Next phase of the GMP - About ASM – Artisanal and Small-scale Mining

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     Global Mercury Project
                                                                • About ASM – Artisanal and Small-scale Mining
                                                                • About the GMP – Global Mercury Project
                                 NEXT PHASE OF                  • Next Steps of the GMP
                                    THE GMP                     • New Structure of the GMP
                                                                • Scope of the Divisions: 1. TDU
                                Marcello M. Veiga               • Scope of the Divisions: 2. Awareness Campaign
                               Chief Technical Advisor, UNIDO   • Scope of the Divisions: 3. Results and Policy
                                     • Scope of the Divisions: 4. Risk Assessment and
                                                                  Reclamation Strategies
                                                                • Scope of the Divisions: 5. Media Relations
                                                                • Conclusion

                                                                    ASM Needs to Be Put into a Context
     Global Mercury Project                                           The term artisanal & small-scale miners (ASM)
                                                                   encompasses all small, medium, informal, legal and
                                                                illegal miners who use rudimentary processes to extract
                                                                        minerals from secondary and primary ores.
  About ASM – Artisanal
  and Small-scale Mining

                                                                                   Zimbabwe, 2003

Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM)                                      Gold ASM is Growing
    The way of working makes the difference between                 Gold price increasing = More people involved
          Conventional and Artisanal Mining

         Conventional                Artisanal
        geology, drilling         feeling, testing
           reserves                 subsistence
           engineering         curiosity, pay bills
     sophisticated equipment   homemade devices
                       Gold ASM                                             Women in Artisanal Mining
• Number of ASM have increased notably in Asia and
  Africa and reduced a bit in Latin America                     •       Approximately 30% of the
                                                                        world’s artisanal miners are
• In China: 3 to 15 million miners ...depending on how                  women
  ASM is defined (Gunson & Veiga, 2002)
                                                                •       15 to 20% of ASM in Latin
• Best guess: 20 to 30 Million ASM (50% involved in gold)               America are women
  in more than 55 countries
                                                                •       30 to 40% in Africa
• More than 1000 tonnes/a Hg released by ASM worldwide
                                                                •       10 to 20% in Asia
• This represents 1/3 of the anthropogenic Hg emissions
                  42% of the people in                              - MMSD (2002)
                                                                    - Hinton, Veiga and Beinhoff (2003)
                  Sub-Saharan Africa
                   makes US$ 1/day                                                                                    Brazil, 1997

       Women in Artisanal Mining                                                   Mining & Child Labor
                                                                        ILO (1999) estimates 250,000 working children in ASM

                          Tanzania, 2001

                                              Indonesia, 2003

Venezuela, 1995

     In the world this can represent as much as                                                      Suriname, 1996

         9 million women directly employed

                  Mining & Child Labor                                                                Facts
 …currently this can be > 2,000,000 children (ILO, 2004)
                                                                •       ASM is the main environmental and social problem
                                                                        related to mining activities in developing countries

                                                                •       Most people in developing countries become miners to
                                                                        escape complete social marginalization

                                                                •       Governments are generally not prepared to deal with
                                                                        issues related to artisanal mining

                                                                    •   In many rural regions, artisanal mining is an island of
                                                                        “prosperity” in a sea of poverty

                            Laos, 2003
Mercury is just the Tip of the Iceberg                    Mercury is just the Tip of the Iceberg
                                 visible villain

                                 • Mercury Pollution
                                 • Environmental                          •   Disrespect for cultures
                                   Impacts                                    (conflicts)
                                 • Degradation of                         •   Degradation of moral values
                                   Socio-Economic                         •   Drinking and drug problems
                                                                          •   Illegal activities
                                 • Health Impacts                         •   Money laundering & smuggling
                                 • Lack of Economic                       •   High cost of living in mining
                                   Alternatives                               villages

       Causes of Poor ASM Practice
• Disorganization &                                           Global Mercury Project
• Lack of proper training
• Depletion of easy ore
  (no technical                                              About GMP – Global
• Inadequate regulations                                       Mercury Project
• Financial barriers
• Misconceptions
• Lack of support from
  mainstreams of society
• Hidden interests
                                         Tanzania, 2000

  UN Millennium Development Goals
                                                              Global Mercury Project
1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2) Achieve universal primary education
3) Promote gender equality and empower women
4) Reduce child mortality
5) Improve maternal health                                                                    Laos
6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases                                                Indonesia
7) Ensure environmental sustainability                                              Zimbabwe
8) Develop a global partnership for development
                                                                            Started on Aug. 2002
                                                                      it will last until 2nd half of 2006
                                                          What does the Global Mercury Project (GMP)
                                                                     aim to accomplish?
    Global Mercury Project
                                                          • Improvements in community health
                                                             – Reduce mercury exposure
 Origin of funds for projects:       US$           %            • Miners and processors (women, men and
 Regular UNIDO Budget               130,000        2
                                                                • Families and vulnerable populations
 UNDP                               280,000        3
 UNDP/GEF                           350,000        4         – Promote health seeking behaviors

 Donor funding:                                           • Improvements in community quality of life
 Government of Austria                70,000       1         – Increase income
 Government of France                250,000       3            • More gold; possible economic diversity
 Government of Japan                 350,000       4         – Promote sense of security (family and community)
 GEF Global Mercury Project (2002) 6,806,800      83
                                                                • Greater participation in formal economy
 Total Budget since 1995:          8,236,800    100
                                                          • Reduction and prevention of Hg contamination globally

           Objectives of the GMP
              (as in the Project Document)                    Objective 3
                                                              Assess the extent of environmental (mercury) pollution
Objective 1A                                                  in surrounding water bodies and devise intervention
Establishment of a UNIDO- based Program Co-                   measures.
ordination Unit (PCU) and a Global Project Task Force.
                                                              Objective 4
Objective 1B                                                  Establish a databank comprising technological
Establishment of the programme management                     requirements relevant to artisanal gold mining and
structures in each of the six participating countries         extraction activities.
(Brazil, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Sudan, Tanzania,
Zimbabwe).                                                    Objective 5
                                                              Demonstrate within the project demonstration sites, the
Objective 2                                                   application of affordable high-efficiency clean
Identify project demonstration sites and organize             technology.
training in technology and raising awareness of miners,
Governments, NGOs and the general public.

                                                          Summary of the Objectives of the GMP
Objective 6
Develop country specific policies and legislation that                 Objective 1: organize
will lead to implementable standards on the application
of mercury.                                                            Objective 2: awareness

Objective 7                                                            Objective 3: monitoring
Promote the dissemination of the produced project
results and identify opportunities that will allow the
                                                                       Objective 4: databank
project to continue beyond the three year time frame.                  Objective 5: demonstrate
                                                                       Objective 6: policy
                                                                       Objective 7: dissemination
            Completion of the Objectives                                              Completion of the Objectives
                                Objective completion (%) by April 2005
    Objective                                                                                                   % of completion of
                    Indonesia    Sudan   Tanzania   Zimbabwe    Brazil   Lao PDR
                                                                                              Country          project objectives by
1. organize            40          64       56         48        56          56                                     April 2005
1. organize            20          44       24         52        76          64         Indonesia                       21.3
2. awareness           20          34       26         31        29          14
                                                                                        Tanzania                          24.7
3. monitoring          49          40       66         49        57          77
                                                                                        Zimbabwe                          30.2
4. databank            16          40       8          36        48          36
5. demonstrate         0           6        0          0          6          26         Brazil                            36.6
6. policy              6           46       0          23        20          17         Lao PDR                           37.0
7. dissemination       0           35       20         5         10          5          Sudan                             37.4

                                                                                       Global Mercury Project
 What Was Done and What Has to Be Done
            environmental and health assessment;
            build capacity in local laboratories to assess impact
            of mercury pollution;
   •        create awareness to reduce mercury pollution caused                    Next Steps of the GMP
            by artisanal miners on international waters;
   •        introduce cleaner technologies for gold extraction
            and train miners (demonstration sites);
   •        develop capacity and regulatory mechanisms within
            Government that will enable the sector to minimize
            mercury pollution.

                   What Has to Be Done                                                           What Has to Be Done
                (according to the Project Document)                                        (according to the Project Document)

                                                                                                 Transportable Demonstration Units
                            Awareness Campaign                                                                Scope:
                                                                                   2.3 - Assessment of miners' training needs               Ob GM
       2.4 - Organize awareness campaigns                                          4.1 - Database on artisanal mining technology              jec P
                                                                                   4.2 - Infobase for local and foreign suppliers                tiv
       2.5 - Conduct awareness programs through media                                                                                                es
       2.6 - Develop training/awareness material                                   4.3 - Identification of local facilities for fabrication
       3.6 - Building capacity in local labs                                       4.4 - Check tax regime on importation of equipment
       5.1 - Conduct training for miners                                           4.5 - Develop micro-financing programs
       5.7 - Elaborate documentary videos                                          5.1 - Conduct training for miners
                                                                                   5.2 - Conduct training for manufacturers
                                                               Ob GM               5.3 - Demonstrate and install demonstration units
                                                                 jec P             5.4 - Demonstrate high-recovery gravity conc. equipm.
                                                                        es         5.5 - Establish equipment supply channels
              What Has to Be Done                                                    What Has to Be Done
          (according to the Project Document)                                  (according to the Project Document)

                                                                               Risk Assessment and Reclamation Strategies
                Results and Policy Development

6.1 - Literature review and database                                    3.7 - Formulate measures for "hotspot" remediation
6.2 - Review and compare indicators, regulations & policies             3.4 - Establish extent of Hg migration from hotspots
6.3 - Recommend indicators, regulations & policies                            (model Hg migration using GIS techniques)
6.4 - Consult stakeholder about recommendations                         5.6 - Conduct (suggest) mercury immobilization;
6.5 - Develop guidelines on indicators and legislation                        advise Governments on methods to adopt the
6.6 - Workshop on legislation                                                 remediation strategies
6.7 - Develop enforcement programs
                                                Ob GM                                                                            Ob GM
                                                   jec P                                                                           jec P
                                                      tiv                                                                             tiv
                                                          es                                                                              es

              What Has to Be Done                                                    What Has to Be Done
          (according to the Project Document)
                    Workshop & Fundraising                                                               LU
                                                                         First phase was environmental      TI
                                                                         and health assessment                 ON
    2.7 - Assist Govts to improve institutional cooperation
    7.1 - Workshops on gold extraction techniques                   •    Now it is time for INTERVENTIONS
    7.2 - Regional annual workshops                                         Education of miners and communities
    7.3 - Review opportunities for self-financing
    7.4 - Organize donors' conference                                       Higher efficiency gravity concentration
                                                 Ob GM                      Reduction of Hg emissions and exposure
                                                   jec P

                                                                                                 UNIDO Coordinator
                                                                                                  Pablo Huidobro                  Ne
                                                                                                                                 Str w GM
       Global Mercury Project                                                               UNIDO Chief Technical Advisor           uc
                                                                                                                                       tur P
                                                                                                   Marcello Veiga                         e
                                                                   Assistant of Country Focal Points                          Consultants
                                                                        Aloyce Tesha (Tanzania)                              Randy Baker
                                                                      Budi Susilorini (Indonesia)                            Rini Sulaiman

     New Structure of the                                              Dennis Shoko (Zimbabwe)
                                                                  Eravanh Boungnaphalom (Lao PDR)
                                                                       Mohamed Ibrahim (Sudan)
                                                                                                                               Bern Klein
                                                                                                                            Steve McAlister

                                                                                                                         Media Relations
                                                                      Roberto Villas Boas (Brazil)
                                                                                                                          Shefa Siegel

                                                                         UNIDO Administrator                               Webmaster
                                                                         Svitlana Bogoslavska                           Frederic Mertens

                                                                  Transportable          Awareness           Results & Policy       Reclamation
                                                               Demonstration Units       Campaign             Development            Strategies
                                                                 Andrew Bamber          Steve Metcalf         Sam Spiegel          David Stevens
                                                                 Blair Woodhurst        Gillian Davis         A.J. Gunson           Kevin Telmer
                                                                  Andrew Gillis         Cody Hopkins        Will Close-Brooks      Carlos Ribeiro
                                                                                                            Eduardo Barçante
                                                                          Education/Training is not Trivial
       Global Mercury Project
                                                                      • Miners cannot afford to stop their activities to
                                                                        “be educated”
                                                                      • Miners learn by examples
 Scope of the Divisions:                                              • Miners must decide for themselves what is
                                                                        good or not
    1. Transportable                                                  • Miners are moving from one site to another
Demonstration Units (TDU)                                             • Traditional demonstration units stay in place
                                                                        while miners move on
                                                                      • GMP innovation: Transportable Demonstration Units

Transportable Demonstration Units (TDU)                                Transportable Demonstration Units (TDU)
1. cheaper to implement than fixed training centers                   8. further education: health & sanitation,
                                                                         bookkeeping, legal issues, etc) and awareness for
2. training units go to where the miners are
                                                                         non-miner communities
3. a variety of technical options demonstrated
                                                                      9. monitoring teams can make use of the units
4. easy to change and adapt new pieces of
                                                                      10.the units can bring ideas to improve the livelihood
                                                                         of different mining communities such as
5. more miners and families can be reached                               suggesting economic diversification activities or
6. the ownership is easy to decide; no land or                           value-adding techniques
   mineral title issues or conflicts

Transportable Demonstration Units (TDU)                                Transportable Demonstration Units (TDU)
                               theater                                 Multi-purpose:
                                               personal                 • Demonstrate a variety of technological
container, truck or
                      technical               protective                  options for comminution, concentration,
                       trainer                equipment
trailer                                                                   amalgamation and retorting
 mineral processing    hands-on
                                                                        • Pilot operations for training purposes
 and amalgamation                                  tent                 • Show best Hg practice
    equipment           training
                                                             Hg Lab     • Platform for Awareness Campaign Materials
                      brochures                               with
                                                                        • Environmental, health and safety functions
SO                                                                      • Mineralogical and process evaluation
  LU                          classroom
     TIO                                                  audio-
         NS                               health          visual
  Process Equipment for Demonstration                 Selection of Equipment to Be
Design Criteria:                                              Demonstrated
• Pilot scale equipment:                          • Evaluated and approved by stakeholders
  – feed typically 50 kg batches
• Transport by pickup:                            • Site-specific (depending on the degree of
  – max dimension 1m, typically < 500kg             mechanization in each country)
• Small electric power ~ 220V                     • Equipment “per se” will not educate miners:
• Equipment is easy to scale-up                     COMMITMENT is needed
• Suitable for local manufacture or in-house

    How the TDU Will Interact with
                                                      Global Mercury Project
                                                  Scope of the Divisions:
             and Agencies
                                     Miners and
                                    Communities   2. Awareness Campaign
      Results and     Reclamation
         Policy        Strategies

          Awareness Campaign                               Stresses miners face
                                                   • Poverty
 When people are stressed, it’s                    • Disease and lack of community health
    really hard to adopt new                       • Lack of legal tenure
 behaviors - even if they want to.                 • Dangerous work conditions
        Reducing stress on miners                       Process chemicals: mercury and cyanide
SO        promotes real changes
  LU                                                    Dust and noise
    Ways to reduce miners’ stress                        What else stops miners from adopting
 • Increase income through better gold recoveries               safer mercury practices
 • Health promotion and education                         • Lack of realistic alternatives
 • Disease mitigation                                     • Perceptions
      PRACTICAL health care interventions
      (Vaccinations, prenatal and postnatal care, etc)
                                                               “Mercury is not so bad as people say”
      Nutrition information                                    “Other diseases are more important”
      Water and sanitation                                • Toxic exposures are invisible
 • Good business practice                                 • Lack of knowledge about consequences
 • Micro-credit
                                                          • Attitudes
 • Alternative livelihoods
                                                               “Men need to be tough”
 • Legalization
                                                               “This is not my land...I don’t care”

What else stops miners from adopting                         What else stops miners from
       safer mercury practices                             adopting safer mercury practices
 • Miners have little political power                     • Barriers in past efforts to introduce new
 • In many cases, miners do not hold the
   mineral right titles                                       Developed without consultation

 • Miners often avoid paying taxes                            Too expensive
                                                              Too complicated
 • In many cases, miners come from other
   regions (no link with the land)                            Just did not work
                                                              Miners did not think that change was worthwhile
 • Miners are constrained by gold dealers who
   buy and control Au and Hg prices                           Miners’ mobility was not considered

           Increasing Awareness                                   Awareness Campaign
  Miners can’t afford to stop working to go to                         Strategy
                    “school”                             • Increase impact of awareness campaign by
                                                           partnering with stakeholders
 • Miners learn by hands-on training
                                                              Miner organizations
 • Miners should see BENEFITS:
                                                              Miller organizations
          More money
                                                              Women’s organizations
          Better health                                       All levels of government (e.g. Departments of
                                                              Health, Education, Mining, Mayors, etc.)
          Better opportunities for their children
 • Personal contact is critical: CHAMPIONS in
                                                              International institutions
   the communities are needed
          Awareness Campaign
                                                                       Information Vehicles
• Communicate
    Mercury hazards                                        •   Radio and TV               •   Songs (e.g., cordels)
    Mineral processing solutions                           •   Videos (Animations)        •   Community activities
                                                           •   Newspapers                 •   Comic books
• Promote
                                                           •   Brochures                  •   Hats, T-shirts, footballs
     Health seeking behaviors
                                                           •   Posters                    •   Entertainment
     Community health solutions (Child and women’s
                                                           •   Billboards                     – Movies, soccer matches
     health, Water and sanitation, etc.
                                                                                              – Musicians and dancers
• Country and culture specific                             •   PowerPoints
                                                                                              – Theater and circus
                                                           •   Speeches/lectures
• Contain lots of pictures/illustrations
     Very few words

               Media Campaign                                        Brochures and Posters
• Partnerships with local and regional media
                                                                          - technical -
     Newspapers and billboards
                                                               • Overview of artisanal mining and mineral
     Radio and television                                        processing methods
      - Programming                                            • Gravity concentration
      - Advertising with local and regional broadcasters            Sluices and centrifuges
                                                               • Grinding and crushing
• Partnerships with suppliers and manufacturers
                                                               • Mercury use
                                                                    Amalgamation systems
• Sports and TV celebrities

         Brochures and Posters                                     Basic health care at TDUs
               - health -
  • Mercury hazards and solutions                          • Give families a direct, practical reason to
                                                             interact with the TDU
       Why Hg is a hazard and what people
       can do to protect themselves                        • Build trust
       What happens to Hg when it goes into                • Show that better health is possible
       the air, water and ground.                          • Provide basic assistance as an infirmary
       How mercury makes you sick                          • MAKE THE LINK BETWEEN MERCURY AND
  • Maternal and baby health                                 HEALTH
  • Occupational health
  • HIV/Aids and other diseases
  • Water and sanitation
  • Nutrition
        Brochures and Posters                                       Training Modules
            - community -                              Better Health, More Gold, Less Mercury
• Business and Micro-credit
• Organization and division of labour              Modules:
     Options and processes for communities         1. How to extract more gold
• Development of employment alternatives           2. How mercury makes us sick
• Legal issues (country specific)                  3. How to use and re-use mercury safely
     Mineral rights                                4. How to make more money
     Formalization                                 5. How to protect water supplies and improve sanitation
                                                   6. How to prevent HIV, malaria and other diseases

                 Challenges                                                  Key steps
  • How to make campaign material fit a            • Focus on community health as a whole
    country’s technical and cultural                    Mercury is just a small part of the problem
    conditions?                                         Address other pressing needs at the same time as
  • How to make the most with limited
                                                   • Focus in particular on women & family health
  • How to address gender in different                  Women’s historic concern has been for the health
    cultures?                                           of her family
  • Awareness can lead to organizational
    change - what are the consequences of

                   Key steps                                    Success of the
  • Go beyond “risk communication”
                                                            Train- the-
                                                            Train-the-Trainer Model
       Offer solutions
  • Promote health seeking attitudes
       Build on cultural strengths and values
       Support health enhancing behaviors
  • Build awareness campaign from the bottom up,
    not from the top down
           Relationships                             The GMP Team trained                …later in the day, the
                                                    local miners on the use of             local workers were
                                                       retorts to reduce Hg              teaching others in the
                                                           exposure…                           community.
                                                            Results and Policy Development
         Global Mercury Project
                                                    • Compile results of:
                                                            Environmental and Health Assessments
                                                            Socio-economic Assessments
        Scope of the Divisions:                             Legal Studies

         3. Results and Policy                      • Develop policy recommendations for
                                                      government and local stakeholders
             Development                            • Conduct stakeholder workshops

        Results and Policy Development
                                                             Global Mercury Project
• Study capacity for micro-financing for
  ASM in each GMP country
         - to acquire mineral rights
         - to acquire better equipment                      Scope of the Divisions:
         - to promote better oganization
• Conduct stakeholder workshops with
                                                            4. Risk Assessment and
  governments, banks, NGOs, and                             Reclamation Strategies
• Test pilot micro-finance programmes
• Promote long-term solutions

    Risk Assessment and Reclamation Strategies          Risk Assessment and Reclamation Strategies
•    Evaluate techniques to reclaim Hg-impacted     •    Use GIS to evaluate the growth and mobility
     sites, e.g.                                         of artisanal mining:
    –    Covering with laterite                         –    How ASM increased over time
    –    Re-processing tailings to remove Hg            –    Relationship between impacted area, Au
    –    Revegetation                                        production and Hg loss and mobility
    –    Dredging and treat Hg-polluted material        –    Migration patterns of miners
•    Make inventory of sites with artisanal         •    Create tools to establish reclamation and
     mining activities in the study areas
                                                         mitigation strategies for mercury
•    Create tools to evaluate environmental              contaminated sites
     effects and correlation between sediments
     and Hg on water systems                        •    Develop plans for land use and economy
•    Create tools to predict risks of tailing dam        diversification of mining communities based
     failure and landslides in ASM regions               on natural resources vocation
                                                  Media Relations
       Global Mercury Project
                                   • Increase visibility of mercury and small-
                                     scale mining issues in media
                                   • Communicate goals and activities of
  Scope of the Divisions:            GMP
                                      – Press releases, background papers, and
    5. Media Relations                  feature articles highlighting activities of
                                        GMP to keep news media and relevant
                                        agencies informed and updated
                                   • Improve global partnerships

• Artisanal mining is a poverty-
  driven activity
• Hg emissions are increasing up
  to 1000 tonnes/a…and growing!
• Number of ASM is increasing
  with gold price and more women
  and kids are being involved
• GMP must focus this phase on
   Building capacity – training
   and demonstrating solutions
   with miners, families and

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