Document Sample
					                                                                    MONDAY NOVEMBER 9 2009


                S          out of a
                           dark past
                           by segregation
                 presents us with the unique
                  challenge of transformation.
                   Yet 15 years on, it would appear
                   that little has changed. There is
                    also a sense that rather than unite
                    us, our multiracial make-up tends
                     to keep us apart. The Dinokeng
                     Scenarios suggest that until we forge
                     a single common identity out of our
                    diversity we will not be able to harness
                   the social capital needed to address the
                   country’s challenges. Overleaf, Dr Mamphela
                  Ramphele writes about how we could begin to
                 walk together to do just that. Julius Malema
                 argues that until we tame the beast of racism
                lurking among us we will never walk at all, while
                Professor Kader Asmal cautions against
               overflagging the race card, which could force the
              project of transformation to a halt.

                                                                    ILLUSTRATION: DINOKENG SCENARIOS
2                                                                                                                                                                 MONDAY NOVEMBER 9 2009

                     SA IS ALIVE WITH PROMISE
Change that
rather than
enlarges the
pool of talent

T              conjures up different
               meanings and images
               in the minds of South
               Africans across the
political spectrum.
    The term entered our discourse
to signal a departure from the old
apartheid ways of doing things, to
the new milieu ushered in by our
transition to democracy    .
    The ideals of a transformed
South Africa are captured
eloquently in the preamble of our
rights-based constitution of a
society united in its diversity
where discrimination on the
grounds of race, class, gender or
beliefs has no place.
    In the context of our
constitution then, transformation
should be understood to be a
process of radical change of our         IT’S ABOUT DIVERSITY: Transformation should bring about a non-racial, non-sexist, egalitarian society, where there’s a place in the
society in both form and substance       sun for everyone.
to become that which is envisaged:
a non-racial, non-sexist, egalitarian,

                                                                                BY DR
prosperous democracy     .               people with black people in public                                                                                     the existing economic cake
    Transformation viewed in this        and private entities.                                                                                                  has led to missed opportunities
comprehensive way involves                   Some go as far as suggesting                                                                                       for South Africans to work
change in the way we relate to one
another, ushering in new social
relationship models – more
                                         that as the apartheid government
                                         had supported Afrikaners to
                                         become leaders in both the
                                                                                MAMPHELA                                                                        together to broaden the base of
                                                                                                                                                                our economy into innovative
                                                                                                                                                                service sectors that have opened up
egalitarian ones – away from
authoritarian, patriarchal ones.
    It entails more inclusive
                                         economy and the polity the
                                         post-apartheid government

                                         should support black people.
                                                                                RAMPHELE                                                                                            ,
                                                                                                                                                                in the 21st century thereby
                                                                                                                                                                accelerating economic growth.
                                                                                                                                                                    A significant proportion of
approaches to ensure that black              This approach informs the                                                                                          the private sector has also been
people and women, traditionally          mechanistic implementation of                                                                                          short-sighted in actively
excluded from public life and            black economic empowerment             driven by a sense of powerlessness      leadership now admits that its          contributing to the instrumentalist
wealth creation, become active           (BEE) policy to ensure that            and inability to hold those they have   deployment policy has undermined        implementation of BEE.
agents of development.                   politically well-connected black       voted for accountable to deliver on     the quality of public service.              The opportunity costs of
    Transformation seen in               people have access to opportunities    the promises of freedom.                    The chaos that is crippling         empowering a narrow, politically
this way enriches society by             to enjoy the benefits of wealth            The system of proportional          municipalities – as reported by         well-connected segment of society
enlarging the pool of talent,            creation.                              representation has made public          Minister of Cooperative                 for short-term gains for individual
harnessing leadership styles                 Success in this formulation        officials and politicians accountable   Governance and Traditional Affairs      corporates at the expense of long-
from a diversity of backgrounds          would be measured by how many          to their parties rather than voters.    Sicelo Shiceka to Parliament            term benefits of broadening the
and forging new ways of tackling         black people have become wealthier         It comes as no surprise that a      recently – can be laid at the door of   base of our economy are very high.
the complex problems of the              and are visibly occupying key          significant number of public            this misguided policy    .              Such practices are also corrupting
21st century  .                          positions in society in both the       servants often treat the poorest            Poor people who have had            and promote nepotism.
    Success of such a                    private and public domains.            people with disrespect, rubbing salt    to put up with incompetence at              In some cases companies have
transformation process would                 The unintended consequences of     into the wound of marginality   .       every level of their daily lives –      knowingly granted equity stakes to
be measured by the extent to             the replacement model of                   Disengagement by citizens in        from lack of potable water to           entities that are fronts for the ruling
which the society moves towards          transformation are becoming            our democracy contributes to            dysfunctional health facilities –       party or well-connected officials.
those ideals as evidenced by             evident across our society and are     weakness of the state, setting off a    have largely paid for the                   While not subscribing to the
diversity of profiles of leaders,        undermining the hopes of many          vicious cycle of failure, frustration   empowerment of the new                  conspiracy theory that BEE was
managers and practices in our            committed citizens.                    and loss of trust between citizens      political elites.                       designed by corporate interests to
homes, communities, workplaces –             In public life, the same           and the state.                              It is tragic that in their          protect their strong economic
in private and public entities – and     hierarchical, male-dominated               Mechanistic implementation of       eagerness to defend incompetent         interests, I certainly believe that a
in our wider public life and the         patriarchal and patronising            BEE has also created a vast             corrupt black managers in the           significant segment of corporate
conduct of our politics.                 leadership styles have led to          opportunity for a culture of            private and public sector, by playing   South Africa has allowed itself to
    The twin goals of promoting          disengagement of citizens.             corruption and nepotism that            the race card, politicians are          become associated with the
equity and excellence in all we do           The middle class, which is         threatens the integrity of our          inadvertently tarnishing the image      promotion of a culture of greed and
become aligned to the ideals of our      essential to strengthening             public life.                            of black professionals.                 corruption.
constitution.                                        ,
                                         democracy has either disengaged            Rewarding loyalty above                 There are many competent black          The private sector has also failed
    Unfortunately the past 15 years      completely and turned its focus on     competence undermines the               professionals in the public and         in another respect – empowered
have seen a divergence of views and      material well-being for itself or is   integrity in the public service         private sectors who are often           companies led by black people have
practices of transformation. For         parasitic, part of the new elite       and violates the clear stipulation      overlooked when appointments to         not always differentiated
many people, transformation is           feeding off state tenders.             of the Public Service Act.              key positions are considered.           themselves by excelling in ethical
seen as the replacement of white             Disengagement by poor people is        It is encouraging that the ANC          BEE viewed merely as dividing       business practices.
MONDAY NOVEMBER 9 2009                                                                                                                                                                          3

     Why can we not
with programmes
to engage poor
people in the
planning and
building of their
own homes and
community facilities?
Imagine the energy
and sense of purpose
that could be
unleashed in informal
communities that
have shown local

                                        SENSE OF PURPOSE: Johanna Sello, Miems Coertzen, Basetsana Malema and Miranda Jooste dig the foundations for a house in
                                        Mamelodi. Having poor people construct their own homes will give them back their self-respect.      PICTURE: HERBERT MATIMBA

    Recent cases of anti-competitive
practices that have kept and/or
raised prices artificially high for
basics such as bread and essential
services such as cellphones or
                                        Using all people’s energy and                                                                                         informal communities that have
                                                                                                                                                              shown local leadership!
                                                                                                                                                                  We need to acknowledge
                                                                                                                                                              the reality that the skewed
                                                                                                                                                              nature of investment in skills
banking are another form of tax on
poor people to pay for the
empowerment of the elites.
    State-owned enterprises led by
                                         skills for the greater good                                                                                          over many centuries is bound to
                                                                                                                                                              remain reflected in the profile of
                                                                                                                                                              available skills.
                                                                                                                                                                  Our tendency to wish away
black people have also not                                                                                                                                    white male skills has cost us much,
necessarily performed in a manner       that acknowledges the social               We need to create open spaces for   form of development approaches         especially in areas that matter most
that demonstrates that black or         pain that many still live with,        acknowledgement of this pain to         we take would unleash the huge         to poor people; technical skills to
female leadership brings added          notwithstanding the success of the     occur and for joint action around       energy that lies within them and       run public services have been lost
value to the specific businesses.       Truth and Reconciliation               concrete programmes.                    channel it into productive purposes.   in the past 15 years.
    Transformation of business          Commission.                                The huge public investment in           Development becomes                    It is not too late to invite
practices with an eye on efficiency        We need to accept that the level    infrastructure should be used as a      sustainable to the extent              retired engineers, town planners
and effectiveness that benefits the     of humiliation and disrespect          platform to train some of the           that it enhances the capabilities      and financial managers to
broadest base, especially the least     suffered by black people remains       millions of young people                of those who stand to benefit,         walk with young black
among us, has yet to become             deeply etched in social and personal   marginalised by lack of education       turning them into active agents of     professionals to tidy up the
commonplace.                            memories.                              and skills.                             their own futures. Handouts            chaos in municipalities.
    The challenge of transformation        We also need to acknowledge             We need to radically change         deprive poor people of the                 A refocus on competence as a
is to create a social climate in        the pain of loss of power and          our development model away              opportunity to participate in the      key criterion for public service
which South Africans can walk           influence suffered by white            from top-down authoritarian             economy and regain their               would make it attractive to
and work together for the greatest      people, especially Afrikaners,         patronising approaches that             self-respect as engaged citizens.      many young South Africans,
long-term good for most people in       whose own history of humiliation       have created a dependency                   Why can we not experiment with     some of whom have left our
our society A prerequisite is           remains fresh.                         culture that underestimates the         programmes to engage poor people       country in despair.
acknowledgement that walking               Many feel excluded and              capacity of poor people to be a         in the planning and building of            We need to embrace the skills
together is the hardest approach for    marginalised despite their             source of creative solution to          their own homes and community          and talent of all South Africans –
us as a society with our history both   commitment to serve and                complex problems.                       facilities?                            black and white – to ensure that we
before and after 1994.                  contribute to a prosperous                 Involving poor people in the            Imagine the energy and sense of    become more competitive in our
    We need a new approach              democracy  .                           re-imagining of our society and the     purpose that could be unleashed in     efforts to grow our economy      .
4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MONDAY NOVEMBER 9 2009                                                                                                                        5

                                  UNTRANSFORMED                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TRANSFORMED
24 years of hard work, stuck
in a suburban twilight zone
                                                                                                                                        THE FACES OF CHANGE                                                                                                                         With no fuss and great
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    success, they’re vocal

        ATIENCE* is 43 and hails
        from a barren village in the
        north-west of Limpopo. Like
                                                                                          She calls her employers “madam”
                                                                                      and “the master”. They call her by
                                                                                      her first name. They talk about her
                                                                                      as their “maid”. She lowers her head
                                                                                      when they raise their voices.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    about breaking barriers
many small villages and towns                                                             “Yes, madam,” she whispers                                                                                                                                                                MICHAEL MORRIS                                  Night at the Opera”, which offers a
around the country it holds few                                                       when the tension rises, regardless of                                                                                                                                                                                                         steadily growing township audience a
opportunities for her. It never has.                                                  whether she is right or wrong.                                                                                                                                                                            ITH its Mozartian effulgence, its much-reduced ticket with transport to and
And that’s why she boarded a taxi in
1985, heading south in search of
greener pastures. She has been
                                                                                          Yet she’s resigned to her fate, and
                                                                                      in many respects she’s happy with
                                                                                      her lot. She knows no other life. And
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W           voluptuous grandeur, opera
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                seemed – 15 years ago – to be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    about the most untransformable feature of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    from the Artscape Opera House.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The process begun in the 1990s has only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    strengthened under present chief
working as a domestic helper in                                                       though her income is pathetic, she                                                                                                                                                            the post-democratic cultural landscape.         executive Michael Williams and his team.
Joburg ever since.                                                                    feels that she’s better off than some.                                                                                                                                                            It was seen as elitist and almost trivial,  The measure of it, just last month, was the
   She started out in the suburb of                                                       “Eish, some of the stories,” she                                                                                                                                                          yet another impenetrably alien leftover of      rapturous reception Cape Town Opera
Linden. Over the years, she has had                                                   says. Though she’s encountered her                                                                                                                                                            an era of white privilege and obsessive         earned on its first tour of Britain.
four different employers in various                                                   fair share of verbal abuse over the                                                                                                                                                           Eurocentric chauvinism. Devotees’                   The programme itself is an instance of
parts of the city Today she calls                                                     years, none of her employers has                                                                                                                                                              protests that it was no more Eurocentric        the revivifying influence of opera’s
Melville home; she lives in a small                                                   ever raised a hand against her. She                                                                                                                                                           than soccer fell on deaf ears in the 1990s.     renaissance: Gershwin’s celebrated
room at the back of the modest                                                        has never been sexually abused,                                                                                                                                                                   Funding fell sharply as political           statement on race and social depredation,
house of her white employers.             TRAPPED: Many domestic workers              though she knows that many                                                                                                                                                                    sentiment lighted on other, sexier cultural     Porgy and Bess, but transposed to an
   It houses her life’s possessions.      work long hours, cleaning, washing          domestic workers have.                                                                                                                                                                        enterprises; it was doubtful that the fat       apartheid-era Soweto setting.
Her single bed is tucked into one         and ironing.   PICTURE: LIZA VAN DEVENTER       It’s estimated that there are more                                                                                                                                                        lady would even get to sing, and opera              The tour was a rave success. London
corner. Next to it is her dressing                                                    than a million domestic workers in                                                                                                                                                            companies went to the wall. But Cape            Times critic Richard Morrison declared:
table. On top of that is an old TV set.   she’s lucky if she works fewer              the country today  .                                                                                                                                                                          Town Opera, Africa’s only full-time opera       “The only full-time opera company in
Some old and fading photos and a          than 60.                                        And they are not the sole servants                                                                                                                                                                  ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    company hung in there. Without fuss or          Africa has never before toured the UK. On
plastic red rose are stuck to the             She earns a pittance: R800, which       of white families. These days there                                                                                                                                                           quotas or the public anguish of so much of      the strength of its glorious Gershwin it
mirror. Her dresses and a winter          will keep her trapped in poverty for        are as many to be found in black                                                                                                                                                              the “transformation” project –                  should be invited back – soon and often.”
coat hang in the small wardrobe. Her      the rest of her days. Though she’s          homes.                                                                                                                                                                                        recriminations, declining standards, the        He wrote that at a time when British opera
black beret hangs on the door. A rug      entitled to a minimum wage of more              Because many of them work in                                                                                                                                                              whiff of racism – Cape Town Opera burst         executives were setting up “long-overdue
covers most of the concrete floor.        than R1 300 a month, she knows              the twilight zone, their true number                                                                                                                                                          into the new century with a reverberant         projects” to persuade young black and
Just off the room is her bathroom.        better than to object. She knows that       is hard to calculate. But it’s a given                                                                                                                                                        Africanness that continues to grow,             Asian musicians that you didn’t have to be
This is all she has to show for           she would be quickly shown the door.        that most of them are black women                                                                                                                                                             earning acclaim at home and abroad.             white to make a career in opera, “this
24 years of hard work.                    And she also knows that there are           who represent the last vestiges of                                                                                                                                                                The dynamic confluence of two choral        company is a stunning exemplar –
   She works six days a week. She         many women who would be only too            apartheid, the section of the                                                                                                                                                                 traditions did not happen on its own, but       especially coming from a country where,
puts her back out cooking, cleaning,      willing to take her place. R800 may         population for whom transformation                                                                                                                                                            no sooner had the                                                         only three decades
washing and ironing, at her               not sound like a lot, but it’s better       has been practically non-existent                                                                                                                                                             merging began                                                             ago, non-whites
employers’ beck and call from the         than nothing.                               and that is likely to be caught in the                                                                                                                                                        than it took off.                                                         couldn’t even buy
morning into the night.                       But it makes Patience’s outlook         same time warp of subservience                                                                                                                                                                    Former chief                                                          a ticket”.
   By law she should work no more         on life as bleak today as it was            20 years from now.                                                                                                                                                                            executive of Cape                                                             South
than 45 hours a week. In practice,        in 1985.                                        * Not her real name                                                                                                                                                                       Town Opera                                                                Africa’s opera
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Angelo Gobbato                                                            phenomenon has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    noted: “Our steady                                                        shattered

                                     TRANSFORMING                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   perseverance in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tilling the vocal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    fields in the black
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              about the artistic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              passions of a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    communities was                                                           populace in Africa,

United for a common goal: peace in KZN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              clearly successful,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    for, with the advent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of… democracy in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1994, we were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and provided
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              career options to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              young performers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              undreamt of in
BHEKI MBANJWA                             been meeting from February to               recognition of their achievement.                                                                                                                                                             rewarded with a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            WITH IT: Malungisa Balimtulu, Yolanda             past years.
                                          ensure that they don’t hold                     Daniel also credits the police for                                                                                                                                                        flood of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ngcukana and Noluvuyo Atleni play modern              A telling
        NCE engulfed by political         gatherings at the same place at the         their role in bringing down the levels                                                                                                                                                        exceptional black
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            yuppies in Cape Town Opera’s By The River.        reflection on this

O       violence, KwaZulu-Natal is
        now a shining example of
how peace can be achieved if all
                                          same time, he says.
                                             “Clearly the key here was the two
                                          major political rivals willing to
                                                                                      of political violence.
                                                                                          Before the elections, the police
                                                                                      discovered 22 illegal firearms –
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    vocal talent.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In a short time, he said in 2001, “we
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    found we did not have to apologise for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              comes from tenor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Musa Nkuna in a piece written after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    watching a Cape Town Opera performance
work together for a common goal.          co-operate.”                                including three AK-47s, two .303                                                                                                                                                              making opera. In five years, we have            in Nuremberg in August.
   While there is no official figure of      Daniel believes that while it            rifles and a shotgun – in Nongoma.                                                                                                                                                            moved from being regarded as high class             Bemoaning the insufficiency of
how many people were killed in the        remains impossible to eliminate                 More recently a task team                                                                                                                                                                 ‘apartheid’ elitism to being something          funding and sponsorship for the arts,
violence that raged between 1985 and      violence in the province, the two           investigating politically linked                                                                                                                                                              which people enjoy   .”                         Nkuna wrote: “It is high time that
1995, political commentator Protas        parties have demonstrated that it           murders in Greytown found more                                                                                                                                                                    One of Gobbato’s innovations was the        someone recognises the musical and
Madlala and others estimate it to be      could be significantly reduced              than 160 illegal firearms.                                                                                                                                                                    launch of a studio programme to provide         artistic talent of our people. Cape Town
more than 20 000.                         through co-operation.                           But police were not as proactive                                                                                                                                                          bursaries and other support to nurture          Opera meets and even exceeds the
   The violence had also created             Madlala says violence in the             as they should be and they “have                                                                                                                                                              new – though not exclusively black –            much-fought-for black economic
several “no-go areas”.                    province has declined since the             contributed to peace in the province                                                                                                                                                          talent. Extra musical and stage training        empowerment. And they are not just
   Fourteen years later the no-go         parties initiated peace talks in the        more by omission than                                                                                                                                                                         was provided and expanded through a             affirmative action black people but…
areas are gone, says Madlala.             mid-1990s.                                  commission”, Madlala believes.                                                                                                                                                                choral programme.                               highly trained and talented people.
   Before the April 22 elections the         “You had the leadership from                 “What was different is that now                                                                                                                                                               Soon, he recalled, “opera, the art form     Nobody can cry foul saying quota this,
ANC could campaign in the IFP             both parties being able to sit down         there has not been wholesale                                                                                                                                                                  which so many had sworn went against            quota that.
strongholds of Nongoma and                and talk. People who spearheaded            sponsorship of one side by the police                                                                                                                                                         the very nature of our black communities,           “These guys live up to and go beyond
Ulundi, areas it would not have           this process included (President            as used to be the case.”                                                                                                                                                                      was in the throats and on the lips of           the expected standard – just as UCT
dared to go before.                       Jacob) Zuma and IFP president                   While significant progress has                                                                                                                                                            thousands of glorious black voices”.            student Pretty Yende recently showed in
   Professor John Daniel of the           (Mangosuthu) Buthelezi”.                    been made, isolated cases of political                                                                                                                                                            The transformative influence of this        Vienna when she became the first person
University of KwaZulu-Natal says             While the senior leaders of both         violence are still reported in areas                                                                                                                                                          sweeping change went further. “What             in the history of the prestigious Belvedere
the April elections were by far           parties held talks, leaders at              such as Greytown and Mbabazane                                                                                                                                                                became a pressing artistic issue, however,      International Singing Competition to win
the most peaceful in the province         grassroots level also got involved.         (near Estcourt).                                                                                                                                                                              was the creation of a suitable operatic         all four major awards, beating all those
since 1994.                                  In Mpumalanga Township, near                 In Greytown the ANC and IFP                                                                                                                                                               repertoire for these singers and the            Europeans singing in their mother
   “Enormous progress has been            Durban, for instance, community             have started peace talks facilitated                                                                                                                                                          possible adaptation of the production           tongues.
made and the level of violence was        leaders Meshack Radebe of the ANC           by the provincial leaders of both                                                                                                                                                             styles of the standard repertoire to create         “For a young black girl from
the lowest of all.”                       and Sipho Mlaba of the IFP are              parties. The parties’ representatives                                                                                                                                                         novel dramatic possibilities.”                  Mpumalanga to win the operetta section of
   He attributes this to the              credited with bringing peace to the         in the town’s council are also taking                                                                                                                                                             Building a “transformed” audience,          such a prestigious competition would be
commitment to work together               violent township.                           part in peace workshops.                                                                                                                                                                      said marketing manager Lesléy Liddle,           equivalent to an English person from
shown by the IFP and ANC.                    They have received numerous                  It may not be perfect, but it’s                                                                                                                                                           was an ongoing project – among the              Leeds winning a traditional Zulu dance
   Leaders of the two parties had         local and international awards in           happening.                                ADAPTATION: A scene from Brett Bailey’s opera Macbeth, set in modern-day Africa, with the Cape Town Opera company at the State Theatre, Pretoria.   features of this drive is “Siyaphuma – Taxi     competition in Ulundi.”
6                                                                                                                                                               MONDAY NOVEMBER 9 2009

FIONA FORDE                                                                                                                                                       Their aim was to have 25 percent
                                                                                                                                                              of the economy in black hands by
                          HEN I see a                                                                                                                         2017. To get there, skills

‘W                        white person
                          begging at
                          the robot,
something wrong with the picture
for me,” explains Polo Radebe.
    “Something in me asks what
                                                                                                                                                              development would be critical, as
                                                                                                                                                              would enterprise development to
                                                                                                                                                              promote SMEs. Without an
                                                                                                                                                              entrepreneurial spirit, it just would
                                                                                                                                                              not happen. Yet South Africa
                                                                                                                                                              records a worrying low level of
                                                                                                                                                              entrepreneurship. In the most

could have gone wrong. What hap-                                                                                                                              recent survey carried out by Global
pened? Yet when I see a black per-                                                                                                                            Entrepreneur Monitor, the country
son begging, it’s not that I don’t feel                                                                                                                       ranked 23rd out of 43 countries, well
sorry for them, but it appears as                                                                                                                             below the 13,2 percent average for
more of a normal picture for me to                                                                                                                            all middle to low income countries.
see,” she continues, as she acknowl-                                                                                                                              Added to that is her concern that
edges the stereotypes she has built                                                                                                                           the general support structures are
up in her own mind over the years.                                                                                                                            either not in place or are still not
    “But I believe that once our soci-                                                                                                                        optimal. “It’s debatable how
ety normalises, we will probably                                                                                                                              effective our institutions are and it’s
see a proportional number of black                                                                                                                            a concern that we’ve had for quite a
and white people in every walk of
life. But we’re not there yet.”
    The 30-something graduate of
                                           Promoting SMEs and developing skills will                                                                          while, but I don’t see us jumping up
                                                                                                                                                              and down and saying there’s
                                                                                                                                                              something fundamentally wrong
commerce joined the Department of
Trade and Industry in 2004 as the
Director of Access to Finance for
                                          lead to meaningful economic transformation                                                                          with what we’re doing.”
                                                                                                                                                                  There’s also a sense that the left
                                                                                                                                                              hand is not talking to the right hand
Black Economic Empowerment,                                                                                                                                   at government level, she continues.
which by then was attracting its fair                                                                                                                             “We should have realised that
share of critics for having lifted                                                                                                                            we’re still not getting it right. We’re
only very few black boats in the                                                                                                                              spending a lot of money on BBBEE,
rising tide.                                                                                                                                                  but the truth is we’re probably
    The BEE Commission had                                                                                                                                    wasting a lot of money as well.”
delivered its verdict some years                                                                                                                                  The structures of the BEE deals
earlier, arguing that there were too                                                                                                                          don’t help matters, with too much
many transactions at the expense of                                                                                                                           benefit skewed in favour of the
too little skills development and not                                                                                                                         financiers. “We get all excited when
enough transfer of wealth.                                                                                                                                    we see these deals in the papers but
    And so it was that the Broad                                                                                                                              it’s the banks who are smiling
Based Black Economic                                                                                                                                          behind the scenes.” The oft too high
Empowerment Act was passed in                                                                                                                                 asking prices just add to the debt
2003 to try and widen the net and the                                                                                                                         levels.
benefits of the slowly transforming                                                                                                                               All things told, “we still haven’t
economy    .                                                                                                                                                  learnt our lesson, because we’re
    A year later Radebe found                                                                                                                                 making the exact same mistakes
herself drafting the codes of good                                                                                                                            today as we did at the time of the
practice for BBBEE which were                                                                                                                                 Asian crisis. We’re telling the exact
gazetted two years ago.                                                                                                                                       same stories as we did in 1998 and
    Today she is the CEO of Identity                                                                                                                          1999, with so many companies going
Development Fund, a company that                                                                                                                              under.”
is wholly owned and managed by                                                                                                                                    Yet she’s reluctant to throw the
black women professionals who                                                                                                                                 baby out with the bathwater and
support small and medium-sized                                                                                                                                believes she’s witnessing
black-owned business, yet she                                                                                                                                 transformation becoming more
monitors the pace of                                                                                                                                                          ,
                                                                                                                                                              relevant today even if the pace is
transformation closely   .                                                                                                                                    still painfully slow.
    She looks askance at the South                                                                                                                                “The skills pool is growing. It’s
African economy where black-                                                                                                                                  not there yet, but it’s growing in the
owned companies account for less                                                                                                                              black communities,” she believes.
than 10 percent of all listed                                                                                                                                     Budding entrepreneurs are
companies on the Johannesburg                                                                                                                                 beginning to develop some excellent
Stock Exchange. “    And assuming                                                                                                                             ideas for small-sized enterprises,
you can take that to be a reflection                                                                                                                          rather than just buying into
of what’s happening in the rest of                                                                                                                            existing companies.
the economy then that’s what                                                                                                                                      The BEE score cards are proving
ownership is sitting at today  .”                                                                                                                             critical, not for the sake of ticking
    What is meant by black                                                                                                                                    the boxes, but because they are
ownership is a term that has                                                                                                                                  forcing business to think differently   .
varying definitions.                                                                                                                                              “The procurement guy now
    JSE CEO Russell Loubser says if                                                                                                                           knows that telling us that he has
indirect ownership is taken into                                                                                                                              used the same guy for the last

account, then the black-owned slice                                                                                                                           30 years is not a good enough excuse
of the cake would be far greater                                                                               I always say we should                         anymore.”
than 10 percent, adding that the                                                                                                                                  Diversity training and
exchange is currently trying to                                                                                look at what would be                          management are also playing a big
establish “an intellectually
defensible” definition of the term
that would “dispel many of the
existing myths”.
    Radebe prefers a more clinical
definition. “I always say that we
should look at what would be left of
our estates in the morning if we
died, what exactly our children
                                                                                                          left of our estates in the
                                                                                                          morning if we died, what
                                                                                                          exactly our children would
                                                                                                          inherit... that would give us
                                                                                                                                            ‘                 role in cracking the racial divide.
                                                                                                                                                                  “Mentoring is helping, even if
                                                                                                                                                              it’s not wide-scale. Take the white
                                                                                                                                                              accountant who is forced to teach
                                                                                                                                                              the black woman about debit and
                                                                                                                                                              credit. “She knows nothing about it.
                                                                                                                                                              So he has to force himself to think
                                                                                                                                                              in a very different way to try and
                                                                                                                                                              help her and meet her half way It’s.
would inherit, once the banks and                                                                         a true account of                                   a fantastic exercise because it’s
other stakeholders are paid out.                                                                                                                              meaningful on both sides and helps
That’s what would give us a true                                                                          black ownership...                                  in more ways than debit and credit.
account of black ownership, and                                                                                                                               He no longer just sees black when
that’s where we are sitting, at much                                                                                                                          he looks at her. He now sees a
less than 10 percent.”                                                                                                                                        person.”
    Just prior to the Asian crisis in                                                                                                                             “It’s about getting the basics in
1997, the JSE was trotting out            HOPEFUL: Polo Radebe is the CEO of Identity Development Fund, a company that supports                               place and building up from the
figures suggesting that black             SMEs. She is confident that the new model of BEE will be effective.    PICTURE: SIZWE NDINGANE                      bottom. If we don’t get that right,
ownership of the listed companies                                                                                                                             then we will still be sitting with
was anywhere around 9 percent or          embarked on the codes soon after.     that the share prices would           its face and colour,” she explains.     5 percent ownership in 20 years’
10 percent.                                  “And that was because the BEE      continue to climb.                        “But we also wanted to grow the     time. But if we correct our
    But by the time the crisis had        transactions were unravelling,” she      It was from that dismal low that   pie. It was too small for everyone to   mistakes, then economic
ended, it had dwindled to about           says. The early deals had been        the codes started out. “They were     enjoy so we had to try and grow it so   transformation will happen so
3 percent, a challenge that was           struck during a moment of             supposed to be multi-faceted: to      that more people could enjoy this       quickly that we won’t know what
staring Radebe in the face when she       optimism and on the assumption        transform the economy and change      economy of ours.”                       hit us.”
MONDAY NOVEMBER 9 2009                                                                                                                                                                                   7

15 years after Mandela lauded a new dawn for SA we still have not found ...

                                                       S IT Y
                                                   E R
         N 1994 Nelson Mandela told       and cultured under                                                                  the inspiration of Nelson Mandela,      people, and Africans in particular,

I        the world that “Never, never
         and never again shall it be
         that this beautiful land will
         again experience the
oppression of one by another and
                                          institutionalised racism and who
                                          are unable to appreciate and
                                          comprehend that black people, and
                                          Africans in particular, are human
                                          beings too and that they are as
                                                                                                                              the ANCYL will never be
                                                                                                                              proponents of black dominance.
                                                                                                                                 It is time that we, black and
                                                                                                                              white South Africans, began to
                                                                                                                              appreciate that the fight against
                                                                                                                                                                      should share in South Africa’s
                                                                                                                                                                      wealth and benefit from the
                                                                                                                                                                      opportunities presented by our
                                                                                                                                                                      democratic government. The
                                                                                                                                                                      ANCYL’s call that we should realise
suffer the indignity of being the
skunk of the world.”
    But 15 years later we are still
                                          capable, if not more capable, of
                                          doing the job.
                                             The majority of private
                                                                                   MALEMA                                     racism is not about leaning on one
                                                                                                                              side or the other, or about short-
                                                                                                                              term solutions, as these could
                                                                                                                                                                      economic freedom for the black
                                                                                                                                                                      majority and Africans in particular
                                                                                                                                                                      in our lifetime is a vital component
struggling against racism in South        corporations in South Africa do not                                                 undermine the efforts of                in the struggle to build a non-racial
Africa. Despite the many                  employ Africans into key and             because all things African are             constructing a single, united nation.   better South Africa. The struggle
progressive strides that have been        strategic positions. If we look at the   associated with inferiority  .                The ANCYL has been open and          did not end in 1994.
recorded in the new democratic            positions of chief executive officers        It is a fact that in modern South      robust in its programme to confront         Our frank engagement on the
dispensation, a significant legacy of     and chief financial officers across      Africa, African cultures are dying.        racism. And it will continue to be so   issue of race does not mean that we
racism exists in all spheres of                        ,
                                          the country they are mainly              African children living in our             while we struggle to build a non-       are blind to the many positive
society.                                  occupied by non-black South              suburbs are beginning to denounce          racial, non-sexist and democratic       developments that are happening.
    Racist attitudes, stereotypes and     Africans. In instances where non-        their cultural practices and               South Africa.                           There are both black and white
actions continue to characterise our      whites take the seats, it is often       language, because the culture and             If we allow racism to continue,      people who are growing to
society Only a few days ago the           where they are closely partnered         language of white people are               we can never achieve our goals.         understand and appreciate that
incident at the University of the         with a white counterpart who             presented as the superior models              Racism belongs to another era. It    South Africa belongs to all people
Free State showed its face again,         watches over their shoulders. The        and the more acceptable way of life.       was the ideological weapon of the       who live in it, regardless of their
more than a year-and-a-half after         black CFO of Nedbank is one                  Is this what we fought for? Is this    apartheid oppressors to subjugate       colour. If we do not recognise these
African workers were shamefully           example. The CEO of Eskom is             the new South Africa, one that does                               ,
                                                                                                                              the African majority and blacks in      advances we would only undermine
humiliated by white racist students.      another.                                 not differ much from apartheid             general, under a racist government      the progress the country is making
    But racism does not stop at the          The underlying message is             South Africa? These racial attitudes       which denied our people basic           in building a truly non-racial
Free State. And it is not only alive in   obvious: white South Africa is still     and stereotypes should be uprooted         rights.                                 society.
schools and institutions of higher        unable to embrace their black                        ,
                                                                                   in society particularly amongst               But it cannot belong to our              The ANCYL calls upon white
learning. It exists in the workplace      brothers. And it doesn’t stop with       children, the future of tomorrow.                      .
                                                                                                                              democracy And where it does, the        people to participate in the
and in the corporate sector. It can be    corporate South Africa. Millions of          The reality is that the majority of    ideological weapon of racists           developmental agenda of our
found in every city and town. It is       farm hands, factory workers and          white people, despite the practical        should be exposed and defeated          democratic government. We also
building stereotypes every single         domestic helpers live with brutal        assurances made by our democratic          through open confrontation.             call on them to bury their fear of
day of the week. What is revealed in      racism on a daily basis. The only        constitution and government,                  This is not an easy task because     the unknown. We will never
the media only tells a very small         difference is that their voices are      continue to believe that black             racism is not always overt. Its roots   support any dominance by any one
part of the story because the             not heard.                               people are out to get them.                are deep in a long history of           race, including any call to drive the
majority of our people continue to           Many white children are reared            White people feel threatened, but      economic exclusion. It is one of the    whites to the sea.
suffer in silence and isolation all the   within a belief system that teaches      there is no basis for their insecurity .   most difficult evils to uproot. But         But we will continue to engage
time.                                     them that Africans are sub-humans,       Many suffer from jungle fever, a fear      that doesn’t mean it cannot and will    each other in a more open and
    Although the spotlight is on the      inferior to them and sitting at the      of all things black, but again there       not be done.                            robust way until we get a buy-in
Free State, corporate South Africa        bottom of the race ladder. In multi-     is no basis for their fear. They tend         If we want to be rid of racism,      from everyone to redress the
is not much better. The slow pace of      racial schools, African children are     to protect their space against what        we have to accept some truths. The      imbalances created by the
transformation in the private sector      forced to adapt to white people’s        they imagine to be black                   massive class and economic divide       nonsensical apartheid regime.
is mainly due to the dominance of         way of doing things. They are            dominance.                                 that exists between black and white     ● Julius Malema is the president of
white males, men who were bred            encouraged to take on their accents,         But they must know that with           people is keeping us apart. Black       the ANC Youth League.
8                                                                                                                                                                   MONDAY NOVEMBER 9 2009

                 GREAT EXPECTATIONS?

CONSCIENCE: Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu has said white South Africans have not acknowledged the crime of apartheid.                                                       PICTURE: GARY VAN WYK

           N THE land of the free, in
                                                   Overt signs of racism are gone,                                                                                going gets tough, there is a tendency

I          year one of Barack
           Obama’s presidency a ,
           judicial officer (white)
           refused to marry a couple
not because they were gay but
because she was white and he was
                                                 but nastiness lurks below the surface
                                                                                                                                                                  to have recourse to euphemisms
                                                                                                                                                                  such as the need to discuss the
                                                                                                                                                                  implications of the “national
                                                                                                                                                                  question” to the matter at hand,
                                                                                                                                                                  when what we really mean is that
                                                                                                                                                                  there are too many white people,
                                                                                                                                                                  Indians or coloureds around.

    There is, it seems, a separate       political parties in Europe and the                                              black person that they are playing a        It is therefore not good enough to
world south of the Mason-Dixon           racially motivated attacks on the                                                race card of a particular variety ,     refer to the opening lines of the
line. It is a world that has not         president of the United States.                                                  although they ought to have             Freedom Charter: South Africa
reconciled itself to the abolition of
slavery nearly 150 years ago.
    It is a world that only legalised
                                            We have not done very badly
                                         ourselves, though.
                                            In a country where the all-white
                                                                                                KADER                     recognised that the candidate the
                                                                                                                          board may have had in mind was a
                                                                                                                          himself a black person!
                                                                                                                                                                  belongs to all those who live in it,
                                                                                                                                                                  black and white, as a total answer to
                                                                                                                                                                  the problems of allocating
mixed-race marriages just over four
decades ago.
    Yet, a month ago, the marriage
                                         legislature had passed scores of
                                         laws governing the exclusion of
                                         black people, covering every aspect
                                                                                   ASMAL                                     Or even more recently the
                                                                                                                          director-general of the Department
                                                                                                                          of Labour with his Black
                                                                                                                                                     ,            resources, posts, offices or benefits.
                                                                                                                                                                  The clarion call of the Freedom
                                                                                                                                                                  Charter – which drove us in the
officer’s fears of miscegenation –       of their lives from the cradle                                                   Management Forum hat on opined          freedom struggle through its deep
that frightful and frightening word      through to the grave, and where           white South Africa has not             that the possible resignation of the    humanist appeal – does not provide
of apartheid hate-mongers –              church, state and business had            acknowledged the great crime           CEO of Eskom as a result of its         an answer to the way we should deal
compelled him to say publicly that       conspired to oppress the majority of      committed against black people         board’s unhappiness with his            with the damages present in our
he will not marry the couple             the people, the dramatic transfer of      under apartheid in this country   .    performance was part of attacks on      society through deprivation and
because he would feel sorry for          power in 1994 introduced a new                Are we unreasonable in             black chief executives.                 prejudice.
their children, who presumably he        element into our public life:             criticising the newly-appointed           This is hardly credible. The             What we need , therefore,is to
chose to view as neither fish nor        equality .                                vice-chancellor of the University of   board is appointed by the               debate the deep roots of prejudice
fowl.                                       We are entitled to congratulate        the Free State when he absolves a      government.                                             ,
                                                                                                                                                                  in our society not the flawed
    So, is this not simply a problem     ourselves that the overt signs and        group of white students who               The government is now also           approach of the vice-chancellor of
for the United States? What has it       examples of racial discrimination         humiliated poor black workers by       beginning to realise that its           the University of the Free State, but
got to do with us, in South Africa,      and racist actions are few and far        treating them as objects for their     employment policy has had                                               ,
                                                                                                                                                                  one that draws on our history our
with our enlightened Constitution        between. Yet, there is a gnawing          racist pleasures?                      unintended consequences,                needs as citizens and which clearly
and a government, many of whose          fear that beneath a reasonably calm           Should we not make a               especially at local government level,   adumbrates individual
members not only fought against          surface, there is still the nastiness     distinction between the role of the    where service delivery has been         responsibility for our actions
the racist lunacy of apartheid but       lurking: a young Afrikaner takes          previous oppressor and victims?        seriously disrupted because of          against fellow citizens and those
were imprisoned and tortured by          his guns to a township and kills a                        ,
                                                                                       Conversely are we playing the      unqualified or inappropriately          who come from across our borders.
some of the very people who are          number of people, including a baby    ,   race card when we are not able to      qualified persons who have been         Scenario planning is of little help in
unrepentant about their past?            without provocation; the word             launch a credible argument or          appointed to senior managerial          this necessary process.
    Well, that great social scientist,   “k*****” appears in a song together       when we have run out of options?       posts.                                                   ,
                                                                                                                                                                      In this way we may claim to live
intellectual and activist WEB du         with Nelson Mandela’s name, and           If we don’t get what we desire – a        Yet, there are a huge number of      up to the foundational and core
Bois warned that the problem of the      so on.                                    BEE deal, a job or an appointment,     vacancies across the board in local     values of our Constitution –
20th century was the problem of the         So, are we too touchy about race?      is it a question of a chip on the      government, provincial and                         ,
                                                                                                                                                                  equality freedom, dignity and
colour line. It seems that a hundred     Are we expecting too much when            shoulder if we shout “racism”?         national departments which are left     justice.
years later, the world has not really    we say that there has been no                 There can be little doubt that     open because of the need to meet        ● Kader Asmal was a member of the
resolved this matter, to judge from      response to Archbishop Emeritus           when even ministers demand that        “representative” levels.                NEC of the ANC from 1991 to 2009
the enormous revival of racist           Desmond Tutu’s complaint that             Transnet must appoint a particular        At a political level, when the       and is a former minister