Learn More – Teach More Content Module Exploring America in the Fifty Years after Columbus CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #1 Cartography in the Mid-Sixteenth Century Objectives Content Students will gain a sense of the world view of sixteenth-century explorers and patrons. Skill Students will hone their map-reading and observation skills. Materials Lecture by Peter Wood A brief textbook passage on the Age of Exploration from the Europeans’ point of view on sixteenth century exploration. Sebastian Münster's map of the New World, 1540 ("Die Nüw Welt") from his edition of Ptolemy's Geography. Reveals a general sense of the Americas, but shows North America as a small region with a large inland waterway. Reprinted from a lecture by Barbara Mundy entitled “When Two Worlds Collide: Amerindian Mapping and the Spanish Conquest of the Americas” located at Fathom, an online learning center run by Columbia University. http://www.fathom.com/feature/122601/3603_americas.html Map of the world – Charta Cosmigraphia (1544). Reveals South America reasonably accurately, but depicts North America as long, slim stretch of land with a wide water route directly to the North. Located at the website for the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library of the University of Georgia. http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/1544a5.jpg Map of the Americas by Spaniard Diego Gutierrez (1562). Reveals a more accurate sense of scale and geography for Eastern part of North America. From Professor David Harley’s course “Ideas in Society, 1500-1700” at University of Notre Dame. http://www.nd.edu/~dharley/HistIdeas/Gutierrez-map.html Map entitled “The Spanish Entrada into North America” Shows the Spanish exploration routes in North America. From American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement: A Digital Library and Learning Center, created by the Wisconsin Historical Society. http://www.americanjourneys.org/maps/aj-070.pdf Activities Assign students to read the brief textbook description of 16th century exploration. Assign students to examine the Munster map of the New World, 1540, the Charta Cosmigraphia, and the Gutierrez map of the Americas. Ask the students to pay particular attention to the portrayal of North America on each map. http://www.fathom.com/feature/122601/3603_americas.html http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/1544a5.jpg http://www.nd.edu/~dharley/HistIdeas/Gutierrez-map.html Show the class the map of the Spanish explorers in North America. http://www.americanjourneys.org/maps/aj-070.pdf Assign each student to write a brief paragraph response based on their observations from the maps. Students should consider responding to the following questions: How do the depictions of North America differ from map to map? What is correct on the sixteenth-century maps? What is not? What features on these maps reveal the expectations, hopes, or fears of the explorers and cartographers of the time? How did the information from the Spanish explorations in North America inform the map makers? Hold a whole class discussion based on the following question: How did exploration of that period change the perceptions of people about the geography of the Americas? Assessment √+ Written response correctly identifies at least two flaws in early depictions of North America, notes the key elements that reveal explorers’ goals (i.e. Northwest Passage) and accurately determines how Spanish explorations changed ideas about North America. √ Written response correctly identifies only one flaw in the early depictions of North America, notes only one of the explorers’ interests, and slightly recognizes how Spanish explorations changed ideas about North America. √- Written response has only a minimal sense of difference between the maps created before Spanish explorations and those created afterwards. Learn More – Teach More Content Module Exploring America in the Fifty Years after Columbus CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #2 Spanish Perceptions of Native Americans Objectives Content Students will understand how the Spanish monarchy and its conquistadors viewed the natives of the Americas. Skill Students will learn to interpret the language and images of sixteenth-century primary documents. Materials Lecture by Peter Wood “Franco de Los Cobos: Instructions to Conquistadors, 1517” The Spanish Crown’s official instructions given to Panphilo de Narvaez prior to his expedition to Florida and the Gulf Coast. This document is located at “U.S. History Links” a site constructed by the History Department at East Tennessee State University. http://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/docs/deloscobos.htm An illustration done by an unknown European artist meant to accompany Amerigo Vespucci’s published descriptions of the New World (1509). From a slide collection used in a University of Washington-St. Louis introductory American Studies course “Lewis and Clark and the American Challenge.” http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~landc/images/slides/18_l.jpg Theodore De Bry’s1590s(?) painting, Columbus Landing in the Indias, depicting Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the Americas located at the Humanities-Interactive site sponsored by the Texas Council for the Humanities Resource Center. http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newspain/enhanced/ex052_01a_rgb150.jpg Extension Activity Materials Descriptions of the Coahuiltecans, a native people that Cabeza de Vaca encountered on his trek through the Southeast from the PBS series, The Conquistadors. http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b3.htm#txt http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b4.htm#txt Brief biography of Bartolome de Las Casas, a sixteenth-century Spaniard, who argued for more humane treatment of Native Americans. Found at Web Chronology Project, Northpark University of Chicago history department site. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/Americas/DelasCasas.html Activities Assign students to read “Franco de Los Cobos, 1517” http://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/docs/deloscobos.htm Assign students to complete the Reading Analysis Chart by responding to the questions with information from the reading. Assign students to examine the illustration by an unknown European artist and Theodore DeBry’s painting. http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~landc/images/slides/18_l.jpg http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newspain/enhanced/ex052_01a_rgb150.jpg Assign students to complete the Picture Analysis Chart by responding to the questions. Hold a whole class discussion based on the following questions: How could the European expectations cause conflicts between the Spanish explorers and the Native Americans? How would the European expectations have needed to change in order to reduce the violence and the conflicts? Alternative Activity Once students have completed the Reading and Picture Analysis Charts assign each student to write a one page description of the European expectations of the Native Americans based on their responses to the questions on the Charts. Extension Activity Assign students to read the descriptions of the Coahuiltecans, a native people encountered by Cabeza de Vaca. http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b3.htm#txt http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/namerica/adventure1/b4.htm#txt Assign students to read the brief biography of Bartolome de Las Casas. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/Americas/DelasCasas.html Assign each student to write an essay evaluating the accuracy of the Spanish assumptions about the native peoples and assessing the potential impact of implementing a model of interaction based on the beliefs of Las Casas. Assessment Chart √+ Charts include accurate and relevant responses for at least nine questions. √ Charts include accurate and relevant responses for six to eight questions. √- Charts include accurate and relevant responses for less than six questions. One Page Descriptions A Description provides a thorough analysis of at least two European expectations and the impacts on the Native Americans. B Description provides a reasonable analysis of at least one European expectation and partially connects the expectations to the impacts on the Native Americans. C Description provides a brief analysis of at least one European expectation and does not connect the expectation to the impact on the Native Americans. D Description provides no analysis of European expectations and refers only to the impacts on the Native Americans. F Description provides neither an analysis of European expectations nor the impacts on Native Americans. Extension Activity Essay A Essay demonstrates a thorough understanding of the documents in the context of the history of the Spanish conquest, and offers a rationale for how an alternative approach might have changed the historical outcome. B Essay demonstrates a good understanding of the documents, defines an alternative approach, and offers general thoughts on how a different relationship between the Spanish and the Native Americans might have changed history. C Essay demonstrates some understanding of the documents and of the Spanish Crown’s perspective and an alternative view, but does not evaluate the potential effect of the alternative view on historical events. D Essay demonstrates minimal understanding of the documents and either the Crown perspective or alternative views. F Essay demonstrates no understanding of the documents or the Crown perspective or alternative views. Reading Analysis Chart Spanish Crown’s official instructions given to Panphilo de Narvaez What religion are the King and Queen of Spain? What “gift” (and responsibility) does Saint Peter and the following Popes give the Spanish King and Queen? What do the King and Queen of Spain require of the What do they threaten if the Native Americans do Native Americans? not comply? Picture Analysis Chart Illustration of an unknown European artist What is the European doing? What is the Native American doing? What does this image suggest about what Europeans believed about the Native Americans? Theodore De Bry’s (1590s?) Columbus Landing in the Indias What are the Europeans doing? What are the Native Americans doing? What does this image suggest about what Europeans believed about Native Americans?