HDR-Net Consolidated Reply by dfsiopmhy6



From: Hanna Schmitt [mailto:hanna.schmitt@undp.org]
Sent: Tuesday, April 11, 2006 1:17 PM
To: hdr-net@groups.undp.org ; cprp-net@groups.undp.org
Subject: [hdr-net] CONSOLIDATED REPLY: Searching for Volunteer Reviewers for Liberia 's HDR 2006 on
Capacity Building for Reconstruction and Development

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HDR-Net Consolidated Reply
QUERY: Searching for Volunteer Reviewers for Liberia 's HDR 2006 on
Capacity Building for Reconstruction and Development

Prepared by Hanna Schmitt, HDR-Net
11 April 2006
Cross-posted on UNDP’s Crisis Prevention and Recovery Practice Network

Table of Contents:

   1.    Original Query

   2.    List of Contributors

   3.    Summary of Responses

   4.    Related Resources

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Original Query:

Cleophas O. Torori, UNDP Liberia

Dear colleagues,

Greetings from Liberia ! UNDP Liberia is facilitating the preparation of the second National Human
Development Report for Liberia on the theme: 'Mobilising and Building Capacities for Reconstruction and
Development'. As other NHDR teams have done previously through the network, we would like to
invite colleagues from around the world to join a select group of voluntary peer reviewers to
provide comments on Liberia ’s 2006 draft NHDR. We consider this review as very important in ensuring
overall quality control for the NHDR and adherence to corporate standards.

Rebuilding post-conflict Liberia is an immediate and critical challenge for the government and people of
Liberia . Fourteen years of civil conflict has inflicted tremendous human development costs on the Liberian
people. With the election of a new government, the country is given another opportunity to improve its
human development status. The report is intended to stimulate, during the initial months of the new
government, a constructive national dialogue amongst stakeholders including members of civil society,
national and local policy makers, politicians and development practitioners.

The draft Report is posted at: http://hdr.undp.org/docs/network/hdr_net/
Liberia_NHDR_Final_Draft_Feb2006.doc . The Report outline can be accessed at: http://hdr.undp.org/
docs/network/hdr_net/Liberia_NHDR_Outline_Feb2006.doc . We are hoping to finalize, publish
and launch the Report with the newly installed government in late March/early April.

To become part of the volunteer review group, please contact cleophas.torori@undp.org . We are
hoping to receive comments by 24 February 2006.

In particular, we hope to hear from reviewers about:

   •     The overall relevance/interest of the Report, its readability and “user-friendliness”;

   •   Whether its structure, consistency, line of argumentation, key messages, etc. can be improved
   and how;

   •     Any other comments that you may have.

Colleagues who wish to be part of the review group, but for various reasons are not able to send
comments by 24 February, are kindly asked to inform us at cleophas.torori@undp.org, indicating an
estimated date when we should expect their comments. We are extremely grateful to network members
who join us in our efforts to ensure that this NHDR will reach the highest quality standards and ultimately
have a significant impact. Should you have any further questions, do not hesitate to get in touch.

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Looking forward to your contributions,

Many thanks and best regards


Cleophas O. Torori
Policy Advisor
Strategy & Policy Unit
UNDP Liberia

Responses were received, with many thanks, from:

    1.   Rose Barungi, UNDP/RBA, New York
    2.   Francesco Galtieri, UN Resident Coordinator Unit, Ouagadougou , Burkina Faso
    3.   Rose Ssebatindira, ARR Conflict Prevention and Recovery Programme, UNDP Uganda
    4.   Ndey Isatou Njie, Capacity Development Group SURF WCA Dakar Senegal
    5.   Emmanuel Asomba, Development Gateway, dgPoverty Team
    6.   Barbara Barungi, UNDP/RBA, Strategic and Regional Initiatives
    7.   Kanni Wignaraja, Capacity Development Group, UNDP
    8.   Hanna Schmitt, Human Development Report Office, UNDP, New York
    9.   Hongxia Liu, ABA – UNDP, Internacional Legal Resource Centre, New York

Summary of Responses:

UNDP Liberia started with the preparation of its second National Human Development Report in close
cooperation with Liberia ’s ministry of Planning and National Development and the Ministry of Education in
2002. Due to the outbreak of the civil conflict in 2003, the NHDR process got interrupted and was only
renewed in 2005. The report addresses the question of mobilizing and building capacities for rebuilding a
new Liberia .

Rebuilding post-conflict Liberia is an immediate and critical challenge for the government and people of
Liberia. Fourteen years of civil conflict has devastated the country and imposed heavy human
development costs on the Liberian people. The report argues that creating national capacities will allow
the people of Liberia to make informed choices and to translate these choices in the improvement of the
overall human development situation and a sustainable recovery of the country from one and a half
decades of conflict. The report provides a snapshot of the current human development situation in Liberia
and the human development costs of the conflict. It establishes a framework for capacity development in
post-conflict Liberia that is intended to guide its government to determine a short, medium and long-term

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capacity development agenda, strategies and action plans. Finally, the report concludes with the
challenges and its implications that will be faced by the new government, as it advances in its post-conflict
recovery agenda.

The NHDR team in Liberia is now in the final stages of editing the report with support from a content editor
identified through the HDR network, and expects to launch the report shortly. Starting in 2002, the UNDP
Executive Team has required all new Human Development Reports to undergo a formal process of peer
review before publication. It is the responsibility of the UNDP Country Office to conduct them. This process
is generally formalized in the preparation process and budgeted for. In Liberia, in addition to the a group of
independent national reviewers, the NHDR team invited interested network members from the HDR-Net
and the CPRP-Net to volunteer and join in providing comments on the pre-publication draft. Twelve
network members responded to the request and nine provided their feedback. The Liberian NHDR team
found the experience to be very successful as they were able to incorporate international perspectives into
the analysis that may not have been possible with only national reviewers.

The reviewers from the networks commented on the overall relevance, structure, and user-friendliness of
the Report, as well as on its content and key messages. Overall, the report was well received by the
reviewers. Some general recommendations to consider when preparing an NHDR on capacity
development in a post-conflict situation included:

Post-conflict recovery

   o Human security
   The concept of human security has increasingly gained acceptance and impetus among
   development and conflict prevention practitioners. It was officially introduced to the international
   development community in the Global Human Development Report 1994 that assigned the concept a
   wider and more inclusive meaning, from security of territory to security of people in their daily lives. As
   outlined in the “Thematic Guidance Note on Conflict Prevention”, the human security concept is useful
   for NHDR teams in several ways. First, it allows those analyzing conflict to distinguish between the
   effects of violent conflict on human security and human development. Arguably, those that affect the
   core of human life, including life itself, livelihood and basic dignity, should go to the forefront. Second, it
   allows the analysis to consider security beyond state security and assure that people’s security is
   centrally regarded. Finally, it may help underline the consequences that causes and threats have on
   people, and conversely how investment in human security or human development might affect the
   different threats and causes of the conflict the country just came out of.

   o Key elements of a conceptual framework on conflict/conflict prevention/post-conflict peace-building
   The Thematic Guidance Note on Conflict Prevention set forth some key conceptual elements that
   should be addressed by an NHDR related to conflict prevention. First, it is important to establish the
   impact of violent conflict on human development and human security in the country. How has
   the conflict affected life, survival, health, education, sustained livelihoods, participation, empowerment,
   equality, etc? Has the conflict affected some particular vulnerable groups in society? A severe problem
   for NHDRs, especially in post-conflict situations, however, is obtaining the data and information for this
   kind of analysis and NHDR teams have to work around this. Second, it is important that the solutions/
   policy recommendations that the NHDR is giving stem from the human development perspective and
   also consider their impact on conflict and post-conflict recovery.

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   o Conflict analysis
   Since Liberia is coming out of a conflict, it is important that the NHDR introduces conflict sensitivity
   into its analysis and recommendations in order to prevent future outbreaks of the conflict and
   ensure that the recommendations and policy actions reinforce a sustainable reconstruction and
   recovery process. Clear links on how development affects violent conflict are crucial, because not all
   development positively affect peace-building and recovery processes. Development strategies in
   countries in conflict or coming out of it should systematically incorporate concerns related to their
   impact on violent conflict or to promoting tensions that could lead to violence. Policies for human
   development that are positive in theory, such as capacity development, may have the opposite impact
   if not planned and implemented carefully and in a conflict-sensitive manner.

Capacity development

   o Definition of capacity development
   Capacity development has become one of the central purposes of development cooperation since the
   1990s. Capacity development is the process by which individuals, organizations, institutions
   and societies develop abilities (individually and collectively) to perform functions, solve
   problems and set and achieve objectives. Over the years, the development community has come up
   with a host of terms and definitions that apply to institutional issues. Therefore it is very important to
   establish the importance of the concept for the national context and be clear about what is understood
   by it, whose capacities should be built and who should build them.

   Definition: Capacity development could be defined as the business of equipping all actors to perform
   effectively both in doing their own thing in their own field and level of operation and in working in
   collaboration or partnership with others in other fields and at other levels. It is important to underline
   that the term capacity development embodies much more than simply training and human resource

   Key elements of capacity development: To be effective capacity development must embrace all
   three aspects: human resource development; organizational development; and institutional

   Human resource development is a process of equipping people with the understanding and skills, and
   the access to information and knowledge to perform effectively. Organizational development is a
   process by which things get done collectively within an organization (central government ministry, a
   local authority department, a private sector enterprise, NGOs, community groups, etc.) Finally,
   institutional development encompasses the legal and regulatory changes that have to be made in order
   to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in all sectors to enhance their

   Whose capacities should be developed: Generally, capacities need to be built at every level and
   across all fields of activity that impinge upon human development. However, in every situation there
   are priorities, which, for reasons of urgency or deficiency, take precedent over others in their need for
   attention and resources. These vary with the particular circumstances of any specific country or region;
   however it is becoming increasingly apparent that generally the weakest link in the chain is at the level
   of local government and municipal administration.

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   Who develops capacity (the supply)? Capacity development should be a continuous, flexible and
   responsive process that involves all stakeholders. Training establishments, agencies and departments,
   play the dominant role in this process; however, their inability to respond to the country situation
   conditions could be a major constraint.

   o Link between capacity development and human development
   It is important to clearly establish the links between capacity development and human
   development. Human development is defined as a process of enlarging people’s choices and
   enhancing human capabilities and freedoms, enabling them to: live a long and healthy life, have
   access to knowledge and a decent standard of living, and participate in the life of their community and
   decisions affecting their lives. Capacity development is an essential component of both empowering
   and enabling people. CD is about increasing the efficiency, enhancing the effectiveness and ensuring
   the sustainability of development by passing responsibility to those people, communities and
   enterprises to whom efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability matter.

   o Capacity development in a post-conflict environment
   Undertaking capacity development efforts in a post-conflict environment is not an easy endeavor and it
   is important to integrate a conflict-sensitivity lens into the analysis. If capacity development is not
   undertaken in a right participatory and comprehensive way, there are great risks that the country might
   fall back into conflict.

In addition to these general conceptual considerations, the reviewers provided very useful and detailed
comments on different sections of Liberia ’s HDR, addressing its policy analysis and key
recommendations, as well as its overall relevance, readability and user-friendliness. Many thanks
for all the very interesting and valuable contributions by the network members. We will keep the HDR-
community informed through the network and the workspace on this and any other upcoming launches.

1) Policy Analysis, Line of argumentation and Key Messages and Recommendations of the Report:

        I.          Human Development Definition:

It is important not to confuse the HD concept with only what has been said in the global HDRs to date. It is
an evolving concept within the UN, the academic and the practitioner’s world. Human development has
always been flexible and “open-ended” with respect to more specific definitions. There can be as many HD
dimensions as there are ways of enlarging people’s choices. The key or priority parameters of human
development can evolve over time and vary both across and within countries.


   •   It might be useful to include a broader, more explicit definition of Human Development at the
   beginning and put it more in context of Liberia ’s situation.

   •         It was suggested to address the question of what does Human Development mean in a Post-

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   Conflict Country? The concept of human security and the issue of human capacities in this context
   could offer a relevant analytical framework for the entire report. It would also be interesting to add a
   paragraph/section on the challenges linked to promoting human development in a post-conflict country .

        II.        Human Development Situation in Liberia :

This section is limited to the socio-economic situation in Liberia . However, as outlined in Chapter one of
the Report, Human Development is much broader than that. As pointed out correctly in the first chapter,
Human Development is about choices that people value, such as: greater access to knowledge, better
nutrition and health services, more secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violence,
satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms, a sense of participation in community activities,
and self-respect and dignity. Economic growth is only a means to better human welfare and human
development, not an end in itself. The causal link between economic growth and improved well-being does
not arise automatically, but rather has to be created consciously through public policies.


   •    It was deemed useful to provide a broader picture of the HD situation in Liberia , including the
   various dimensions of HD. NB : some of these issues are also addressed in the third chapter of the
   Report on the human development costs of the conflict.

   •   A table of “ Liberia at a glance” could be included, containing data of population, geographic size,
   socio-economic indicators (life expectancy, access to health, education, number of IDPs, HDI ranking,
   GDP growth, population living in poverty, etc.)

        III.       Human Development costs of the Liberian conflict:

It might be repetitive to have one chapter on the human development situation in Liberia and one on the
human development costs of the Liberian conflict, because the two issues are much interconnected. Also,
the subdivision of the chapter might need some more clarification (direct human costs, costs of social
services, environmental costs). i.e. what is their definition, etc.


   •   The concept of human security could be used as a framework for this section to describe the
   impact of the conflict on the human security/ human development situation of the country.

   •     It might be important to point out, how the conflict has affected particular vulnerable groups in the
   society (women, children, youth, elderly, disabled, minorities, IDPs etc.) and what are the implication
   for this (recommendations)

   •   It might be useful to add a box with a brief overview of the conflict in Liberia and the developments
   since its official end

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   •   It was suggested to examine volatility factors that need to be addressed in order to avoid potential
   causes of conflict to surface again

        IV.        Capacity Development (CD):

A majority of reviewers commented on the issue of capacity development and it was suggested to improve
the definition of capacity and capacity development, as well as the link to human development in general.
It was noted that the language that is used in the Report is one of capacity building and not of capacity
development. Overall, it was felt that the conceptual framework and hence the recommendations could be
made clearer.


   •   The definition of capacity development could be more refined and the Report could be more
   specific as to (1) how to build capacities, (2) whose capacities should be built, and (3) who should build
   capacities. (For more background, please see above). It was underlines that in the context of Liberia ,
   special priority should be given to capacity building for local government and municipal administration,
   as well as to community-based organizations and local NGOs.

   •   The connection between capacity development and human development could be developed
   more and made more specific.

•   The application of the defined capacities could be more practical than academic. It would be
useful to clearly show the current situation and the capacity needs in the following areas, (which are all
covered in the report but need to be better articulated):

              o   Public policy and governance structure

              o   Institutional capacity for policy implementation

              o   Economic and financial management capacity

              o   Public service delivery capacity

              o   Societal capacity

              o   Private sector capacity

              o   Overall organizational coordination and oversight

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     •   In the context of capacity development in a post-conflict environment, it was suggested:

           o To deepen the discussion on social capital and to draw examples from some of the main
           practices, e.g.:

                    §    Role of women: what has been their role in bringing communities together and how
                    can this been built up on to strengthen society?

                    §     Societal capacities for dealing with the causes and effects of the war

           o To add a paragraph on the challenges of capacity development to promote human
           development in a post-conflict environment, i.e. the risks of falling back into conflict if
           capacity development is not undertaken in the right participatory and comprehensive way.

           o To stress more the lessons learned and opportunities, which UNDP can offer along the
           provisions of the Paris Declaration in the context of peace-building and conflict-resolution.

           o To integrate concept of conflict sensitivity to development and peace-building in the analysis
           (e.g. institutional capacity building for conflict sensitivity and integration of conflict sensitivity into
           all government and non-government planning and management cycles)

     •    Capacity development and the MDGs: It was suggested to stress the importance of
     mainstreaming the MDGs in existing planning frameworks to improve their focus on capacity
     development, which could be demonstrated by outlining the link between capacity development and
     the different MDGs.

V.       Other comments

     •   It should be made clear from the beginning that Liberia is still in a post-conflict situation.

           o Add a section on the complexities and challenges faced in producing an NHDR in a conflict
           affected context, i.e. data paucity, intermittent analysis

           o Demarcate clearly the immediate, short and longer-term challenges and solutions in chapter

     •    Gender perspective and ethnic divisions: It is recommended to include a systematic analysis of
     gender issues, especially in the section on the HD situation in the country as well as in the section of
     capacity development. The same is valid for the issue of ethnic division, which might be introduced
     already at the very beginning of the Report in the section on the human development situation in
     Liberia . The same is valid for the issue of ethnic division, which might be introduced already at the
     very beginning of the Report in the section on the human development situation in Liberia .

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   2) Overall relevance/interest of the Report, its readability and “user-friendliness”

   •    Overall, the report was well received by the reviewers. The report was widely commended for
   the efforts involved in its preparation. Readers acknowledged the difficult circumstances under which
   the Report was prepared - Liberia just coming out of over a decade of civil war. The reviewers found
   the Report easy to read and considered the topic to be extremely relevant, not only for the
   development actors implementing or supporting activities in Liberia , but also for the entire international
   community, which is closely following the Liberian recovery process.

   •    Reviewers felt that the report would be strengthened by comprehensively reviewing the structure
   of the report and streamlining content to reduce overlap and improve logical structure. The use
   of an introduction and a concluding text for each section is recommended to provide an overview and
   emphasize the main messages. The overall introduction should be sure to include a detailed
   description of the full participatory process of the HDR that highlights the inclusiveness of preparation
   and the independence of analysis, including a multidisciplinary, multi-ethnic team and multi-
   stakeholder, independent review process. The conclusion and agenda of action should concentrate on
   the main messages and specific recommendations and policy options of the Report and ideally not
   introduce completely new information.

   •    While the Report contains a great deal of information, reviewers stressed the importance of
   lightening up the Report by using more tables, charts and matrices to make the report easier to
   read and more “user-friendly”.

Related Resources:

Support for producing an NHDR:

Peer Review System – National Human Development Reports
Under the NHDR Peer Review System, Country Offices are mandated to circulate each NHDR for
comments and feedback prior to finalization. This does not replace the managerial and supervisory
functions of the preparatory process, but rather acts as a review at the final stages of the process,
conducted by ‘peers’, equivalent in competence and expertise to members of the national team. Learn
more about the Peer Review System at: http://hdr.undp.org/docs/nhdr/Peer_Review_System.pdf

HDR Toolkit – For National and Regional Human Development Report Teams
This Toolkit is intended as a reference for all who are involved in the preparation of Human Development
Reports (HDRs). It is a practical handbook, with clear suggestions for action and specific examples, along

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with tools for guidance and support. http://hdr.undp.org/nhdr/toolkit/

Support Package for HDR Focal Points
The Support Package was created by the NHDR Unit to support the highest standards of quality and to
maximize the impact of HDRs. It is made up of key materials to support ongoing work on Human
Development Reports and other development reporting. http://hdr.undp.org/nhdr/support/elibrary.

Post-conflict recovery and human security

Conflict Prevention Thematic Guidance Note, NHDR Occasional Paper 3
This guidance note has been prepared jointly by the Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and the
National Human Development Report Unit of UNDP. The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical
background and practical support for development practitioners to address the topic of conflict and conflict
prevention within a human development conceptual framework. http://hdr.undp.org/docs/nhdr/

Shepard Forman, “Building Civilian Capacity for Conflict Management and Sustainable Peace”,
June 2004

Commission on Human Security: “Human Security Now”, New York , 2003

Kofi Annan, “In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all”, United
Nations General Assembly, A/59/2005

Boutros Boutros-Ghali, “An Agenda for Peace, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping”, Report of the
Secretary General, DPI/1247, 1992

Stephan Klingebiel (ed.), “New Interfaces between Security and Development”, German Institute for
Development Policy, 2006
This volume seeks to contribute to the key conceptual and also political issues surrounding development
and security. The document considers various dimensions of the subject from the basic question of the
relationship between development and security to the concrete interaction of military and civil actors in a
given post-conflict situation.

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Mainstreaming Conflict Sensitivity into Development

 UNDP/BCPR: Conflict Related Development Analysis (CDA)
As part of UNDP's efforts to mainstream conflict prevention into development, an approach to conflict
assessment has been developed which seeks to operationalise conflict prevention and peace building into
strategy development and programming. The CDA has been developed as an analytical aid for Country
Offices to use for both strategic analysis and program design/ review in conflict-prone and affected
countries. It has also been designed as a participatory and interactive approach.

Resource Pack on Conflict sensitive approaches to development
This resource pack provides an overview of other conflict analysis approaches that have been developed
by key donors (DFID, World Bank, GTZ, USAID, etc) and INGOS (World Vision, CARE, etc). http://www.

Capacity Development

Report of the World Bank Task Force on Capacity Development for Africa : “Building Effective
States: Forging Engaged Societies”, September 2005
This report of the Task Force on Capacity Development in Africa analyzes four decades of capacity
development experience in Africa and offers key messages for African countries and their international
partners that should underpin a renewed effort to develop, use, and retain capacity for development in Sub
Saharan Africa. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRDEVOPRTSK/Resources/acdtf_report.pdf

DFID: Capacity Development: Where do we stand now? March 2002
DFID’s overarching objective is the eradication of poverty. To achieve this, governments across the world
need both to do the right things and do those things right. This requires state capacity: capacity to
establish policies and choose among priorities, capacity to ensure policies are implemented, capacity to
use and deploy scarce human and material resources, capacity to manage systems of financial and
human resources management, and capacity to deliver services equitably and efficiently. http://info.

OECD/Development Assistance Committee: The challenge of Capacity Development: Working
towards good practices, February 2006
This paper offers a framework for thinking about capacity development based on the lessons of
experience. It is largely concerned with capacity issues in the public sector, although it does not address
the full range of public sector issues and cannot deal with the challenges in specific sectors, such as trade
or education. It does not contain detailed instructions on how to do capacity development. Instead, it
brings together the most critical general lessons learned, and spells out their implications for development
practice today. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCDRC/Resources/

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OECD: Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, March 2005
More than 100 multilateral and bilateral donors and developing countries put an unprecedented focus on
capacity development in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, signed on March 2, 2005. The
declaration puts the onus on developing countries to take the lead in making capacity development a key
objective of their national development strategies. In return, the donor countries committed to align their
analytical and financial support with country capacity objectives and strategies, to make more effective use
of existing capacity, and to harmonize donor support for capacity development. http://www.oecd.org/

UNDP: Capacity Building for Reform in Periods of Transition, 2005
This paper is intended as a concise articulation of UNDP’s corporate position on the topic of capacity
building for reform in periods of transition. The paper is based on country experiences (the annex lists
some best practices) as well as a review of current policy thinking. http://content.undp.org/go/bcpr/BCPR-

UNDP Capacity Development Group/ UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre: Seminar Report – Capacity
Development During Political Transitions (Senec Report), November 2005
This report is the outcome document from the Seminar on Capacity Development During Political
Transitions, held 21-23 November 2005 in Senec, Slovak Republic . The Seminar was hosted jointly by
the UNDP's Capacity Development Group of the Bureau for Development Policy, and the Bratislava
Regional Centre of the Regional Bureau for Europe & CIS. http://capacity.undp.org/indexAction.cfm?

UNDP/BDP/Capacity Development Group: Navigation Guide to UNDP Capacity Development
The purpose of this Navigation Guide to UNDP Capacity Development Resources is to present an
overview of where to find UNDP capacity development (CD) resources and how to use the corresponding

World Bank Operations Evaluation Department: Capacity Building in Africa – An OED Evaluation of
World Bank Support, 2005 http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.
This evaluation assesses the relevance and effectiveness of Bank support for public sector capacity
building in Africa over the past 10 years.

Alastair J. Mckechnie: Building Capacity in Post-Conflict Countries, The World Bank Social
Development Notes, No. 14, December 2003
This note looks at the challenge of capacity-building in post-conflict countries, including options for
creating capacity and trade-offs between speed and longer-term impact, the need to ensure that aid
management agencies include sunset provisions, and six proposed general lessons for more sustainable
capacity-building. http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/sdvext.nsf/67ByDocName/BuildingCapacityinPost-

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Useful websites:

UNDP – Background Material on Crisis Prevention and Recovery http://www.undp.org/bcpr/cpr_all/
The website presents a selection of key background material on the subject of Crisis Prevention and
Recovery (CPR) designed to be an electronic library for staff working in the CPR practice area or on a
CPR portfolio.

Insecurityforum – A new way to debate issues of insecurity and development http://insecurityforum.
Insecurityforum brings together the community of development workers, activists, policy makers, and
researchers who want to explore the link between insecurity and development in its different forms.
Authors of the Insecurityforum reflect on this theme from different angles, including migration issues,
human rights, social and environmental justice, natural resources and the local perception of human
security, among other things.

Capacity.org – A gateway for capacity development: http://www.capacity.org
Capacity.org is a web magazine-cum-portal intended for practitioners and policy makers who work in or on
capacity development in international cooperation in the South. The site is accompanied by a printed
journal and an email newsletter, which are published quarterly in English, French and Spanish. Each issue
of Capacity.org focuses on a specific theme relevant to capacity development, with feature articles, reports
on policy and practice, interviews and a guest column, and annotated links to related web resources,
publications and events.

UNDP – Capacity Development: http://capacity.undp.org/
UNDP is working in 166 countries to help develop the capacities required to achieve the Millennium
Development Goals (MDG's). Capacity is the ability of individuals, organizations and societies to perform
functions, solve problems, and set and achieve goals. Capacity Development (CD) entails the sustainable
creation, utilization and retention of that capacity, in order to reduce poverty, enhance self-reliance, and
improve people's lives.

Capacity Development Network: http://www.capacitywhoiswho.net/
CDNet is an open source virtual workspace providing opportunity for dialogue, exchange and learning on
capacity development.

World Bank Capacity Development Resource Centre: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/
This website provides and overview of the literature, case studies, lessons learned, and good practices
pertaining to capacity development. It also includes links to international and local capacity development
agencies and other knowledge resources.

Relevant Network Queries:

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(Please note that the following are UNDP internal resources. If you are not able to access them, please
contact the network facilitator)

Consolidated Reply: Assessment Tools on Governance & Conflict Prevention / Ecuador, 5 April
Network members shared a variety of tools to assess the political, humanitarian and development situation
in complex crisis situations that can be applied to the northern region of Ecuador .

Consolidated Reply: Prevent violent conflict through poverty reduction/Guyana, 21 April 2006
Building on the experiences and advice shared on Nigeria/Conflict prevention through poverty alleviation
projects, members shared experiences and resources related to stimulating short/medium term economic
development in high unemployment and crime-ridden communities from Nigeria , Colombia and
Afghanistan .

Consolidated Reply: Conflict Prevention & Decentralized Planning/Comparative Experiences/
Indonesia, 22 March 2006
Members shared experiences and resources from Ghana , Sudan , Uganda , Mozambique , Bosnia-
Herzegovina , Nepal and others on pursuing decentralization in post-conflict environments.

Consolidated Reply: Nigeria/Conflict prevention through poverty alleviation projects, 31 May 2005
Network members shared experiences from Somalia , Bangladesh , Liberia , Colombia , Sri Lanka , the
Philippines and Angola in poverty alleviation projects with conflict prevention elements and in crisis/conflict

Consolidated Reply: Developing policy analysis capacity on conflict/comparative experiences/
Indonesia, 10 May 2005
Members agreed that building capacity for policy analysis on conflict prevention is important as to create
national capacity for substantive policy recommendations and action plans. This capacity can serve as an
effective tool for policy-making for government and other stakeholders.

Consolidated Reply: Pacific/Conflict Prevention & Research Capacity Building/comparative
experiences, 5 April 2005

E-discussion: "Conflict Prevention and UNDP: Experiences, Challenges and Ways Forward",
October 2004

Relevant HDRs:

Global Human Development Reports

Global Human Development Report 1994: New dimensions of human security

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The Report introduces a new concept of human security, which equates security with people rather than
territories, with development rather than arms. It examines both the national and the global concerns of
human security. The Report seeks to deal with these concerns through a new paradigm of sustainable
human development, capturing the potential peace dividend, a new form of development co-operation and
a restructured system of global institutions. It proposes that the World Summit for Social Development
approve a world social charter, endorse a sustainable human development paradigm, create a global
human security fund by capturing the future peace dividend, approve a 20/20 compact for human priority
concerns, recommend global taxes for resource mobilization and establish an Economic Security Council

National Human Development Reports

Human Security

Philippine HDR 2005: Peace and Conflict Prevention – Human Security
Based on the concept of human security, the report assesses the state of human security, using human
development indicators additional indicators of human security. It identifies the structural causes of the
conflict in Southern Philippines and the areas of particular vulnerability to violent conflicts. The report will
also provide an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of key Philippine institutions in terms of their
roles and capacities in terms of rights protection, peace building, and conflict prevention. The report is
intended to draw attention to the human development and economic costs of the unending armed conflict
in Southern Philippines the urgency of taking serious measures to put an end to it. The report calls for
political reforms to increase stability in governance and open discussions on the role of the military in the
recent political transition and its implications for political stability.

Afghanistan HDR 2004: Security with a Human Face
The report shows economy, education improving, but poverty, inequality and instability threaten progress.
The report marks the first time in modern history that objective observers were allowed to gather and
tabulate hard data on living conditions among everyday Afghans. It draws a portrait of a nation still at odds
- if no longer at war - with itself. And in a novel approach to peacemaking, the unblinking, unvarnished
Report concludes that "human security" and "human development," rather than military force and
diplomacy alone, are key to resolving Afghanistan 's complex problems. The legitimate grievances of the
Afghan people must be addressed before a lasting peace can take hold. Beyond survival, Afghans expect
an existence with dignity, a life free of fear and free from wants.

Latvia HDR 2002/2003: Human Security
The NHDR 2003 focuses on defining Human Security in Latvia . As a result of Latvia 's transition from the
Soviet occupation to a market economy after its independence, the people of Latvia have experienced
substantive changes in their lives in the past ten years. These changes have come with increased
economic and social distress, which has led to a pervasive feeling of insecurity. In addition, Latvia is now
willing to join the European Union, which entails even more change. The goal of this Report is to reduce
this "insecurity effect" felt at the individual level. It will offer practical tools and mechanisms to help people
identify risks in their lives, and develop individual and collective risk management strategies as well as
security-enhancing / problem-solving skills. The Report also aims at priorities and measuring the effect of
their policies.

East Timor HDR 2002: The Way Ahead

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This is the first NHDR of the world's newest democracy. It gathers all-important qualitative and statistical
data on the population' standard of living. The report finds that East Timor is the poorest nation in Asia :
more than 40% of the population lives on less than 55 cents per day, only 57% literate, life expectancy is
as low as 57 years, and many young people are unskilled and unemployed. The Report contributes to the
understanding of these challenges and helps map a route out of the cycle of poverty. It thus contributes to
the "National Development Plan" highlighting four critical areas of need: building a capable administration,
developing a new relationship with civil society organizations, meeting the education challenge, and
promoting economic growth for human development. Finally, this first NHDR assesses some of the most
pressing difficulties in East Timor but also demonstrates how a commitment to human development can
set the country on a peaceful and productive new course.

Solomon Islands HDR 2002: Building a Nation
The purpose of the Report is to contribute to discussion on the efforts of individuals, households, the
private sector, government, civil society as well as development partners in providing opportunities for
people in Solomon Islands to achieve satisfying lives. The report gives an overall view of the human
development status of the country. In doing so it points out a lot of issues as well as potential development
paths and options. Finally, its Report provides information, ideas, guidance and possible solutions that can
be used in Solomon Islands to further improve people's livelihood.

Macedonia HDR 2001: Social Exclusion and Human Insecurity in FYR Macedonia
The NHDR explores the dimensions of the often traumatic personal, family, community and collective
feelings of insecurity and social exclusion that exist in Macedonia . The analysis in the Report focuses
objectively on the problem of insecurity related to unemployment, employment and the work place; social
exclusion of the rural population and economic insecurity in the work force originating in the transition
process, insecurity deriving from environmental threats, inter-ethnic relations, lack of personal security
associated with petty crime, lack of judicial protection, insecurity in dealing with state administrative organs
and legal insecurity, as well as the exclusion that accompanies these circumstances.

Kyrgyzstan HDR 2000: Democratic Governance for Human Development
The Report focuses on not just one single theme. It offers a discussion of several new areas of human
development in the republic that will require close attention by state and society over at least the next five
to ten years. These major themes involve issues of globalization, security, and development.

Moldova HDR 1999: Transition and Human Security
The report argues that human beings are the first priority in the development process - economic growth
and economy itself being no more than a means towards achieving human development.

Lesotho HDR 1998: General Human Development Report
The first Human Development Report for Lesotho focuses on human security. Since Lesotho 's
commitment to human development is only recent, the main findings of the report conclude that many
areas of human security remain problematic.

Mozambique HDR 1998: Peace and Economic Growth, Opportunities for HD
The challenges facing Mozambique in terms of sustainable human development are enormous, but the
opportunities, chances and the need for rapid human development are still greater. That is why the central
theme chosen for this first National Human Development Report in Mozambique is pertinent and just:

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peace and economic growth, opportunities for human development. This theme reflects the frankness and
clarity of the authors of this publication concerning the noblest aim of peace and economic development.

Sierra Leone HDR 1998: From Civil Conflict to Human Security

Estonia HDR 1997: Social Cohesion and Social Exclusion/Deprivation

Capacity Development

Zambia HDR 2006 HIV/AIDS Enhancing Household Capacities to Fight HIV/AIDS (under
Currently, most effective responses to HIV/AIDS have been community and national driven. Now it has
become apparent that people play a key role as individuals and as members of social systems such as
families in effectively responding to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. As such the Report will focus on enhancing
the capacity of households to fight HIV/AIDS at the household level.

Uruguay HDR 2005: Hacia Una Estrategia de Desarrollo Basada en el Conocimiento
The report combines two themes of enormous relevance for public policies: on the one hand it carries
through an analysis of human development in Uruguay , conceived as an enlargement of people’s
opportunities; on the other hand it analyses the capacity of national productive sectors to develop and
spread knowledge and innovation and to implement a National Innovation System. Is it possible to
implement in Uruguay a strategy of development based on knowledge, really capable of enlarging the
capacity of its people to make choices? To pose this challenge and promote a national debate on this
theme, this piece of research details the strengths and weaknesses, and signals opportunities for the
development of a strategy of development based on knowledge.

Egypt HDR 2004: Choosing Decentralization for Good Governance
The main themes of this report are political, administrative and fiscal decentralization, and the Report
covers major components, such as local governance, private sector participation, voice of the poor, civil
service reform, capacity building.

Belarus HDR 2003: Human Capacity of Belarus - Economic Challenges & Social Responses
This 2003 report focuses on the human capacity of Belarus and explores how globalization has affected
and will continue to affect Belarus ’ geopolitical potential. Much attention is given to the analysis of modern
economic conditions, the identification of key economic development problems and their causes. Despite
the significant effects of the Chernobyl disaster on the region, the report observes that there has been a
reduction of negative anthropogenic influences on nature in the past decade. This improvement, however,
has not led to better public health, which in turn indicates that while there has been progress in some
areas of the country’s development, not enough has taken place in order to result in great improvement in
the country’s overall social and economic development.

Moldova HDR 2003: Good Governance and Human Development
The main subject of the National Human Development Report 2003 is the examination of ways of
improving governance, seen as enhancing not only the institutional capacity of the state to design and
implement more sustainable human development policies but also as strengthening the role of civil society

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in human development.

Bolivia HDR 2002: Political Capabilities for Human Development
The aim of the Report 2002 is to evaluate the state of human development at the dawn of the new century
and to show how the options for advancing in this development depend, to a large extent, on the political
capabilities of Bolivian society and the nation’s actors of development. This analysis is based on two
approaches in the Report. First, the current state and socioeconomic perspectives of human development
are evaluated. The Report shows unequal rates of progress in the areas of social development and
economic growth, and discusses the difficulties currently faced by the country in coordinating efforts and
progress in these two areas. Second, the Report evaluates the political capabilities of some of the
country's principal actors, including state institutions and the party system, the mass media, political and
social leaders, the poor, and public opinion in general.

Nicaragua HDR 2002: Conditions for Hope
Nicaragua 's second NHDR presents a reflection of the country as is viewed by its people. The Report is
aimed at providing greater understanding of Nicaraguans' aspirations, and defining the necessary
conditions for achieving these goals. It is a reflection on Nicaraguan society's future, as well as a tool to
building such a society. Achieving such a social reality requires developing people's capacities and
opportunities to promote equity and security. The Report concludes that this is finally a matter of creating
the enabling conditions for fostering individual capabilities, and by doing so, society's capacity to control its
own development.

Romania HDR 2002: A Decade Later: Understanding the transition process in Romania
Romania ’s transition experience during the last decade was frenzied and fragmented, fraught with
multiple objectives and external pressures. The report examines this unique process of transition and
examines the possibility of using the knowledge gained from the process for the formulation of new
policies. The most important trends in the economic, political and social dimensions are highlighted, as
well as the impact of the transition on human development. The message of the report is that, in a process
as complex and entwined as the Romania transition experience, good governance and effective
management of public resources can be a means to accomplishing people-focused development.

Bulgaria HDR 1998: The State of Transition and Transition of the State
The report focuses on the issue of the state in transition and its capacity to promote sustainable human

Bulgaria HDR 1996: General Human Development Report
The report aims at identifying the most vulnerable groups in Bulgarian society as well as the areas which
need most urgent attention. The findings of the report indicate that the main challenge to Bulgarian society
is the development of the human capacity to cope with a rapidly evolving social transformation. The major
task is to formulate and implement policies which will create an enabling environment of sustainable
human development.

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