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Group Behaviour - PDF

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					Facilitating Team Effectiveness

Objectives
• Understand the nature and types of groups • Recognize the assets and liabilities of groups • Understand the stages of group development • Explore guidelines for managing each stage of group development • Examine methods for maintaining group effectiveness

What Is A Group?
Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal

Formal Groups
Established by an organization to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals

Informal Groups
Emerge naturally in response to the interests of members

Types of Groups
• Management teams • Work teams • Problem-solving/Project teams • Customer teams • Virtual teams • Other

Group Assets & Liabilities
• Greater knowledge & facts • More alternatives considered

Assets

Liabilities
• Less speed • Compromise may damage decision quality • Negative social pressure • Premature decisions • Individual domination • Interference of personal goals

• Broader perspective on issues • Greater satisfaction with & support of decisions

• Better problem comprehension • Serves communication & political functions

cont.

Group Assets & Liabilities
Assets Or Liabilities
• Disagreements can generate ideas or cause hard feelings • Diverse interests can broaden perspectives or cause conflict • Increased risk taking can be beneficial or costly • Increased time spent can improve decisions or waste time

Stages Of Group Development
• Orientation • Conflict & Challenge • Cohesion • Delusion • Disillusion • Acceptance

Develop power and authority Develop interpersonal relationships

Stages Of Group Development
MATURE (effective)
G R O U P M A T U R I T Y Orientation Conflict & Cohesion Delusion Challenge Disillusion Acceptance

IMMATURE (ineffective)

Developing Power and Authority Structures
Source: Adapted from Jewell & Reitz (1981)

Developing Interpersonal Relationships

GROUP MATUR I TY

Orientation Stage
Power & Authority

• Members do not know each other • Members uncertain about group's purpose, rules, and their own roles • Members exchange information, ask questions

Guidelines For The Orientation Stage

• Provide a strong leader to structure and guide the group • Offer members the opportunity to share ideas and exchange information • Develop specific group goals • Define group roles for each member • Provide answers to members' questions about the group

Conflict & Challenge Stage

GROUP MATUR I TY

Power & Authority

• Members compete for leadership and assignments • Members disagree about procedures and group merits • Subgroups may emerge

Guidelines For The Conflict & Challenge Stage

• Accept conflict as necessary for group development • Allow conflict to emerge but shorten its duration • Allow testing of group norms by members • Allow subgroups to form but maintain some total group interactions

GROUP MATUR I TY

Cohesion Stage
Power & Authority

• Members work through personal differences, develop norms, and agree upon roles • Group structure and identity emerges; operating procedures are set • Group marked by cooperation, low levels of emotionalism, and goal-directed activity • "Feels good" -- but too highly cohesive groups can be dysfunctional

Guidelines For The Cohesion Stage

• Provide a fair leader who will work for the good of the group • Develop a system for addressing and resolving disagreements (conflict) • Encourage sense of group identity • Encourage statements from the group as a whole • Develop permanent operating structure

GROUP MATUR I TY

Delusion Stage
Relationships

• Members believe significant problems no longer exist • Group marked by euphoria--"all is well" • Enjoyable--but remaining at this stage prevents group from reaching full potential • Disastrous errors possible due to false sense of perfection • Groupthink can occur

Guidelines For The Delusion Stage

• Accept delusion as a normal stage necessary for group development • Avoid onset of groupthink. Watch for symptoms. Take corrective steps. • Avoid continuation of delusion by challenging unrealistic basis of delusion

GROUP MATUR I TY

Disillusion Stage
Relationships

• Bubble of delusion bursts and members become aware of problems • Group effectiveness unlikely to improve much • Cohesiveness decreases; subgroups may again emerge • Pessimism grows

Guidelines For The Disillusion Stage

• Accept disillusionment as necessary for further development • Allow disillusionment to occur openly • Force development of disillusionment by identifying and presenting group problems
cont.

Guidelines For The Disillusion Stage
• Allow subgroups to form but maintain some total group interactions • If the existing leader is unwilling or unable to manage conflicts, replace the existing leader with a directive leader who can do so • Emphasize how and why the group can mature effectively

GROUP MATUR I TY

Acceptance Stage
Relationships

• Takes group to full maturity • Divisive subgroups dissolve, strong group identity emerges • Communication flows • Time and resources used effectively and efficiently

Guidelines For The Acceptance Stage

• Provide leader with good interpersonal skills who will work for the good of the group • Encourage open, honest discussion of issues • Discourage focus on personality differences • Dissolve subgroups
cont

Guidelines For The Acceptance Stage
• Identify to the group the unique qualities and contributions of each group member • Develop communication channels to exchange information accurately and realistically • Use issue-oriented decision-making techniques

Stages Of Group Development
MATURE (effective)
G R O U P M A T U R I T Y Orientation Conflict & Cohesion Delusion Challenge Disillusion Acceptance

IMMATURE (ineffective)

Developing Power and Authority Structures
Source: Adapted from Jewell & Reitz (1981)

Developing Interpersonal Relationships

Objectives
• Understand the nature and types of groups • Recognize the assets and liabilities of groups • Understand the stages of group development • Explore guidelines for managing each stage of group development • Examine methods for maintaining group effectiveness


				
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