplies for every 18,000 people."
available.                                        Recent efforts by Uganda’s AIDS
   Despite this, only 2% of Africans liv- Treatment Center (TASO) and other
ing with HIV have access to ART, groups have demonstrated that home-
while 25 million people are still in based care can successfully deliver
need. The biggest remaining obstacle to HIV/AIDS care and prevention,
comprehensive coverage of ART is including ART. TASO has ART                                  TASO workers like Betty Nanyanzi
transport, according to the US Health adherence rates that are even better                  deliver ART treatments, achieving better
and Human Services and the Global than those in the United States.                            adherence rates than seen in the U.S
AIDS Partnership. They found that in              TASO’s home-based care program
most cases, transportation is unavail- sends community health workers to                   tors, and volunteers – who increasingly
able or too expensive. Many people people’s homes to provide home-based                    play a critical role in health care – bicy-
with HIV/AIDS die at home because HIV testing and counseling, treatment                    cles are proving to be the most appro-
they cannot not afford to travel to a and prevention of AIDS associated dis-               priate technology.
clinic for treatment.                           eases (i.e. malaria and TB), and ART.
                                                             They deliver drugs, ask a     Bicycles and Health Care
                                                             short, standardized symp-        An increasing number of health care
                                                             tom questionnaire, and sup-   service providers are turning to bicy-
                                                             port adherence to drug        cles. Save the Children, World Vision,
                                                             treatment. Based on the       TASO, the Essential Health
                                                             success of these programs,    Interventions Project, and Doctors
                                                             treatment for HIV/AIDS        Without Borders have all turned to
                                                             and other diseases has        bicycles for a growing part of their
                                                             rapidly been shifting away    health care service delivery. These
                                                             from centralized hospital     agencies use bicycles for some
                                                             care towards decentralized,   HIV/AIDS treatment and counseling,
                                                             community based health        immunization, endemic disease control
                                                             service provision.            and treatment, maternal health ser-
                                                               This shift in health care   vices, the distribution of condoms and
                                                             delivery systems has also     contraceptives, and health education
Home-based care provides vital health services for many
                                                            shifted the transport burden   efforts. Bicycles, in other words, clearly
        in rural Africa who cannot access hospitals
                                                            away from the patient to the   have an important, often overlooked
                                                            health care provider.          niche in the provision of health care
   It is clear that applying US-style dis- Ghana’s Community-Based Health                  services.
tribution systems for ARV does not Planning and Services found that a sin-                    To try to understand more systemati-
                                                                                                                                         photos–top and bottom left: WHO/Pierre Virot




work in Africa. In developed countries, gle nurse on a motorbike or bicycle                cally where and under what conditions
most ARV programs are managed out relocated to a village health center can                 bicycles have a distinct role to play,
of hospitals and clinics by highly outperform an entire sub-district health                ITDP distributed 130 bicycles free of
trained medical professionals where center, increasing the volume of health                charge to an array of health care organi-
strict adherence to the drug regimen service encounters by eight times.                    zations in South Africa, Ghana,
can be assured. Used haphazardly, ARV Another pilot program in Tanzania dis-
drugs foster less treatable strains of covered it was 70% cheaper for nurses                           continued on p. 10

                                                                                                                                       9
Using Bicycles to Save Lives

                    continued from p. 9                                                               that the bikes were underutilized.
                                                                                                         Because bicycles provide so many
       Senegal, and Kenya in exchange for                                                             related benefits, it appears that the best
       collecting data on their use and impact.                                                       model for distributing bicycles is to give
          The results of the pilot projects show                                                      them to individual workers to own. The
       that, with bicycles, health care                                                               bicycle is probably best treated as a
       providers reach more patients and save                                                         fringe benefit, as a payroll incentive for
       on travel costs and time. At the                                                               workers or as a reward for volunteers
       Worcester Hospice in South Africa,                                                             who perform well.
       which provides nursing care to the ter-
       minally ill, workers on bicycles were                                                          Emergency Care
                                                       When workers own their own bicycles, the
       able to cover three times the distance                                                            Emergency care provides even more
                                                             entire community benefits
       they did on food, reaching 15 times                                                            of a transport challenge for many poor,
       more patients. In Ghana, an education                                                          rural Africans and their health
       group called Youth Against AIDS now                 When organizations give ownership          providers. In many instances, the sick –
       reaches 50 percent more project benefi-          of the bicycles to individual workers,        often women suffering from pregnancy-
       ciaries, while cutting the organization’s        even more benefits are seen. Kenya’s          related complications – are carried
       transport costs in half.                         National Council of Women was given           through the bush on foot, arriving at
          Similar savings were also reported by         15 bicycles to care for orphans and dis-      clinics too late.
       two health service providers in Senegal          tribute food and medicine to the chron-          In these emergency situations, studies
       – Layif and Projet Promotion des                 ically ill. In addition to increasing effi-   by the British Department for
       Jeunes. Workers who were walking                 ciency during working hours, the              International Development indicate
       before receiving the bicycle saw an              women use the bicycle to serve other          that the best mechanism for moving
       average time savings of 57.8 percent.            needs in the community, such as bring-        patients to emergency health facilities
       Those who were taking a taxi before              ing students to school, running errands,      depends on the existing available ser-
       saved $0.40 per trip, though their travel        and taking the sick to the hospital.          vices. Commercial trucks, a bicycle or
                                                                               Youth     Against      motorcycle with a trailer at community
                                                                            AIDS workers also         posts, or an ambulance with effective
                                                                            saw considerable sav-     communications equipment have all
                                                                            ings in their own         been used as successful ambulatory care
                                                                            transport costs when      vehicles.
                                                                            bicycling to work.           A GTZ-sponsored effort in Uganda
                                                                            One recipient used to     showed the possibilities for bicycles in
                                                                            spend 36 percent of       ambulatory care. In 2001, 100 ambu-
                                                                            his monthly income        lance-trailers were assembled by the
                                                                            commuting to work,        Bicycle Sponsorship Project &
                                                                            now he spends 14 per-     Workshop for FABIO. The bicycles in
                                                                            cent. On average,         combination with their specially built
                                                                            each recipient saves 7    trailers, financed through donations,
                                                                            percent of his month-     were distributed in Kabale, Bugiri and
                                                                            ly income by bicycling    Soroti Districts. The vehicles cost $150
                                                                            to work – money that      each. A small association of users was
                                                                            can be used for food      formed around each vehicle. Each asso-
                                                                            and other household       ciation needed to raise $31.68 per year
                                                                            needs.                    to cover the vehicle’s depreciation and
                                                                               One organization in    ongoing maintenance costs. Group
        Siprose Omondi of Vision Sisters, Working Sisters in Kenya South                 Africa’s     members paying only $0.18 per month
       uses her California bike to care for the sick, generating enough Western Cape, called          had access to the vehicle.
              income to support her household of 12, including             CANSA, received 25            During a one-year survey period, the
                  5 orphans whose parents died of AIDS.                    bikes for its volun-       frequency of use varied between 23 and
                                                                           teers. Because most        32 occasions per month. One typical
                                                                           volunteers only work       use was the transport of pregnant
       time increased slightly. Workers who once a week, CANSA decided to retain                      women, which accounted for 52 per-
       used animal carts save an average of ownership of the bicycles and restrict                    cent of all medical indications for trans-
       $0.30 per trip, and decrease their travel their use to work-related trips only, pri-           port. Women accounted for the largest
       time by 63.5 percent.                            oritizing longer trips. The result was        proportion (70 percent) of people trans-

10 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
ported, followed by men at 29 percent.         deteriorated road conditions, nurses        designed specifically for use in Africa –
The most frequent destination, at 57           may not be able to get a motorcycle or      the six-speed California Bike and the
percent, was the local clinic. As many         motor vehicle through, but they can         less expensive, one-speed Sahelia.
as 4 in 100 journeys involved transport        pick up the bicycle and walk around         Working with existing independent
to a burial site.                              obstructions.                               bicycle dealers in ITDP’s California
   In all cases, having an effective com-                                                  Bicycle Cooperative (see article in this
munications system to make calls of            ITDP’s Niche                                issue), the bicycles were designed with
assistance or to warn referral facilities is     Experience indicates that it is best to   technical specifications appropriate to
also critical. For communications,             let health care delivery organizations      utilitarian cycling in Africa and negoti-
mobile and satellite phones are one            focus on health care, and let the private   ated directly with international bicycle
method that has been used. One prob-           sector focus on the supply and mainte-      manufacturers in bulk orders. As a
lem is that community posts are hesi-          nance of bicycles.                          result, the project has been able to
tant to send their one vehicle (be it car,       ITDP’s Access Africa program was          deliver a high quality bicycle to health
motorcycle or bike) away from the post         the first to integrate the provision of     care service providers at a price more
in case another emergency arises.              good quality low cost bicycles to health    than 25 percent lower than any other
Supporting transport interventions with        care service providers with an effort to    bicycle of similar quality available in
effective communications support will          develop a sustainable private sector        the market. By working with local bicy-
be one key to success in emergency             vehicle supply.                             cle dealers and narrowing the range of
care.                                            Most of the big development agen-         bicycle parts and equipment, a sustain-
                                               cies buy fairly expensive bicycles from     able system now exists for ongoing pri-
Preliminary Trends                             international suppliers, paying over        vate sector maintenance of the bicycles.
   The results of these efforts have           $200 per bicycle. This does little to
already led to some useful preliminary
conclusions. We’ve found that bicycles
are an appropriate transport technology
for the following health efforts:
   a. immunization programs,
   b. pre-natal care,
   c. administration of ongoing pharma-
ceutical therapy regimes (like ARV and
TB treatment),
   d. home-based primary care for the
aged, the chronically and terminally ill,
   e. AIDS education and other preven-
tive health promotion efforts, and
   f. family planning and reproductive
health.
   Bicycles and other human powered
vehicles can also be the key to trans-
porting patients to medical facilities
where no motorized transport is avail-
able.
   As a rule of thumb, if a nurse needs
to be able to reach remote areas quickly                     With transport issues tackled by ITDP and the private sector,
and is servicing an area that has a                 health service providers such as CANSA (above) can focus on providing care.
greater than 30 km radius, then a four
wheel drive vehicle should be explored.
For distances in a 20 – 30 kilometer           help build a sustainable local private
radius, a motorcycle should be explored.       sector supply of bicycles and ongoing       Using Bicycles to Meet the
From 5km to 20km, a bicycle may suf-           services. Alternatively, some turn to       Millennium Development Goals
fice. For shorter distances, walking may       the bicycles already available in the         At the World Summit for Sustain-
suffice.                                       African market: usually low quality old     able Development, governments and
   If roads are in particularly poor con-      English roadsters or mountain bikes         donor agencies committed themselves
dition, bicycles may also be preferable        with very poor quality components.          to halving poverty, reducing the num-
even for longer distances. If there is           All of the 130 bicycles given away by
severe mud, flooding, or other very            the Access Africa program were                          continued on p. 29

                                                                                                                                  11
       Congestion Charging:
       Can it Work in Sao Paulo?
       By Walter Hook and Eric Ferreira


                                                                               In October of 2003, and again in May of 2004, ITDP organized speaking tours to Brazil
                                                                               for Derek Turner, London Mayor Livingstone’s point man on congestion charging. Sao
                                                                               Paulo was sufficiently interested to organize a task force to study the possibility. The
                                                                               issues in Sao Paulo will face any city thinking of following in London’s brave footsteps.

                                                                               In 2002, London finally proved that           infrastructure to combat this increasing
                                                                               congestion charging could be imple-           traffic.
                                                                               mented in a Democracy. Mayor                     In 1996, State Secretary for the
                                                                               Livingstone was re-elected this year by a     Environment Fabio Feldmann imple-
                                                                               wide margin, proving that elected lead-       mented a license plate-based vehicle
                                                                               ers with the courage to tackle the auto-      restriction scheme. Each weekday dur-
                                                                               mobile are being rewarded politically.        ing peak hours (between 7 am and 10
                                                                               London’s congestion charging scheme,          am and between 5pm and 8 pm) 20% of
                                                                               where motorists pay £5 to enter the city      the vehicle fleet is not allowed into the
                                                                               center from 7 am to 6:30 pm, has given        central city, based on the last number
                                                                               central London traffic conditions that        of each license plate. The area where
                                                                               resemble those on a school holiday            the license plate restrictions are in
                                                                               every day of the week. It cut traffic in      effect is called the rodizio, a 152 square
                                                                               central London by 15%, cut delays by          kilometer area surrounded by a ring of
                                                                               25%, increased traffic speeds by 10 –         major highways. The rodizio is enforced
                                                                               15kph, increased bus speeds by 20%,           by police and cameras at 200 entry
                                                                               and increased annual bus passenger rid-       points on the boundary roads. The fine
                                                                               ership by 7%. In addition, it generates       for violators is $20 and 4 points on your
                                                                               some 80 million pounds of revenue for         drivers license (at 21 points you lose
                                                                               the city every year.                          your license).
                                                                                 While cities all over Europe and               When first introduced, the rodizio
                                                                               America are discussing it, Sao Paulo          cut CO levels by 12%, reduced weekly
                                                                               may be the first major city in an emerg-      CO2 emissions by 17 tons, and
                                                                               ing economy to replicate this success.        decreased congestion by 20% in the
                                                                               Sao Paulo has the advantage of already        afternoons. However, vehicle numbers
                                                                               having automobile restrictions in place.      increased and the system encouraged
                                                                               From 1980 until 2000, automobile own-         those who were wealthy enough to buy
                                                                               ership in Sao Paulo skyrocketed from          second cars with different license plate
                                                                               under 2 million to over 5 million vehi-       numbers. By 2000, measurements taken
                                                                               cles. This created 60 miles of traffic        by the CET (Traffic Engineering
        Bottom photo : Lloyd Wright




                                                                               jams, costing the city around $1 billion      Company) showed that traffic delays
                                                                               a year and resulting in 2 million lost        and congestion returned to their previ-
                                                                               working hours a year. The city
                                                                               violated its CO standard 13% of
                                                                                                                                                                           Source: Departamento Estadual de Trânsito/Detran




                                                                               the time and the NOx standard
                                          Above: Sao Paulo traffic corridor
                                                                               26% of the time. With a heavy
                                      Below: Congestion charging cut traffic
                                                                               debt burden, Sao Paulo simply
                                                       by 15% in London.
                                                                               couldn’t afford road or transit

                                                                                      The benefits of Sao Paulo’s
                                                                                         license plate restrictions
                                                                                       wore off after a few years.

12 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
ous levels during peak hours. During           center by police who monitored cars as
the rest of the day, when the restric-         they drove through at regular speeds. It
tions are not in effect, already bad con-      worked much like a downtown toll ring
gestion has worsened. Additionally, the        but got rid of the queuing problem at
rodizio system does not generate any           toll gates.
revenue for a city increasingly unable to        In 1998, Singapore changed to an
implement an ambitious social agenda           Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) scheme.
and public transit modernization for           This new system allows Singapore to
lack of funds. Sao Paulo leaders quickly       charge not only for entering the city
realized that congestion charging would        center, but basically for going anywhere
solve many of these shortcomings.              that is likely to be congested. Each
Congestion charging is revolutionary           vehicle has to have an on-board
because it gave political leaders the          transponder that reads a cash card.
power to put in wider sidewalks, pedes-        When the vehicle passes a toll gantry,
trian zones, and bike lanes without            the cost of the toll at that gantry is
being blocked by old school traffic engi-      immediately deducted from the cash
neers arguing these measures would             card. This system is a powerful traffic
increase congestion.                           management tool because it can place a
                                               charge virtually anywhere on the road
The Oslo, Singapore,                           network where there is serious traffic
or London Model?                               congestion, closely matching charges to
   Sao Paulo is now discussing what sort       the point of congestion.
of congestion charging system it might           The main drawbacks with the
adopt. There are roughly four major                 Singapore ERP system, (and similar
types of congestion charging                              systems emerging in several
systems in existence. One                                    Australian cities) is that it
model is to simply add a                                       is fairly expensive to
surcharge to all parking                                         install, operate, and
within the downtown                                               enforce. The Singapore
area during certain                                               system requires two par-
times of the day. Such                                           allel systems: a payment
systems are in place in                                         system and an enforce-
some English, Dutch,                                           ment system. The pay-
German, and other cities.                                   ment system consists of the
Parking charging can be done in                         toll gantries, on-board transpon-
conjunction with other methods. The            ders that cost around US $90 each, plus
major drawbacks tend to be the difficul-       the cost of processing the payments,
ties in controlling off-street parking,        which is expensive and drains part of
political opposition, and local adminis-       the revenues raised. Low numbers of
                                                                                                                             All photos: Lloyd Wright




trative       control       over       local   visiting motorists from neighboring
parking, which makes systematic                Malaysia have to rent the in-vehicle
approaches difficult.                          unit at special locations and leave a
   Another model is to simply have toll        deposit of $90 for the transponder.
plazas in a ring around a central busi-          The Singapore system also requires a        Top: Cameras stationed
ness district or historical core, as is done   parallel system of enforcement cameras        around the charging area
in several Norwegian and British cities.       that takes a picture of the license plate     identify license plates to
The primary disadvantage is that the           of everyone going by the toll gantry in       collect payment and to
toll plazas are unsightly and cause            case they don’t pay. This enforcement         assess fines
delays.                                        system is also expensive to build and
                                                                                             London drivers can pay over
   The oldest and most famous system is        operate.
                                                                                             the phone, by mail, in retail
in Singapore. From 1975 to 1998,                 London decided that having separate
                                                                                             locations or stands (middle)
Singapore had an Area Licensing                infrastructure for the payment system
                                                                                             and kiosks (bottom).
Scheme. Motorists simply needed a spe-         and enforcement system was redundant,
cial sticker to enter the city center. It      and developed an ‘enforcement only’
was enforced at highly visible gantries
on all the major roads entering the city                   continued on p. 14

                                                                                                                                                        13
Congestion Charging

                           continued from p. 13              ed 80 million pounds in capital costs, to   The main drawback is that getting
                                                             be reimbursed out of revenue. The city      transponders into every car would be
                 system. In London, it is the responsibil-   guaranteed a 100 million pounds return      possible but expensive and cumbersome
                 ity of motorists to pay for the right to    to Capita in the first year in case rev-    and may face political resistance. Sao
                 enter the congestion charging zone.         enue was not large enough. Capita col-      Paulo has many more motorists coming
                 The city did not have to build toll         lects all the money, deducts their own      from out of town who would need easy
                 gantries, and vehicles are not required     fees, and the rest of the money is turned   access to transponders.
                 to have on-board transponders or pre-       over to a special government account           There are also important differences
                 paid cash cards. Drivers simply pay the     earmarked 80% for public transit and        with London. If the Sao Paulo conges-
                 fees on line, by cell phone or SMS, by      20% for road rehabilitation.
                 post, by normal phone, or at 200 pay-          The London system is less
                 ment points in the zone or 9000 pay-        flexible than one using toll
                 ment points nationwide. Once you            gantries, and depends on hav-
                 have paid, the same computing system        ing a simple, clearly defined
                 responsible for enforcement registers       charging zone or zones. People
                 your license plate as paid.                 have to pay before they enter
                    Around the CBD are 700 cameras at        the zone, and do not get sent a
                 350 points. Most of them are on the         bill or have the money
                 ring around the charging zone, but          deducted from a cash card. In
                 there are other cameras randomly            London, each driver pays one
                 placed inside the zone because              set rate for an entire day of
                 motorists living inside the zone are not    travel. If this payment system
                 fully exempt from the congestion            were used with more complex
                 charge. If a camera identifies your         pricing schemes, with more than one         Sao Paulo’s CBD presents challenges: it is
                 license plate, and your license plate is    zone or with varied charges based on        larger and more populated than London’s,
                 not registered as having paid, you have     time of day or location, each driver        and many areas are in economic decline
                 until midnight to pay the toll. After       would need to know exactly how much
                 10pm you have to pay double. If you         the trip is going to cost in advance.       tion charging zone replaces the rodizio,
                 have not paid by midnight, you are sent     There is also no system to refund           the area is much bigger –152 square
                 an £80 fine.                                money, so the more confusing a sys-         kilometers compared to London’s 21
                    The London system’s start-up costs       tem’s cost structures, the more irritated   square kilometers. Even once expanded
                 were roughly 240 million pounds,            people will become by the risk of over-     to 45 square kilometers, London’s sys-
                 including 8 million pounds to a man-        payment.                                    tem will still be only 1/3 the size of the
                 agement consultant firm (Deloitt               Currently, London is planning to         rodizio. Only 200,000 vehicle trips
                 Teuch) to set the project up. Its annual    expand the zone. However, because it        enter the congestion charge area a day,
                 operating costs are 90 million pounds a     gives residents within the zone a 90%       while nearly 2 million enter by transit,
                 year. The system brings in 170 million      discount, the number of people eligible     bicycle or taxi. In London, only
                 pounds in revenue, so it nets about 80      for the discount is expanding as the size   250,000 people live within the charging
                 million pounds in annual revenue for        of the zone expands, undermining part       zone. In this situation it was easy to win
                 the city. By far the largest share of the   of the benefits.                            the political support of central city resi-
                 cost is for the operation of the payment                                                dents by offering them a 90% discount.
                 system and the related call centers.        Picking a System Right                          A congestion charge within Sao
                 These costs are coming down rapidly as      for Sao Paulo                               Paulo’s rodizio, however, would affect
                 more people switch to long term passes        When considering which system             both the 820,000 daily car trips within
                 and internet-based payment systems.         would be best for Sao Paulo, the team       it, and another 1,460,000 car trips that
                 Enforcement costs another 15 million        had to recognize important differences      cross the rodizio border every day.
                 pounds, but violations are also dropping    between Sao Paulo, London and               Exempting or deeply discounting
                 rapidly. The government authority,          Singapore. The Singapore system would       motorists inside the rodizio would
                 Transport for London, takes another 5       have certain advantages. Not all            defeat the purpose of the congestion
                 million pounds to cover its administra-     entrances to Sao Paulo are equally con-     charge. So for Sao Paulo, the political
                 tive costs.                                 gested – less traffic comes from the        challenge will be much greater.
                    Because the system is profitable, how-   lower income neighborhoods than on              In London, employment is highly
                 ever, it was possible to attract private    approaches from higher income areas.        concentrated in the 21km2 congestion
                 investment for most of the costs. A pri-    The Singapore ERP system would allow        charging zone, but in Sao Paulo, the
    map: LOGIT




                 vate firm, Capita, won the bid to           the municipality to charge more on          area is much larger. Further complicat-
                 become the system operator and invest-      approaches from more congested areas.       ing matters, the Central Business

14 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
District (CBD) in Sao Paulo, the 4 km2       company is going to operate the tolling
urban core, is afflicted with blight and     system, they need to have the legal
job loss. Any congestion charging            authority to enforce the system directly,
scheme would have to be designed in          or else their revenue stream will be
such a way that did not further depress      threatened.
the CBD.
   One possibility discussed is that there   Exemptions and Discounts
could be three concentric rings, with no        Another critical consideration is
                                                                                            London exempted motorcycles, but in
charge for operating inside the central      which types of vehicles to permanently
                                                                                             many cities this would never work
ring (CBD), but a charge for operating       exempt from the charge, and which
in one ring, and an additional charge        types of vehicles to ‘discount.’ It is
for operating in two rings.                  important to minimize the number of          despite the fact that trucking compa-
   There are also important legal and        vehicles eligible for permanent exemp-       nies would also benefit from shorter
enforcement issues to consider. In Sao       tions. For example, discounts can be         delivery times and costs. But truck com-
Paulo, City Hall must submit to the city     given for ’green vehicles’, or vehicles      panies, it turned out, were more con-
council a law explaining why the city        reaching certain environmental stan-         cerned about cumbersome payment sys-
needs a congestion charge scheme, how        dards. However, if such discounts are        tems than about the fees per se, so
it will be charged, which areas will be      permanent exemptions, then were the          Transport for London agreed to set up a
charged, period of the day, fees, forms of   whole vehicle fleet to shift to the new      special billing system for large trucking
payments, etc. The value to be charged       vehicles, the system would no longer         company accounts.
must be described inside the law and it      generate revenue and the level of con-          Whether to exempt taxis is another
can be defined as ’tax’ or ’tariff.’ If it   gestion would be the same or even worse      issue. In London, Mayor Livingstone
were described as a tax, a law detailing     since the fleet would still be growing.      made a political decision that taxis are
values and methods of payments must             London decided to permanently             part of the ’public’ transportation sys-
be passed by the council. If the revenue     exempt vehicles exclusively operated by      tem, and as such they should be
is defined as tariff, the revenue would be   and for the disabled, fire trucks, ambu-     exempt. The result was an increase in
collected by a concessionary. A careful      lances, and buses. After much debate,        taxi use. It is likely Sao Paulo would
legal review would be necessary to           the decision was made to exempt taxis        consider following suit – recently the
determine whether or not the collec-         and motorcycles, but not trucks. The         Secretary of Transport made a contro-
tion system could be privately operated      exemption for motorcycles was contro-        versial decision allowing the city’s
if the revenue is considered a tax.          versial and increased their use some-        35,000 taxis to run inside the free bus
   Enforcement of the system could also      what. The decision was mainly because        lane in off peak hours. In some coun-
require changes in local, state and pos-     the cameras checking the license plates      tries, like China, where the vast majori-
sibly national laws. In Brazil, some 10      were only 75% accurate on motorcycle         ty of vehicles on the streets are taxis,
million cars are known to be operating       license plates, compared to 90% accu-        allowing taxis to be exempt would
without a valid registration, and in         rate for the motor vehicles.                 undercut the entire system.
some cities 40% of the fleet is not regis-   Identification failures are caused mainly
                                             by the license plate being obstructed by     Conclusion
                                             tailgating, being obstructed by trucks,         Whether Sao Paulo will have the
                                             and the vehicles not being in the lane       political courage to implement a con-
                                             but between lanes; all problems exacer-      gestion charging system will not be
                                             bated by motorcycles. Transport for          known until the next year, when the
                                             London greatly feared that camera inac-      new mayor takes office. But one thing is
                                             curacy would lead to concerns about          certain: more and more cities will even-
                                             the integrity of the whole system, so to     tually have no choice but to turn to
                                             keep a 90% overall identification rate,      congestion charging as the only long
                                             they decided to exempt motorcycles.          term solution to manage urban traffic.
                                                Motorcycles are a hot political issue     Congestion charging is not only a way
One solution for Sao Paulo is a three-zone   in Sao Paulo, as their numbers are           to reduce traffic conges-
              charging area                  growing rapidly, particularly for deliver-   tion in Sao Paulo, but a
                                             ies, and their indiscipline is a cause of    manner to improve ener-
tered. In this situation, enforcement of     consternation for many drivers. There        gy efficiency, improve air
the congestion charging scheme, or any       is thus reluctance to exempt motorcy-        quality, and raise rev-
                                                                                                                                       map (left): LOGIT




other traffic law for that matter, is        cles in Sao Paulo. In London, the deci-      enue for investment in
extremely difficult, particularly for out    sion to charge trucks led to early resis-    public transport and
of state vehicles. Secondly, if a private    tance from the trucking industry,            improved public space.❖

                                                                                                                                  15
                the California               Bike
                                   Comes of Age
       W
                   hile motor vehicle manu-                                                   ing donated second-hand bicycles to
                   facturers have found a ready                                                  developing countries. Starting with our
                   market in Africa for                                                           first projects in 1985, ITDP pio-
       $40,000 sports utility vehicles, until                                                       neered the shipment of donated
       recently the international bicycle                                                            used bicycles to developing coun-
       industry was convinced that Africa                                                            tries, shipping over 10,000 used
       was too ’poor’ to buy good quality                                                             bicycles to Nicaragua, Haiti,
       bicycles. But that is beginning to                                                             Mozambique, and then Ghana
       change, thanks to the success of                                                              and South Africa. Many of these
       ITDP’s California Bike project. The                                                           projects grew into independent
       shipping last August of 2,000 high                                                           organizations, including Bikes Not
       visibility, good quality “California                                                        Bombs, Pedals for Progress, the
       Bikes” to Ghana, Senegal, and South                                                       Village Bicycle Project, and Afribike.
       Africa, was a watershed in NGO-bike                                                     Since 1997, Pedals for Progress has
       industry collaboration. Today, most of the                                          shipped over 80,000 used bicycles all across
       bikes have been sold, proving that there is a                                  the world. Bikes Not Bombs has shipped over
       ready market for stylish, higher quality bicycles in                    20,000 used bicycles to Africa and Latin America, and
       Africa’s rapidly growing cities. The California Bike Coalition   also recycles used bicycles in the Boston area, training
       (CBC) also proved that a buyers’ cooperative can deliver a       teenagers in bicycle repair and mechanic skills. Similar efforts
       top quality bike at a price 25% lower than any equivalent        in England, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Japan, and
       bicycle available in Africa.                                     Germany have sent tens of thousands of used European and
          The market for good-quality bicycles rests with Africa’s      Japanese bicycles to different parts of Africa.
       youth, who don’t want to be associated with the old English         Donated used bicycles have proved to be a sustainable,
       roadsters used on their grandparent’s farms. The only other      cost-effective option for supplying basic mobility for the
       bicycles available in the African market are poor-quality        poorest of the poor, when shipping and import costs are not
       mountain bikes from China and India, toys rather than trans-     exceedingly high. Shipping used bicycles from the U.S. to
       portation, which break after a couple months.                    Latin America, or from Europe to Africa, for example, can be
          Last August, ITDP covered the cost of manufacturing and       economically sustainable. Pedals for Progress asks for a $10
       shipping 2,000 California Bikes, roughly $140,000 including      donation to take away the bicycle, then is usually able to sell
       taxes and tariffs. One year into our project, we’ve recovered    the bicycles to partner organizations at a price that covers the
       more than 70% of our investment, sold over 1,200 good qual-      shipping and customs clearance charges. Shipments of used
       ity new bicycles in Ghana, Senegal and South Africa, and         bicycles have been able to capitalize dozens of small bicycle
       donated over a hundred more to health care service               businesses in Ghana which thrive only on used bikes. While
       providers. Despite limited marketing resources, the California   used bikes require a skilled group of technicians on the
       Bike is increasingly recognized as a high-quality brand. As      ground, a big supply of spare parts and tools, and a reasonably
       the Vice President for Global Strategy for Shimano recently      proximate and plentiful supply of used bikes, evidence from
       said at the annual Institute for Cycling Expertise meeting in    Ghana suggests that a secondary bike market, when it reach-
       Bogotá, Columbia, “it is a shame it took an NGO to do            es a sufficient scale, can thrive.
       something the bike industry should have been doing                  Used bicycles, however, have limitations. The reasonably
       all along.”                                                      good quality and low cost of some of the used bikes appeals to
       Building on Used Bicycle Projects                                South Africa’s Western Cape Province purchased California Bikes
         ITDP’s California Bike Coalition grew out of frustration       for their road maintenance workers (pictured), allowing them to
       over the limitations of what could be accomplished by send-      cover more area and commute more easily.

16 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
Coalition

 rural Africans of modest means, but does little to dispel the      neighboring Botswana, Tanzania, and Rwanda sell cheap
 notion that bicycles are only for poor people. In rapidly          bicycles, but they don’t provide the sort of local ongoing
 developing urban Africa, where young entrepreneurs like            maintenance services so critical to preserving bicycle culture.
 nice cars and clothes as much as young people do anywhere,            African governments are moving heaven and earth to
 beat up used bikes are not doing anything to elevate the sta-      attract bus, minivan, and auto assemblers to their countries.
 tus of cycling.                                                    In Senegal, for example, state land and other government
   To build upon the existing demand for good-quality bicy-         support was given to encourage the opening of a minibus
 cles, young independent private sector bicycle dealers and         assembly operation, even though the vehicle is of low quality
 distributors are essential. And, cities need to attract interna-   and all but the final assembly is done in India. In our discus-
                                                                    sions with government leaders in Africa, there is just as much
                                                                    enthusiasm about investments into bicycle manufacturing
                                                                    and assembly. But until now, the international bicycle indus-
                                                                    try hasn’t believed that there is a market in Africa for higher
                                                                    quality bicycles.
                                                                       The CBC is proving them wrong, and industry leaders are
                                                                    finally paying attention. In November, Trek visited ITDP’s
                                                                    California Bike partners in South Africa, and Trek and
                                                                    Shimano are planning a marketing tour of Africa in the
                                                                    spring of 2005.

                                                                    The California Bike Coalition: Year One
                                                                       The California Bike Coalition solves several of the key
                                                                    problems hampering the African bicycle industry. The first is
                                                                    the problem of scale. No single entre-
                                                                    preneur has been willing to place large
                                                                    scale orders from the top of the line
                                                                    bike factories to ensure low cost, high
 tional investors who have the experience in marketing and          quality bicycles. Small shopkeepers
 manufacturing to make top quality products that appeal to          can’t move large quantities of bicycles
 the cyclists of today. The used bike programs have sometimes       and don’t have the money to go to the
 helped to develop a thriving private sector bicycle industry,      Shanghai or Taipei trade fair and
 but they have failed to convince the leaders of the global         negotiate directly with factories, so
 bicycle industry, such as Trek, Giant, Fuji, and Shimano, to       they rely on middlemen, significantly
 take Africa seriously as a market or as a manufacturing base.      increasing costs. The CBC overcomes
    Bike manufacturing is virtually dead in Africa, and even        this problem by consolidating the
 bicycle assembly is only hanging on in South Africa by sup-        orders of dozens of small independent
 plying the big box chain stores in the southern Africa region.     bicycle dealers with orders from
 The big South African chain stores that are sweeping into          NGOs and government programs, and, through partnerships
                                                                    with industry leaders like Trek, placing bulk orders directly
 Photos – Top: 960 California bikes went to South Africa, 640 to    with the best factories.
 Ghana, and 320 to Senegal. Left: Small bicycle dealers are            Another problem is credit. Small bike dealers are not usu-
 unable to import large shipments of good-quality bicycles.         ally able to get credit from suppliers unless they have a long
 Right: Moustapha Fall is one of the most successful California
 Bike dealers in Senegal                                                                  continued on p. 29

                                                                                                                                 17
       Countering
       Car Culture,
       One Trip at a Time
       By Lisa Peterson


                                                     I
                                                           n 2000, the automobile industry         face restrictions and outright bans.
                                                           spent $25 billion dollars on adver-        Improving bicycle and cycle rick-
                                                           tising, and another $25 billion in      shaw technology have proven to be a
                                                      rebates and incentives to sell its cars.     critical first step in the public relations
                                                      As companies battle each other for cus-      battle to winning back customers from
                                                      tomers in developed countries, and           the private automobile. Starting in
                                                      reach out to new owners across the           1998, ITDP engineers Matteo
                                                      developing world, the industry is selling    Martignoni and Shreya Gadepalli
                                                      more than just its product. With ads         began a project to improve the design
                                                      that depict cars as the road to fun, free-   of the heavy, unstable and uncomfort-
                                                      dom and prosperity, the car industry is      able traditional rickshaws. They
                                                      selling a powerful lifestyle image, espe-    designed a modern rickshaw which
                                                      cially in developing countries where car     weighs 55kg, 30% less than the tradi-
                                                      ownership is growing fast.                   tional vehicles. A more comfortable
                                                         An increasing number of NGOs,             seat, fully operational canopy, better
                                                      community groups and governments are         steering and improved chassis make the
                                                      finding creative, low-cost ways to fight     modern rickshaws more comfortable for
                                                      back. Over the last decade, projects by      both drivers and passengers.
                                                      ITDP and others have used technology,           Designing a better vehicle was only
                      An auto ad in Accra, Ghana, events and social marketing to alter the         half the battle. A year later, ITDP con-
                 declares “life is what you make it”. way transit and non-motorized trans-         tracted an Indian PR firm called
                                                      port are perceived. While certainly
                                                      unable to rival the billions poured into
                                                      advertising by the automobile industry,
                                                      these approaches have proved a success-
                                                      ful way to permanently change the way
                                                      people travel.

                                                     Technology and Image
                                                       Across the world, non-motorized
                                                     transport suffers from an image prob-
                                                     lem. Each year the auto industry churns          On most major roads in New Delhi,
                                                     out dozens of sexy new models, while in           cycle rickshaws have been banned
                                                     the developing world the old English                  in the name of ‘progress’.
                                                     roadster and the traditional Indian
                                                     cycle rickshaw hadn’t changed for half        Strategic Alliance to design a promo-
                                                     a century. Universally seen as ’back-         tional campaign for the vehicles, target-
                                                     ward’ and a nuisance for cars in cities       ing potential passengers and maleks
                                                     across Asia, human-powered vehicles           who would eventually manufacture the

18 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
                                                                                         Today there are
                                                                                         over 100,000 modern
                                                                                         rickshaws in nine
                                                                                         cities across India.
                                                                                         Drivers earn as much
                                                                                         as 50% more because
                                                                                         they are attracting
                                                                                         more passengers.
  Modernized rickshaws give dignity to drivers, and are more popular with passengers.


rickshaws, but particularly aimed at the        This combination of appropriate
wallahs (rickshaw drivers) who would         technology and smart marketing was a
buy and operate the modern vehicles.         huge success. Today, some five years
The campaign had to be tailored to           after the project ended, there are over
reach an audience not normally target-       100,000 modern rickshaws in nine
ed in ad campaigns – one that is some-       cities across India. Drivers earn as much
times illiterate, that does not watch        as 50% more because they are attract-
television or read newspapers. To reach      ing more passengers. In Agra, 20% of
this audience, Strategic Alliance orga-      passengers on the modern rickshaws
nized large public demonstration events      said they had shifted from some form of
that drew the attention of the wallahs.      motorized transport. That modal shift
Inviting Mayors and other decision-          has reduced emissions by 209.7 tons of
makers helped develop political sup-         CO2, 600 tons of TSP, and 120 tons of
port, and generated widespread press         NOx each year.
                                                                                         Events, successful in generating widespread
coverage. Over the course of the pro-           Now, ITDP is replicating this project
                                                                                         popularity of India’s modern rickshaws, are
ject, over 10 million people in India        to modernize cycle rickshaws, or
                                                                                         now being held in Indonesia.
were made aware of the project through       ’becaks’ in Indonesia. After ITDP orga-
these press events. Raising the public       nized the second Sustran general meet-
awareness proved critical to establish-      ing in Manila in 1997, Indonesian
ing a market for the vehicles.               Consumers Union (YLKI) Director
   Simply getting the vehicles onto the      Tini Hadad convinced Governor
streets was also important. The hand-        Sutiyoso to temporarily rescind enforce-
some vehicles, plying the streets, were      ment of a ban on becaks. It was the
their own best advertisement. While          height of the economic crisis, and for
sold from the beginning at commercial        about two years, some 7000 becaks
prices, the design costs, training for       returned to Jakarta’s streets. In other
manufacturers, and marketing costs for       towns, like Surabaya, enforcement of
the first 500 sales were financed by
US AID.                                                   continued on p. 20

                                                                                                                                  19
                                                                                                    Car-Free Days and Events
                                                                                                      Public events like car free days and
                                                                                                    bicycle caravans are an increasingly
                                                                                                    popular way to publicize public and
                                                                                                    non-motorized transport options.
                                                                                                    Mayors are generally supportive because
                                                                                                    the events are an easy way to generate
                                                                                                    publicity and open up more space for
                                                                                                    the public to enjoy. During the events,
                                                       could not win the hearts and minds of        people have a direct experience of what
                                                       the general public.                          their city could be like without cars. For
                                                          In 2000, ITDP started changing            NGOs, they are also an opportunity to
                                                       gears. Becaks survived in Yogyakarta         generate revenue, attract publicity for
                                                       due to protection from the Sultan who        key causes, and recruit members.
                                                       sees them as part of the city’s cultural       Car Free Days have recently become
                                                       heritage. From this more comfortable         a global phenomenon. The concept
                                                       base, we decided to replicate the public     started receiving more attention after
                                                       relations success of our India cycle rick-   Bogotá, Colombia held a popular event,
                                                       shaw modernization project. Working          closing the entire city area to private
                                                       with Gadjah Mada University, we              cars during a weekday. After the event,
    Top row : Bicycle caravans (left) and car-free     developed and tested several proto-          89% of people reported that they had
     days (right) allow people to imagine their city   types, and in the spring of 2004 have        no trouble getting around. In fact, more
           with fewer cars and more public space.      finally got a prototype widely appreciat-    than half the people polled said they
           Bottom: Three new cyclists celebrate a      ed by the becak drivers. As of               wanted to see the event repeated on a
           successful ride through car-free streets.   December, 2004, the first 100 modern         monthly basis, naming benefits such as
                                                       becaks are now on the street, and 50 of      reduced pollution, reduced noise, and
                                                       them were launched at a major promo-         the opportunity to see the city from a
                   continued from p. 19                tional event sponsored by the Ministry       different perspective.
                                                       of Tourism in September. The modern            In 2004, 1550 cities from 40 countries
       bans on becaks also relaxed. Another            becak is 50kg lighter than the tradition-    participated in the September 22 world
       NGO supported by ITDP, LPIST, orga-             al becak, and just as strong and com-        car-free day. ITDP sponsored the first
       nized some becak unions and created a           fortable. Whether the improvements           car free day events in Cape Town,
       community-based plan for regulating             will win greater political acceptance for    South Africa (in cooperation with
       becak use in Jakarta neighborhoods.             the becak remains to be seen.                BEN), and Jakarta, Indonesia, (in coop-
       But when other NGOs like UPC used                  ITDP is now applying a similar            eration with Pelangi) both of which
       the becak drivers in a broader attack on        approach to non-motorized vehicle            have now turned Car Free days into reg-
       the Governor’s policies, the becak ban          modernization and promotion in               ular events. The events are an impor-
       was reintroduced in 1999. In 2000,              Africa. Working with Trek Bicycle            tant time for getting across information
       ITDP organized the International                Corporation, we developed a reason-          about transport options. The majority of
       Conference on Transport and Air                 ably priced but much higher status,          towns set up information stands, create
       Quality with Swiss Contact, the World           higher quality bicycle specifically          hand-outs about transport options, and
       Bank, US AID, US EPA, and a number              designed for African urban utilitarian       organize exhibitions and round tables to
       of other donor agencies. At this forum          use. After shipping 2,000 new, good-         draw attention to the issues connected
       we unified international donor support          quality “California Bikes” to Ghana,         with travel and mobility.
       for rescinding the ban on becaks, and           Senegal and South Africa (see article,         Since introducing the California
       marshaled evidence that becaks did not          p. 16), these flashy, modern bicycles        Bikes in Africa, ITDP has also orga-
       cause traffic congestion. All to no avail.      have played a key role at bicycling pro-     nized ten promotional events that bring
       This confrontational approach simply            motional events.                             together cyclists, attract press attention,

20 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
and allow elected officials and commu-       to work, to the store, and so on. While         The consulting firm Steer Davies
nity leaders to share their own commit-      it may not be possible to replace all pri-   Gleave implemented a travel blending
ment to bicycle promotion.                   vate motor vehicle trips with transit,       program in Santiago, Chile. The
  In Ghana, ITDP-organized bicycle           bicycling, or walking, most people           Santiago results suggest that travel
caravans are attracting more riders and      should be able to replace some of their      blending could become part of an effec-
broader support. Our second ride was         trips. People who have fallen into the       tive, low-cost emission reduction pack-
hosted by former Accra Mayor                 habit of using a private car may not         age for certain developing-nation cities.
Solomon Darko, and the third event           even know the bus route that they            Steer Davies Gleave report an astonish-
was sponsored by the U.S. Embassy in         could take, may not know that a safe         ing 17% reduction in car driver trips (as
Accra, the Ghana Police Service              cycling route between their home and         a proportion of participating and non-
Headquarters, UNDP, the Ministry of          their work is available, may not even        participating households combined),
Interior, the Mayor’s Office, the            know how to ride a bicycle.                  with a 23% reduction in car driver kilo-
National Sports Council, and private            Travel blending starts with a very        meters and a 17% reduction in time
companies. Other bicycle promotion           personal process of interviewing indi-       spent traveling.
                                              viduals to find out why they make the          Travel blending techniques may be
                                              transport choices they make. Usually a      well suited to an active role by NGOs,
                                              number of households are open to            particularly in the collection of survey
                                              making some changes in their travel         data and the development and dissemi-
                                              behavior. The program supplies what-        nation of information about transport
                                                                                                               alternatives.
                                                                                                               Particularly in
                                                                                                               communities
                                                                                                               where       NGOs
                                                                                                               maintain a close
                                                                                                               dialog with resi-

events were held just outside of Kumasi,
and in Cape Coast. ITDP is also orga-
nizing a bicycle caravan in Dakar in
conjunction with the Mayor’s Office
and the Director of Sports for the City
of Dakar. It is scheduled for mid-
December, after Ramadan.

Social marketing
   Recent projects in Australia,
Santiago de Chile, and in Europe indi-
cate that social marketing alone may be      ever information or help they need, and      dents, travel blending could be an
able to change travel behavior. One          supplies the encouragement, to make          extremely effective way to reduce car
technique, known as “travel blending”        the change.                                  use on a local scale.
is used to reduce the number of car trips       The results to date have been
people make each day.                        remarkable. In the first trial in Perth,     Conclusion
   Most people make 4 or 5 trips a day,      approximately $61,500 was expended              While it is hard to compete with $25
                                             in consulting costs to conduct the sur-      billion in advertising from the automo-
Left: In collaboration with the Cape Epic    veys and information provision activi-       bile industry, clever use of social mar-
mountain bicycle race, Rufus Norexe of       ties. Of the 380 households targeted,        keting and public relations, and high
the Bicycling Empowerment Network            the program produced a 6% decrease in        profile projects that illustrate an alter-
promotes bicycle use                         auto use immediately and an additional       native solution to today’s traffic night-
                                             1% decrease after 12 months. Public          mares, are beginning to fight back.
Middle: Kunming’s BRT system works           transport trips rose from 6% of all trips    Social marketing in the transport sector
great but fails the publicity battle.        to 7%, cycling trips doubled from 2% to      is not only proving to play a critical
Guangzhou Deputy Planning Director           4%. The results have held even two           role in the success of any transport pro-
Zhou He Long takes a ride but believes       years after the assistance was delivered.    ject, but the new projects in Santiago
Guangzhou can do better.                     The technique is now being applied           and in Australia indicate that social
Right: Traffic congestion in Surabaya,       throughout Australia and in some cities      marketing alone can change travel
Indonesia; many people drive out of habit.   in Europe.                                   behavior.❖

                                                                                                                                  21
                                  What to Do about
       It has been many decades since a
       new urban highway like Robert
       Moses’ notorious Cross Bronx
       Expressway has been built in the US
       or Europe. Highways that forcibly
       evicted tens of thousands of disen-
       franchised low income minorities
       and expose countless others to dan-
       gerous levels of air pollution and
       unsafe traffic are largely a thing of
       the past. Unfortunately, this is not
       the case in the megacities of the
       developing world.

          A recent example is Mexico City’s recently completed           countries, however, they are a new phenomenon, and the
       Segundos Pisos (second stories) – the double-decking of its       decision-making processes remain vague, ad hoc, and con-
       major urban highways. A comparision of Mexico City’s              flictual, benefitting no one. Frequently, roads are built
       investment in the Segundo Piso and a planned Bus Rapid            despite the fact that they concentrate air pollution to levels
       Transit project shows how unequal and regressive this project     certain to violate air quality norms, and they leave perma-
       is. The total cost of one 12-kilometer long Segundo Piso was      nent scars in the urban fabric. In the developing world, the
       US$ 182.7 million, or US$ 15.2 million per kilometer. In          disconnect between air quality goals and transportation goals
       contrast, the estimated cost of a 25-kilometer long busway        continues to be largely unaddressed.
       system planned along Calle Insurgentes is US$ 26.1 million.          While voices of opposition to the Segundo Piso itself were
       This is US$1.0 million per kilometer. In other words, com-        few, the way in which the highway was planned, designed,
       paring these two projects, the investment for a minority          and built raised concerns among community and environ-
       (only 16% of the population uses the automobile as a means        mental groups, transportation experts and business associa-
       of transportation) is more than 15 times the investment in a      tions about the current planning, review and financing pro-
       public transportation project that benefits the large majority.   cedures. Existing regulations do little to protect Mexico
          Mexico is hardly an isolated case. The citizens of Chinese     City’s health, property values, or community life.
       cities, with weak private property rights and little legal           In response, the Centro Mexicano de Derecho Ambiental
       recourse, have seen thousand-year-old neighborhoods bull-         (Mexican Center for Environmental Law, CEMDA) and
       dozed to make way for new roads. Indian cities continue to        ITDP organized a workshop in June of 2004 to review
       build flyovers that speed long distance travel at the expense     Mexican transportation planning practice. Drawing on expe-
       of bus commuters. Santiago’s Costanera Norte project,             rience from the US, UK, Chile, Germany and Israel, the
       Panama City’s Corredor Sur highway project, the MO orbital        workshop issued recommendations that better balance the
       motorway in Hungary, the Prague Ring Road and the Trans-          needs of the environment, the community, and motorists.
       Israel Highway are all projects that went forward, though         (The White Papers are available at www.itdp.org/read/html).
       protracted and determined opposition from citizens groups         Several proposed legislative reforms have grown out of these
       and international organizations like ITDP succeeded in slow-      recommendations.
       ing or modifying them.                                               The current environmental impact assessment (EIA) laws
          Of course, some new urban roads deserve to be built. The       are highly ambiguous. No methodology is spelled out for
       question is ultimately how to ensure a planning process that      rejecting or approving projects, nor for determining the need
       balances the desires of motorists with the legitimate health,     for or the level of mitigation or compensation. It is not even
       safety, and livability concerns of residents. In the US and
       Europe, the disasterous urban highway projects of the 1950s
       and 1960s led to an ongoing effort to codify rules and proce-     Mexico City tries to build its way out of congestion with
       dures that balanced these concerns. In most developing            double-decked highways.

22 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
Urban Highways
    Lessons from Mexico City
                                                                   by Rebecca Dodder and Tania Mijares


 clear under what conditions the review of the EIA for a high-      public dialog around a future transportation vision.
 way project falls under federal or local jurisdiction.                While tighter environmental review and planning require-
 Frequently, the same agency promoting a project is also            ments have been an important safeguard against potentially
 authorized to determine the validity of the EIA. In such con-      damaging highway projects in the US and Europe, this purely
 ditions, the approval of an EIA is driven primarily by politics    reactive strategy is provoking a political backlash. In the US,
 rather than an honest assessment of environmental impacts.         the groundbreaking Clean Air Act Ammendments of 1990,
 Of equal concern is the way in which some project promoters        and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of
 are allowed to bypass the public budgeting and transportation      1990, are both under attack, and many of their most impor-
 planning process.                                                  tant provisions undermined by executive orders in the name
    Even without these problems, EIA alone is seldom suffi-         of ‘environmental streamlining.’ While the politicies of the
 cient to ensure a sustainable outcome in transportation pro-       current administration and their backers are largely to blame,
 jects. EIAs generally come at the point in the planning            without a compelling vision of an alternative, motorists stuck
 process when all the most important decisions have already         in congestion simply want more roads. While SEA in Europe
 been made. As a result, they tend to focus on the immediate        is gaining acceptance, and comes into effect this year, in
 impacts of the project (frog habitat is threatened), while         England many highways that were killed under the Labor
 missing the big picture (maybe 100,000 new car trips into the      Government by years of hard fought advocacy are back on
 city center is not a good idea and a busway would have been        line, even under the same Labor Government. Only the lead-
 better).                                                           ership of London Mayor Ken Livingstone, implementing
    The two ways countries have tried to overcome this prob-        congestion charging and dramatic improvements in public
 lem are called ’conformity’ (in the US) and                                  space, has stemmed the resurgence of the British
 Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA,                                         highway lobby for now.
 required in Europe beginning in 2004).                                                  Mexico City’s Mayor, Andrés Manuel
 Conformity is a process that determines                                                 López Obrador is not inherently pro-high-
 whether a major transportation project                                                   way. He is a typical politician who des-
 is consistent with environmental goals                                                    perately needs to deliver success on the
 and laws. It gives the US Environ-                                                         congestion issue to his voters. By and
 mental Protection Agency the power                                                          large, the Segundo Piso highway is
 to block Federal financing for road                                                         popular, and it has helped the popular-
 projects or even entire metropolitan                                                       ity of the Mayor. But the Mayor is also
 transportation plans if they find that                                                     pushing boldly ahead with a new pilot
 the road will drive an area into viola-                                                   Bus Rapid Transit plan on Avenida
 tion or further violation of ambient air                                                Insurgentes, one of the most important
 standards. SEA moves the environmental                                                commercial streets, and he was the first
 review process back to the early planning                                          Mayor to build a significant backbone network
 phase, so that fundamentally different alternatives                           of bicycle paths in Mexico City.
 for addressing the same mobility and air quality issues can           Ultimately, the best defense is a good offense.
 be explored.                                                       EnriquePeñalosa, in Bogotá, killed a major Japanese-initiated
    At the most basic level, the problem is the lack of a coher-    orbital motorway mainly with a clearly articulated alternative
 ent and popular vision for how to solve Mexico City’s trans-       vision. This vision was not only to build busways and bike-
 portation and air quality problems, or even a procedure for        ways and restrain traffic, it was also to use the money saved to
 developing such a vision. SEA can be used as a tool to build a     build libraries, schools, public parks and playgrounds. Only a
                                                                    pro-active alternative vision can steal the thunder away from
                                                                    a politician with limited political creativity who proposes to
 Mexico City is also planning a BRT system and has constructed a    repeat the mistakes of the past, building a massive urban
 network of bicycle paths, like the one shown above.                highway.❖

                                                                                                                                  23
                            BRT’s Great Leap
                                       T
                                               he Bus Rapid Transit phenome-            Already a second east-west line is
                                               non continues to expand rapid-        scheduled to open in 2005, then
                                               ly across the world. Jakarta          expanded further west to a large bus ter-
                                       opened a ground-breaking system in            minal and further east to a new terminal
                                       January of 2004 and new systems are           in 2006. Phase I cost roughly $6 million,
                                       soon to open in a dozen cities from           and Phase II is expected to cost roughly
                                       Latin America to Asia. Many more              $35.6 million, which includes some
                                       cities are in the planning process, or        improvements on the first corridor.
                                       committed to designing their own BRT             ITDP has provided technical support
                                       system. Never has the donor communi-          to DKI Jakarta during its planning
                                       ty, technical experts, NGOs, and a            process. Technical control of the pro-
                                       growing number of Mayors of develop-          ject was under its existing Municipal
                                       ing countries been so unified around an       Transportation Agency, which also
                                       approach to the pressing problems of          earns revenue from normal bus route
                                       explosive private motor vehicle use,          licenses. Because the success of the
                                       congestion, and pollution. Technical          busway threatens to lower their revenue
                                       experts now generally agree on the best       from traditional route licenses, this
                                       methodology and tools to plan and             conflict of interest may have somewhat
                                       design a successful system. As ITDP           compromised the public interest on key
                                       supports cities in the development of         design issues.
                                       BRT, institutional, legal, and regulatory        Several things would have increased
                                       issues have become a major challenge.         ridership on TransJakarta. Capacity is
                                                                                     limited because stations and buses only
                                       Jakarta, Indonesia                            have one door. The buses therefore
                                         TransJakarta, which opened in               tend to queue at the station stops, par-
                                       January of 2004, is the first full BRT to     ticularly at the terminals. The trans-
                                       be constructed in Asia. Other than            portation agency was made aware of
                                       commuter rail, it is the first mass transit   this problem in the early planning
                                       system ever built in Indonesia. The sys-      stages but did not choose to address the
                                       tem is 12.9 kilometers, and operates on       problem. It appears the mistake will
                                       the most prestigious North-South corri-       now be repeated in the second corridor.
                                       dor in the city center, connecting two        The demand on the system is also much
                                       major bus terminals. The system is cur-       lower than it could be, capturing only
                                       rently carrying roughly 60,000 passen-        about 1/3 of the existing transit riders
                                                  gers per day, about 4000 in        in the corridor, largely because no feed-
                                                       the peak direction            er bus system was planned. An effort to
                                                           at the peak hour,         set up a feeder bus system failed for
                                                             and about 1.5 mil-      institutional resasons. As a result, some
                                                               lion passengers a     2/3 of the transit passengers in the cor-
                                                                 month. Some         ridor still use normal buses which con-
                                                                 13% of the pas-     gest the mixed traffic lanes.
                                                                 sengers previ-         Ignoring recommendations to have
                                                                 ously made the      bus operators buy their own buses, the
                                                                 same trip using     transportation agency procured them
                                                                a private motor
                                                               vehicle or a taxi,    Photos:
                                                             and the rest of the     Top: Contraflow buslane in China;
                                                           passengers were users     Bottom three: TransJakarta, Asia’s first
                                                       of normal buses.              full BRT.

24 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
Forward
directly without a competitive bid. This     approved in August of 2004.                   was completed in December of 2004,
resulted in buses that are heavier than      Construction is scheduled to begin in         and the concept was presented to the
they need to be, needlessly damaging         early 2005.                                   Chief Minister by former Bogotá Mayor
the road bed, more expensive, less fuel        The Delhi system is not really a full       Enrique Peñalosa and ITDP Director
efficient, and more polluting. The tick-     BRT system in that it does not have           Walter Hook on December 9. It looks
eting system, also procured by the           closed, pre-paid boarding stations, did       like Hyderabad will opt for a full BRT
agency, has never worked well because                                                      system, with platform level boarding at
the ticketing equipment was bought                                                         special stations, integrated with special
from a dubious supplier. Then the state                                                    feeder buses able to operate on and off
bus regulator, BP TransJakarta, hired a                                                    the BRT trunk corridor. The Chief
separate company to operate the system                                                     Minister is expected to give the go
but when the equipment didn’t work                                                         ahead for the first corridor in the com-
they were unable to fix it.                                                                ing months.
   Jakarta also contracted its bus opera-
tions to PT JET, a consortium largely                                                      China
constituted from the bus and taxi oper-                                                      Bus Rapid Transit in China has taken
ators in the corridor, without a compet-                                                   great strides in 2004. The National
itive bid. As a result, the cost per kilo-                                                 Ministry of Construction has officially
meter paid by the municipality is higher                                                   endorsed busways in Chinese cities. In
than it should be. Since PT JET had                                                        May, Chinese Vice Minister of
never run a modern bus operation, they                                                     Construction Qiu Baoxing announced
had no experience with formal bus                                                          that in the next five years, all local gov-
scheduling or formalized labor practices.                                                  ernments will build more dedicated
                                                                                           busways and other bus priority measures
Delhi and Hyderbad, India                                                                  in urban areas. Premier Wen also
  Delhi is preparing what is being                                                         endorsed public transport priority, and
called a ’High Capacity Bus System,’ or                                                    a State Council Policy was issued on
                                              Top: Prototype of high capacity low floor
HCBS. Delhi’s HCBS was initially pro-                                                      Promoting BRT Development in
                                                  bus developed by Tata Telco for
posed by the Indian Institute of                                                           Chinese Cities.
                                             Delhi HCBS. Bottom: Preliminary HCBS
Technology’s Transportation Research                                                         Beijing’s new 16km busway system
                                              plans provide groundbreaking space for
and Injury Prevention Program (IIT-                                                        will begin operation this year.
                                                      pedestrians and cyclists
TRIPP), which still maintains final say                                                    Guangzhou, Shanghai, Chengdu,
on the technical designs. ITDP has                                                         Chongqing,         Xi’an,      Kunming,
been providing technical support on an       not involve a rerouting of existing bus       Shenyang, Hangzhou and Shijiazhuang
as-needed basis. Delhi’s HCBS will be        routes to a trunk and feeder system, and      are all engaged in various stages of BRT
an ’open’ busway using mostly normal         does not involve shifting bus operators       planning.
buses that will operate on 7 corridors       to a payment per bus kilometer basis. It        Many of these developments are the
currently not slated for metro lines.        does have some unique features, howev-        result of efforts by the Hewlett
  In January of 2004, the Delhi              er. The attention to high quality pedes-      Foundation and the Beijing Energy
Government approved the funds for            trian and cycling facilities, and the inte-   Foundation to promote BRT in China.
completing the technical designs on all      gration of cycle rickshaw parking and         The World Bank is preparing a large
seven corridors, and for some 10 proto-      vendor sites into the physical design are     scale GEF project in cooperation with
type ’high capacity’ low floor buses. The    unique and groundbreaking. The sepa-          the Ministry of Construction to assist
detailed technical designs and detailed      ration of bicycle and other non-motor-        cities developing BRT systems. The
costing for the first corridor were com-     ized vehicle traffic from boarding and        World Bank was responsible for the
                                                                                                                                         bottom image: IIT-TRIPP




pleted by the IIT-TRIPP and RITES,           alighting bus passengers alone is respon-     new      center-lane       busway        in
an engineering firm, in January of 2004.     sible for a large part of the projected       Shejiazhuang, WRI’s Embarq is the lead
The final funding for the first 5.9 km.      improvement in bus speeds.
corridor, roughly $8 million, was               In Hyderabad, a pre-feasibility study                  continued on p. 26

                                                                                                                                    25
BRT’s Great Leap Forward

                                             continued from p. 25                Beijing plans to have 100km of BRT      ment the system, commendable designs
                                                                              corridors operating in time for the 2008   were developed, but issues including
                                 party in Shanghai, and ITDP and the          Olympics. Later BRT corridors will         station access and integration with
                                 World Bank in Guangzhou.                     serve the Olympic Park area to the         other transit services have not
                                                                              north of the city center. Overall bus      been worked out. In August the
                                 – Beijing                                    capacity will be increased by a billion    Construction Commission postponed
                                   Operations on Beijing’s 16 km corri-       riders. The city also plans to expand      implementation for another year, even
                                 dor from Qianmen southward past the          capacity on its subway by 400%, in         though physical construction work on
                                                                                                                         the second ring road will begin in
                                                                                                                         December 2004.
                                                                                                                            A local University, meanwhile, is
                                                                                                                         conducting detailed BRT planning for a
                                                                                                                         newly opened east-west corridor in
                                                                                                                         Chengdu. Yet a third municipal insti-
                                                                                                                         tute has developed plans for BRT on a
                                                                                                                         North-South corridor in Chengdu.
                                                                                                                         These plans are somewhat controversial
                                                                                                                         because a metro system is being dis-
                                                                                                                         cussed for the same corridor, and
                                                                                                                         because new land acquisition may be
                                                                                                                         required in some locations.
                                                                                                                            Although all three plans are for
                                                                                                                         “closed” Curitiba-style BRT systems,
                                 5th ring road will begin in December,        addition to building a separate Olympic    they seem to have been developed
                                 although initially the buses will operate    subway system.                             largely in isolation of each other, which
                                 in mixed traffic in the congested por-                                                  indicates a risk of future coordination
                                 tion of the route from Tiantan to            – Chengdu                                  and integration problems. The level of
                                 Qianmen. Fares will be collected as pas-        Chengdu, famous for its tea houses      political support for each of these pro-
                                 sengers enter the stations, before board-    and relaxed lifestyles, and a 44% mode     jects remains unclear.
                                 ing the buses, making Beijing the sec-       share for bicycles, probably has the
                                 ond ’closed’ BRT system outside Latin        highest level of political commitment      – Kunming
                                 America (the first was the TransJakarta      to BRT of all Chinese cities besides         Kunming’s transport planners, led by
                                 Busway, which opened in February).           Beijing. Indeed, the project may suffer    the newly established Urban
                                    The BRT line, with space currently        from the widespread support for BRT,       Transportation Institute, have been
                                 allocated for 2 lanes per direction for      with detailed planning currently being     amongst the transport planning leaders
                                 most of the route, has been incorporat-      undertaken by no less than three differ-   in China since opening a median bus-
                                 ed into a massive new road corridor          ent agencies, in three different loca-     lane BRT system in 1999. Kunming’s
                                 project which includes six large transit     tions.                                       20km BRT system, combined with
                                 hubs. Passengers will access the stations       The Urban Planning and                         high rates of bicycle usage and
                                 via tunnels, bridges or at grade crossing.   Design Institute, which is very                      excellent conditions for pedes-
                                    The first of a fleet of fifty low floor   strong on design as-pects,                              trians, has provided the
                                 CNG buses have been purchased,               and has support from the                                   benchmark for bus priori-
                                 which will eventually be expanded to         Energy Foundation’s                                            ty in China and has
                                 eighty buses. Operations planning has        Beijing Office, is                                                been imitated in
                                 been entrusted to the main, state-           leading      the                                                     cities such as
                                 owned bus operator in Beijing, which         planning for a                                                      Shijiazhuang and
                                 will be the monopoly operator of the         BRT system on the                                                in bus priority plan-
                                 new system.                                  second ring road.                                             ning in Guangzhou
                                                                              Originally planned as an                                   and elsewhere.
                                                                              elevated expressway, follow-                              Yet by August 2004
                                 Top: With 44% of its traffic moving by       ing a BRT conference organized                      Kunming’s system was showing
                                 bicycle, Chengdu’s BRT plans should          by the Energy Foundation with                    signs of falling behind some other
    Top photo: Karl Fjellstrom




                                 provide ample space for cyclists             contributions from ITDP last                 cities. While still performing reason-
                                 Bottom: Once a pioneer in BRT,               December, city planners agreed to          ably, with high flows of bus passenger,
                                 Kunming’s system has several problems,       revise the designs to instead accommo-     bicycles and pedestrians all in the same
                                 including buses queuing at stations          date BRT. Under pressure to imple-         corridor and without meaningful con-

26 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
flicts, political support for the city’s      Rio de Janeiro, Brazil                      in Rio. The team instead proposed an
groundbreaking median buslane BRT                Though Rio de Janeiro’s original         alternative system based around a net-
system has waned. Cars are routinely          plans for Riobus were stalled, they were    work of BRT corridors, which would be
directed by traffic police into the bus       reinvigorated after the city was chosen     much more cost-effective and meet all
lanes. Queues of up to 15 buses form at       to host the 2007 Pan American               of the capacity requirements.
stations in the peak period, as around        Games. As first conceived, the project         While it appears that the metro plans
20 different bus routes converge on one       called for very low-grade, curb-side bus    are still moving forward, because the
BRT corridor. Kunming’s Urban                 lanes; a far cry from true Bus Rapid        city will be unable to build a metro sys-
Transport Institute is currently plan-        Transit quality. The project was aban-      tem or any other system to serve the
ning to upgrade the capacity, perfor-         doned when Mayor Cesar Maia took            airport to the center to Barra da Tijuca
mance and image of Kunming’s median           office, who favored two new metro           trip in time for the games, the Mayor
buslane system, however, much will            lines. Another, partially parallel metro    was also convinced to develop a BRT
depend on decisions made by the city’s        line was also being planned by the          plan for this corridor, now called the
new leadership.                               State of Rio.                               T5 corridor. The corridor passes
                                                 As a condition of hosting the Pan        through some very low income areas,
– Xi’an                                       American Games, however, the Pan            which will also be served by the system.
   Xi’an is seeking authorization of the      American Sports Organization (PASO)            This effort led to the Municipality
central government for investing in a
metro. Officials recognize the potential
of BRT in meeting the mass transit
needs of the city – in which demand is
fairly dispersed amongst several corri-
dors – and privately acknowledge that
metro ridership projections may be
based on questionable ridership esti-
mates. Nevertheless, BRT remains off-
limits until a decision is made on the
metro. A team has been established at
Chang’an University to carry out pre-
liminary BRT planning with the sup-
port of the Energy Foundation, and a
preliminary network concept has been                                                               Planned transit lines in Rio,
                                                                                                     including BRT and metro
elaborated.

– Shanghai                                    requires that transportation needs be       issuing the terms of reference to devel-
   In Shanghai, a BRT Network is              met. The Brazilian Government has           op a detailed plan for BRT, contracted
under planning with support from              awarded a line of credit in the amount      to the engineering firm Logit. ITDP, in
EMBARQ and the World Resources                of US$120 million to construct the          cooperation with Logit, has done a pre-
Institute, but is yet to receive high level   sports village in Barra da Tijuca.          liminary evaluation of the possibility of
political commitment. A feasibility           Transit trips from the Center to Barra      incorporating bicycle infrastructure into
study of BRT conducted for the middle         da Tijuca is one of the fastest growing     the BRT plan, and the idea has been
ring road – an elevated expressway – is       traffic problems of the city, and a major   raised with the Secretary for the
currently being considered. Since this        concern to PASO. It quickly became          Municipality of Rio de Janeiro. If the
road is not congested and may not cor-        clear that a metro was never going to be    Secretary approves this, ITDP expert
respond to many existing bus routes,          able to resolve this transportation issue   Michael King will evaluate the prelimi-
the time savings benefits, and hence          in time for the Pan American Games.         nary designs and incorporate them into
the demand on this route, may not be             ITDP joined forces with private bus      ongoing bicycle infrastructure plans
enough to make the system financially         firms at several public forums in oppos-    under the supervision of the ministry of
viable.                                       ing the metro line and possible roadway     urbanism.
   BRT in Pudong South Road is also           expansion between the Barra de Tijuca
under planning and is considered part         and downtown. The technological             Cape Town, South Africa
of a BRT network for the World Expo           options chosen in the project, the rout-      Plans for Bus Rapid Transit have fall-
2010. This corridor is reasonable and         ing of the lines, and the lack of suffi-    en slightly behind schedule in Cape
would serve a rapidly growing area.           cient demand studies, make the project      Town due to recent political changes.
BRT is also being considered for              an ineffective and even problematic
new towns.                                    addition to the public transit network                 continued on p. 28

                                                                                                                                   27
BRT’s Great Leap Forward

                   continued from p. 27             nect the adjacent communities to the        University) which is about 500 meters
                                                    Corridor. The city is hoping to com-        south of El Relox. However, the univer-
       In April 2004, the Western Cape elect-       plete two pilot projects in each of the     sity’s president refused to allow con-
       ed a new premier and the administra-         five areas by 2006.                         struction of the corridor, affecting hun-
       tion chose a new Minister for Public                                                     dreds of students who would have bene-
       Works and Transport, Mcebisi                 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania                     fited. Thus, empty buses will go to the
       Skwatsha. Plans were reinvigorated dur-         Dar es Salaam’s BRT project is                    university to make the turn
       ing a recent trip to Bogotá to study         rapidly moving to the detailed                          back to the north. The
       TransMilenio, however, and the plan-         design stage. The project                                 Insurgentes Metrobus will
       ning team is ready to begin the envi-        enjoys the full support of                                  operate with 60 buses, 40
       ronmental assessment, finalize techni-       the Mayor, the District                                     owned by private bus
       cal designs, and plan their public partic-   Governments, and the                                        operators, who are cur-
       ipation and public relations campaigns.      National Government.                                        rently the main conces-
          Cape Town’s planned system is             The World Bank is financ-                                  sionaries of Insurgentes,
       unique because it envisions nine BRT         ing the planning for the                                 and 20 publicly-owned
       corridors as part of a larger mobility       entire BRT network and the                             buses, operated by RTP (Red
       strategy that seeks to create an integrat-   detailed engineering of the first cor-             de Transporte de Pasajeros). The
       ed transport system. A draft report          ridor. ITDP has secured a grant from        corridor is expected to start operating
       detailing the scenarios for Phase One        the UNEP Global Environmental               by the second half of 2005.
       has just been released for comment. The      Facility to handle the legal, financial,       ITDP sent Michael King, an NMT
       first phase is focused on Klipfontein        and institutional planning of the sys-      expert, to advise the consultants that
       Road, which is 23 km long with an esti-      tem, the non-motorized transport feeder     developed the infrastructure design
       mated demand level between 5,000 and         system, and capacity building for the       studies. Some of Michael King’s sugges-
       7,000 per peak hour. A major goal of         municipal government to plan and            tions were incorporated into the final
       the project is to integrate existing bus     operate the system. The first corridor is   study, including measures to improve
       transit, new Bus Rapid Transit service,      likely to connect the intercity bus ter-    safety for pedestrians and the replace-
       and the city’s rail system, in addition to   minal in Ubungo to the Ferry                ment of planned pedestrian bridges
       bicycle and pedestrian feeder systems.       Terminal, following Morogoro Road           with at-grade crossings. ITDP is co-
          As part of its mobility strategy and in   through the city center, around 10km,       sponsoring a two-week training course
       preparation for Velo Mondial’s interna-      though it may also continue on to the       for the Metrobus Operations Manager
       tional conference being held in Cape         Mwenge bus terminal.                        at TransMilenio, Bogotá’s BRT system.
       Town in 2006, the City is examining
                                                    Mexico City, Mexico                         Guayaquil, Ecuador
                                                       The Mayor of Mexico City, Andrés            Guayaquil, Ecuador has planned a
                                                    Manuel López Obrador has green light-       five-corridor, closed BRT system that is
                                                    ed the construction of “Metrobus”, a        now under construction. The first line
                                                    BRT-like system. Despite the fact that      will open for operation in July, 2005.
                                                    the first phase was planned with two        The 15.5 km line will connect two
                                                    corridors, Insurgentes and Eje 8, only      major terminals in the north and south
                                                    the Insurgentes corridor will be built.     of the city. It will be served by seven
                                                    Even though the Eje 8’s infrastructure      feeder routes in the south and eight in
                                                    designs have been finished, the mayor       the north. At an average distance of
                                                    indicated that he will not leave any        400-500 meters apart, 36 new closed
                                                    unfinished project and thus will only       stations are being constructed. Raised-
                                                    build Insurgentes under his administra-     platform articulated buses with three
       2.5 kilometers on each side of the corri-    tion (López Obrador may leave office as     doors have been chosen, which carry
       dor to integrate NMT access. In addi-        early as September 2005 to run for          160 passengers. The project’s second
       tion, the City has divided the corridor      Mexico’s Presidency). There is a high       and third phases, each which will add a
       into five main areas in which bicycle        probability that Mexico City will end       new trunk line, are planned for comple-
       and pedestrian planning are being cre-       up having only one corridor.                tion in 2006 and 2007. Cesar Arias, the
       ated as feeders into the system and con-        The 19.7-kilometer long corridor on      designer of the Quito system, has been
                                                    Insurgentes will run from Indios Verdes     a key consultant in the project.❖
       top: Cape Town celebrated its Car-Free       to El Relox, at an estimated cost per
       Days on the corridor where BRT is planned.   kilometer is $ 1.2 million. The project
       bottom: Planned corridor on Morogoro         had planned to have a station at the        Contributing: Karl Fjellstrom,
       Road, Dar es Salaam                          UNAM (the largest Mexican                   Oscar Edmundo Diaz, Aimee Gauthier

28 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
                                            recently tried to overcome the lack of      matter much less to the hundreds of
                                            transport-specific targets by focusing      nurses and volunteers who are currently
                                            primarily on the provision of rural         walking for most of their trips.
                                            roads. But experience indicates that           Rather than focusing primarily on
 Saving Lives                               road building is not always the best use    road building, the health sector should
                                            of scarce resources for directly meeting    first ensure they have a sustainable and
          continued from p. 11              mobility needs. Studies indicate that       affordable supply of appropriate vehi-
                                            more than 80 percent of Africa’s elevat-    cles, whether all-terrain four wheel dri-
ber of people affected with AIDS, and       ed transport costs are due to the road      ves, motorcycles, or mountain bikes.
reducing the number of women dying          transport service industry, the vehicle     Road infrastructure, meanwhile, should
during childbirth by two-thirds.            industry, and the tariff and tax struc-     be gradually improved at a pace that
Although these targets cannot be met        ture, rather than due to poor roads.        does not drive the country deeper into
without transport-sector interventions,        For community-based care, one            debt.
no specific transport targets were          trained medical officer may be responsi-       Based on the first two years of the
spelled out. Donors and governments         ble for hundreds of volunteers and com-     Access Africa program, we now have
now face difficult choices about how        munity care givers. While better roads      the information and bicycle procure-
best to use scarce funds.                   help doctors and nurses with motor          ment mechanisms in place to develop
  The Millennium Project, which is          vehicles reach more patients faster and     programs that can be scaled up to meet
making recommendations to Secretary         while populations with access to motor-     the health care Millennium
General Kofi Annan about how best to        ized ambulatory vehicles reach emer-        Development Goals in a country-
meet the development goals, has until       gency care quicker, road conditions         specific context.❖


                                            nisms, meaning the first shipment will
                                            be exhausted by January 2005.
                                               In Senegal, the average wholesale
                                            price of the California Bike is higher
 California Bike                            than the other two countries because of
          continued from p. 17              high tariffs and value added taxes.
                                            Although the price is about $20 higher
                                            than the cheap low-end mountain
relationship with them. The California      bikes, most of the 320 California Bikes
Bike Coalition, by importing the bike       have already been sold through inde-
directly and then allowing shop keepers     pendent bicycle dealers.
to sell them on consignment, is able to        In Ghana, the best avenue for selling
minimize this credit risk.                  bicycles has been through private com-
  The bicycle itself is also critical to    panies that have set up employee pur-
success. The California Bike, designed      chase programs. At an average price
by Trek Bicycle Corporation in con-         only $5 higher than the average cost of
junction with ITDP NMT Technical            a low-quality mountain bicycle, it is
Director Matteo Martignoni, is a six-       still out of reach for many wage earners.
speed mountain bicycle specifically         Companies including Cowbell Milk
designed for the urban African utilitari-   and Tropo Farms have worked with
an cyclist. The quality of the bicycle      ITDP to allow workers to pay for the
and its components, coupled with its        California Bikes over time, through
durability, has attracted enough buyers     monthly paycheck deductions. In                One of the mechanics at ABACED,
to sell 70% of the initial shipment in      Ghana, 2/3 of the 640 bicycles have                a local nonprofit in Dakar,
one year.                                   been sold, 60% through this method,                 works on truing a wheel.
  In addition to showing that there is      10% sold to NGOs, 9% through inde-
demand for this type of bicycle, ITDP       pendent bicycle retailers, and the          of the bicycles have been sold to private
has collected valuable data about the       remainder through a variety of smaller      businesses for employee purchase pro-
market demand for bicycles in these         sales.                                      grams, 20% to the South African gov-
cities, and worked to strengthen the           In South Africa, 60% of the 960          ernment for its workers, 20% to other
local bicycle retail sector. Currently,     bicycles shipped have sold at a price       NGOs, and 9% through independent
approximately 80 bicycles per month         comparable to the cost of lower-quality
are being sold through various mecha-       mountain bikes. In South Africa, 23%                   continued on p. 30

                                                                                                                               29
          Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Synthesis and Guide to
          Best Practices. Barlow, J, Bentzen, B, & Tabor, L. 2003.
          www.walkinginfo.org/aps
          American Metropolitics, the New Suburban Reality. Myron
          Orfield. 2002.
          The Challenge of Slums - Global Report on Human
          Settlements. United Nations Human Settlements Program.
          2003. www.unhabitat.org                                        “Santiago de Chile: Transporte y Legislación: Una mirada
          “Constructing the Trans-Israel Highway’s Inevitability,”       Ciudadana.” Patricio Lanfranco y Rodrigo Quijada,
          Israel Studies. Yaakov Garb. 2004. www.itdp.org                Cuidad Viva. www.itdp.org
          EU Enlargement and the Environment: Institutional Change       Space Syntax: An Innovative Pedestrian Volume Modeling
          and Environmental Policy in Central and Eastern Europe.        Tool for Pedestrian Safety
          JoAnn Carmine and Stacy D. VanDeveer. 2005.                    Street Design Guidelines for Healthy Neighborhoods.
          A Field Guide to Sprawl. Dolores Hayden. 2004.                 Burden, D, et.al. 1999. www.lgc.org
          www.wwnorton.com                                               Streets for People. Transportation Alternatives. 2004.
          “Institutionalising Traffic Calming in the United States.”     www.transalt.org
          Michael King, et al. 2004. www.aitd.net                        Toward the Livable City. Emilie Buchcald, ed. 2003.
          “Legislative Reform for Transport and Air Quality in           www.milkweed.org
          Mexico, Case Study Germany.” Rudolf Peterson. 2004.            Urban Transport for Growing Cities: High Capacity Bus
          www.itdp.org                                                   Systems. Geetam Tiwari, ed. 2002. gopibooks@vsnl.net
          Policy Instruments for Achieving Environmentally Sustainable   “U.S. Transportation-Air Quality Planning: Evolution of
          Transport. OECD Working Group on Transport. 2002.              Recent Federal Law and Its Implementation.” Michael
          www.oecd.org                                                   Replogle. 2004. www.itdp.org
          “Pre-Feasibility Study for BRT in Dakar.” Walter Hook.
          2004. www.itdp.org                                             Online Resources
          Raford, N & Ragland, D. U.C. Berkeley, Institute of            Bicycling Empowerment Network: www.benbikes.org.za
          Transportation Studies, Traffic Safety Center. 2003.           The Commons Open Society Sustainability Initiative:
          repositories.cdlib.org/its/tsc/UCB-TSC-RR-2003-11              www.ecoplan.org
          A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States    Interface for Cycling Expertise (I-CE): www.cycling.nl
          and Abroad. Campbell, B, et.al. 2004. www.fhwa.dot.gov
                                                                         Sustainable Urban Transport Project: www.sutp.org
          "The Road Ahead: Traffic Injuries and Fatalities in
          India", Dinesh Mohan. World Health Day, 14th April             Velo Mondial: www.velomondial2006.com
          2004, New Delhi www.iitd.ac.in/tripp/                          World Carfree Network: www.worldcarfree.net


                                                   will probably increase the local labor      become automobile manufacturers in
                                                   content of the bicycles by importing        the short term. The possibility for
         California Bike                           Completely Knocked Down (CKD)
                                                   bicycles into South Africa and Ghana,
                                                                                               bicycle assembly and manufacturing is
                                                                                               plausible, as China’s labor costs rise, if
                   continued from p. 29            and branching out into Tanzania.            partnerships are formed with companies
                                                     The program in Senegal will become        like Trek, Fuji, or Shimano. Developing
       bicycle retailers supported by our part-    a pilot project for doing partial manu-     the local market, gradually increasing
       ner organization, the Bicycling             facturing, painting and assembly in-        the local labor content, and establish-
       Empowerment Network.                        country, likely in cooperation with the     ing brand names with a reputation for
                                                   ISENCY factory in Kaolack. ITDP vis-        quality, will eventually attract the
       Manufacturing and Expansion                 ited the factory in July to assess its      investment needed to move manufac-
         Based on the success of sales in          capacity and determined that not only       turing to Africa. In addition to provid-
       Ghana, Senegal and South Africa, the        would this be possible, it would dramat-    ing jobs and economic growth, bicycle
       California Bike Cooperative is current-     ically reduce the cost of the bicycle and   manufacturing could also play a crucial
       ly planning for the next shipment of        increase local employment.                  role in reducing Africa’s dependence on
       bicycles. The next phase of the CBC           African countries are unlikely to         imported oil and vehicles.❖

30 SustainableTransport /Winter 2004
BULLETIN
 BOARD
TRB 84th Annual Meeting
                                      Lessons from Bogotá
                                                continued from p. 5

                                     ship restored civility and citizenship.
                                                                                   thrive side by side with investors and
                                                                                   businessmen, to allow that city to
                                                                                   become a nice place to live while
January 9-13, 2005
                                     He understood that democracy was not          remaining a competitive node of pro-
Washington, D.C.
www.trb.org/meeting                  just about voting, that happiness was         duction in an inescapably globalized
                                     not just about consuming. The revital-        marketplace.
Tour D’Afrique 2005
                                     ization of indigenous urban culture             While tens of thousands of people are
January 15 – May 14, 2005
Cairo, Eqypt to Cape Town,           through the recuperation of public            working to humanize the world’s cities,
South Africa                         space and urban citizenship is neither        few recognize how central this effort is
Contact: Tour D’Afrique Ltd.         left nor right, neither democratic nor        to the struggle for the world’s soul.
Phone: 416 364-8255                  republican.                                   Despite 75,000 signatures to close the
Fax: 416 364-0058
                                        Peñalosa used the powers of the state      loop drive in Central Park and return
E-mail: info@tourdafrique.com
www.tourdafrique.com                 to directly improve the everyday life of      that park to Olmstead’s original vision,
                                     rich and poor alike, while simultane-         the Mayor of New York says ’not over
Cape Epic
                                     ously creating the conditions of stability    my dead body.’ Peñalosa’s idea for New
April 2-5, 2005
Western Cape, South Africa           that have reduced dramatically the risks      York was to turn Broadway from Times
Organizer: Cape Epic,                to private investors. By canceling a          Square to City Hall into a pedestrian
presented by adidas                  massive ring road and using the money         zone, or into a Boulevard that would
Contact: Kevin Vermaak               in working class neighborhoods for pub-       compare to Las Ramblas in Barcelona.
Phone: +27 (021) 4264373
                                     lic parks, public schools, bike lanes, low    No one in New York City politics cur-
Email: kevin@cape-epic.com
                                     income housing, and public libraries          rently has the political vision.
American Planning Association        designed by great architects, he created        Humanizing the world’s cities, revi-
National Conference
                                     public space that dignified working peo-      talizing or creating thriving urban cul-
April 2-6, 2005
San Francisco, California            ple. He created a public sphere where         tures, won’t replace the unions, it won’t
Organizer: American Planning         human interaction can occur on a daily        solve the health care crisis or the social
Association                          basis between rich and poor, without          security crisis, or raise the minimum
www.planning.org                     the constant mediation of the market,         wage. But when rich and poor, whites
Life in the Urban Landscape:         without the constant reminders of class       and blacks and latinos and Asians, gays
International Conference for         robbing the working person of their           and lesbians and heterosexuals, see
Integrating                          dignity.                                      each other in the streets every day, on
Urban Knowledge & Practice
                                        Bike lanes, bus rapid transit, public      the bus, and in parks, perhaps it makes
May 30-June 4, 2005
Gothenburg, Sweden                   space, congestion charging, these are         people feel less divided. Perhaps people
Organizer: Swedish Research          not ’left’ or ’right’ concepts, they are      hate each other a little less. It is this
Council for Environment,             ’urban’ concepts. They are tools to cre-      vision of a democratic and sustainable
Agricultural Sciences                ate a viable democratic urban culture in      urban culture that motivates me. It is a
and Spatial Planning (Formas)
                                     the context of global capitalism.             vision that is desperately lacking both
www.planum.net/showspace/
urbanlife2005.htm                    Bogotá’s TransMilenio is a model of           abroad and here in America. This
                                     how the state can create the conditions       vision is not marginal to the conflicts of
International Cities, Town Centres
                                     where buses are well run, and well man-       our day: it is ground zero in the battle-
& Communities
(ICTC) Conference,                   aged, to the benefit of the public, but       ground between humanism and fanati-
May 31-June 3, 2005                  by highly profitable private businesses.      cism. In a small way, perhaps we can
Queensland, Australia                But it is also a way for the rich business-   begin to heal the cultural civil war that
Organizers: International Cities,    man and the poor janitor go to work           has broken out not only in our country,
Town Centres Society,Yeppoon
                                     together and both feel good about it.         but all over the world, with such dan-
Contact: Renee Henshaw,
Phone: 07 3371 0333                  His low income housing program made           gerous and explosive force. As we move
E-mail: mail@ictcsociety.org         housing affordable by the state taking        into the 21st Century, this is what
www.ictcsociety.org                  control of the land, then allowing pri-       motivates me. ❖
European Mobility Week               vate developers to build and sell the
September 16-22, 2005                housing at a reasonable profit.Peñalosa,                                 Printed on
                                                                                                               recycled
www.22september.org                  in short, used the state to create a space                                 paper
                                     within which urban culture could

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             sustainabletransport
                  Help us Celebrate 20 Years
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                  clean air, livable cities and affordable access
                  to markets, jobs, health care and schools.


                                                Join Us for
                                   ITDP’s 20th Anniversary Dinner
                                         With Enrique Peñalosa
                                            January 14, 2005
                                              6:30 - 9:30pm
                                    Union Station, Washington D.C.
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