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					              Delivering the goods
a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




         Ensuring compliance, advancing performance
               Delivering the goods:
    a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries
                                                      Contents
About this toolkit _________________________________________________________________________________________ 2

Part One: Making night-time deliveries: methodology and guidance _________________________________________ 3
      Defining success ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3
      Understanding the noise abatement notice process ________________________________________________________ 3
      Methodology ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3
      Site investigation report ________________________________________________________________________________ 4
      Technical monitoring __________________________________________________________________________________ 5

Part Two: Trial studies _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6
      The trial study ________________________________________________________________________________________ 6
      Monitoring and methodology___________________________________________________________________________ 6

Part Three: Night-time deliveries: noise ____________________________________________________________________ 8
     Guidance and standards _______________________________________________________________________________ 8
     Summary ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 12
     Draft monitoring regime ______________________________________________________________________________ 13

Part Four: Night-time deliveries: light _____________________________________________________________________ 15
      Guidance and standards ______________________________________________________________________________ 15
      Summary ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 16
      Draft monitoring regime ______________________________________________________________________________ 16

Part Five: Post trial study assessment _____________________________________________________________________ 18
      Environmental _______________________________________________________________________________________ 18
      Community _________________________________________________________________________________________ 18
      Commercial _________________________________________________________________________________________ 18
      Monitoring and assessment ___________________________________________________________________________ 18
      Noise and light monitoring ____________________________________________________________________________ 18
      Marketing questionnaire ______________________________________________________________________________ 19
      Conclusion__________________________________________________________________________________________ 20

Part Six: About the templates ____________________________________________________________________________ 21

Appendices
      Annex A: Consultation: sample letter from a retailer to a local authority ______________________________________ 22
      Annex B: Consultation: sample market research questionnaire _______________________________________________ 23
      Annex C: So you want to undertake a trial study? – sample retailer checklist ___________________________________ 32
      Annex D: Checklists for night-time delivery site investigation reports – blank ___________________________________ 36
      Annex E: Checklists for night-time delivery site investigation reports – completed _______________________________ 41
      Annex F: Night-time delivery – partners’ tasks – output – responsibilities – blank _______________________________ 46
      Annex G: Night-time delivery – partners’s tasks – output – responsibilities – completed __________________________ 47
      Annex H: Night-time delivery training manuals____________________________________________________________ 50

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                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

About this toolkit
You can use this toolkit to help you get delivery restrictions relaxed. It also provides a framework for running a trial study.

Before you start to use the toolkit, however, we recommend that you read the Delivery Improvement Guide, available at http://
www.dft.gov.uk

Industry and Government are keen to promote night-time deliveries that:

• do not adversely affect residents

• benefit the environment

• help to relieve traffic congestion both locally and nationally

• improve safety

• make operations more efficient

This toolkit identifies the methodology that retailers and their logistics providers should apply when they want to withdraw
from voluntary delivery curfews. The toolkit has been developed for food stores but it may also be applicable to other sectors
although this has not been tested.

Acknowledgement
FTA would like to express its sincere thanks to the many professional organisations who have contributed information towards
the research necessary to complete this toolkit. In particular, FTA would like to acknowledge the role of Peter Roland, Projects
Co-ordinator of DHL/Exel Logistics who has acted as the principal author of this document. Without his help the publication of
this toolkit would not have been possible.




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Part One: Making night-time deliveries: methodology and guidance
Defining success
The trial must demonstrate positive environmental benefits, help to relieve traffic congestion both locally and nationally,
enhance safety and increase operational efficiency. At the same time it must not cause local residents nuisance.

Understanding the noise abatement notice process
The local authority has a statutory duty to inspect its area periodically for statutory nuisances that do or may occur. In
addition, if a complainant (usually a resident) objects to night-time noise disturbance at a store, a council environmental
health officer must take reasonably practicable steps to investigate whether the disturbance is ongoing and amounts or may
amount to a Statutory Nuisance. The local authority may then carry out subjective and/or objective (technical) analysis. An
environmental health officer will subjectively analyse the noise either by witnessing the operation or by recording the noise
from inside the complainant’s dwelling and analysing the noise later. Alternatively, they may use a noise level meter to monitor
noise in accordance with current professional practice. The results may be compared with a range of generic noise assessment
guidance including BS 41421. BS 4142 assesses the likelihood of noise complaints. If the environmental health officer is
satisfied that the noise constitutes a disturbance, they will formally contact the store. If, however, the environmental health
officer is satisfied that a Statutory Nuisance exists or may occur or recur, s/he must serve an abatement notice on the person/s
responsible for the nuisance, requiring that the nuisance be ceased or abated within a specified timescale, and may require
works to be carried out to comply with the notice.

This noise assessment process is not the same as the process for assessing Statutory Nuisance. Whether a disturbance
amounts to a Statutory Nuisance or not does not depend on the results of generic noise assessment guidance such as BS
4142. Statutory Nuisance is assessed on a case-by-case basis, and a range of criteria are taken into account, which include
duration, frequency, impact, local environment, motive, and sensitivity of plaintiff. There are no objective levels at which a
noise is or is not a Statutory Nuisance.

If there are no planning conditions restricting delivery times, anecdotal evidence suggests that the council will encourage the
store to restrict deliveries voluntarily, usually to between 7.00 am and 10.00 pm.

If an agreement cannot be reached and the council can establish that the noise constitutes a Statutory Nuisance, or might do
so in the future, it must serve a Noise Abatement Notice (NAN). The Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990 (Part III Section
79 subsection 1) defines a Statutory Nuisance in relation to noise as “noise emitted from a premises so as to be prejudicial to
health or a nuisance” and in relation to noise from the street “noise that is prejudicial to health or a nuisance and is emitted
from or caused by a vehicle, machinery or equipment in a street”. In relation to artificial light, a Statutory Nuisance is defined
as “artificial light emitted from premises so as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance”.

What is and is not a Statutory Nuisance is ultimately decided by the courts on a case-by-case basis. In essence, a Statutory
Nuisance has come to mean that which affects someone’s reasonable use of their property (usually home), and/or which does
or may adversely affect their health.

Methodology
The methodology has three main parts:

• site investigation (SI) report – to determine the current and commercially optimum delivery situation, provide a brief
  description of the local area and identify what improvements may be needed

• technical noise and light monitoring – to determine the current noise and light levels and those resulting from night-time
  deliveries

• consultation – to see what local people think of a night-time trial, find out how the trial affects them and help develop
  ways of improving how deliveries are made

The methodology aims to maximise success by providing solutions and making sure that staff are thoroughly trained. The aim
is to prevent disturbance to the local community, so minimising the likelihood of complaints. The methodology looks at the
current and proposed delivery situation, the technical measure of noise and light and the subjective views and concerns of
residents.


1
    Refer to Part 3 for more on current professional practice including BS4142 and other generic noise assessment guidance


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                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

Site investigation report
Once the retailer decides where to carry out the trial, they must complete a store appraisal or site investigation (SI) report. The
SI report is in five parts.

Store survey
This will determine both the current delivery pattern and the preferred or ‘commercial optimum’ pattern. The store survey
will determine the benefits of changing a limited amount of crucial daytime delivery to night-time delivery. See section 1.1
of Annex D ‘Checklists for night-time delivery site investigation reports’ for the ‘store survey’ checklist of requirements. For a
completed version of the same checklist refer to section 1.1 of Annex E.

Physical survey
This details the store locality including the physical characteristics of the site infrastructure, lorry access and delivery area. The
results will determine existing sources of noise and light and so help identify any improvements that may be needed. See
section 1.2 of Annex D for the physical survey checklist of requirements. For a completed version of the same checklist refer to
section 1.2 of Annex E.

Improvements
This part of the survey will identify improvements aimed at reducing sources of noise and light at the start of a night-time
delivery trial. However retailers will have to consider whether the commercial benefit of the potential ability to deliver goods
during the night outweighs the cost of the improvements. See section 1.3 of Annex D for the ‘improvements’ checklist of
requirements. For a completed version of the same checklist refer to section 1.3 of Annex E.

Training guidelines
Training guidelines will ensure that staff get the right training before the trial starts, so that delivery good practice is
established and maintained. The training should involve the driver and all store staff involved in the delivery process. It should
cover administrative referral if a complaint is received. See section 1.4 of Annex D for the ‘training guidelines’ checklist of
requirements. For a completed version of the same checklist refer to section 1.4 of Annex E.

Protocol
The protocol is a procedure for dealing with complaints, made direct to the store and/or passed on by the council. All
complaints must be treated seriously and sympathetically and investigated. Where possible, the retailer should take remedial
action. See section 1.5 of Annex D for the ‘protocol’ checklist of requirements. For a completed version of the same checklist
refer to section 1.5 of Annex E.

Deliveries will need a current London Lorry Control Scheme (LLCS) permit if they are made:

• within Greater London

• with lgvs (large goods vehicles) weighing over 18 tonne

• using Association of London Government (ALG) designated ‘restricted’ roads that are off the designated ‘exempted’ road
  network

Delivery vehicles can travel off the exempt road network between the hours shown in table 1.1 below if retailers or logistic
companies obtain free permits from the Association of London Government and clearly display them on their lorries.
Delivery drivers must make the fullest use of the prescribed network described in the permit conditions and be aware of the
environmental reasons for those conditions.

Table 1.1 London Lorry Control Scheme lgv restrictions

 Monday – Friday                                                    Midnight-7am; 9pm-midnight
 Saturday                                                           1pm-midnight
 Sunday                                                             At any time

Breaking the permit conditions leaves the retailer/logistics provider and the driver liable to the statutory penalty charge notice
(PCN) fine(s). For further information visit the Transport for London website at http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/freight/permits-and-
policies.asp



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Technical monitoring
Technical monitoring involves installing equipment on the façade of the home considered to be most exposed to noise
and light from deliveries. If the resident of that property declines to take part in the trial, ask the occupier of the next most
exposed home to participate. Use the following procedure when contacting residents.
Either retailer and/or project partner to contact the local authority and
• tell them of the possibility of carrying out a night-time delivery trial
• explain the technical requirements and introduce the consultant who will carry out the monitoring
• get a contact in the environmental health and/or planning departments
• send the council a copy of Making Night-Time Deliveries: Methodology and Guidance
The consultant should discuss with the local authority what approach to take for contacting the resident. With local authority
permission, the consultant can make direct contact with the resident. Ideally, a council representative should accompany the
consultant on the first visit. The visit is an opportunity to:
• tell the resident why they were chosen
• explain what the equipment is and how it works
• talk through the consultant’s visiting needs, and arrange visiting times
• provide a list of contact names and numbers
The monitoring will provide a technical appraisal of the ‘before’ (current situation) and ‘after’ (during trial study) conditions. It
will determine the effect of night-time deliveries and identify the worst offending noise and light sources.

The monitoring should follow best practice and meet the latest British and EU standards. An independent technician should
carry it out, to ensure impartiality. Monitoring should continue for 24 hours a day over during the first week of the trial.

Contacting most affected residents
Monitoring equipment needs to be installed outside the property considered most exposed to night-time delivery noise and
light, so the householder will have to give his or her permission. Contact the resident most likely to be affected to obtain
permission to install suitable equipment.

Consulting the local authority
The local authority needs to be fully informed of the whole trial process before it starts.

Following informal contact, the retailer will write to the local authority (see Annex A) for a copy of the letter). The letter
formally introduces the trial, identifies the potential benefits and outlines the approach. The retailer should send a copy of
Making Night-Time Deliveries with the letter.

A retailer must formally advise both the council and local residents of the trial study if the store curfew is subject to statutory
restrictions.

It should be noted as this point that should the site chosen for a trial have an outstanding notice in relation to delivery noise,
and the trial causes a Statutory Nuisance, the site could be subject of prosecution proceedings.

Public consultation/market research
The main purpose of research is to understand the impact of night-time deliveries on the quality of life for local residents.

Without referring to the trial study, each resident is asked to describe any recent changes resulting from local environmental
issues. They should also be asked if they feel these are demonstrably worse, and whether they are likely to try to do something
about them.

The residents’ responses will help to prioritise possible remedial works in an effort to minimise complaints, while determining
residents’ motives for acting on their complaints, or not, as the case may be.

Residents would not normally be told of a trial at a store with a voluntary curfew. This so residents are not prompted to
complain about a disturbance that they fear may occur, which at worst could jeopardise the trial from starting in the first
place. It should also ensure that any complaints made while the trial study is underway are genuine. If, however, the curfew
was subject to statutory restrictions, then residents would have been told of the proposed trial study before it began.

If market research is appropriate, refer to Annex B ‘Market research questionnaire’.

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Part Two: Trial studies
Anyone who would like delivery restrictions eased needs to justify why to all interested parties. They need to prove that their
interests are not being served at the expense of others.

A trial study is a popular way of persuading local authorities of the benefits of relaxing freight delivery times.

A trial study allows anyone who wants delivery restrictions eased to measure and quantify the alleged benefits. But they also
need to demonstrate those benefits to both the local authority and the community. The benefits would have to be seen as real
and sustainable. Any negative aspects to less restricted delivery times would need to be outweighed by positive ones.

The trial study
This trial study model illustrated here is a supermarket, with a voluntary curfew between 22.00 and 07.00.

The study would need to show the following benefits in main or in part.

Environmental benefits
Nationally:

• less fuel consumed by delivery vehicles

• fewer emissions from delivery vehicles

Locally:

• less congestion at or near the supermarket

• better road safety

Community benefits
• Better safety for vehicle occupants and pedestrians at the supermarket where there is shared access

• A better shopping environment available to the local community with greater access to goods and services

Commercial benefits
• Reduced operating costs

• Improved freight operations

• Increased sales

• Less food wasted

• Less fuel consumed by delivery vehicles

Monitoring and methodology
Any planned trial study must first be rigorously researched and evaluated. The research will try to establish the benefits
of reduced delivery restrictions and the likelihood of current delivery restrictions being lifted. At the same time, the study
will have to show the likely impact of reduced restrictions on the local community. The trial study will only go ahead if the
outcomes of these complex criteria are positive and do not indicate conflicts of interest.

Before the trial study begins, participants must define their methodology. This will set out what observations and
recommendations they will make, and include a checklist of actions.

The methodology, including monitoring, incorporates:

• site investigation – site level survey, physical level survey, measures to improve the site, training, protocols

• independent technical monitoring – both before and during the trial study

• consultation – by various methods




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The participants must follow the methodology and monitor progress on the study according to a defined and audited series
of actions. They must act transparently and support the established procedures.

The two key Statutory Nuisances that deliveries can cause, noise and light, are now examined in more detail. Published
legislation and guidelines are discussed for each nuisance. A suggested monitoring regime for each Statutory Nuisance is also
detailed to assist anyone looking to trial a delivery curfew relaxation.




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Part Three: Night-time deliveries: noise
Supermarkets need deliveries. Scheduling deliveries outside normal working hours can:

• reduce congestion

• improve freight operations

• cut air pollution from traffic

However, supermarkets in urban areas are often close to noise-sensitive properties, including people’s homes. These are
generally considered to be more sensitive to noise during the evening and even more sensitive at night. Re-scheduling
deliveries into these periods potentially increases noise disturbance for those who live close to supermarkets.

This document provides guidance to those concerned with assessing the potential noise impact of retail deliveries in residential
areas that might occur in the evening or the night. It describes the issues that need to be considered and, in general terms,
the process that should be followed. The outcome of any such assessment would be an understanding of the nature and the
extent of the potential noise impact.

The guidance focuses on the noise that would arise from such activities and how the noise impact should be assessed. For
the most part those affected will be people in dwellings and other noise-sensitive premises where people reside (eg residential
homes and hospitals). In addition, there may also be issues of noise in the evening affecting other noise-sensitive premises
such as places of learning (eg during evening classes) and places of worship

There are no prescribed guidelines or standards for the assessment of noise, although general principles have been established
over the years and these principles can be used in this case. The main elements of the noise assessment are:

• characterise the existing (baseline) noise environment

• predict or measure the noise likely to arise from the proposed activity (in this case deliveries during the trial study)

• compare the predicted or measured noise levels with the baseline noise environment to understand the nature and extent
  of the change in noise environment that will occur if the trial is extended

• using relevant but generic standards and guidelines, draw a conclusion about the extent that those changes will have on
  those potentially affected

• report the findings

Guidance and standards
PPG 24
Planning policy guidance notes set out the Government’s policies on different aspects of planning. Local authorities are
required to take into account this advice in preparing development plans and when considering planning applications,
including those for supermarkets.

Planning Policy Guidance Note 24 (PPG 24) Planning and Noise was issued by the Department of the Environment in
September 1994. PPG 24 covers England and there are similar documents for Wales and Scotland.

PPG 24 acknowledges that the planning system must guide development to the most appropriate location, and that noise can
be a material consideration when determining planning applications. It notes in paragraph 2 that:

“It will be hard to reconcile some land uses, such as housing, hospitals and schools, with other activities which generate high
levels of noise, but the planning system should ensure that, wherever practicable, noise-sensitive developments are separated
from major sources of noise (such as road, rail and air transport). It is equally important that new development involving noisy
activities should, if possible, be sited away from noise-sensitive land uses. Development plans provide the policy framework
within which these issues can be weighed but careful assessment of all these factors will also be required when individual
applications for development are considered. Where it is not possible to achieve such a separation of land uses, local planning
authorities should consider whether it is possible to control or reduce noise levels, or to mitigate the impact of noise, through
the use of conditions or planning obligations.”

A supermarket, its delivery bays and approach road, may constitute development involving noisy activities, and homes may
constitute noise-sensitive land use. A local authority may zone an area for retail development in its development plan. It can
also decide to permit development of a supermarket, but limit its delivery hours either directly or indirectly.

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Paragraph 10 of PPG 24 advises that there needs to be a balance that will not unjustifiably limit development, but will not
give rise to unacceptable disturbance:

“Much of the development which is necessary for the creation of jobs and the construction and improvement of essential
infrastructure will generate noise. The planning system should not place unjustifiable obstacles in the way of such
development. Nevertheless, local planning authorities must ensure that development does not cause an unacceptable degree
of disturbance. They should also bear in mind that a subsequent intensification or change of use may result in greater
intrusion and they may wish to consider the use of appropriate conditions.”

The guidance refers to “an unacceptable degree of disturbance”. This implies that a degree of disturbance may be acceptable.
This may perhaps be because its intensity or frequency is limited, or it happens at a time when those who hear the noise are
less likely to be disturbed by it. However, PPG 24 does not state that a degree of disturbance is acceptable.

The existence of a planning permission does not mean that a Statutory Nuisance cannot exist. Statutory Nuisance can exist
whether a particular site has planning permission for deliveries or not. Circumstances and local environments change, so, for
example, noise that was not a Statutory Nuisance before may become one.

PPG 24, paragraph 11, deals with noise from specific types of development, and refers to more detailed advice in Annex 3.

While PPG 24 outlines factors to be considered, it does not, with one exception, set prescriptive technical standards of
acceptable noise levels. The one exception is in Annex 1 where noise exposure categories are set out for local authorities to
use when considering applications for new housing developments. The Noise Exposure Category (NEC) system establishes four
categories of noise exposure. It does this by reference to the dominant noise source, the time of day and noise levels before
the development took place. For a site in NEC A , a noise need not be a determining factor in granting planning permission,
while for NEC D, planning permission should normally be refused.

The categories are measured in units of the ‘A’ weighted equivalent continuous sound level, abbreviated to LAeq,T. The ‘A’
weighting differentially weights sounds of differing frequencies. This reflects the sensitivity of the human ear to sound of
different pitches. The ‘eq’ refers to a steady sound that would have the same total energy as the fluctuating sound over the
period of time ‘T’ that is being measured. LAeq,T is now the most frequently used parameter for measuring noise disturbance.

Different noise exposure levels are given for daytime (07.00 to 23.00 hours) and night-time (23.00 to 07.00 hours). Higher
levels are acceptable during the day.

The NEC system is designed for road, rail and air traffic and mixed sources. ‘Mixed sources’ refers to any combination of road,
rail, air and industrial noise in which none dominates. Most urban supermarkets would contribute to mixed noise.

However, the NEC procedure only applies where a developer wants to introduce residential development into an area with
existing sources of noise. Table 3.1 below sets out the recommended boundaries for noise exposure categories for this type of
situation. The procedure does not apply to the reverse situation where new noise sources are to be introduced into an existing
residential area. Therefore planning authorities should not use it when considering an application for a supermarket in a
residential area or an intensification of use of an existing supermarket is being contemplated. Likewise, PPG 24 should not be
used by the industry to justify the introduction of night-time deliveries.

Table 3.1 Noise levels corresponding to NECs for new dwellings (dB LAeq,T) for mixed sources

 Time                                A                         B                         C                        D
 07.00-3.00 hours                    55                        55-63                     63-72                    >72
 23.00-07.00 hours                   45                        45-57                     57-66                    >66
Another noise parameter is mentioned in a footnote, LAmax. The LAmax is the highest ‘A’ weighted level recorded during a noise
measurement. The guidance is that where individual noise events exceed 82 dB LAmax several times in any hour at night,
planning authorities should categorise the site as NEC C, regardless of the night-time LAeq,T. The exception is where the LAeq,T at
night already puts the site in NEC D.

LAmax is highly variable, particularly where it is incidental to an activity rather than a central feature of it – eg, pile driving.

There is plenty of evidence on the relationship between noise exposure in LAeq,T units and disturbance. There is some evidence
on the relationship between the magnitude of LAmax and sleep disturbance. But there is almost no evidence on the relationship
between disturbance and how often events with high LAmax values occur.

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Annex 1 of PPG 24 explicitly states that the NEC system should not be used to assess whether a new noise source, such as a
supermarket, is acceptable in a residential area. However, Annex 2 sets out the guidance that has been used in deriving the
boundary limit values in Annex 1. Reference is made, for example, to a World Health Organisation (WHO) document of 1980,
the current version of which is reviewed below.

Of particular interest in the present context are the NEC A upper boundary limits of 55 dB LAeq,16 hours and 45 dB LAeq,8 hours for
daytime and night-time respectively. These are separate situations in which noise need not be a determining factor, and those
in which conditions should be imposed on a new housing development to protect residents adequately against noise.

Both daytime and night-time boundary limits are taken from the WHO document.

Paragraph 5 of Annex 2 cites a field study on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance published in 1992. While earlier studies
suggested that aircraft noise below 82 dB LAmax, would cause little sleep disturbance, the field study reported that in practice,
aircraft noise below 80 dB LAmax is unlikely to wake people up.

Annex 3 of the guidance advises on the assessment of noise from different sources. Supermarkets fall into the category of
industrial and commercial developments discussed in paragraphs 19 and 20.

Paragraph 19 recommends the use of BS 4142:1990 to assess noise from these sources. A new version of this standard
was issued in 1997. Paragraph 19 also mentions BS 8233 as a source of general guidance on acceptable noise levels within
buildings. BS 4142 only deals with the noise exposure of dwellings.

In summary, PPG 24 supports the use of the LAeq,T parameter as a tool for assessing and controlling noise disturbance. It also
cites the parameter LAmax. BS 4142 and BS 8233 are useful for assessing the noise of supermarket deliveries.

World Health Organisation guidelines
The guidance cited in PPG 24 is Environmental Health Criteria 12, issued by the World Health Organisation in 1980. Noise
specialists have interpreted this as advocating a standard of 55 dB LAeq daytime and 45 dB LAeq at night, both levels being
external and free-field.

In 1999, WHO issued revised guidance, Guidelines for Community Noise. This has not so far been incorporated explicitly into
national guidance. The table below sets out the current WHO guideline values.

Table 3.2 WHO guideline values

 Specific environment               Critical health effects            dB LAeq    Time base (T in           LAmax
                                                                                 hours)
 Outdoor living area               Serious annoyance, daytime         55         16                        –
                                   and evening

                                   Moderate annoyance, daytime
                                   and evening                        50         16                        –
 Dwelling, indoors                 Speech intelligibility and         35         16                        –
                                   moderate annoyance, daytime
                                   and evening
 Inside bedrooms                   Sleep disturbance, night-time      30         8                         45
 Outside bedrooms                  Sleep disturbance, window          45         8                         60
                                   open (outdoor values)

WHO assumes that the insertion loss through the façade of a dwelling when windows are open will be 15 dB(A). In practice
this will vary between dwellings, and according to how far the windows are open.

Some have questioned the WHO guidance. It sets stringent standards and many existing homes exceed one or more of its
guideline values. If homes exceed the guidelines even before a new noise source is introduced, they are of limited use in
assessing the impact of that new source.




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BS 8233
BS 8233:1999 Sound insulation and noise reduction for buildings – Code of Practice, defines its scope in paragraph 1:

“This British Standard gives recommendations for the control of noise in and around buildings, and suggests appropriate
criteria and limits for different situations. These criteria and limits are primarily intended to guide the design of new or
refurbished buildings undergoing a change of use, rather than to assess the effect of changes in the external noise level.”

The standard distinguishes between ‘anonymous’ noise, such as that from road traffic, and noise from neighbours that may
trigger complex emotional reactions that are disproportionate to the noise level.

The standard describes a level of 30 dB LAeq,T in living rooms as good for ‘anonymous’ noise, and a level of 40 dB LAeq,T
as reasonable. A level of 30 dB LAeq,T in bedrooms is described as good, and 35 dB LAeq,T as reasonable. The Standard also
suggests that for bedrooms at night, individual noise events should not normally exceed 45 dB LAmax. These levels are
consistent with the WHO 1999 guidelines.

The types of noise likely to arise from night-time deliveries will often be a mixture of anonymous noise and other noises with
characteristics (such as irregularity, impulsiveness and tonality) that might be expected to trigger a greater response from
neighbours.

BS 4142:1997
BS 4142:1997: A method for rating industrial noise affecting mixed residential and industrial noise, adopts a different
approach. WHO and BS 8233 provide absolute values as to what is an acceptable or a desirable noise climate. They do not
deal with the acceptability of a new noise source where the existing noise climate already exceeds an absolute standard.

In contrast the method set out in BS 4142:1997 can be used in any situation regardless of the existing noise climate. This is
because it depends on a comparison between noise from the new source, and noise within the existing noise climate. On the
downside, BS 4142 does not make a judgement about the acceptability of the existing noise climate, and can also lead to
issues of creeping background noise levels.

The existing noise climate is described by the noise parameter LA90. This is the ‘A’ weighted noise level that is exceeded for 90
per cent of the time that is being measured, and is called the background noise level.

Noise from a new source, which is the subject of the assessment, is described by the LAeq,T parameter. This is corrected by
adding 5 dB if the noise is tonal and/or impulsive in character, and/or irregular enough to attract attention. The subsequent
value is called the ‘Rating Level’.

If the rating level from the new source exceeds the background noise level by around 10 dB or more, this indicates that
complaints are likely. If the rating level is more than 10 dB below the background noise level, complaints are unlikely. A
difference of +5 dB is marginal.

The standard does not set different numerical values for day and night-time, but implicitly it does set a more stringent
standard at night, particularly for fluctuating or intermittent noise sources.

There are two reasons for this. First the background noise has to be that which would occur when the source is operating.
Since ambient noise levels almost always follow a daily cycle – lower during the evening and lowest at night – the standard
becomes most stringent at night.

Secondly, the LAeq,T unit is an energy-weighted average over the time period ‘T’. Where a noise source consists of short events
or fluctuating sound levels, the average period of exposure becomes important. This is set at one hour during the day but only
five minutes at night. The standard does not define night-time in hours, but as “the times when the general adult population
are preparing for sleep or are actually sleeping”. If the new noise source consists of, for example, deliveries, and each lasts for
less than an hour, the LAeq,T corrected noise level will be higher during the night than during the day.

For example, consider a house with a background noise level of 50 dB LA90 during the day and 40 dB LA90 at night. The house is
exposed to noise from deliveries at a rate of one an hour throughout 24 hours. Assume each delivery lasts six minutes and the
house is exposed to an LAeq,6 minutes of 50 dB during each one. In this example, for simplicity, the noise is not tonal or impulsive
in character or irregular enough to attract attention.

During the day a background noise level of 50 dB LA90 is to be compared with a source noise of 50 dB LAeq. But the noise only
lasts for six minutes during the assessment period of one hour. Correcting for the six minutes duration of the noise gives a


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                              Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

correction of -10 dB during the day. The new noise source therefore has an LAeq,1 hour of 40 dB and the background noise
level is 50 dB. This is a difference of -10 dB, indicating that complaints are unlikely.

However at night the six minutes duration exceeds the reference period of five minutes. So there is no reduction for averaging
out over a longer time period. The background noise level is 40 dB and the noise from the new source is 50 dB, a difference
of +10 dB – an indication that complaints are likely.

This standard advises against noise measurement during rain or when wind speeds are above 5 m/s.

Directive 2002/49/EC: Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise
This directive requires member states to map the noise exposure of people living in urban areas and near major roads, railways
and airfields. It is aimed at a strategic level, not at specific developments.

However, it is relevant to the present study in two respects. First, it explicitly distinguishes between ambient noise during
the day, evening and night, defined as 07.00 to 19.00, 19.00 to 23.00, and 23.00 to 07.00 respectively. Member states can
adjust the times within limits to suit local circumstances but there is currently no indication that the UK Government will do
so.

Secondly, the measurement used to assess the community response to noise and is abbreviated to Lden. to the measurement
that is used to assess sleep disturbance is Lnight. Lnight is simply the value in decibels for the ‘A’ weighted equivalent continuous
sound level over the eight hours from 23.00.

Lden is the time weighted sum of the LAeq,T levels within the day, evening and night-time. However, before adding the three
together, the evening physical noise level is corrected by +5 dB, and the night level by +10 dB. These are large weightings,
and imply that a single noise event at night equals 10 similar incidents during the day.

Summary
The parameter most commonly used in environmental noise assessment is the ‘A’ weighted continuous sound level, LAeq,T.

The period ‘T’ is usually set for the entire day, night or evening with the exception of BS 4142 where the daytime period is one
hour and the night time period is five minutes.

Directive 2002/49/EC assumes night-time to be 23.00 to 07.00.

Directive 2002/49/EC suggests that an evening period is 19.00 to 23.00.

A number of authorities have recommended desirable or acceptable ambient noise levels either inside or outside dwellings.

The documents citing fixed levels do not contain evidence to assess the effect of a possible new noise source where ambient
noise already exceeds the guideline level.

BS 4124 sets a relative standard which compares the new noise source with the existing background noise.

An assessment using BS 4142 tends to be more stringent at night, particularly for short duration noise events.

Some authorities also refer to the maximum sound level LAmax, particularly in relation to sleep disturbance at night. However,
there is a suggestion that this is only relevant when noisy events are likely several times in any hour, for example, the impulse
noises that would be expected when a lorry is being loaded or unloaded.

Noise should not be measured when it is raining or windy.

The noise levels measured or predicted during the trial study should be compared with the baseline noise levels to understand
how the noise environment has changed. Standard comparison methods used in current professional practice should be used
and these are likely to include those shown in Table 3.3.




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                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

Table 3.3 Indicator comparisons likely to be required in assessment

 Predicted            Baseline
 LAeq                 LAeq
 LA10                 LA10
 LA10                 LA10
 LA10                 LA90

The type of questions that need to be answered are:

• by how much has the LAeq and LA10 risen?

• how does the LAmax levels from the deliveries compare with the existing LAmax values?

• how do the LAeq levels whilst delivery activities are occurring compare with the LA90 values?

• how do the LAmax levels during the delivery activities compare with the LA90?

This type of analysis will help inform a discussion of the nature of the impact that has occurred. Consideration also needs to
be given to any features of the delivery noise, eg in terms of the frequency spectrum shape, tonality and general character of
the noise (impulsiveness) etc, that may give rise to a response different from that suggested in the data described above.

A conclusion will be drawn from this analysis about the extent the changes during the trial study have had on those
potentially affected using the generic standards and guidelines discussed previously.

It has to be accepted that there are no guidelines available that specifically apply to this situation but those guidelines that
do exist may assist in understanding the nature and extent of the effect of the noise from the proposed deliveries on those
affected. There are no specific noise limits that can be applied, although it is clear (especially at night) that levels that might
be expected to awake the vast majority of those affected should not occur. Account should be taken of the change in noise
level that is likely to be heard and how the noise may interfere with those affected – eg be a distraction, interfere with
conversation, cause annoyance, disturb sleep.

Account will also need to be taken of the numbers affected, but having said that, it does not necessarily mean that if only a
few people are affected, then there is not a problem. If those few are badly affected then a serious issue will exist.

Draft monitoring regime
The following is a draft monitoring regime which responds to the above analysis.

• First the retailer will carry out or commission a site visit. This will note any homes that could be affected by the pilot study.
  The site visit will also identify whether more than one possible noise source could affect homes, for example where some
  residences may be affected by vehicles on an approach road and others by activities within a delivery area

• The retailer will seek the co-operation of the local environmental health department. In cases where statutory curfews are
  in place, permission from the Environmental Health and Planning departments is essential prior to the initiation of the
  monitoring regime

• The selected residents will be asked by letter to co-operate with the trial study. If they refuse, the retailer should approach
  a neighbouring property. Recompense of £25 should be offered for any inconvenience

• Noise monitoring instruments will be installed at the selected properties. The instruments will have been calibrated at
  a United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) registered laboratory within the preceding two years. The microphone
  should be mounted one metre from the most exposed window on the most exposed façade of the residence. The precision
  sound level meter should be installed inside the dwelling

• Monitoring will continue for seven days. The instrument will log a continuous ‘A’ weighted time history

• The retailer will arrange to get data on precipitation and wind speed during the monitoring period. However there is no
  need to analyse any period when the weather is outside the parameters of BS 4142

• A technician will be on site for a total of 25 hours during the monitoring period. They will note what happened when.
  The record of activities that create noise will use the same categories as the National Noise Incidence Survey, expanded to

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                              Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

   distinguish different types of noise associated with deliveries. The technician will take short-term octave band records both
   during and between deliveries

• The retailer should get records of deliveries and activities covering when the technician was not on site

• After the trial study, analysis of the results will show the period LAeq, LA90, and LAmax noise levels when activities took place,
  and when they did not. This will be reported separately for the time periods specified by the EC directive. The assessment
  time periods will be one hour during the day and five minutes at night

• A technical report will be prepared setting out the work that has been carried out. It should be in sufficient detail to enable
  the method, assumptions and conclusions to be transparent and in terms of any noise prediction, able to be reproduced
  by others. The conclusion of the report should include a professional judgement on the extent of the impact (once all
  mitigation has been taken into account) so that the decision maker can properly take noise into account with the other
  issues (including the benefits to the retail outlet) in forming a decision about whether to permit




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Part Four: Night-time deliveries: light
Supermarkets need deliveries. Supermarkets in urban areas are often close to noise-sensitive properties, including people’s
homes. Scheduling deliveries outside normal working hours can:

• cut congestion

• be more time-efficient

• reduce air pollution from traffic

However, people are generally more sensitive to artificial light nuisance during the evening and even more so at night.
Re-scheduling deliveries into the evening and at night increases potential artificial light nuisance for those who live near
supermarkets with poor lighting control.

The potential increased disturbance to local residents will be easier if its based on a detailed knowledge of the size of the
disturbance. This project seeks to derive an appropriate monitoring regime for determining the light nuisance consequences of
out-of-working hours deliveries.

Guidance and standards
Town and Country Planning Act 1990
The act requires anyone who wants to install external lighting to get planning approval, although there is no requirement for
local authorities to investigate or resolve light pollution.

Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part III – statutory nuisance
Under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (as amended by section 102 of the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment
Act 2005) local authorities are required to investigate their area periodically for instances of “artificial light emitted from
premises so as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance”, and to take reasonable practicable steps to investigate complaints of
such nuisance. If satisfied that artificial lighting amounts to a statutory nuisance, or that a nuisance may occur or recur, the
local authority must serve an abatement notice under section 80 of the 1990 Act, requiring the nuisance to be abated, or that
its occurrence or recurrence is prohibited or restricted, within a specified timescale, and may require works to be carried out to
comply with the notice.

There is a 21 day period in which to appeal against an abatement notice in the magistrates’ court. If the appeal is
unsuccessful, or if one is not made, there is a fine of up to £20,000 upon summary conviction for non-compliance with or
breaching of an abatement notice.

Guidance on the light nuisance provisions in the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005 is available will be
available on Defra’s light nuisance page at http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/localenv/light/index.htm

Planning Policy Statement 23 (PPS 23)
Some local authorities have written lighting policy based on the guidance given in PPS 23: Planning and Pollution Control.
Local authority lighting policies tend to be in descriptive wording rather than quantifiable or measurable terms.

Local planning authorities can, under PPS 23, specify the type of lighting to be used on buildings as part of the planning
permission. It is intended that an Annex to PPS 23 on planning and light pollution will be published in the future.

Guidance notes for reducing light pollution
The Institute of Lighting Engineers has published guidance on reducing light pollution. The guidance suggests that local
planning authorities adopt a system of environmental zones as part of their lighting policies.




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Table 4.1 Obtrusive limitation for extending lighting installations

    Environmental zone            Sky glow       Light into windows            Source intensity            Building luminance
                                    ULR               E [Lux] (1)                 I [kcd] (2)               before curfew (3)
                                  [max %]        Before        After         Before          After        Average          Max
                                                 curfew       curfew         curfew         curfew        L[cd/m2]       L[cd/m2]
    E1                                   0          2             1             0              0              0              0
    E2                               2.5            5             1            0.5            0.5             5             10
    E3                               5.0            10            2            1.0            1.0            10             60
    E4                              15.0            25            5            2.5            2.5            25            150
Where:

ULR = Upward Light Ration of the installation (and is the maximum permitted percentage of luminaire flux for the total
      installation that goes directly into the sky

E        = Vertical Illuminance in Lux normal to glazing

I        = Light Intensity in Candelas

L        = Luminanace in Candelas per square metre

Table 4.1 sets quantifiable criteria for environmental zones. E1 is intrinsically dark areas, E2 is low brightness areas, E3 is
medium brightness areas and E4 is high brightness areas.

The measurement of the lighting limitations mentioned in table 4.1 is possible with conventional field instruments but
weather conditions must be right. Fog, rain, snow etc will affect the readings.

Summary
Some key points from the material reviewed above are:

• artificial light nuisance is regulated under the statutory nuisance regime of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (Part III)
  as amended by the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005

• there is planning guidance available to help local authorities develop lighting policies

• the ILE guidance on the reduction of light pollution is the only measurable lighting criteria

Draft monitoring regime
This is the first draft of a proposed monitoring regime which responds to the above analysis. First the retailer needs to
organise a site visit. This will note the potentially worst affected residences. Where light comes from more than one possible
source, the retailer will need to select more than one residence. The retailer should also enlist the co-operation of the local
environmental health department.

The retailer will write to the selected residents to seek their co-operation. If they do not wish to co-operate, the retailer should
contact neighbouring properties. The retailer should offer each household £25 in recompense for any inconvenience.

The retailer will arrange for light monitoring instruments to be installed at the selected properties. The instruments will have
been calibrated at a UKAS-registered laboratory within the preceding two years. The light monitoring instruments will be
mounted internally to the most exposed window on the most exposed façade of the residence.

Light will be monitored with the store’s exterior lighting and signage switched off. This will determine the background lighting
level. The light nuisance from the supermarket’s exterior lighting can then be established.

A visual survey of the immediate area and its lighting will be made. The survey will focus on the suitability of lighting for its
purpose and any contribution it makes to light pollution.




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The light monitoring equipment will also record lighting levels in the residence, so that false readings can be discounted. Light
monitoring will be carried out over seven days at a sampling frequency to be determined.

A technician will remain on site for 24 hours during the monitoring period to note what happens and when. This should
include when street lighting and exterior lighting is turned on and off and the timing of deliveries.

When the technician is not on site, store records will show when deliveries and other events took place. After the monitoring,
it will be possible to work out the range of light presented to the residence and to identify, if possible, the source of any light
nuisance.




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Part Five: Post trial study assessment
After the trial study all the evidence needs to be assessed. It will hopefully lead to conclusions that may be used when seeking
approval from a local authority for a relaxation of delivery restrictions.

The trial study partners would evaluate the evidence and draw their conclusions as objectively as possible. They would study
the following areas and include both the independent monitoring and the demonstrated benefits. Some of the benefits
overlap, so have been included more than once in the following sections. And naturally as each trial study location is unique,
degrees of possible gain will vary.

Environmental
• Reduced fleet vehicle usage at periods of traffic congestion

• Less local road congestion

• Improved access to the store service road and shared car park for pedestrians and/or motorists and/or delivery vehicle
  drivers – depending on access arrangements

• Improved safety at the store for both pedestrians and vehicles – depending on access arrangements

Community
• Less local traffic congestion

• Improved access to the store service road and shared car park for pedestrians and/or motorists and/or delivery vehicle
  drivers – depending on access arrangements

• Improved safety at the store for both pedestrians and vehicles – depending on access arrangements

• Full fresh food availability at the start of trading, to the benefit of customers

Commercial
• Reduced fuel costs (with fewer emissions)

• Fresh food now on the shelves at 8.00 am, maximising sales

• Greater stock availability from start of trading

• Increased sales and immediate replenishment, reducing wastage

• Consistent delivery time, improving daily operational planning

• Less delivery congestion

• Warehouse less congested, improving health and safety

• Greater stock merchandising before the store opens, which improves staff productivity and morale

• More productive, happier staff

Monitoring and assessment
• Independent noise and light recording and observation, both before and during the trial study

• Marketing questionnaire, conducted with local residents during the trial study

Noise and light monitoring
The format would vary depending on the location and perceived noise and light issues. But it is likely to consist of the
following.

Noise
Measurements to give a detailed description of noise over a single 24 hour period, carried out by an on-site technician. These
measurements can show the effect of specific events, such as a delivery vehicle arriving.


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Over a 24 hour period, five minute samples of the noise climate would be taken at various times. This would be at a
residential location deemed to be the one most likely to be adversely affected by noise and light pollution. A technician would
attend for a total of 24 hours over seven days. During these sampling periods the technician would record the standard noise
indices (LAeq, LA10, LA90 and Lmax) together with one-third octave frequency information. The technician would also keep a
diary of noise sources and activities.

Light
Light monitoring determines whether the headlights of delivery vehicles, external floodlights, warehouse lights or any other
activities associated with deliveries would affect nearby premises. Monitoring measures the light falling on the façade of
buildings near the delivery area, in candelas per m2. The results of the monitoring should show whether any light from night-
time deliveries is in keeping with established levels and residents are not being disturbed. If so, could the data then be used in
a submission to the local authority seeking a relaxation of delivery restrictions?

If the monitoring shows that residents are being disturbed, what could the retailer do to improve the situation? And are
any such improvements viable, practical and cost effective for the retailer to carry out before seeking a relaxation of delivery
restrictions?

Marketing questionnaire
A research survey
A marketing questionnaire can provide useful and constructive data to supplement the trial study model. It would reinforce
the most important aspects of the study – the views of the community.

Here is a sample methodology.

Background
The research aims to understand the effect of night-time deliveries to supermarkets at night on the quality of life of residents.

Method and sample
Face-to-face doorstep interviews with a predetermined number of residents.

Context and objectives
The questionnaire aims to identify whether residents had noticed any impact on their quality of life as a result of a delivery
being moved from day to night-time. The research should focus on:

• noise from vehicles, drivers and staff

• light from vehicles and store

• pollution/emissions

• other negative environmental effects

• effects on traffic

Interviewers should not refer to night-time deliveries directly in case they trigger a response based on residents’ pre-
conception of the disturbance these might cause. The questionnaire would cover the following areas and further probing
would follow, depending on interviewee response:

• traffic levels

• parking

• pollution from vehicles

• daytime traffic noise levels

• night-time traffic noise levels

• daytime other noise levels

• night-time other noise levels


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• litter

• night-time light pollution

The marketing research company’s conclusions would need to be evaluated to establish:

• whether residents’ quality of life was affected by night-time delivery

• whether indications that residents’ quality of life was not harmed, together with positive noise and light monitoring data,
  which could be used in a submission seeking a relaxation of delivery restrictions

• what remedial steps the retailer would need to take if the results were less positive

• whether such steps are practical and cost effective

Conclusion
A relaxation of delivery restrictions requires:

• realistic appraisal of a store where a trial study would be likely to succeed

• an accurate and comprehensive assessment of the site

• all aspects of the trial study project checklist followed

• all due diligence in the trial study procedures, training and protocols

• suitable monitoring and assessment by impartial organisations

• a transparent audit trail to ensure good practice compliance

A well researched and formulated trial study, carried out in keeping with the above, should give positive results that may be
used when applying to a local authority for a relaxation of delivery restrictions.

If evidence from a successful trial study results in approval for relaxation of delivery restrictions, it would set a useful precedent
that could be applied more widely.




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Part Six: About the templates
The toolkit contains a range of templates. They are not definitive, but provide structured guidelines that you can adapt to fit
your needs.

The templates were developed from trial studies carried out over a three-month period in 2005. These trial studies involved a
leading British supermarket retailer in co-operation with a London based transport organisation.

The templates illustrate an imaginary supermarket retailer – ‘Tindill’ – and transport group – ‘UK TrafficMove’. The trial study is
located in the fictional town of ‘Anytown’.

Annex A          Consultation: Sample letter from a retailer to a local authority

Annex B          Consultation: Sample market research questionnaire

Annex C          So you want to undertake a trial study? – Sample retailer checklist

Annex D          Checklists for night-time delivery site investigation reports – blank

Annex E          Checklists for night-time delivery site investigation reports – completed

Annex F          Night-time delivery – Partners’ tasks/outputs/responsibilities – blank

Annex G          Night-time delivery – Partners’ tasks/outputs/responsibilities – completed

Annex H          Night-time delivery training manuals




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Annex A: Consultation: Sample letter from a retailer to a local authority


 Dear [Client’s name here]

 Tindill Night-Time Delivery Trial

 [Name of either retailer and/or project partner goes here] would like to assess impartially the impact of night-time
 deliveries to food stores. These deliveries have the potential to reduce traffic congestion and improve safety and the
 environment. We feel such a trial would also improve operational efficiency.

 [Name of either retailer and/or project partner goes here] role is to ensure that any such trial balances operational
 efficiency with the needs of residents, and to ensure the rigour of the research techniques.

 We want to carry out a night-time delivery trial at the Tindill store at [insert address]. We propose a three-month night-
 time delivery trial starting in [Month]. We will also conduct technical monitoring and face-to-face consultation one
 month into the trial. The technical monitoring will objectively measure noise and light emissions while the consultation
 will gauge residents’ views on local environmental issues. The attached questionnaire would form the basis of this
 consultation.

 At present the store voluntarily restricts deliveries between 10pm and 7am. Anecdotally we believe this increases traffic
 congestion, reduces efficiency and, with peak congestion travelling time, increases delivery vehicle fuel consumption with
 attendant increases in emissions and air pollution.

 We have produced the attached document, Making Night-Time Deliveries: Methodology and Guidance. This sets out the
 methodology we will follow when conducting the night-time delivery trial in order to minimise or mitigate any adverse
 effects on residents.

 The methodology is in three parts.

 • Site investigation report – this describes the current situation, our proposed operational changes, their anticipated
   effects and some initial improvements. The report also includes staff training requirements and a protocol to help in
   handling any complaints relating to the trial

 • Technical monitoring – this offers guidance on conducting noise and light monitoring. The monitoring is to identify
   the day and night-time noise and light levels. Monitoring will measure both ‘before’ (current situation) and ‘after’
   (during trial study). Monitoring will be conducted independently by consultants appointed by [Name of either retailer
   and/or project partner goes here]

 • Consultation – one month into the trial, residents who stand to be affected by night-time deliveries will be consulted
   to determine their views on local environmental issues. We will not tell residents of the trial in advance so as not
   to bias the outcome of the survey. An independent market research firm will consult on behalf of [Name of either
   retailer and/or project partner]

 We hope that the methodology will allow the trial of night-time deliveries to go ahead without a noise abatement notice
 being served on the store.

 We would be grateful for your comments on our proposed approach and any concerns that you may have. Should you
 need any further information please do not hesitate to contact [name] on telephone [number].




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Annex B: Consultation: sample market research questionnaire
MARKET RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE


Job number      Serial number        Card

       (1)     (2)      (3)      (4)        (5)     (6)   (7)     (8)

                        0         7         8       7

Good afternoon/evening. My name is ______________ and I am an independent research consultant/from an independent
market research company – and I’m conducting some research into local transport issues amongst local residents on behalf of
[name of questionnaire commissioning party].

Have you got a few minutes to answer some questions?

QA     Can I just check first of all – is this your normal place of residence?

               Yes                          Continue

               No                           Close

QB     And, approximately, how long have you been living here?

               (11)

               Less than a week             Close

               1-4 weeks                    Close

               Longer than a month – less than 6 months                   continue   1

               6-12 months                                                continue   2

               1-2 years                                                  continue   3

               Longer                                                     continue   4

               Don’t know                                                 continue   5

Q1     [Name of questionnaire commissioning party] is interested in hearing local residents’ views about the area in which
       they live. First of all, taking all things into account, how satisfied are you with this area?

       Show card

               Not at all                                                                     Completely
               satisfied                                                                       satisfied

               0        1        2          3       4     5      6        7      8       9    10      dk              ()

Q2     Why do you say that?

       Score 0-5




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       Score 6-10




Q3     And how satisfied are you with each of the following specific local issues? Show card

       Traffic levels

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()

       Availability of parking

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()

       Levels of pollution from vehicles

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()

       Traffic noise levels – daytime

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()

       Traffic noise levels – night-time

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()

       Other noise levels – daytime

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()

       Other noise levels – night-time

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()

       Litter

                Not at all                                                                   Completely
                satisfied                                                                     satisfied

                0       1       2       3      4       5       6      7       8       9      10     dk    ()



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         Light pollution – night-time

                 Not at all                                                                    Completely
                 satisfied                                                                      satisfied

                 0       1        2       3        4       5       6        7   8       9      10      dk             ()

Q4       For each of these issues I would like you to tell me...

         a) whether or not there has been any change over the last few months and, if so,

         b) is it better or worse?

         Show card

         a) Change                b)

                         Yes      No               Much better     Better       Worse          Much worse
Traffic levels            1        2       ()       1               2            3              4



Parking                                   ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4



Pollution from vehicles                   ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4



Daytime traffic noise levels               ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4



Night-time traffic noise levels            ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4



Daytime other noise levels                ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4



Night-time other noise levels             ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4



Litter                                    ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4

Light pollution, night-time               ()       1       2       ()       1   2       3      4

         If any coded ‘Worse’ or ‘Much worse’ at Q4b continue – others skip to Classification

Q5a      Ask for all issues which are Worse or Much worse (Q4b any codes 3 or 4)
         Why is it now worse than before with regard to (Q4b)? Probe fully for reasons/causes

         Traffic levels



                                                                                                                      ()




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       Parking



                                                                                                           ()



       Pollution from vehicles



                                                                                                           ()



       Daytime TRAFFIC noise levels



                                                                                                           ()



       Night-time TRAFFIC noise levels
       (probe very fully here – why is it worse, where is it coming from, what has been the impact, etc)



                                                                                                           ()



       Daytime OTHER noise levels



                                                                                                           ()




       Night-time OTHER noise levels



                                                                                                           ()



       Litter



                                                                                                           ()



       Light pollution, night-time
       (probe very fully here – why is it worse, where is it coming from, what has been the impact, etc)



                                                                                                           ()




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Q5b   Ask for all issues which are worse or much worse (Q4b any codes 3 or 4)
      And what do you think could be done to improve the situation (Q4b)? Probe fully for improvements

      Traffic levels



                                                                                                               ()



      Parking



                                                                                                               ()



      Pollution from vehicles



                                                                                                               ()



      Daytime TRAFFIC noise levels



                                                                                                               ()



      Night-time TRAFFIC noise levels



                                                                                                               ()



      Daytime OTHER noise levels



                                                                                                               ()



      Night-time OTHER noise levels



                                                                                                               ()



      Litter



                                                                                                               ()




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       Light pollution, night-time



                                                                                                                     ()



Q6     a) Have you taken any action with regard to (.........any considered worse or much worse at Q4b)?

       b) Are you planning to take any action with regard to (...........any considered worse or much worse   at Q4b)?

                                                              a)                       b)
                                                              Yes      No              Yes     No      DK

       Traffic                                                 1        2       ()      1       2       3      ()

       Parking                                         ()     1        2       ()      1       2       3

       Pollution from vehicles                         ()     1        2       ()      1       2       3

       Daytime traffic noise levels                     ()     1        2       ()      1       2       3

       Night-time traffic noise levels                  ()     1        2       ()      1       2       3

       Daytime other noise levels                      ()     1        2       ()      1       2       3

                                                                       Yes     No              Yes     No     DK

       Night-time other noise levels                   ()     1        2       ()      1       2        3

       Litter                                                 ()       1       2       ()      1       2      3

       Light pollution, night time                            ()       1       2       ()      1       2      3

       If no action taken or considered continue – others skip to Q8

Q7     Why aren’t you considering any action?

       Do not prompt – probe fully

                 Don’t know who to complain to*                        1

                 Not really that bad                                   2

                 Not worth it                                          3

                 No point – nothing would be done about it             4

                 Doesn’t really affect me                              5

                 Moving house soon                                     6

                 Other                                                 7




       * If code 1, ask if respondent would like us to pass their name on to [name of questionnaire commissioning party]

                 Yes             1

                 No              2

       Any action already taken at Q6a continue – others skip to Q9



28 Delivery improvement toolkit
                           Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

Q8     What action have you taken regarding (...Q6a)? Probe – anything else?

       Do not prompt – allow multicode

                                                             Traffic      Parking      Vehicle       Day traffic     Night
                                                                                     pollution        noise        traffic
                                                                                                                   noise
                                                               ()              ()        ()             ()           ()
Contacting local council                                       1               1         1              1            1
Contacting local residents’ society/group                      2               2         2              2            2
Contacting organisation responsible for problem (eg            3               3         3              3            3
national rail, shops, pubs/bars etc)
Contacting police                                              4               4         4              4            4
Monitoring problem                                             5               5         5              5            5
Contacting [name of questionnaire commissioning party]         6               6         6              6            6
Contacting the local authority                                 7               7         7              7            7
Other (write in)                                               8               8         8              8            8




                                                                           Day        Night           Litter       Light
                                                                         – other     – other                     pollution
                                                                          noise       noise
Contacting local council                                                       ()       ()              ()           ()
Contacting local residents’ society/group                                      1        1               1            1
Contacting organisation responsible for problem                                2        2               2            2
(eg national rail, shops, pubs/bars etc)
Contacting police                                                              3        3               3            3
Monitoring problem                                                             4        4               4            4
Contacting [name of questionnaire commissioning party]                         5        5               5            5
Contacting the local authority                                                 6        6               6            6
Other (write in)                                                               7        7               7            7




                                                                               8        8               8            8

       Any action being considered at Q6b continue – others skip to Classification




                                                                                             Delivery improvement toolkit 29
                              Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

Q9        What action are you considering regarding (...Q6b)? Probe – anything else?

          Do not prompt – allow multicode

                                                                Traffic      Parking      Vehicle    Day traffic    Night
                                                                                        pollution     noise       traffic
                                                                                                                  noise
                                                                  ()           ()          ()           ()          ()
 Contacting local council                                         1            1           1            1           1
 Contacting local residents’ society/group                        2            2           2            2           2
 Contacting organisation responsible for problem (eg              3            3           3            3           3
 national rail, shops, pubs/bars etc)
 Contacting police                                                4            4           4            4           4
 Monitoring problem                                               5            5           5            5           5
 Contacting [name of questionnaire commissioning party]           6            6           6            6           6
 Contacting the local authority                                   7            7           7            7           7
 Other (write in)                                                 8            8           8            8           8




                                                                               Day       Night        Litter       Light
                                                                             – other    – other                  pollution
                                                                              noise      noise
                                                                               ()          ()           ()          ()
 Contacting local council                                                      1           1            1           1
 Contacting local residents’ society/group                                     2           2            2           2
 Contacting organisation responsible for problem                               3           3            3           3
 (eg national rail, shops, pubs/bars etc)
 Contacting police                                                             4           4            4           4
 Monitoring problem                                                            5           5            5           5
 Contacting [name of questionnaire commissioning party]                        6           6            6           6
 Contacting the local authority                                                7           7            7           7
 Other (write in)                                                              8           8            8           8




CLASSIFICATION

Name

Address



Postcode

Tel no (unless asked above)



30 Delivery improvement toolkit
                               Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

Occupation of head of household (write in)



Occupation/job title of the person who contributes most financially to the household (WRITE IN)

                  Age     18-24       1

                          25-34       2

                          35-44       3

                          45-54       4

                          55+         5                                                                               ()

                  SEG     AB          1

                          C1          2

                          C2          3

                          DE          4

                  Sex:    Male        1

                          Female      2

        Working status                    ()              Adults in HH                  ()

        Full time                         1               One                           1

        Part time                         2               Two                           2

        Unemployed – seeking work         3               Three or more                 3

        Not working                       4

        Student                           5

        Retired                           6

        Children (ages under 5) in HH ()                  Children (ages 6-15) in HH    ()

        None                              1               None                          1

        One                               2               One                           2

        Two                               3               Two                           3

        Three plus                        4               Three plus                    4

Interview length (mins)

Thank you very much for your help

I confirm that this interview was administered according to the MRS Code of Conduct



Interviewer                                        Date                          Signature




                                                                                              Delivery improvement toolkit 31
                                  Annex C: So you want to undertake a trial study? – sample retailer checklist
                                  STAGE ONE – STORE SELECTION
                                  Step                                                                           Check Y/N   Action                     Move to
                                    1 Identify store for inclusion                                                      Y    Proceed →                    Step 2
                                    2 Determine environmental benefits – less pollution/congestion                      Y/N   Proceed if → Y               Step 3
                                    3 Determine commercial benefit – less fuel/product availability                     Y/N   Proceed even if N →          Step 4
                                    4 Consultation with ‘retail’ – establish curfew type/time                           Y    Proceed →                  Stage 2




32 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                  STAGE TWO – STORE VISITATION
                                  Step                                                                           Check Y/N   Action                     Move to
                                    1 Determine any likely residential issues. Can they be overcome?                   Y/N   Proceed only if Y →          Step 2
                                    2 Determine optimum delivery times/frequency                                        Y    Proceed →                    Step 3
                                    3 Discuss Curfew issues EHA/LA or voluntary in relation to 1 above                  Y    Proceed →                    Step 4
                                    4 Site survey with evidential photographs depicting and incorporating:
                                          • vehicular access – street infrastructure/furniture-manoeuvring              Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • observe existing congestion store/surrounding areas                         Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • vehicle noise/light emissions – engine/brakes/gear/fridge/lights            Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • unloading area infrastructure – shutter type/walls/screening                Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • method of unloading – scissor lift/tail lift/pump truck/bank/plate          Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • distance between trailer and warehouse                                      Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • generated unloading noise, taking above into account                         Y   Proceed →
                                          • distance and location of residential property. Acceptable?                 Y/N   Proceed only if Y →        Stage 3

                                  STAGE 3 – COST IMPLICATIONS
                                  Progress path                                                                  Check Y/N   Action                     Move to
                                    1 A full cost evaluation covering
                                          • unloading infrastructure changes incorporating                              Y    Proceed →                        –
                                                                                                                                                                            Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                          • noise reduction/improvement including
                                          • sound deadening screens/walls/electric shutter operation;                   Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • silent running pump trucks                                                  Y    Proceed →                        –
                                          • changes to store personnel                                                  Y    Proceed →                  Stage 4




                                                                                                                                                   Continued on next page
                                  STAGE 4 – COST DECISION
                                  Progress path                                                                       Check Y/N   Action                Move to
                                    1 Is the cumulative expenditure required cost effective for a curfew initiative
                                      with this store?                                                                      Y/N   Proceed only if Y →   Stage 5

                                  STAGE 5 – CURFEW TYPE
                                  Progress path                                                                       Check Y/N   Action                Move to
                                    1 Establish nature of curfew – EHO/LA or voluntary                                       Y    Proceed →             Stage 6

                                  STAGE 6 – COMMUNICATION/LOCAL RESIDENTS AND LOCAL AUTHORITY
                                  Progress path                                                                       Check Y/N   Action                Move to
                                    1 If curfew of EHO/LA nature, inform and communicate as a pre-requisite,
                                      prior to trial-study, the following:
                                          • consult/inform local authority of proposals                                      Y    Proceed →                –
                                          • local residents
                                     2 If curfew of voluntary nature, inform and communicate, as                             Y    Proceed →                –
                                      a pre-requisite, prior to trial study, the following:
                                          • consult/inform local authority of proposals                                      Y    Proceed →                –
                                          • local residents – if so agreed by both parties                                   Y    Proceed →                –
                                    3 If curfew of voluntary nature, inform and communicate, prior to trial-study,
                                      using or not using the following, dependent upon site specific circumstances:
                                          • create store display, depicting proposals                                        Y    Proceed →                –
                                          • distribute local ‘flyer’ to residents detailing proposals                         Y    Proceed →                –
                                          • establish store contact to address residents’ concerns                           Y    Proceed →                –
                                          • inform local councillor, in advisory manner, of proposals                        Y    Proceed →             Stage 7

                                  STAGE 7 – LOCAL AUTHORITY
                                  Progress path                                                                       Check Y/N   Action                Move to
                                    1 If EHO curfew proceed as per first bullet point of 1 above                              Y    Proceed →                –
                                                                                                                                                                  Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                    2 Combined Tindill/UKTrafficMove representation to local authority                        Y    Proceed →                –
                                    3 Integrated involvement of Tindill Estate Managers                                      Y    Proceed →                –
                                    4 Such representation to be based on environmental grounds as
                                      primary consideration                                                                  Y    Proceed →                –
                                    5 Meetings with local authority representatives as required                              Y    Proceed →                –
                                       Await approval (or otherwise) of proposal by local authority                         Y/N   Proceed →                –
                                    6 If proposal rejected, consider appeal                                                 Y/N   Proceed →                –




Delivery improvement toolkit 33
                                    7 If appeal successful and/or approval granted                                           Y    Proceed →             Stage 8
                                  STAGE 8 – SITE INVESTIGATION REPORT
                                  Progress path                                                                          Check Y/N   Action          Move to
                                    1 Prepare full and comprehensive site investigation report, incorporating and               Y    Proceed →        Stage 9
                                      employing, as appropriate, all actions taken in Stage 1 – Stage 7 above.
                                      Circulation and agreement between trial-study partners.

                                  STAGE 9 – PRE IMPLEMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
                                  Progress path                                                                          Check Y/N   Action          Move to
                                    1 Physical infrastructure changes/enhancements as required to store unloading area          Y    Proceed →              –




34 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                    2 Modifications and improvements/equipment purchase, as deemed necessary to                  Y    Proceed →              –
                                      lessen noise disturbance
                                    3 Retraining of store staff in unloading/loading – best practice                            Y    Proceed →              –
                                    4 Training of store reception staff in ‘complaints’ procedure                               Y    Proceed →              –
                                    5 Training of duty manager in ‘complaints’ procedure                                        Y    Proceed →              –
                                    6 Driver training in procedures and communication                                           Y    Proceed →              –
                                    7 Review of fleet specifications ensuring compliance with proposal requirements               Y    Proceed →              –
                                    8 Establish maximum delivery duration – worst case scenario                                 Y    Proceed →       Stage 10


                                  STAGE 10 – TRIAL-STUDY
                                  Progress path                                                                          Check Y/N   Action          Move to
                                    1 Noise and light independent controlled monitoring of noise and light pollution            Y    Proceed →              –
                                      of noise and light pollution prior to and during trial-study
                                    2 Comparative monitoring of:
                                          • duration of delivery (pre trial to trial)                                           Y    Proceed →              –
                                          • traffic congestion (pre trial to trial)                                              Y    Proceed →              –
                                          • access and safety considerations                                                    Y    Proceed →       Stage 11
                                                                                                                                                                          Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                                                                                                                                 Continued on next page
                                  STAGE 11 – EVALUATION OF TRIAL-STUDY
                                  Progress path                                                                          Check Y/N   Action      Move to
                                    1 Evaluation report of independent noise and light monitoring agency available
                                      in the public domain. If report benign, combine with trial-study partners
                                      demonstrating recorded benefits:
                                          • improved vehicular access to store                                                  Y    Proceed →      –
                                          • improved safety considerations at store                                             Y    Proceed →      –
                                          • reduced congestion at store and surrounding roads                                   Y    Proceed →      –
                                          • lessened vehicle usage – fewer deliveries                                           Y    Proceed →      –
                                          • more efficient vehicle operation with commensurate reduced fuel
                                            consumption, reduced emissions
                                          • commercial benefits including improved product availability, increased
                                            sales, greater customer satisfaction, lessened food wastage, more efficient
                                            use of staff and warehouse space                                                    Y    Proceed →   Stage 12

                                  STAGE 12 – POST TRIAL STUDY
                                  Progress path                                                                          Check Y/N   Action      Move to
                                    1 If curfew of voluntary nature, inform and communicate, as                                 Y    Proceed →      –
                                      appropriate, the proposal to make trial study deliveries a permanent
                                      feature, by the methods employed at Stage 6
                                    2 If curfew of environmental health nature, perform stages as                               Y    Proceed →      –
                                      described at 3 below
                                    3 Inform local authority of proposal to make trial study deliveries a permanent
                                       feature. (It is assumed that previously conducted negotiations with LA would
                                       have incorporated such proposal to be made, subject to a successful trial study
                                       and positive local residential feedback.)                                                Y    Proceed →      –
                                    4 Assuming proposal accepted irrespective of curfew nature,                                 Y    Proceed →      –
                                      implement permanent delivery proposal
                                    5 Reassure local authority, local councillor, and local residents of intention to
                                                                                                                                                            Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                      have permanent store contact available for receiving and addressing any
                                      aspect of residential concern with regard to deliveries                                   Y    Proceed →     End




Delivery improvement toolkit 35
                                  Annex D: Checklists for night-time delivery site investigation reports – blank
                                  1.1 Store level survey (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Current situation                                                             Comment   Criteria met
                                  Store name and address
                                  Store manager name and contact details, including other relevant
                                  contacts
                                  Curfew type and times restricted
                                  Delivery time




36 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                  Delivery frequency – lorry type and number
                                  Provide details on additional delivery lorries for bread, milk, cigarettes,
                                  newspapers, etc
                                  Distance in kms travelled per lorry
                                  Fuel use in litres
                                  Lorry route from RDC to store
                                  Provide comments detailing current problems and issues and how they
                                  may, if required, be resolved (max 150 words)
                                  Evidence in the form of photo’s detailing current concerns
                                  Commercial optimum – preferred delivery situation                             Comment    Criteria met
                                  Delivery time
                                  Delivery frequency – lorry type and number
                                  Will the number of lorries delivering to the store decrease?
                                  Is there an opportunity for merged loads?
                                  Will lorry reuse occur?
                                  Reduction in kms travelled
                                                                                                                                          Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Fuel savings in litres/emission savings
                                  Lorry route from RDC to store (if different to above)
                                  Provide supporting comments on how changing the delivery situation to
                                  the commercial optimum will improve local conditions (max 150 words)
                                  1.2 Physical level survey (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Lorry access                                                                 Comment   Criteria met
                                  Provide a brief description of the general area
                                  Local access road type and dimensions
                                  Local access road condition. Identify also possible noise sources – kerbs,
                                  drains etc
                                  Does the local access road require repairs to reduce noise?
                                  Detail the immediate delivery bay access
                                  Comment on perceived changes to the local access road or delivery bay
                                  access road that could improve conditions (if any)
                                  Provide a plan detailing the lorry path, residential locations and the
                                  delivery area
                                  Photos showing the lorry path and road condition including the delivery
                                  bay access
                                  Lorry noise and light                                                        Comment   Criteria met
                                  Compliance with DfT best practice (control of body noise from commercial
                                  vehicles)
                                  Identify lorry and trailer type and model
                                  Identify all lorry noise sources and how they can be reduced
                                  Identify all lorry light sources and how they can be reduced
                                  Unloading area                                                               Comment   Criteria met
                                  Type of delivery bay and condition
                                  Number of and proximity of residents (and other sensitive establishments)
                                  to the unloading area/delivery bay. Provide relevant addresses
                                  Method of unloading and equipment used
                                                                                                                                        Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Identify all noises associated with the unloading of the lorry
                                  Plan drawing of the delivery bay area
                                  Photos of the delivery bay/unloading area
                                  Store relationship with local residents                                      Comment   Criteria met
                                  Parking availability




Delivery improvement toolkit 37
                                  Current traffic conditions and congestion issues
                                  Health and safety concerns
                                  Identify any previous residential contact and/or complaints

                                  1.3 Ameliorative measures (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Lorry and trailer                                                          Comment   Criteria met
                                  Lorry diesel powered
                                  Trailer to be equipped with disc brakes and road friendly suspension




38 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                  Ensure trailer shutter is modern and well maintained
                                  Ensure reversing alarm is switched off
                                  Ensure cab radio and refrigeration unit are switched off when lorry is
                                  being unloaded
                                  Ensure high beams and headlights are not used. Sidelights are to be used
                                  as soon as safely possible and switched off when not in use
                                  Introduction of rev limiters
                                  Identify any other measures to reduce lorry and trailer noise and light
                                  Delivery bay/area                                                          Comment   Criteria met
                                  Ensure roller shutters are modern and well maintained
                                  Install electronic doors or enclose metal chain in rubber sheath
                                  Install rubber matted floor where appropriate
                                  Ensure rubber buffers/padding are installed to scissor lifts where
                                  appropriate
                                  Repair damaged and uneven asphalt/concrete delivery bay floor
                                  Ensure modern, well maintained pallet jacks and other equipment is used.
                                  Rubber wheels are introduced where appropriate
                                                                                                                                                 Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Installation of sound deadening canopies, screens or walls
                                  Tension roll cages where appropriate to stop loose metal parts
                                  Identify any other measures to reduce delivery bay noise and light
                                  Is screening appropriate for reducing light glare?
                                  Should lamp pole heights be adjusted to minimise light glare?


                                                                                                                        Continued on next page
                                  Is the fitting of lamp hoods to reduce light glare/loss appropriate?
                                  Are lights angled to ensure that lighting is where it is needed?
                                  Is the supermarket adjacent to nature reserve? If so, the potential impacts
                                  of night-time noise and light on biodiversity are to be considered and
                                  mitigation measures developed

                                  1.4 Training guidelines (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Driver training                                                                 Comment   Criteria met
                                  Ensure the driver is aware of the importance of quiet driving
                                  Familiarise driver with access path and delivery bay/area
                                  Driver to be trained in appropriate acceleration, braking and manoeuvring
                                  within the access road and delivery bay
                                  Reversing alarm and radio to be switched off
                                  Appropriate opening/closing of cabin doors and trailer shutter
                                  Sensitive use of headlights
                                  Store staff training – unloading procedures                                     Comment   Criteria met
                                  Ensure store staff are aware of the importance of quiet working
                                  techniques. Night-crew supervisor responsibilities
                                  Identify each activity required to unload and reload (if necessary)
                                  Identify different types of deliveries and differences
                                  Procedures for discreet acknowledgment of the delivery vehicle’s arrival
                                  Procedure for unloading the lorry and reloading the lorry (if necessary)
                                  Appraisal of store unloading equipment including pump trucks, pallet
                                  jacks, etc to ensure they are well maintained and efficient
                                  Procedure for handling non-retail deliveries – bread, newspapers,
                                  cigarettes etc
                                                                                                                                           Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Identify delivery bay requirements – to include allocating areas for pallets,
                                  containers, paper bails etc
                                  Recovery procedures for accidental and excessive noise, light and
                                  environmental pollution
                                  Procedure for waste disposal and pick up and removal




Delivery improvement toolkit 39
                                  1.5 Protocol (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Protocol for handling store complaints                                  Comment   Criteria met
                                  Identify staff members to handle store complaints
                                  Staff trained to process phone, letter, face to face and residential
                                  complaints be they direct or passed on from the borough
                                  Procedures to follow up complaint and remedial action as appropriate
                                  Basic monitoring procedure to follow up resident/s (and/or borough)
                                  concerns after remedial action has been undertaken. This to determine




40 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                  effectiveness and maintain an expected level of amenity
                                  Development of complaint specific audit trails
                                                                                                                                   Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries
                                  Annex E: Checklists for night-time delivery site investigation reports – completed
                                  1.1 Store level survey (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Current situation                                                             Comment                                                                     Criteria met
                                  Store name and address                                                        Tindill Supermarkets, 127-134, High St, Anytown, Anycounty LV18 2JW
                                  Store manager name and contact details, including other relevant              Store Manager – Mike Thomas
                                  contacts                                                                      Duty Manager – Jo Frankish
                                                                                                                                                     } 01888-232323
                                  Curfew type and times restricted                                              Voluntary curfew – 22:00 – 07:00
                                  Delivery time                                                                 07:00 – 07:30
                                  Delivery frequency – lorry type and number                                    One – (possibly two if balance outstanding)
                                  Provide details on additional delivery lorries for bread, milk, cigarettes,   Bread, milk, and newspapers are non Tindill deliveries
                                  newspapers, etc                                                               Cigarettes are Tindill delivered with ambient products
                                  Distance in kms travelled per lorry                                           56 kms – Lesingtown RDC to store. 112 kms overall trip
                                  Fuel use in litres                                                            Diesel – 32.94 litres overall trip
                                  Lorry route from RDC to store                                                 Route details – see site survey/investigation report
                                  Provide comments detailing current problems and issues and how they           Resume drafted – see site survey/investigation report
                                  may, if required, be resolved (max 150 words)
                                  Evidence in the form of photo’s detailing current concerns                    Relevant accompanying photographs. – see site survey/investigation report
                                  Commercial optimum – preferred delivery situation                             Comment                                                                      Criteria met
                                  Delivery time                                                                 05:00 – 06:00
                                  Delivery frequency – lorry type and number                                    One delivery only. Diesel powered articulated lgv
                                  Will the number of lorries delivering to the store decrease?                  Yes
                                  Is there an opportunity for merged loads?                                     Yes
                                  Will lorry reuse occur?                                                       Yes – but night-time delivery precludes the use of more than one lorry
                                                                                                                delivering to the same location at peak period travelling times
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Reduction in kms travelled                                                    None
                                  Fuel savings in litres/emission savings                                       To be measured when trial study underway. Quantifiable savings in fuel
                                                                                                                costs (25%) and reduction in fuel type/noxious emissions
                                  Lorry route from RDC to store (if different to above)                         Route for proposed delivery times remains as at present
                                  Provide supporting comments on how changing the delivery situation to         Qualifying submission drafted – see site survey/investigation report
                                  the commercial optimum will improve local conditions (max 150 words)




Delivery improvement toolkit 41
                                  1.2 Physical level survey (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Lorry access                                                                 Comment                                                                       Criteria met
                                  Provide a brief description of the general area                              Mainly commercial in aspect with some residential property
                                  Local access road type and dimensions                                        Communal car park with access road – 10 metres width – leading to
                                                                                                               delivery bay
                                  Local access road condition. Identify also possible noise sources – kerbs,   Access road to car park and car park road surface – good condition.
                                  drains etc                                                                   Recent renovation. No noise sources
                                  Does the local access road require repairs to reduce noise?                  No remedial work considered necessary. (Boroughs moniter and repair as




42 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                                                                                               required)
                                  Detail the immediate delivery bay access                                     Access road to communal car park and delivery bay
                                  Comment on perceived changes to the local access road or delivery bay        Access deemed acceptable. However present delivery times necessitate
                                  access road that could improve conditions (if any)                           manoeuvring whilst car park in use. Proposed delivery times remove this
                                                                                                               dangerous health and safety element
                                  Provide a plan detailing the lorry path, residential locations and the       Plan detailing vehicle path, local access road, car park, delivery bay and
                                  delivery area                                                                residential locations – see site survey/investigation report
                                  Photos showing the lorry path and road condition including the delivery      Photographs of aforementioned – see site survey/investigation report
                                  bay access
                                  Lorry noise and light                                                        Comment                                                                       Criteria met
                                  Compliance with DfT best practice (control of body noise from commercial Compliance to DETR Control of Body Noise from Commercial Vehicles
                                  vehicles)                                                                – Best Practice maintained with Driver Training
                                  Identify lorry and trailer type and model                                    Diesel powered Scania 114L tractor unit with accompanying disc braked
                                                                                                               tandem axle 40’ trailer equipped with RFS
                                  Identify all lorry noise sources and how they can be reduced                 Relevant noise sources and counter measures – see site survey/
                                                                                                               investigation report
                                  Identify all lorry light sources and how they can be reduced                 Relevant light sources and counter measures – see site survey/investigation
                                                                                                               report
                                  Unloading area                                                               Comment                                                                       Criteria met
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Type of delivery bay and condition                                           Tunnel bay. 9’ wall on eastern face
                                  Number of and proximity of residents (and other sensitive establishments)    Approx 10 flats – 70 mtrs East – 14 houses – 55 mtrs West – 10 houses
                                  to the unloading area/delivery bay. Provide relevant addresses               100 mtrs North – 10 houses – 200 mtrs South East – see site survey/
                                                                                                               investigation report
                                  Method of unloading and equipment used                                       Scissor lift – additional pump truck use
                                  Identify all noises associated with the unloading of the lorry               Relevant noise sources identified – see site survey/investigation report


                                                                                                                                                                                              Continued on next page
                                  Plan drawing of the delivery bay area                                      Plan drafted – see site survey/investigation report
                                  Photos of the delivery bay/unloading area                                  Photographs of aforementioned – see site survey/investigation
                                  Store relationship with local residents                                    Comment                                                                  Criteria met
                                  Parking availability                                                       At present delivery times – in car park. Proposed delivery times – no
                                                                                                             parking necessary
                                  Current traffic conditions and congestion issues                            At present delivery times, heavy traffic and congestion. At proposed
                                                                                                             delivery times, light traffic conditions and no congestion
                                  Health and safety concerns                                                 At present delivery times – the presence of traffic and pedestrians. At
                                                                                                             proposed delivery times – an absence of traffic and pedestrians
                                  Identify any previous residential contact and/or complaints                To be investigated – see site survey/investigation report

                                  1.3 Ameliorative measures (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Lorry and trailer                                                          Comment                                                                  Criteria met
                                  Lorry diesel powered                                                       Yes
                                  Trailer to be equipped with disc brakes and road friendly suspension       Yes
                                  Ensure trailer shutter is modern and well maintained                       Yes – all trailers are subject to mandatory servicing every six weeks
                                  Ensure reversing alarm is switched off                                     Yes. Details in driver training documentation
                                  Ensure cab radio and refrigeration unit are switched off when lorry is     Yes. Details in driver training documentation
                                  being unloaded
                                  Ensure high beams and headlights are not used. Sidelights are to be used   Yes. Details in driver training documentation
                                  as soon as safely possible and switched off when not in use
                                  Introduction of rev limiters                                               Tractor units have audible alarms indicating over revving
                                  Identify any other measures to reduce lorry and trailer noise and light    Best practice – driver training
                                  Delivery bay/area                                                          Comment                                                                  Criteria met
                                  Ensure roller shutters are modern and well maintained                      Electronically operated shutter subject to maintenance service
                                  Install electronic doors or enclose metal chain in rubber sheath           Yes – as applicable
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Install rubber matted floor where appropriate                               Lift floor area comprising of synthetic covering
                                  Ensure rubber buffers/padding are installed to scissor lifts where         Padding applied where appropriate
                                  appropriate
                                  Repair damaged and uneven asphalt/concrete delivery bay floor               Warehouse internal floor sound and up to standard
                                  Ensure modern, well maintained pallet jacks and other equipment is used.   Pallet jacks – neoprene wheel equipped, and subject to manufacturer’s
                                  Rubber wheels are introduced where appropriate                             maintenance contract
                                  Installation of sound deadening canopies, screens or walls                 Walled eastern face – extending canopy -2 yrs old – in existence




Delivery improvement toolkit 43
                                  Tension roll cages where appropriate to stop loose metal parts                Not applicable – palletised delivery only
                                  Identify any other measures to reduce delivery bay noise and light            Best practice – store and driver training – External bay area
                                  Is screening appropriate for reducing light glare?                            Not applicable – existing screen contains light glare within
                                  Should lamp pole heights be adjusted to minimise light glare?                 Not applicable – no poled lights in situ
                                  Is the fitting of lamp hoods to reduce light glare/loss appropriate?           Not applicable – internal bay lighting – hood(s) fitted if appropriate
                                  Are lights angled to ensure that lighting is where it is needed?              Yes – on internal bay lighting
                                  Is the supermarket adjacent to nature reserve? If so, the potential impacts   Not applicable
                                  of night-time noise and light on biodiversity are to be considered and




44 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                  mitigation measures developed

                                  1.4 Training guidelines (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Driver training                                                               Comment                                                                        Criteria met
                                  Ensure the driver is aware of the importance of quiet driving                 Existing in-house driver training and driver’s manual
                                  Familiarise driver with access path and delivery bay/area                     Drivers’ aware
                                  Driver to be trained in appropriate acceleration, braking and manoeuvring     Existing in-house driver training and driver’s manual
                                  within the access road and delivery bay
                                  Reversing alarm and radio to be switched off                                  Drivers’ aware – driver’s manual
                                  Appropriate opening/closing of cabin doors and trailer shutter                Drivers’ aware – driver’s manual
                                  Sensitive use of headlights                                                   Drivers’ aware – driver’s manual
                                  Store staff training – unloading procedures                                   Comment                                                                        Criteria met
                                  Ensure store staff are aware of the importance of quiet working               Store staff unloading – night crew – manual. Night-crew supervisor
                                  techniques. Night-crew supervisor responsibilities                            responsible for all aspects of night-time best practice delivery and trained
                                                                                                                accordingly
                                  Identify each activity required to unload and reload (if necessary)           Store staff unloading – night crew – aware
                                  Identify different types of deliveries and differences                        Store staff unloading – night crew – aware
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Procedures for discreet acknowledgment of the delivery vehicle’s arrival      Night crew manual
                                  Procedure for unloading the lorry and reloading the lorry (if necessary)      Night crew manual
                                  Appraisal of store unloading equipment including pump trucks, pallet          Monitored by warehouse staff – defects reported to management.
                                  jacks, etc to ensure they are well maintained and efficient                    Unloading equipment subject to maintenance contract
                                  Procedure for handling non-retail deliveries – bread, newspapers,             Existing procedures in place. These deliveries not subject to night-time
                                  cigarettes etc                                                                delivery


                                                                                                                                                                                                Continued on next page
                                  Identify delivery bay requirements – to include allocating areas for pallets,   Warehouse allocation areas already defined within store procedures
                                  containers, paper bails etc
                                  Recovery procedures for accidental and excessive noise, light and               Supervisor monitoring to ensure best practice – appropriate remedial
                                  environmental pollution                                                         action to counteract accidental excesses
                                  Procedure for waste disposal and pick up and removal                            Existing procedures in place. Day-time activity only

                                  1.5 Protocol (to be completed by retailer)
                                  Protocol for handling store complaints                                          Comment                                                                   Criteria met
                                  Identify staff members to handle store complaints                               Management and reception staff aware – management and reception
                                                                                                                  staff manuals
                                  Staff trained to process phone, letter, face to face and residential            Management and reception staff aware – management and reception
                                  complaints be they direct or passed on from the borough                         staff manuals
                                  Procedures to follow up complaint and remedial action as appropriate            Management and reception staff aware – management and reception
                                                                                                                  staff manuals. In-house and external referral as required
                                  Basic monitoring procedure to follow up resident/s (and/or borough)             Procedure implemented at store level
                                  concerns after remedial action has been undertaken. This to determine
                                  effectiveness and maintain an expected level of amenity
                                  Development of complaint specific audit trails                                   Procedural measures implemented. Recorded at store level and externally
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




Delivery improvement toolkit 45
                                  Annex F: Night-time delivery – partners’ tasks – output – responsibilities – blank
                                                                                            Output and responsibility
                                               Task and stage                                                                        Criteria/comment
                                                                                 Retailer                          Project partner
                                  Stage 1 – store selection
                                  Identify store for inclusion
                                  Determine environmental benefits
                                  Determine commercial benefits




46 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                  Establish restriction times and type

                                  Stage 2 – Store investigation and monitoring
                                  Determine residential issues and whether
                                  they can be overcome
                                  Determine current delivery situation
                                  Curfew issues
                                  Determine optimum delivery time and
                                  frequency
                                  Determine any local issues
                                  Store contact details

                                  Site survey and monitoring
                                  Lorry access – street infrastructure
                                  Lorry disturbance – noise
                                  Lorry disturbance – light
                                  Unloading area infrastructure
                                  Method of servicing and servicing noise
                                                                                                                                                        Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Distance between trailer and warehouse
                                  Generated unloading noise
                                  Distance and location of residential and
                                  other sensitive establishments
                                  Quantifying noise and light
                                  Monitoring summary
                                  Identify an after monitoring regime
                                  Annex G: Night-time delivery – partners’ tasks – output – responsibilities – completed
                                                                                                        Output and responsibility
                                               Task and stage                                                                                               Criteria/comment
                                                                                            Retailer                           Project partner
                                  Stage 1 – store selection
                                  Identify store for inclusion             List of stores to be included in a night                              Determine viability for unrestricted
                                                                           time delivery trial                                                   delivery trial by assessing potential sales
                                                                                                                                                 and environmental benefits gains
                                  Determine environmental benefits          Changes including: lessened travelling                                Benefits noted as per above. Determine
                                                                           time, reduced fuel consumption,                                       time and fuel savings. Photos of pre-trial
                                                                           reduced noxious emissions and localised                               congestion, access, h & s considerations
                                                                           improvments to congestion, access.
                                                                           Improved safety considerations
                                  Determine commercial benefits             Changes including: reduced fuel                                       Fuel savings. Fleet reduction if loads
                                                                           consumption and reduction in fleet size.                               merged. Fresh food on shop floor by
                                                                           Sales increase though greater product                                 08:00. Increased availabilty. Greater
                                                                           availability, lessened wastage                                        cust/satisfaction and generated sales
                                  Establish restriction times and type     Nature of store restriction and restriction                           Curfew type and restriction times
                                                                           times
                                  Stage 2 – Store investigation and monitoring
                                  Determine residential issues and whether Local concerns and issues gained from                                 Usually relating to noise, disturbance,
                                  they can be overcome                     personal knowledge of store manager                                   access, congestion, and safety
                                  Determine current delivery situation     Determine nature of delivery, time,                                   Delivery time, frequency and content of
                                                                           frequency and vehicle type/size                                       deliveries noted. All deliveries by tractor
                                                                                                                                                 unit and semi-trailer
                                  Curfew issues                            Determine the type of curfew, be it                                   Determine curfew: environmental
                                                                           of a voluntary, planning or imposed                                   health, planning or voluntary
                                                                           environmental health nature
                                  Determine optimum delivery time and      Determine most efficient means for                                     Merged loads. Say 05:00 for first
                                  frequency
                                                                                                                                                                                               Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                                                           delivery, and optimum delivery time                                   delivery – fresh food and 21:00 for last
                                                                           to suit requirements and maximise on                                  delivery – grocery
                                                                           benefits
                                  Determine any local issues               Identify and detail local issues with                                 Presence of delivery vehicles promoting
                                                                           regard to any residents’ concerns,                                    congestion at store entrance and within
                                                                           localised congestion, delays etc. To be                               car park. Delays to local traffic. Safety
                                                                           backed up by photographic evidence                                    issues




Delivery improvement toolkit 47
                                  Store contact details                      Obtain relevant store contact details for                                                Appointed store contact name and
                                                                             all relevant store(s)                                                                    contact no
                                  Site survey and monitoring
                                  Lorry access – street infrastructure       Surrounding area access, road surface                                                    Restricted and inhibiting am access.
                                                                             condition, maintenance issues, possible                                                  Street furniture, kerbs, drains, vehicles.
                                                                             noise sources                                                                            Possible damage to property, vehicles
                                                                                                                                                                      and/or persons
                                  Lorry disturbance – noise                  Plan of lorry path. Detail lorry              Identify each noise source associated      Specifically reversing warning devices, air




48 Delivery improvement toolkit
                                                                             equipment, and review its compliance          with a moving lorry including the peak     brake application, high engine revs, gear
                                                                             with DfT best practice                        noise associated with each activity        selection, road train noise emissions, cab
                                                                                                                                                                      doors
                                  Lorry disturbance – light                  Plan of lorry path. Detail lorry              Identify each light source, quantify       Vehicle headlights. Car park and loading
                                                                             equipment, and review its compliance          and monitor, identify light sensitive      bay lights. Direction of lights, beam and
                                                                             with DfT best practice                        establishments and determine likely        intensity. Assess
                                                                                                                           effect
                                  Unloading area infrastructure              Determine type of existing infrastructure                                                Evaluate for noise and light
                                                                             and improvement measures to minimise                                                     considerations connected with
                                                                             noise and light. Identify lighting                                                       unloading. Practical measures that
                                                                             requirements required for night time                                                     may be required to minimise above
                                                                             delivery                                                                                 disturbance
                                  Method of servicing and servicing noise    Determine method used and whether                                                        Noise: vehicle engine, gears, brakes;
                                                                             noise reduction measures may be                                                          vehicle movement, vehicle doors and
                                                                             applied                                                                                  store shutters; tail and/or scissor lift,
                                                                                                                                                                      pump trucks, voices. Acceptable decibel
                                                                                                                                                                      rating
                                  Distance between trailer and warehouse     Determine distance and methods for            Implications of this in terms of noise and Duration of noise and quantity of light
                                                                             minimising noise and light impact.            light                                      emittance. Acceptable? Screening
                                                                             Introduce ameliorative measures as                                                       – cost and viability
                                                                             appropriate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




                                  Generated unloading noise                  Retailer/logistics provider to itemise list   Independent noise and light monitoring     Noise and light generation as above.
                                                                             of activities determining the loadest         consultants to monitor noise and light     Decibel threshold – compliant or higher?
                                                                             through to the quietest                       disturbance
                                  Distance and location of residential and   Photos of location of frontage of             Produce a plan map indicating the          Show access route, occupied property,
                                  other sensitive establishments             properties and those to be consulted          sensitive establishments, lorry path and   residences, delivery bay. Noise/light
                                                                                                                           delivery bay area. Identify technical      relative to distances. Possible required
                                                                                                                           requirements and where noise               changes. Monitoring sites
                                                                                                                           monitoring devices will be installed
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Continued on next page
                                  Quantifying noise and light           Monitoring consultants to identify          The continuous and rigid application of
                                                                        method to quantify noise and light levels   all best practice unloading procedures,
                                                                        (absolute or relative) needed to maintain   by both driver and store staff so
                                                                        appropriate level of residential amenity    maintaining continuity
                                                                        and/or a resident’s right to a ‘good
                                                                        nights sleep
                                  Monitoring summary                    Produce a one page summary for both         Highlight and emphasise negative pre
                                                                        the pre and post trial                      and positive post-trial elements
                                  Identify an after monitoring regime                                               Continue site contact no. Monitor
                                                                                                                    complaints and remedy as required.
                                                                                                                    Ensure staff continue to apply best
                                                                                                                    practice
                                                                                                                                                              Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries




Delivery improvement toolkit 49
                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries


Annex H: Night-time delivery training manuals
Example driver manual
Tindill and UKTrafficMove have joined forces to look into increasing their night-time deliveries to shops.

Night time delivery benefits both the environment and the retailer. Environmental benefits include:

• fewer delivery vehicles on the roads at peak times

• less congestion on the roads of Anytown

• less congestion around shops

• delivery vehicles run at their most efficient

• least possible amount of particulates and noxious emissions produced

Retail customer benefits include:

• more fresh food on sale when the store opens

• more intelligent use of warehouse space

• more efficient use of staff

• smaller fuel and overtime bills

Trial study
This will take place at the Anytown store. At the moment the store has a ‘voluntary’ curfew only. The trial study will try to find
out whether local residents will object to night-time deliveries.

We believe residents will approve night time deliveries.

WITH YOUR VALUABLE HELP – WE CAN PROVE IT

Why you were chosen
You have been selected as the delivery driver for the entire trial study period.

You were chosen because you are

• willing and approachable

• conscientious and reliable

• a good and fuel-efficient driver

• an effective communicator

• able to carry out this task in a thorough and professional way

THANK YOU FOR AGREEING TO BE PART OF THIS VALUABLE TRIAL STUDY

YOU ARE A VITAL PART OF THE TRIAL STUDY

WITHOUT YOUR CO-OPERATION AND GOOD EFFORT IT WILL NOT SUCCEED

Procedures
On the following page you will find the measures which we would like you to follow throughout the trial study. They don’t
cover everything, and if you feel there are other things that you could do to help with the trial study, then please feel free to
mention them.

Remember – your involvement is essential and much appreciated, and your feedback is welcome at any time.




50 Delivery improvement toolkit
                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

The delivery vehicle
You will be driving the late model Scania 114L diesel powered tractor unit and non-tail lift trailer, unless told otherwise. The
114L offers the maximum environmental benefit both in terms of reduced emissions and fuel consumption as well as overall
quietness.

The trial study will take place during Monday to Saturday deliveries only.

There will be just the one delivery of produce at the new delivery time.

The delivery day
The start of your journey
• You should be on duty in good time for your journey. Your departure time should be the same every day

• Check that nothing is wrong with your tractor unit and trailer, especially as far as anything that might make it noisier is
  concerned

• Make sure your mobile phone is fully charged and that the duty transport clerk or manager has the number

• Remember – only use your mobile when it is legal and safe to do so

The journey
• Drive safely to your destination, obeying the Highway Code at all times, and driving in a fuel conscious way

• Aim to arrive at your destination at the same time each day

• The duty transport clerk will tell Thamesham store when you set off, and the roads should be quiet enough so that you
  arrive at approximately the same each day – 05:00 hours

• The car park gates should be open when you arrive

• Make the final approach to the store with the minimum amount of noise

• When you reach the store delivery area, immediately switch off the refrigeration unit. Access should be unrestricted. If not,
  park, then switch off the refrigeration unit, engine, radio and headlights. Get out of the cab and ring the bell by the gate
  or barrier. Wait for the store staff

At the store
• Generally try not to make any noise

• Keep your headlights and radio switched off

• Use lights when manoeuvring, but the minimum for safe movement

• Manoeuvre onto the bay or scissor lift with as little noise as possible

• Switch off the reversing ‘audible warning’, but do not compromise safety. Get help from store staff when reversing

• Engage gears quietly

• Keep engine revs to a minimum

• Apply brakes gently

• Close driver’s door quietly

Unloading
• Unload as quietly as possible with no banging

• Be careful when using pump trucks. Try not to touch trailer walls, lift guardrails, and other obstructions

• Keep conversation to an absolute minimum and speak softly. Even if you are in a good mood, don’t start singing, whistling
  or laughing!

• Do not collect salvage for return to the RDC


                                                                                                 Delivery improvement toolkit 51
                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

The return journey
• Don’t slam the door when you get into your cab

• Keep your foot off the accelerator pedal when you start the engine

• Engage gears quietly

• Keep engine revs to a minimum

• Apply brakes gently

• Try to avoid using dipped headlights until you are on the store approach road – stick with sidelights until then if you can

• Accelerate gently until fully away from the store

Conclusion and complaints
Most of what you are being asked to do is a matter of common sense for an experienced driver like you. But it’s very
important that you try to keep to the guidance at all times throughout the trial study.

A moment’s forgetfulness could lead to residents complaining, and the trial study would be put in jeopardy.

If, however, you are unfortunate enough to be approached by a complaining resident while delivering, remember:

• be polite and pleasant

• keep cool, calm and collected

• keep the conversation to a minimum

• do not get into an argument or debate

• apologise for any inconvenience

• advise the resident to speak to the store manager later that day

• do not refer to the trial study or anything else to do with it

• say goodbye as politely as possible

Finally
Thank you in advance for your co-operation in this combined and important venture, which relies so much on your willing
and professional participation.

Thank you for reading this manual.




52 Delivery improvement toolkit
                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

Example duty manager manual
Tindill and UK TrafficMove have joined forces to look into increasing night-time deliveries to stores. Night-time delivery
benefits both the environment and the retailer. The environmental benefits include:

• fewer delivery vehicles on the roads at peak times

• less congestion on the roads of Anytown

• less congestion around shops

• delivery vehicles run at their most efficient

• least possible amount of particulates and noxious emissions produced

Retail customer benefits include:
• more fresh food on sale when the store opens

• more intelligent use of warehouse space

• more efficient use of staff

• smaller fuel and overtime bills

Trial study
This will take place at the Anytown store.

At the moment the store has a ‘voluntary’ curfew only.

The trial study is to determine whether local residents will object to night-time deliveries.

We believe residents will approve night-time deliveries.

WITH YOUR VALUABLE HELP – WE CAN PROVE IT!

The duty manager
As duty manager your involvement in the trial study is crucial. You may well be the first point of contact for customers and
residents.

We hope that residents will not complain about the trial study deliveries.

However, if they do, it is essential that you treat all complaints consistently and record them accurately.

YOU ARE A VITAL PART OF THE TRIAL STUDY

WITHOUT YOUR CO-OPERATION AND GOOD EFFORT IT WILL NOT SUCCEED

Procedures
On the following pages you will find the measures which we would like you to follow throughout the trial study. They don’t
cover everything, and if you feel there are other things that you could do to help with the trial study, then please feel free to
mention them.

Remember – your involvement is essential and much appreciated. Your feedback is welcome at any time.

The delivery vehicle
Deliveries throughout the trial study will be made using a Scania 114L diesel tractor unit and non-tail lift trailer. The late model
Scania 114L gives the maximum environmental benefit both in terms of reduced emissions and fuel consumption as well as
overall quietness.

The trial study will take place during Monday to Saturday deliveries only.

The driver and the journey
The same driver will deliver throughout the trial study period. He or she will deliver as far as possible at the same time each
day.



                                                                                                  Delivery improvement toolkit 53
                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

Residents
There will be just one delivery of produce at the new delivery time. The delivery will take place at the normal delivery bay. Staff
will unload the delivery as quickly and quietly as possible. We hope that the delivery will not disturb residents.

Complaints
We may receive complaints from residents:

• by letter

• by telephone

• face-to-face

We must respond politely and sympathetically to residents’ concerns, especially phone calls or face-to-face contact. You may
well be the one who deals with the resident’s concerns.

It may well be that a resident contacts you when you are under pressure. You may be short of staff. You may be supervising
a delivery or work in the warehouse. You may have just dealt with an angry and abusive customer. You may have just had to
discipline a member of staff. You may be tired or unwell. If you are especially unlucky you may have to cope with all of these
things! But however difficult you may find it, if you do have to deal with a resident complaining about the trial study delivery,
please make every effort to be:

• concerned

• helpful

• interested

• polite

Complaints form
A complaints form will be provided for recording:

• complainant’s name and address

• nature of the complaint

• the date

• your confirmation of acknowledgement

Reception staff are to contact you as soon as they receive a complaint.

If you are unavailable, the complainant will be informed that he/she will be contacted by management as soon as possible.

If you are unavailable, reception staff will try to make you aware of the complaint as soon as they can. If this is not before the
end of their shift, they will pass the details to their replacements before leaving.

Referral
If a resident has a question or complains about the trial study, make sure that the complaint form is filled in and keep a log of
all contacts with the resident. Forward the details to FTA at Lesingtown RDC on a weekly basis.

Letter
• Note the details on the complaint form

• Contact Peter Roland at Lesingtown RDC, so that every written complaint is listed and can be audited

• Each letter will then be carefully read, evaluated and replied to

Telephone call
Note the details as described above on the complaint form and apologise to the resident for upset caused. Explain that:

• the store is carrying out a short-term trial study for fresh food delivery


54 Delivery improvement toolkit
                             Delivering the goods: a toolkit for improving night-time deliveries

• the aim is to relieve local traffic congestion and reduce environmental pollution

• the trial study is a joint venture between Tindill and UKTrafficMove with the prior knowledge of Anytown Council

If the resident is dissatisfied with this explanation, apologise and explain that he/she will be contacted by someone directly
involved with the trial study, who will explain in more detail. Then contact Peter Roland at Lesingtown RDC.

Face-to-face
Note the details on the complaint form. Listen with sympathy to what the resident has to say and let them completely finish
talking before you reply.

Try to stay composed if the resident is rude or aggressive. Apologise for any upset. Explain that:

• the store is carrying out a short-term trial study for fresh food delivery

• the aim is to relieve local traffic congestion, and cut pollution

• the trial study is a joint venture between Tindill and UKTrafficMove with the prior knowledge of Anytown Council

• if the resident is unhappy with the explanation, apologise and explain that he/she will be contacted by someone directly
involved with the trial study, who will explain in more detail

Finally
As duty manager, you are most likely to be the key contact with aggrieved residents. We hope of course that there won’t be
any! But the trial study is an experiment and we must prepare for every possibility. As such, a consistent approach and your
diplomacy toward the complaining resident are of the utmost importance. However it is unlikely that a complaining resident
will present you with a scenario that is any worse than those which you undoubtedly have experienced many times before!

If you would like any further information about the trial study please contact FTA (Stephen Kelly – skelly@fta.co.uk).




                                                                                                 Delivery improvement toolkit 55

				
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