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					                           Learn More – Teach More
                                Content Module
               Exploring America in the Fifty Years after Columbus
                          CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #1
                   Cartography in the Mid-Sixteenth Century
Objectives
Content
      Students will gain a sense of the world view of sixteenth-century explorers and patrons.
Skill
      Students will hone their map-reading and observation skills.

Materials
Lecture by Peter Wood
A brief textbook passage on the Age of Exploration from the Europeans’ point of view on
sixteenth century exploration.
Sebastian Münster's map of the New World, 1540 ("Die Nüw Welt") from his edition of
Ptolemy's Geography. Reveals a general sense of the Americas, but shows North America as a
small region with a large inland waterway. Reprinted from a lecture by Barbara Mundy entitled
“When Two Worlds Collide: Amerindian Mapping and the Spanish Conquest of the Americas”
located at Fathom, an online learning center run by Columbia University.
        http://www.fathom.com/feature/122601/3603_americas.html
Map of the world – Charta Cosmigraphia (1544). Reveals South America reasonably accurately,
but depicts North America as long, slim stretch of land with a wide water route directly to the
North. Located at the website for the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library of the
University of Georgia.
        http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/1544a5.jpg
Map of the Americas by Spaniard Diego Gutierrez (1562). Reveals a more accurate sense of
scale and geography for Eastern part of North America. From Professor David Harley’s course
“Ideas in Society, 1500-1700” at University of Notre Dame.
        http://www.nd.edu/~dharley/HistIdeas/Gutierrez-map.html
Map entitled “The Spanish Entrada into North America” Shows the Spanish exploration routes in
North America. From American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration
and Settlement: A Digital Library and Learning Center, created by the Wisconsin Historical
Society.
http://www.americanjourneys.org/maps/aj-070.pdf

Activities
Assign students to read the brief textbook description of 16th century exploration.
Assign students to examine the Munster map of the New World, 1540, the Charta Cosmigraphia,
and the Gutierrez map of the Americas. Ask the students to pay particular attention to the
portrayal of North America on each map.
       http://www.fathom.com/feature/122601/3603_americas.html
       http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/1544a5.jpg
       http://www.nd.edu/~dharley/HistIdeas/Gutierrez-map.html
Show the class the map of the Spanish explorers in North America.
http://www.americanjourneys.org/maps/aj-070.pdf

Assign each student to write a brief paragraph response based on their observations from the
maps. Students should consider responding to the following questions:
       How do the depictions of North America differ from map to map?
       What is correct on the sixteenth-century maps? What is not?
       What features on these maps reveal the expectations, hopes, or fears of the explorers and
       cartographers of the time?
       How did the information from the Spanish explorations in North America inform the map
       makers?
Hold a whole class discussion based on the following question:
       How did exploration of that period change the perceptions of people about the geography
       of the Americas?


Assessment
√+    Written response correctly identifies at least two flaws in early depictions of North
      America, notes the key elements that reveal explorers’ goals (i.e. Northwest Passage) and
      accurately determines how Spanish explorations changed ideas about North America.
√     Written response correctly identifies only one flaw in the early depictions of North
      America, notes only one of the explorers’ interests, and slightly recognizes how Spanish
      explorations changed ideas about North America.
√-    Written response has only a minimal sense of difference between the maps created before
      Spanish explorations and those created afterwards.
                           Learn More – Teach More
                                Content Module
               Exploring America in the Fifty Years after Columbus
                          CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #2
                    Spanish Perceptions of Native Americans
Objectives
Content
      Students will understand how the Spanish monarchy and its conquistadors viewed the
      natives of the Americas.
Skill
      Students will learn to interpret the language and images of sixteenth-century primary
      documents.

Materials
Lecture by Peter Wood
“Franco de Los Cobos: Instructions to Conquistadors, 1517”
The Spanish Crown’s official instructions given to Panphilo de Narvaez prior to his expedition to
Florida and the Gulf Coast. This document is located at “U.S. History Links” a site constructed
by the History Department at East Tennessee State University.
        http://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/docs/deloscobos.htm
An illustration done by an unknown European artist meant to accompany Amerigo Vespucci’s
published descriptions of the New World (1509). From a slide collection used in a University of
Washington-St. Louis introductory American Studies course “Lewis and Clark and the American
Challenge.”
        http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~landc/images/slides/18_l.jpg
Theodore De Bry’s1590s(?) painting, Columbus Landing in the Indias, depicting Christopher
Columbus’ arrival in the Americas located at the Humanities-Interactive site sponsored by the
Texas Council for the Humanities Resource Center.
        http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newspain/enhanced/ex052_01a_rgb150.jpg
Extension Activity Materials
Descriptions of the Coahuiltecans, a native people that Cabeza de Vaca encountered on his trek
through the Southeast from the PBS series, The Conquistadors.
        http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b3.htm#txt
        http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b4.htm#txt
Brief biography of Bartolome de Las Casas, a sixteenth-century Spaniard, who argued for more
humane treatment of Native Americans. Found at Web Chronology Project, Northpark
University of Chicago history department site.
        http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/Americas/DelasCasas.html

Activities
Assign students to read “Franco de Los Cobos, 1517”
       http://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/docs/deloscobos.htm
Assign students to complete the Reading Analysis Chart by responding to the questions with
information from the reading.
Assign students to examine the illustration by an unknown European artist and Theodore
DeBry’s painting.
        http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~landc/images/slides/18_l.jpg
        http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newspain/enhanced/ex052_01a_rgb150.jpg
Assign students to complete the Picture Analysis Chart by responding to the questions.
Hold a whole class discussion based on the following questions:
How could the European expectations cause conflicts between the Spanish explorers and the
Native Americans?
How would the European expectations have needed to change in order to reduce the violence and
the conflicts?
Alternative Activity
Once students have completed the Reading and Picture Analysis Charts assign each student to
write a one page description of the European expectations of the Native Americans based on
their responses to the questions on the Charts.
Extension Activity
Assign students to read the descriptions of the Coahuiltecans, a native people encountered by
Cabeza de Vaca.
        http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b3.htm#txt
        http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b4.htm#txt
Assign students to read the brief biography of Bartolome de Las Casas.
        http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/Americas/DelasCasas.html
Assign each student to write an essay evaluating the accuracy of the Spanish assumptions about
the native peoples and assessing the potential impact of implementing a model of interaction
based on the beliefs of Las Casas.

Assessment
Chart
√+    Charts include accurate and relevant responses for at least nine questions.
√     Charts include accurate and relevant responses for six to eight questions.
√-    Charts include accurate and relevant responses for less than six questions.

One Page Descriptions
A     Description provides a thorough analysis of at least two European expectations and the
      impacts on the Native Americans.
B     Description provides a reasonable analysis of at least one European expectation and
      partially connects the expectations to the impacts on the Native Americans.
C     Description provides a brief analysis of at least one European expectation and does not
      connect the expectation to the impact on the Native Americans.
D     Description provides no analysis of European expectations and refers only to the impacts
      on the Native Americans.
F     Description provides neither an analysis of European expectations nor the impacts on
      Native Americans.

Extension Activity Essay
A   Essay demonstrates a thorough understanding of the documents in the context of the
    history of the Spanish conquest, and offers a rationale for how an alternative approach
    might have changed the historical outcome.
B   Essay demonstrates a good understanding of the documents, defines an alternative
    approach, and offers general thoughts on how a different relationship between the
    Spanish and the Native Americans might have changed history.
C   Essay demonstrates some understanding of the documents and of the Spanish Crown’s
    perspective and an alternative view, but does not evaluate the potential effect of the
    alternative view on historical events.
D   Essay demonstrates minimal understanding of the documents and either the Crown
    perspective or alternative views.
F   Essay demonstrates no understanding of the documents or the Crown perspective or
    alternative views.
                                   Reading Analysis Chart

             Spanish Crown’s official instructions given to Panphilo de Narvaez
 What religion are the King and Queen of Spain?      What “gift” (and responsibility) does Saint Peter and
                                                       the following Popes give the Spanish King and
                                                                           Queen?




What do the King and Queen of Spain require of the    What do they threaten if the Native Americans do
               Native Americans?                                       not comply?




                                    Picture Analysis Chart

                           Illustration of an unknown European artist
           What is the European doing?                       What is the Native American doing?




        What does this image suggest about what Europeans believed about the Native Americans?




                 Theodore De Bry’s (1590s?) Columbus Landing in the Indias
         What are the Europeans doing?                      What are the Native Americans doing?




          What does this image suggest about what Europeans believed about Native Americans?

				
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About Some of Those documents come from internet for research purpose,if you have the copyrights of one of them,tell me by mail vixychina@gmail.com.Thank you!