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koi fish by airrul


									                              Aquaculture of Koi Fish (Cyprinus carpio)

Koi Fish belongs to the class of carp fish (carp). The price of Koi is determined based on body shape
and color display quality. Koi Fish first became known in the Chin dynasty in 265 and 316 AD. Koi
with beautiful color and behavior as we know it today, was developed in Japan 200 years ago in the
mountains of Niigata by farmers Yamakoshi. Breeding is done for many years to produce the lineage
that became the standard assessment of koi. Some varieties are spread throughout the world are
classified as the Association of Japanese Koi (en Nippon Airinkai) into 13 groups, among others:
Bekko, Utsurinomo, Asagi-Shusui, Goromo, Kawarimono, Ogon and Hikari-moyomono. While the
five main groups namely Kohaku, Sanke, Showa, Hirarinuji and Kawarigoi.

Taxonomy koi are as follows:
Philum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cyprinoformes
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Cyprinus
Species: Carpio
Koi value depends on the size, shape and balance of the pattern and intensity of skin color. Best koi that
have intensity, color balance and clarity of the best. Buy small koi should be selected that has the
biggest head, will usually grow into fish with a large body. The best shape is like a "torpedo".

1. Site selection and construction container
Koi fish live naturally in water rapids that require clear water and high oxygen levels. Maintenance is
best koi in the pond so easy to get natural foods and sunlight to stimulate the body staining. Swimming
in part dinaungai because of too much sun causes the water temperature increases and swimming pool
water becomes turbid due to blooming of phytoplankton.
Small Koi can be placed in the aquarium, although it can not be a permanent habitat. When kept in
groups, koi would learn to not interfere with same-sized fish, but eat smaller fish. Koi like to explore
the bottom of the pool, causing damage plant roots.

2.                                       Cultivation                                       Techniques
2.1 Water Quality
Water is the medium of life and affect the display quality koi that require attention. Water quality to
support the development of optimum koi are as follows:
     Water temperature ranges from 24-26oC,
     pH 7.2 to 7.4 (slightly alkaline),
     minimum of 3-5 ppm oxygen,
     max 10 ppm CO2,
     nitric max 0.2.

Water used must terdeklorinisasi or is filtered and precipitated 24 hours. Water used for spawning and
hatching eggs should have the oxygen content and temperature stable. To ensure the availability of
oxygen can be used aerator, while the temperature on the vessel labored same spawning pool water
temperature with the degree of difference (fluctuation) of less than 5oC.

2.2. Feed
Koi are bottom feeders (eating at the base) and omnivorous (eating everything). Artificial diets for
rearing koi can be given in the form of granules (pellets). The main protein source is the formulation of
a combination of vegetable material (eg soy flour, corn flour, wheat flour, wheat leaves, etc.) and
animal material (such as fish meal, shrimp head meal, squid meal, oyster, etc.) as well as multivitamins
and minerals such as Ca , Mg, Zn, Fe, Co as supplementary feed.
The quality of feed is critical color display as koi fish attraction itself, so much effort has been made
with the use of feed materials containing pigments such as carotene (orange), regular (yellow) and
astasantin (red). These substances contained in the bodies of animals and certain plants such as carrots
contain carotene, while algae, chlorella, cabbage, green peppers contain routine; spirulina, crab, shrimp
contain astasantin. The farmers now no longer need to prepare their own food because it is
commercially available koi food that has been formulated in accordance with the needs of nutrients and
oxygen to the formation of the color of koi fish.
Natural food or live food such as blood worms, earthworms, daphnia, tubifex worms suitable given the
seed of koi (up to weight 50 g / fish) because it is more easily digested by the seed in accordance with
the conditions of the digestive system, but it also can eat phitoplankton koi in pond. The amount of
feed given based on the number of fish (weight biomass) in the pool with a range of needs of 3-5% per
day, with the frequency of 2-3 times per day it is well adapted to the conditions of fish and water media

2.3. Hatchery
A good parent is having a bright color patterns vary with the symmetrical body shape like terpedo with
a minimum weight of 1 kg. Most farmers prefer to buy good quality koi for the prospective parent with
a     size     of     5-8     cm     a      cheap     price      to     be     raised   to     the    parent.
Naturally, the carp spawn in the spring and become mature gonads by raising the temperature of the
water. Male and female parent are placed in separate containers (to avoid unwanted spawn) and were
not given food for several days.
Koi can spawn naturally and made by the injected hormone stimulation in female body to speed up the
process of fertilization. Injecting Pituitary Gland (PG, trade names ovaprim) with a dose of 0.2 mg / kg
weight of fish for one-time injection.
Ovulation will occur 10 hours after injection. Spawning system without sorting / stripping is called
semi-natural spawning a more secure because without injuring the fish. When the fish spawning
naturally difficult to do so need the help of artificial fertilization, the egg and sperm sorting carried out
(stripping), which is the last option.
Female parent in a single breeder can produce 75,000 eggs / kg body weight. Comparison of the
number of parent in the process of spawning is 2 females and 1 male. Usually eggs by the female
parent dikelurkan attached to the substrate (injuk) which immediately fertilized by male sperm. After
the fertilized eggs should be separated from the parent, by moving the parent of the container or vice
versa breeder egg is removed and transferred into the hatching container.

2.4. Separating
Fertilized eggs will hatch after 24-48 hours depending on temperature. During hatching, egg density is
1 kg per 5 liters of water. Newly hatched larvae do not require feeding for 3-4 days, because they still
have a yolk sack.
Towards the yolk out, should be given natural feed naupli artemia or other natural feed size. Then
gradually be given artificial feed in the form of dry granules (pellets). Within 5 days after 1 million
artemia larvae require 7 kg, or about 0.5 to 2 kg per day. At this stage larvae stocked at density of 20-40
larvae / liter. To produce 1 million fingerlings requires approximately 25kg artemia eggs. Survival rates
for 9 days was 50-80%. The fish that weighed 10 mg may be sold for U.S. $ 0.25 or approximately Rp.
2500, - Larvae weighing 0.25 g is given artificial feed (grain) dry and can didederkan to the pool until
the size of fingerlings (2 grams). Separating divided into 2 stages: first nursery for 2 months of
maintenance until the larvae reach fingerling size (2-3 cm). Separating II, conducted in the treated pool
to grow natural food and the performed selection and thinning (reduced density). Spacing aims to
provide sufficient space for the koi fish. Selection aim to get good quality Koi fish.
The time required from egg to reach fingerling size (2 grams) is 6-8 weeks with the survival rate (SR)
55%. Meanwhile, to achieve the necessary size of 5-8 cm within 4 months. Quality koi (pattern and
color) depends on the parent. From the results of fingerling size selection, which rejects reach 25-50%.
Of the 1 million eggs can be produced 225000-338000 tail of good quality fingerlings (22-33%).

2.5. Coloration
Quality Koi is determined by the color pattern, appropriateness and clarity of color type of koi.
Symmetrical color pattern with clear boundaries between colors indicate good quality.
Genotype determines the number and types of pigment cells and chromatophores. Chromatophores
produce color also influenced the fish brain. Fish in a dark container tend dark, and vice versa. Colors
can be changed if the fish was under pressure (stress). Usually slow-growing fish have a better color
than the fish that grow rapidly because the pigment can be modified and used for body growth. All his
life, koi can store and use the pigment. Young koi are colored pale pigmented feed when given for 6
weeks before the market turns interesting. The intensity of color depends on the amount of pigment in
the chromatophores. Pigments can arise in the presence of carotenoids in the feed.

2.6. Pre-Harvest
Koi grow about 2 cm per month and at the age of 60 years can reach lengths of up to 1 m. When the
Koi fish has reached market size of 20 cm can be harvested and made the final selection, by dividing
the type, size and body color pattern. The result of this selection, the selected Koi grew up in the tub or
cement pool while waiting for a good market price.
In holding this end, the fish could be improved in shape, if made too fat or too thin slender made more
fat. Subsequent maintenance of cultivated not too dense, would be better if the vessel is equipped
aerator so that the freshness of the water is assured and with a good feeding can improve the quality of
Koi fish body color.


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