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PAN AFRICAN ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIETY ISSUE N° 6                             September 2008


PAEMS Soars into imperial and spiritual Fez city




                        Fez, 1st Regional Capital of Morocco
                        The Islam of Spirituality and Tolerance

             The 5 th PAEMS international Conference
                       24-26 November 2005
     Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens: Genomics and
                          Proteomics Era

                      Alexander Hollaender Courses
                            27 November 2005
                     Genetic Toxicology Training Course

By Fatima-Zahra SQUALI, PAEMS President

The 5th PAEMS International Conference              members of our multi-faceted society and
was held in Fez (Morocco) under the high            welcomes new interest group to the
auspice of his majesty king Mohamed VI              PAEMS.The Topic was « Environmental
and in collaboration with the Faculty of            Mutagens and Carcinogens: Genomics and
Sciences Dhar El Mahraz and the University          Proteomics Era ». The objectives of this 5th
Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah. From the                 meeting were to explore the new tools for
initial Planning stages, the goal of the            tracking mutagen and the environmental
program Committee was to develop a varied           carcinogens and at the same time
program that addresses interests of the             consolidate the African network, set up
                                   PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                           Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                          Fez Morocco
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since 1983, by proposing and setting up                diverse      possibilities    of     African
common Pan African projects. In order to               collaborations based on the specificities and
achieve these goals, many eminent national             complementarities in the African continent.
and international experts were invited from            We have also planned a Friday Afternoon
Egypt, Italy, South Africa, USA, Cameroon,             adventure that will begin with a sumptuous
India, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Nigeria…..                lunch and conclude with a visit to the inside
This meeting was also an opportunity to                walls of the Medina Bab Boujloud, Madrasa
shed some light on three main topics: the              Bouaânania, Nejarrine, visit to the Al
first one was related to the environment and           Quaraouine’s         Library:      Historical
health as well as the relative repercussions,          presentation of the oldest University in the
the second focused on prevention,                      world, Tour of the exterior side of the
evaluation of risks and treatment, and the             Medina
third topic was related to discussions around




“1200th birthday, the foundation of the Fez            (Dar Dbibegh) which reflects the
city"                                                  modernization       and     the    economic
The year 2008 marks 12 centuries, the                  development of the country. Thus, it is in
foundation of the Fez city by Moulay Idriss            this part of Fez that modernity (shopping
II when he established is as the capital of            centres, buildings, hotels 5 stars…), culture
the Kingdom. Today Fez has two parts:                  and science meet.
Fez Medina considered as UNESCO
world-wide patrimony; and Fez new city




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                                             Fez Morocco
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                                                       activities, many scientists in these countries
                                             th
It has been three years since the 5                    had received education and training to
PAEMS International Congress held in                   initiate their careers and scientific societies
Fez. During this period many African                   that were committed to the field of
collaborations and partnerships were born              environmental mutagenesis. With dedicated
leading to many conferences in the field of            effort from many scientists, the initiatives
health and biology and the establishment               from the late Hollaender and the late Sobels
of a number of collaborative projects like             continued to flourish and became
the Initiative for the development of                  sustainable programs. Many of these
indigenous food–plants of Africa IDIFA,                programs are subsequently promoted by the
Egypt-Morocco linkage program research,                EMS-Hollaender Fund for International
Ain Shams university Cairo and Faculty of              Programs of the Environmental Mutagen
Sciences DM Fez. All these achievements                Society and the International Association
are consistent with the goals of the                   for Environmental Mutagen Societies. One
PAEMS mainly spreading the new                         sustainable program is the series of
information and technology related to                  conferences known as the International
Environmental          Mutagenesis        and          Conferences on Environmental Mutagens in
encouraging cooperation and training                   Human Populations.
programs between different African                     The idea of the PAEMS was the fruit of a
countries and the rest of the world.                   collaborative work between Dr. Wagida
Background                                             Anwar from Egypt and William Au from
EMS                                                    USA. They decided to organize a series of
The aim of the series of International                 conferences that would be held in countries
Conferences on Environmental Mutagens                  where the field of environmental
in Human Populations is to bring science               mutagenesis is still in its developmental
and scientists to the sites where the field of         stages and where local and regional
environmental health is in developmental               environmental health is of major concern.
stages and environmental health is a                   The overall objectives were to enhance the
serious concern. The mission has been                  awareness of and to identify solutions to
fulfilled in each of the previous                      human environmental health problems, to
conferences that were held in Egypt, Czech             facilitate interactions and to foster
Republic, Thailand and Brazil. These                   international collaborations. Au and Anwar
conferences have led to significant                    planned to have the first conference in
enhancement of regional scientific                     Cairo, Egypt, the hometown of Wagida
expertise from the acquisition of scientific           Anwar.
knowledge and from the generation of                   The enormous interest generated from the
sustainable collaborative programs.                    conference led to the development of many
                                                       high profile and sustainable programs. The
PAEMS                                                  most visible of all is that the conference
 The field of environmental mutagenesis has            sparked the organization of the Pan African
been gaining increasing international                  Environmental Mutagen Society (PAEMS).
recognition for many years. The well-                  Ever since, the society has organized a
recognized pioneers who had promoted this              scientific conference throughout Africa
field, particularly at the international level,        approximately once every 3 years: Cairo,
are the late Dr. Alexander Hollaender and              Egypt, 1993; Cape Town, South Africa,
the late Dr. Frits Sobels. Through their               1996; Harare, Zimbabwe, 1999; Cairo,
independent, yet complementary efforts,                Egypt, 2003. The general assembly of
they had organized workshops in countries              PAEMS 2003 held in Cairo Egypt, took the
where the field of environmental                       initiative to organize the future PAEMS
mutagenesis was non-existence. From these              meeting      2005     in    Fez     Morrocco.
                                      PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                              Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                             Fez Morocco
PAEMS’ 2005
Acknowledgments                                 Contents
                                                President’s word……
The organizing committee kindly
                                                Background
acknowledges our partners in
                                                PAEMS 2005 Acknowledgment
organizing and making the meeting
                                                Young scientist Award
a reality:
                                                Report from Morocco PAEMS
     Ministry of National Education             PAEMS 2005 Organizers
     The university Sidi                        Scientific program
     Mohammed Ben Abdellah                      Plenary conferences…
     The region of Fez-Boulemane                Poster sessions
     Novartis Pharma AG                         Prices for the best posters
     Switzerland                                PAEMS 2005 recommendations and
     Moroccan National Research                 perspectives…………..
     Center                                     Social program
     Popular Bank Foundation for                PAEMS officers……………
     Education and Culture                      Genetic Toxicology Training Course
     NIEHS-USA                                  International events organized with
     EMS-USA                                    support of PAEMS:
     Fez City                                   The 4th French-Moroccan School of
     Faculty of Sciences of Fez                 Neuroendocrinology
     Faculty of Medicine of Fez                 Introduction to PAEMS’ Sixth
                                                international meeting
                                                Dr. Hester VISMER and Dr Wagida
                                                ANWAR congratulations




                               PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                       Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                      Fez Morocco
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HONORARY PRESIDENT OF THE MEETING

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF HIS MAJESTY THE KING MOHAMED VI

HONORARY COMMITTEE
Mr A El Fassi          Ministre d’Etat
Pr H El Malki          Ministre de l’Education National, de l’Enseignement Supérieur,
                       de la Formation des Cadres et de la Recherche Scientifique
Pr M Cheikh Biyadillah Ministre de la Santé
Pr O Fassi Fehri       Secrétaire Perpétuel à l’Académie Hassan II des Sciences et Techniques
Pr T Ouazzani Chahdi   President of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
Pr A Squalli           President University Al Quaraouin
Mr M Douiri            President of Council Regional Fès-Boulemane
Mr H Chabat            President of Council city of Fes
Pr My H Farih          Dean Faculty of Medicine
Pr A Iraqi             Dean Faculty of Science DM

SECRETARY GENERAL &                                     SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
COORDINATOR PAEMS’ 2005                                 Pr A. Ahami (Kénitra)
Pr SQUALI H. Fatima-Zahra                               Pr W. Bono (CHU, Fès)
Laboratory de Biochemistry                              Pr Y. Boutaleb (AMLCC de Casa)
Faculty of Sciences DM                                  Pr. B. Guedari (INO, Rabat)
BP 1796 Atlas Fès                                       Pr A. Ibrahimi (FPT, Taza)
E-mail: fzsquali@yahoo.fr                               Pr A. Iraqi (CHU de Casa)
E-mail: paems2005@yahoo.com                             Pr. R. Magoul (FSDM)
                  Website:                              Pr. K. Sendide (FSDMFès)
 http://membres.lycos.fr/congrespaems2005/
                                                        EXECUTIVE COMMITTÉE
PAEMS OFFICERS                                          Pr. A. Alaoui (FSDM)
President :     Pr. W. A. Anwar (Egypte)                Pr. R. Belkhou (EST)
Président Elect : Pr. F-Z Squali H. (Maroc)             Pr. M. Benlemlih (FSDM)
Past Président: Dr. J. A. Hasler UNESCO                 Pr. M. Hamedoun (FSDM)
Past vice Président : Dr. Y. S. Naik (Zim)              Pr A. Ibrahimi (FPT, Taza)
Secrétaire Général : Pr. H. El-Khatib                   Pr. A. Ibriz (EST)
Trésorier : Dr. M. A. Al-Khafif (Egypte)                Pr MR Iraqi (EFCS)
                                                        Dr L. Laraki (Ministère de la Santé)
INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY                                  Pr. R. Magoul (FSDM)
COMMITTEE                                               Pr M Merzouki (FSDM)
Pr. W.W. AU (USA),                                      Pr M Moutaouakkil (FSDM)
Pr. D. De Marini (USA),                                 Pr. K. Sendide (FSDM)
Pr. A. Elhajouji (Suisse),
Pr. W. Marasas (South Africa)                           SECRÉTARIAT
Pr. D. Marzin (France)                                  Mr Y. Garmouma
Pr. R Tice (USA)
Pr. C. Wild (UK)



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                                             Fez Morocco
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                                                       Staff
PAEMS PRESIDENTS
WAGIDA ANWAR 2OO3-2005 (FROM
EGYPT)
FATIMA-ZAHRA SQUALI 2005-2008
(FROM MORROCO)
HESTER VISMER FROM 2008 (FROM
SOUTH AFRICA)


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Pr. A. Alaoui (FSDM)
Pr. R. Belkhou (EST)
Pr. M. Benlemlih (FSDM)
Pr. M. Hamedoun (FSDM)
Pr A. Ibrahimi (FPT, Taza)
Pr MR Iraqi (EFCS)
Dr L. Laraki (Ministère de la Santé)
Pr. R. Magoul (FSDM)
Pr M Merzouki (FSDM)
Pr M Moutaouakkil (FSDM)
Pr. K. Sendide (FSDM)


Editors:

Pr Fatima-Zahra SQUALI,                                Pr Rabea MAGOUL
PAEMS president                                        Director of Laboratory
Vice Dean, Faculty of Sciences DM,                     Neuroendocrinology, Nutritional and
BP 1796 Atlas Fès                                      Climatic Environmental
E-mail: fzsquali@yahoo.fr                              Faculty of Sciences DM,
                                                       BP 1796 Atlas Fès




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                                     PROGRAM
                              Thursday 24 November 2005
                                    PAEMS 2005


8.30-9.00    Registration
9.00-10.00   Opening Ceremony
             T Ouazzani Chahdi, University President
             M Douiri, President du Conseil Regional
             A Iraqi, FSDM Dean
             DM De Marini, President EMS, USA
             W Anwar, PAEMS President
             FZ Squali, PAEMS President-Elect

Conferences
10.00-10.30 Mutagenicity and Mutation Spectra of Air and Water
            DM De Marini
            President EMS, USA
10.30-11.00 Environment & Bioethique
            N Guessous
            Vice president of International Comity de Bioethique de l’UNESCO

Welcome Cocktail

                       Oral session 1: Environment and Health


Chairpersons: Y Boutaleb Morocco, Prof. W. AU, USA, Prof. M El Khafif, Egypt
Plenary Conferences
11.30-12.00 Environmental mutagens, health and development (About the case of Morocco)
             Ahmed Iraqi, Morocco
Oral presentations
12.00- 12.20 A continent in confusion: Africa’s Environmental Health Problems as related
             to Pollution and Waste Management
             J.O. Okonkwo, South Africa
12.20- 12.40 Exacerbation of Bronchial Asthma by Air Pollutants / Allergens in South
             Africa
              KSA Mossanda, South Africa
12.40-13.00 Smoking and Cancer
             EA El Ghazi , Morocco
Discussion
Lunch
Posters Session




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           Oral Session 2: Biomarkers Indicatory of environmental Pathology

Chairpersons: A Iraqi, Morocco, Prof. R. Baral, Italy, Prof. A Abou-Enein, Egypt
Plenary Conferences
14.30-15.00 Functional Characterization of Polymorphic DNA Repair Genes, Chromosome
            Aberrations and Lung Cancer
            W.W. Au, USA

Oral presentations
15.00-15.20 Individual Susceptibility to Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis and Ameliorative
             Effects of Antioxidants on its Symptoms.
             S. Korraa, Egypt
15.20-15.40 Study the role of saliva in assessing hepatic enzymes for surveillance of
             workers exposed to pesticids
             M.A. El-Khafif, Egypt
15.40- 16.00 Micronucleus assay in Human Exfoliated buccal Mucosa Cells: Role and
             Perspectives in Human Biomonitoring Studies
             C. Bolognesi, Italy
16.00-16-20 Apoptosis and Markers of Oxidative Stress during Phototherapy of Neonatal
             Hyperbilirubinemia
             I.A. Abdel-Meguid, Egypt
Discussions
Coffee break: Poster Presentations


       Oral Session 3: Gene-Environment Interaction and Genetic Susceptibility

Chairpersons: H Vismer, SA, Prof. M Benlemlih, Morocco, Prof. KSA Mossanda, SA
Plenary Conferences
17.00-17.30 Gene-Environment Interaction
            A. Wagida, Egypt
17.30-18.00 Genotoxicity of an effective anti-cancer drug on murine erythroleukemia (GM-
            86) and human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells
            S.K. Majumdar, USA

Oral presentations
18.00-18.20 Viral, Genetics and environmental risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt
              M. Abdel-Hamid, Egypt
18.20-18.40 Effects of Antioxidant Mixture on Cancer Cervix Patients Undergoing Post-
operative Radiotherapy
              S. Korraa, Egypt
18.40-19.00 Potential Fumonisin B1-Producers, Subsistence Crops and
              Immunocompromised Individuals
              A.M. Van der Walt, South Africa
Discussion

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                                 Friday 25 November 2005
                                       PAEMS 2005

        Oral Session 4: Risk Assessment and Prevention of environment Hazards

Chairpersons: D DeMarini, USA, Prof. JO Okonkwo, SA,
Plenary Conference
9.00-9.40   New Tools For structure-Activity Relationships Studies
            R. Benigni, Italy

Oral Presentations
9.40-10.00    Aflatoxin Exposure in Developing Countries and Probable Nutritional and
              Epidemiological Consequences
              J. Williams, USA
10.00-10.20 Aflatoxin Carryover During Large Scale Peanut Butter Production
              A. H. Siwela, Zimbabwe
10.20- 10.40 Survey of the Contamination of Some Moroccan Agricultural Products by
Aflatoxin B1 : A Carcinogenic Mycotoxin
              A. Zinedine, Morocco
10.40-11.0    Bacterial Mutagenic Activity of Promethazine
              J. Akerele, Nigeria
Discussion

Coffee break: Poster Presentations

11.20-11.40   Lubricanting Oil-Degrading Bacteria in Soil From Filling Stations and
              Automechanic Workshops in Buea, Cameroon: Occurrence and Characteristics
              of Isolates
              R.N. Ndip, Cameroon
11.40-12.00   A Biotechnological Process Recycling wastes by Controls Fermentation,
              Environment and Development Impacts
               M. H. El Jalil, Morocco
12.00-12.20   Mutagenicity Bioassay-directed fractionation of plant crude extract with
              antioretroviral activity.
              R. Baral, Italy
12.20-12.40   Effect of BT Maize Hybrids on Insect Damage, Fusarium Incidence and
              Fumonisin Levels in South Africa
              H Vismer, South Africa

Discussion
                            Friday Afternoon Social Program

I- Visit to the inside walls of the Medina:
             Bab Boujloud
                                    PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
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                                           Fez Morocco
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            Madrasa Bouaânania
            Nejarrine
            Dar Edbagh
II- Visit to the Al Quaraouine’s Library:
Historical presentation of the oldest University in the world.
Pr A Laghzioui, Morocco
III- Tour of the exterior side of the Medina
III- Dinner de Gala (Official Reception)
IV- Sunday 27 November 2005: A social program will be organized for interested
persons to visit the thermal Spa of Moulay Yacoub.

                               Saturday 26 November 2005
                                     PAEMS 2005

                    Oral Session 5: Pharmaceuticals and Prevention

Chairpersons: N Guessous, Morocco, Prof. A El Hajjouji, Switzerland, Prof. M Moutawakil,
Morocco
Plenary conference
09.00-09.30 Pharmacogenetic in Africa
              R. Baral, Italy

Oral Presentations
09.30-09.50 Chemopreventive Acivities of Kolaviron- A natural Antioxidant from Gracina
             KolaSee
             E. Olatunde Farombi, Nigeria
09.50-10.10 Protective Effect of Curcumin and Chlorophyllin against DNA Mutation
             Induced by Cyclophosphamide or Benzo (a) pyrene
             M.A. Ghoneim, Egypt

Discussion
10.30-10.50    Antimutagenic potential of Bryohyllum pinnatum S.Kurz (Crassulaceae)
              leaf juce
              E. E. Obaseiki-Ebor, Nigeria
10.50-11.10    Anti-mutagenic effect of Hapragophytum Procumbens and Hypoxis
              Rooperi on Salmonella Typhimerium strains
              S. Mkhonto, South Africa
11.10-11.30   Molecular Changes on Cancer Cells as affected by willow Extracts
              A. M. Aboul-Enein, Egypt
11.30-11.50   Hepatocellular carcinoma caused by iron overload: a possible mechanism of
              direct hepatocarcinogenicity
              G. Asare, South Africa

Discussion
                                   PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
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                           Oral Session 6: Prospects in Africa

Chairpersons: W Anwar, Egypt, Prof. H Vismer, SA, Prof. A Ibrahimi, Morocco
Oral presentations
14.30-14.50 Spolights On Nutritional Pathology
             M Hassan Nassr El Din, Egypt
14.50-15.10 Changing African diet beverage in Areas with high risk of digestive and liver
             cancers
             KSA Mossanda, South Africa
15.10-15.30 Environment and Growth : Impact de l’environnement urbain ou rural sur la
             croissance des enfants scolaires dans la province de Kenitra au Nord Ouest du
             Maroc
             Y. Aboussaleh, Morocco
15.30-15.50 Impacts Nutritional of a diet enriched with green plants in Malnutrition
             Fatima-Zahra Squali, Morocco
15.50-16.10 Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition GAIN
             M Mahfoudi, Morocco
Discussion

Coffee break

Conferences
17.00-17.30 Initiative for the Development of indigenous food-palnts of Africa (IDIFA) –
            A focus on traditional food system of Africa
            R Van Der Walt, South Africa
17.30-18.00 Scientific Integration, Biotechnology and Competency Transfer:
            Future Prospects in Africa
            OI Aruoma, United Kingdom
Discussion
Closing Ceremony
                                    27 November 2005
                                       PAEMS 2005
          Alexander Hollaender Courses: Genetic Toxicology Training Course
9-10.30 The Salmonella (Ames) Mutagenicity Assay
David DeMarini, Environmental Protection Agency, USA

10.30 – 12 Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Cancer and Molecular Intervention of
Cervical Cancer
William W. Au, University of Texas, USA


14-17 The Micronucleus Test and the Comet Assay: Multi-Purpose Genetic Toxicology Tools
Azzedine El Hajouji, Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland
                                    PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
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                                           Fez Morocco
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The Wali of Fez, the presidents of Fez region and Fez city, The President of Sidi Mohamed Ben
Abdellah University, the Dean of Faculty of Sciences, president of IEMS, the secretary general of
IEMS and the PAEMS President-Elect had attended to the opening ceremony, which was followed
directly, by the scientific program.




          The Environment and Health as well as the Relative Repercussions
The conference was shared between well                   Mutagenicity and Mutation Spectra of Air
distinguished professors from Africa and                 and Water and concluded that the mutation
from developed countries. The first                      in tumors can reflect en environmental
speaker was Prof David De Marini                         mutagen exposure.
(USA), who discussed the importance of




Prof Nouzha Guessous Vice Chair of the                   protection of the world’s natural resources,
UNESCO international Bioethics Committee                 which are essential for human development
presented an evaluation of the environmental             and indeed survival. This education must be
bioethics, she emphasized the important role             generalized and should address not only the
of the environmental education, she proposed             changing knowledge but also the key social
that is a key step in a precautionary attitude. It       and     ethical   issues     associated    with
must highlight the importance of addressing              environmental       protection,     sustainable
environmental issues as part of the broader              development and health. In other words, it
agenda of sustainable development, and                   must be relevant to the world as it is and as it
enable learners to adopt new behaviours in the           isbecoming.

                                        PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                                Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                               Fez Morocco
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Prof Ahmed IRAQI minister of                          Pr KSA MOSSANDA discusses the
Environment (Morocco) reviewed the                   implication of pollutants and allergens in
importance of the environmental mutagens             the exacerbation of asthmatic conditions
in heath and development. He worldwide               and the involvement of oxidative stress.
cooperation on soughing information about            He suggest that positive Phadiatop and
environmental mutagens is unavoidable                high level of IgE are certainly the
and the academic institutions must lobby to          secondary biological markers of the
convince the politics on the importance of           involvement of pollutants/allergens during
a health-development approach that should            the exacerbated conditions of asthma
be more predictive than curative. It is              where a slight deficiency in antioxidant
realistic     and      feasible,   experts’          defense system was observed.
concentration is one of the important steps          Exacerbations conditions of asthma are a
that are achieved in this way.                       consequence of hyper-production of
                                                     eosinophils and IgE by oxidative stress
Prof okonkwo, discussed attempts to                  generated by the combustion products
highlight the health impacts of pollution            acting as adjuvants in the immune system
and waste management within the African              of those patients sensitized to the observed
continent. Cultural, lifestyle and common            allergens.
practices determinants of pollution and
waste management are also highlighted.




Dr El Abbes El Ghazi from Chief                      benefits since the risk of most smoking-
Surgeon, Avicenne Hospital, Rabat,                   related cancers decreases within a few
Morocco, gave the relationship between               years of smoking cessation.
the smoking and cancer. The casual link
between smoking and Cancer was                       Pr William W. AU, from the department
established as early as 1964. Obtained data          of Preventive Medicine and Community
supported a casual link between smoking              Health, from the University of Texas
and all kind of cancers such as lung,                (USA), demonstrated the relationship with
larynx, bladder, oesophagus, pancreas,               expression of chromosome aberrations
cervix and others. Tobacco contains more             (CA) and their association with lung
than 3500 chemicals and at least 20 of               cancer. He showed that certain variant
them are carcinogens. Specific chemicals             genotypes have defective repair activities
in tobacco smoke include nitrosamines,               and they are associated with increased
aromatic amines, ethylene oxide, and                 chromosome aberrations, especially in lung
agents causing oxyradical damage. The                cancer patients.       Therefore, these
best approach to avoid tobacco-related               genotypes are mechanistically involved
diseases is to never start smoking and               with lung cancer.
quitting smoking has substantial health


                                    PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                            Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                           Fez Morocco
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Dr Soheir KORRAA, from the                           activity     have      higher    individual
Department of Radiation Health, National             susceptibility to develop VKC
Center for Radiation Research and
Technology, (Cairo), presented the                   Pr M. A. El-Khafif, from the Institute of
individual    susceptibility   to    vernal          Environmental Studies and Research, Ain
keratoconjunctivitis and the amelioration            Shams University, (Cairo), presented the
effects of antioxidants on its symptoms.             evaluation of the hepatic microsomal
She      concluded      that     associated          enzyme systems of the workers exposed to
immunological and inflammatory systemic              the pesticides by using the antipyrine
condition of VKC recommends the use of               clearance in the saliva of such workers as a
antioxidant mixture in order to ameliorate           biomonitoring method in the occupational
the ocular allergic effects associated with          field. He concluded that the occupational
VKC. Antioxidant use proved its                      exposure to the pesticides could affect the
efficiency and prevent recurrence of VKC             enzyinalic system of the liver, also it is
even after stoppage of the steroid. Also             useful to use the saliva in the occupational
individuals with increased neutropil’s               biomonitoring and the environmental
                                                     researches.




                                    PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
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                            Prevention, Evaluation of Risks and Treatment
Prof. Wagida A., Egypt

GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

Currently, there is a growing interest to genetic        increased risk for cancer. Infections can be
toxicology research, the use of different                associated with cancer development when the
biomarkers and genetic susceptibility testing,           environmental factors interact with the
which can contribute effectively in risk                 infection and lead to the enhancement of the
assessment. Egypt has unique environmental               carcinogenic process. The high prevalence of
exposures and public health circumstances,               viral pathogens, the improper use of pesticides
which makes it ideal for environmental                   may endanger biological functions beyond
mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research.               those for which they originally manufactured.
There are exposures to chemical genotoxicants            Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of
and to factors that have been linked to the              pesticides before adverse clinical health
expression of biological effects and to                  occurs.




S. K. Majumdar, USA

GENOTOXICITY OF AN EFFECTIVE ANTI-CANCER DRUG ON MURINE
ERYTHROLEUKEMIA (GM-86) AND HUMAN CERVICAL CARCINOMA (HeLa) CELLS

The genotoxicity of Gleevec, an affective                breaks. Additionally, there was a significant
anticancer drug against chronic myeloid                  increase in micronuclei formation in Gleevec
leukemia,     was       tested    on     murine          treated cells. Clonability of the drug treated
erythroleukemia (GM-86) and human cervical               GM-86 and HeLa cells showed a significant
carcinoma     (HeLa)       cells   at    various         reduction of colony formation compared to
concentrations. Cell growth and proliferations           control groups. Both light and scanning
studies in both GM-86 and HeLa cell lines                electron microscopy of GM-86 cells detected
revealed statistically significant growth                cell degradation, multinucleation, nuclear
inhibitory effects of the drug at all                    condensation and fragmentations, as well as
concentrations at or after 24 hours of exposure.         apoptotic bodies.     In order to study the
Cytogenetic studies, using GM-86 cells,                  mechanisms of Gleevec induced cell death,
detected a noticeable increase in chromosomal            mitochondrial     transmembrane      potential
abnormalities, including fragments, gaps and             disruption was evaluated utilizing Trevigen’s

                                        PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                                Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                               Fez Morocco
                                                    16


(Gaithersburg, Maryland) DePsipher assay.                Soheir Korraa, Egypt
The assay uses a cationic dye to measure the             EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT MIXTURE
loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential.           ON CANCER CERVIX PATIENTS
The dye aggregates in the membrane of                    UNDERGOING POST-OPERATIVE
healthy mitochondria, which fluoresces                   RADIOTHERAPY
orange-red under a fluorescent microscope                The aim of the work was to investigate
equipped with fluorescein filters. One of the            whether a mixture of antioxidants can reduce
first events in the onset of apoptotic process is        effects of radiation on DNA of circulating
mitochondrial permeability changes, when the             lymphocytes. Initially, following the first and
electrochemical       gradient    across     the         second sessions of radiotherapy, both the
mitochondrial membrane is disrupted. The                 vitamin administering control and the exposed
disruption of membrane potential prevents the            group showed higher frequency of DNA-
entry of the dye into mitochondrial space and            fragmentation and DNA-protein-cross link and
remains green in monomeric form.               A         the frequency of micro nuclei compared to
statistically higher number of green cells were          their level before radiotherapy and compared
scored in drug treated groups, implying that the         with normal controls as measured 24 and 48
toxicity of the drug possibly is a consequence           hours post first session of radiotherapy.
of programmed cell death mechanism. The                  Patients undergoing radiotherapy showed a
mitochondrial       transmembrane       potential        decrease in all parameters of the study after
disruption along with nuclear condensation and           one-week, one month and one week post
fragmentations, as well as apoptotic bodies              irradiation.   However,      the   antioxidants
observed in this investigation suggests that the         administering group showed significantly
Gleevec induced cell death is mediated via               lower levels of DNA fragmentation and
apoptotic pathways.                                      apoptosis and lipid peroxides and micronuclei
                                                         compared to those patients who did not receive
                                                         antioxidant supplementation. In conclusion,
                                                         results reveal adaptation to radiation during
                                                         radiotherapy and evaluate the prophylactic
                                                         effect of a mixture of antioxidants during
                                                         radiotherapy.




A.M. van der Walt, South Africa                          was conducted in the Limpopo Province of
POTENTIAL FUMONISIN B1-                                  South Africa with an estimated HIV
PRODUCERS, TRADITIONAL                                   prevalence of 17.8% and an unexpected
VEGETABLES, NEURAL TUBE                                  occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs).
DEFECTS (NTDs) AND HIV/AIDS IN                           In rural settings, rural Africans supplement
A RURAL AFRICAN COMMUNITY                                their grain-based staple diet with
Just over 10% of the world’s population                  traditional leafy vegetables referred to as
lives in Sub-Saharan Africa, the region that             morogo or umfino. Based on data for
also is home to more than 60% of all                     western diets, these traditional leafy
people living with HIV. The present study                vegetables are expected to reduce the risk
                                        PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                                Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                               Fez Morocco
                                                17


cancer as well as NTDs in consumer                    significantly add to the burden on the
populations. However, consumer safety                 already compromised immune system of
could be compromised should morogo be                 HIV-infected individuals in rural African
contaminated with potential FB1-producing             communities relying on these traditional
fusaria, the risk of which is enhanced by             vegetables for subsistence.
the close proximity of grain crops that host
such fungi. Furthermore, traditional food             Romualdo Benigni, Itlay
storage practices in resource-limited rural           NEW TOOLS FOR STRUCTURE-
communities could be conducive for fungal             ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS
growth and mycotoxin production. In the               STUDIES
present study, a notable percentage of                 The qualitative knowledge on structure-
fusaria isolated from traditional morogo              activity relationships, together with
were identified as potential FB1-producers.           existing Quantitative Structure-Activity
Molecular studies confirmed that these                Relationships ( QSAR) models constitute a
strains possessed the FB1-encoding fum 1              large body of evidence that contribute to
gene. Based on DNA sequence homology                  both the scientific research on mechanisms
of fumonisin biosynthesis genes (fum 1)               and the practice of risk assessment relative
and conserved fragments of the elongation             to chemical mutagens and carcinogens. At
factor genes (EF-1), Fusarium spp from                present, a crucial point is how to progress
morogo appeared to be more closely                    further. An important area is the
related to fumonisin-producing F. nygamai             construction of intelligent databases of
as compared to maize-associated F.                    experimental data that can be used to
verticillioides reference cultures. Chemical          identify chemical classes for which QSARs
analysis detected fumonisins in some of               can be derived. The new generation
the traditional morogo samples. Interfering           databases store, together with experimental
with sphingolipid metabolism, FB1 have                data, also chemical descriptors of the
shown to disrupt membrane receptor sites              molecules, and permit the exploration of
essential for folate uptake and inter- and            chemical-biological relationships in a
intracellular communication – mechanisms              flexible and interactive way. The database
that would impact on processes of                     on “Chemical carcinogens: structures and
embryogenesis as well as immune                       experimental data”, build in our Institute,
functioning. Since FB1 is associated with             will be presented. It consists of data files
cancer development and have also been                 that can be downloaded freely from the
linked to secondary infections in                     website:
immunocompromised patients, fusarial                  http://www.iss.it/ampp/hhhh/hhhh.php?id=
contamination of traditional morogo could             233




                                     PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                             Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                            Fez Morocco
                                                   18


Williams, J.H., USA                                     Akerele J, Benin

AFLATOXIN EXPOSURE IN                                   BACTERIAL MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND                                OF PROMETHAZINE
PROBABLE NUTRITIONAL AND
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES                            Promethazine is a heterocyclic aromatic
                                                        hychrocarbon with anti-histaminic effects. It is
Reflecting the control of aflatoxin in diets in         used essentially in the routine management of
developing countries the preoccupation of               allergic conditions, motion sickness; as anti-
human medicine is with the consequences of              emetic, tranquillizer and potentiator of
cumulative exposure – the risks of cancer. In           analgesic and sedative drugs. It is about 90%
strong contrast the preoccupation of animal             bound to plasma protein and extensively
scientists is with nutritional interference and         metabolized. In Nigeria; it is freely available
immune-system suppression because of the                without prescription, popularly used by
chronic exposure of farm animals to                     mothers in conjuction with anti-tussive agents
uncontrolled levels of this toxin. Food systems         to relieve cough in children.
and the lack of enforced regulations mean that
most people in developing countries have                The mutagenic responses of promethazine
exposure that is closer to that of farm animals         hychrochloride was carried out to provide
than that of people in developing countries.            base-line      data,using     modified       Ames
Our studies in Ghana show that immunity is              Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay.
suppressed by the levels of exposure to                 The bacterial tester strains were E coli WP2,
aflatoxin that prevail. Other studies indicate          trp; WP2 (pEB017) trp, WP2 (pKM101) trp,
that the nutritional affects of chronic exposure        WP2 trp, uvrA,WP2 trp, uvrA (pEB017), WP2
apply in these situations. Data already show            trp, urvA (pKM101). These strains detect base-
the relationship of aflatoxin exposure to the           pair substitution mutagens at the trp mutant
underweight and stunting of children. Evidence          site, The test protocol involved exogenous
gathered from a literature review provides              mammalian activation, and nicotinamide
preliminary indications that aflatoxin may be a         adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).
factor in the HIV epidemic since there is a             Our results showed that promethazine
significant correlation between exposure and            hydrochloride mediated base-pair substitution
the incidence of HIV, and factors that promote          mutagenesis. There were significant revertants
HIV are modulated by aflatoxin.             This        colonies (p< 0.01) in the treated plates
evidence suggests that the most important               compared with controls. The revertants were
reasons to manage aflatoxin are not the trade           equally very significant (p<0.01) in the plates
and cancer risks but the broader consequences           treated with microsomal enzyme fraction when
to health and nutrition in developing countries.        compared with plates without enzyme fraction.
                                                        R-plasmids enhanced detection of mutagenic
                                                        potencies when compared with isogenic strains
                                                        without R-plasmids. The potential mutagenic
                                                        implications of these findings against the
                                                        background that promethazine accumulates in
                                                        the tissues, and structural similarity to acridine,
                                                        a known DNA intercalator, are highlighted.




                                       PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                               Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                              Fez Morocco
                                                     19




Akoachere J-FTK, Cameroon                                 and Serratia marcescens. Of the pure isolates,
                                                          Serratia marcescens degraded the highest
LUBRICATING OIL-DEGRADING                                 amount of oil (36.2%). However, a mixed
BACTERIA IN SOIL FROM FILLING                             culture of the isolates proved to be more
STATIONS AND AUTOMECHANIC                                 effective, degrading 38.1% of oil within 20
WORKSHOPS IN BUEA, CAMEROON:                              days.     All the isolates exhibited highest
OCCURRENCE AND                                            degradation at 32 C; and degradation rates of
CHARACTERISTICS OF ISOLATES.
                                                          Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus
The discharge of used crankcase oil from                  mycoides increased with increase in nutrient
vehicles is a major source of oil pollution in            concentration. This study, the first of its kind
Buea. The objectives of this study were to                in Buea, revealed the presence of oil-degrading
isolate and characterize bacteria capable of              bacteria in soils as well as the physico-
effectively degrading and cleaning up waste               chemical requirements of these bacteria for
engine oil in this locality and also to ascertain         optimum degradation. This finding could be
the influence of some environmental factors on            exploited in case of oil-spill clean-up
the rates of degradation of these isolates.               campaigns.
Seventy-two soil samples were collected from
lubricating oil dump sites (3 auto mechanic
workshops and 3 petrol filling stations,
comprising        impacted        soils)      and
uncontaminated plots (non-impacted soils)
(controls) were analysed for oil-degrading and
heterotrophic bacteria following standard
microbiologic and biochemical methods. The
ability of cultures to degrade lubricating oil
was also tested individually and in mixed
bacterial consortium at different temperatures
and nutrient concentrations. Results were
analysed using the chi-squared test. P values
<0.05      were      considered       significant.
Heterotrophic      bacterial     counts      were
significantly higher (P< 0.05) in non-impacted
than in impacted soils.        Conversely, the
population of oil degraders was significantly
lower (P< 0.05) in non-impacted than in
impacted soils. Oil degraders isolated included
Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus mycoides

                                         PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                                 Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                                Fez Morocco
                                                    20


R. Baral , Italy                                         was tested for the mutagenecity with the Ames
                                                         gene mutation test in Salmonella and the
MUTAGENICITY BIOASSAY-DIRECTD                            chromosome           damage         (clastogenic)
FRATIONATION OF PLANT CRUDE                              micronucleous test, in human lymphocytes.
EXTRACT WITH ANTIRETROVIRAL                              The raw extract presents a weak clastogenic
ACTIVITY.                                                activity, but a powerful mutagenic activity in
The study of the genotoxicity of complex                 the Ames test with the addition of exogenous
mixtures represents the ultimate challenge in            metabolic activation. The purification with
toxicology. Depending on the biological target,          charcoal determines a drastic reduction of the
their components can determine a variety of              the extract mutagenicity which almost reduces
effects such as acute toxicity, including death,         totally by means of a further ultrafiltration
or long term toxicity, i.e. cancer or trans-             (cut-off < 3000 dalton). This fraction still
generational effects such as malformations or            posses the capability to induce sister chromatid
children cancers. Plant extracts may contains            exchanges in human lymphocytes, due to a
hundreds or thousands of chemicals, some of              residual mutagenicity or, more likely, to the
them      toxic,    other      inactive,    some         slowdown of the DNA replication process.
therapeutically effective. It is of great concern        These findings open new possibilities of HIV
to separate active compounds from toxic ones             therapy since this antiviral one, devoided of
eventually present into a therapeutically                mutagenic activity, should reduce the
effective plant crude extract. Bioassy-directed          possibilities of the induction of resistant viral
frationation of a complex mixture into several           strains by the drug itself.
parts, according to their chemical-physical              Traditional African medicine may provide an
properties, may represent a suitable approach            enormous amount of plant extracts with
to isolate and prepare new drug possibly                 effective therapeutic effects and a great
devoided of toxic effects. The plant extract             economic potential. Mutagenicity-directed
Secomet-V, has been obtained from a weed                 fractionation may be a reliable tool for
grown in South Africa and it is characterized            achieving such a goal.
by a powerful antiviral activity. Secomet-V




                                        PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                                Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                               Fez Morocco
                                                  21


Vismer HF, South Africa

EFFECT OF BT MAIZE HYBRIDS ON                           Baral R., Italy
INSECT DAMAGE, FUSARIUM
INCIDENCE AND FUMONISIN LEVELS                          PHARMACOGENETIC IN AFRICA.
IN SOUTH AFRICA                                         Variability in drug responsiveness and toxicity
Maize field trials were conducted over two              is one of the major problems in medical
seasons at Potchefstroom and Vaalharts in               therapy. Most drugs undergo bioactivation to
South Africa where six maize hybrids were               become pharmacologically active or are
planted and the ears either mechanically                detoxified and excreted. Several involved
wounded or left untreated. Results were                 enzymatic      activities    show       a     wide
statistically compared for yield, moisture              interindividual and interethnic variability. An
content, insect damage, Fusarium incidence              example is the antitubercular drug isoniazide
and fumonisin levels in harvested maize. Yield          which is rapidly activated by the cytochrome
and moisture content: no significant                    CYP2D6 and then acethylated and excreted in
differences were found at both localities.              patients carryng certain polymorphic variants
Insects: Busseola fusca (stalk borer)                   of the N-acethyl transferase genes (NAT). Fast
inFèstations were relatively low and                    acethylators,     because     of      the     rapid
numerically higher in the wounded non-Bt                transformation       of     isonioazide        into
hybrids. Hardly any of these insects were               acethylisoniazide, respond poorly to the
recorded in the Bt hybrids. It appears that all         standard therapy and cannot be treated with
the Bt hybrids used in these field trials are           higher dose due to acethylisoniazide
resistant to B. fusca. Visible stalk borer              epatotoxicity (up to 25%). In these patients the
damage was significantly lower in Bt-hybrid             disease tends to chronicise increasing the
CRN 4549Bt (wounded) at Potchefstroom and               probability of Mycobacterium to become
in CRN 4549Bt (untreated) and CRN 4760Bt                resistant.    The     presence     of     different
(wounded) at Vaalharts, compared to their               combination of CYP2D6 alleles with NAT2
respective isolines (second season). Visible            ones further increses the interindividual
Fusarium ear damage was not significantly               variability in isoniazide responsiveness. Wide
different at Potchefstroom and significantly            variation in the frequency of CYP2D6 and
lower in CRN 4760Bt (wounded) at Vaalharts.             NAT2 has been assessed between Caucasian
Fungal incidences: Fusarium verticillioides             and Asians, while there are few informations
accounted for the highest incidence of                  about their distribution pattern in Africa which
Fusarium species and was numerically                    is expected, on the bases of human evolution,
markedly lower in the Bt hybrids in several             to show the larger variability all over the
instances. Total fumonisin levels were not              world. Pharmacogenetics, which is the study of
significantly different at Potchefstroom, but           genetically controlled variations in drug
significantly lower in CRN 4760Bt versus                response, may provide an important
CRN 3760 (untreated) and significantly higher           contribution to the improvement of drug
in the wounded versus untreated ears in CRN             therapy in Africa. Thanks to the new molecular
4760Bt at Vaalharts (second season).                    techniques this research area is rapidly
Fumonisin levels were also markedly lower in            developing. By combining genotype and
the Bt hybrids in several instances. Overall            phenotype analyses, it is feasible to assess the
inFèstations/contamination were therefore               patient’s metabolic ability to predict the
generally lower in the Bt hybrids in naturally          therapeutic effect on individual and ethnic
high Fusarium incidence areas in South Africa.          level and to prevent dangerous toxicity of
                                                        several drugs. Moreover, the discovery of NAT
                                       PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                               Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                              Fez Morocco
                                                     22


polymorphism in M. tuberculosis                 is        assay. At concentrations between 30-90 M,
particularly significant, since this enzyme               kolaviron decreases oxidant-induced DNA
participates in inactivation of isoniazide in the         strand breaks and oxidized bases in
bacterium, with obvious implications for                  lymphocytes. Kolaviron modulates carcinogen
isoniazide      resistance.    Other     genetic          DNA adducts (32P-postlabelling), protein
polymorphism have been shown to be                        oxidation products (2-amino semialdehyde and
associated to different drug responsiveness                -glutamyl semialdehyde) and lipid oxidation
such as CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, STs                      marker (malondialdehyde). Also, kolaviron
and UGTs. A possible collaboration aimed to               elicites up-regulation of glutathione S-
study the Mozambique distribution of                      transferase, uridyl glucuronosyl transferase and
polymorphism of genes involved in the                     NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in rats. In
metabolism of the most used drugs either in the           addition this extract possesses metal (iron)
host or in the pathogen is proposed.                      chelating ability.       In the context of
                                                          genotoxicity       and     possibly       human
                                                          carcinogenesis, kolaviron may be an important
Olatunde Farombi E., Nigeria                              chemopreventive agent.

CHEMOPREVENTIVE ACTIVITIES OF                             E. E. Obaseiki-Ebor, Nigeria
KOLAVIRON- A NATURAL
                                                          ANTIMUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF
ANTIOXIDANT FROM GARCINIA KOLA
                                                          BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM S.KURZ
SEED
                                                          (CRASSULACEAE) LEAF JUICE
Herbal-based and plant-derived antioxidants
                                                          The potential antimutagenic activity and an
continue to play a dominant role in inhibiting,
                                                          indication of anticarcinogenic potential of the
ameliorating and reversing the multi-stage
                                                          leaf juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum edible
process of carcinogenesis. Thus the discovery
                                                          vegetable plant were investigated.           The
and exploration of natural compounds with
                                                          ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) induced
antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic properties
                                                          reversion of Salmonella typhimurium his,
is of great importance presently because of the
                                                          TA100 and TA102 strains from His- to His+
undesirable consequences of mutations and
                                                          were 90-100% inhibited by the polar and non-
cancer risks in humans. Majority of the
                                                          polar lipid fractions of the Bryophyllum
naturally occurring antioxidant substances
                                                          pinnatum juice. Also the induced reversions of
especially polyphenolic compounds possess
                                                          these Salm. typhimurium his strains by two
intrinsic antioxidant and free radical
                                                          potential        carcinogens          (4-nitro-o-
scavenging properties which have been
                                                          phenylenediamine       and     2-aminofluorene
suggested      to    contribute      to    their
                                                          respectively) were also 70-90% inhibited by
chemopreventive activity. Kolaviron contains
                                                          the same fraction of the leaf juice. The impact
Garcinia biflavonoids GB1, GB2 and
                                                          of this study indicates a potential
kolaflavanone from the seed of Garcinia kola
                                                          antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities
used in West African traditional medicine and
                                                          of this thermostable juice against the
eaten as a refreshing past time. Kolaviron
                                                          mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of some
protects against genotoxic response induced by
                                                          chemical substances.
aflatoxin B1, 2-acetylaminofluorene and
sodium arsenite as assessed by the formation
of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes
(MNPCEs) in rats. Kolaviron exerts striking
inhibitory effects against free radical–induced
oxidative DNA damage evaluated by the comet
                                         PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                                 Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                                Fez Morocco
                                                  23


S. Mkhonto, South Africa                                10µg/ml Sodium azide (NaN) were
                                                        respectively tested on TA 98 and TA100 as
ANTI-MUTAGENIC EFFECT OF                                positive controls whereas 10% Dimethyl
HARPAGOPHYTUM PROCUMBENS                                sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as negative
AND HYPOXIS ROOPERI ON                                  control. Anti-mutagenic capacity of plant
SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM                                  extracts were evaluated against the mutagenic
STRAINS                                                 effect the above mentioned mutagenic
About 80% of the population in Africa uses              compounds.No mutagenic activity was
traditional medicine as primary health care to          observed for methanol extracts of both plants
treat different diseases. Safety and efficacy           (DC and BP): 20-30 colonies revertants count
study of these traditional medicinal plants             for TA 98 (reference range: 30-50) and 87-187
commonly used is required. This study was               colonies revertants for TA100 (reference
aimed to investigate mutagenic and anti-                range: 120-200).
mutagenic effects of two African medicinal              In contrast, tested at various concentrations,
plants: Harpagophytum procumbens and                    inhibition of mutagenic effects by BP extract
Hypoxis rooperi commonly known as Devil’s               towards 4-NQNO on TA100 and TA98 were
Claw (DC) and Black potatoe (BP)                        22.4-27% and 23-28%, respectively. The
respectively and used for the traditional               inhibition effect of DC extract towards NaN on
treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.          TA100 and TA98, were 25-45% and 50-53%
Mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effect of                  respectively. The reduction of number of
methanol extracts of DC and PB on Salmonella            colonies revertants at different concentrations
strains TA98 and TA100 were investigated                of plant extracts provides evidence of anti-
using Ames test (pre-incubation assay) at four          mutagenic effect of methanol extracts of DC
concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/ml)              and BP. Further studies are needed for the
without S9 mix (metabolic activation).                  determination of chemical constituents
Mutagenic compounds: 0.0002ng/ml 4-                     involving in this anti-mutagenic activity.
Nitroquinoline-N –oxide (4-NQNO) and




Ahmed M. Aboul-Enein, Egypt                             mg/ml of cell media) gave 86% dead cells in
                                                        EACC and 63% in AML. The cell membrane
MOLECULAR CHANGES ON CANCER                             damage of tumor cells was evaluated by LDH
CELLS AS AFFECTED BY WILLOW                             increase activity and GST was also increased
EXTRACTS                                                as antitumor marker and/or affect the redox
                                                        system with GSH. Apoptosis was induced by
The aim of the work was to study the mode
                                                        the natural tested materials and showed an
action of willow (salix safsaf) extracts on two
                                                        increase in DNA fragmentation and expression
types of tumors, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma
                                                        P53 protein in tumor cells by willow extract
cells (EACC) and acute myeloid leukemia
                                                        treatment. The extract increased the percentage
(AML). The fresh water extract of willow (5.4
                                       PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                               Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                              Fez Morocco
                                                   24


of diploid cells and S-phase as well as                 ferrocene supplementation of their diet. Five
metaphase of tumor cells all are related to cell        rats were sacrificed at 4 monthly intervals and
life cycle. Suggested mechanisms have been              biochemical parameters of oxidative damage
given for the action of willow extract as               and lipid peroxidation, DNA unwinding and
anticancer.                                             strand breaks, and the Ames Mutagenesis Test
                                                        were measured and correlated with the degree
Asare GA , South Africa                                 of hepatic iron overload, the presence of iron-
                                                        free preneoplastic foci in the liver, and the
HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA
                                                        development of hepatocellular carcinoma in
CAUSED BY IRON OVERLOAD: A
                                                        comparison with 60 control rats. Levels of
POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF DIRECT
                                                        lipid hydroperoxides, malonaldehyde, 8-
HEPATOCARCINOGENICITY
                                                        isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine
Excess hepatic iron may be both directly and            increased, reaching peak concentrations at 20 -
indirectly carcinogenic. The close correlation          24 months, and correlating with an increase in
between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and              the rate of DNA unwinding, strand breaks, and
cirrhosis in hereditary hemochromatosis led to          positive Ames Tests. Iron-free neoplastic foci
the belief that excess hepatic iron caused              became evident at 16 months and thereafter
chronic necroinflammatory hepatic disease               increased in number. Five rats survived up
that, in turn, was responsible for the malignant        until 32 months with neoplastic foci and 1 out
transformation. In other words, hepatic iron            of the five developed HCC. Our findings
loading is thought to be indirectly                     support the hypothesis that the direct
carcinogenic.The aim of this study was to               hepatocarcinogenic effect of excess iron is
determine if excess dietary iron is directly            mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen
hepatocarcinogenic and to sequentially                  species and oxidative damage that are
elucidate a possible mechanism. Sixty male              mutagenic and carcinogenic.
Wistar albino rats were iron-loaded by

                                    African collaborations


                                                        Nutritional diseases are multifactor. Nutritional
                                                        pathology is a growing field whose scope
                                                        encompass caloric over& undernutrition, gene-
                                                        nutrition interaction, vitamin disorders, as well
                                                        as food contaminants. Besides the human diet
                                                        is a complex & variable mixture of naturally
                                                        occurring & synthetic chemicals. Carcinogens
                                                        & anti-carcinogens in the diet can interact in
                                                        several ways that need to be elucidated. It has
                                                        been suggested that hormones, vitamins, &
                                                        growth factors may be potential controlling
                                                        factors in transformation of pre-cancerous to
Magda Hassan Nasr El Din, Egypt
                                                        cancerous cell. Chemoprevention is an
SPOLIGHTS           ON       NUTRITIONAL                emergency concept in cancer control that
PATHOLOGY                                               involves the use of naturally occurring agents
                                                        or synthetic chemicals to reverse, to suppress,
                                                        or prevent carcinogenic process. The impact of
                                       PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
                               Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
                                              Fez Morocco
                                                    25


new molecular techniques has improved our                genetic alterations. Besides the Comet assay is
understanding    of   carcinogenesis:   the              a sensitive technique for detection of DNA
imunohistochemical employment of reliable                damage and to provide information on the
tumor markers has become a widely accepted               distribution of damage among cells and
tool and has helped us to study the various              helping to assess health status


Kensese S. Mossanda, South Africa                        intracellular radical scavenging activities was
CHANGING AFRICAN DIET AND                                performed using inhibition of zymozan
BEVERAGE IN AREAS WITH HIGH                              induced chemiluminescence in Raw 264.7
RISK OF DIGESTIVE AND LIVER                              macrophages and in human granulocytes. Anti-
CANCERS                                                  mutagenic activity was evaluated by
The diet of the majority of African populations          incubation with Salmonella typhimurium strain
consists largely of maize and cassava flour              TA        102      reversion      test.     Anti-
prone to fungal inFèstation and thus to                  inflammatory/chemo-preventive activities were
contamination by mycotoxins increasing the               detected using Western blotting analysis
risk of digestive and liver cancers which                performed for measurement of COX-2 mRNA
become the most common cancers in Southern               expression after incubation of ethanolic plant
Africa.                                                  extracts with the immortalized human breast
In this study, we investigated those African             epithelial (MCF-10A) cells in vitro and in
diet and beverage consumed in areas with low             mouse      skin    in    vivo     using    12-O-
risk of cancer for identification of anti-               tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as
oxidative,     anti-mutagenic       and     anti-        tumor      promoter       stimulating     COX-2
inflammatory/chemo-preventive activities for             expression. Those food plants do possess
adopting them in areas with high risk of                 variable anti-oxidative and anti-mutagenic
cancer.     Bambara        groundnut     (Vignea         activities. Cancer bush and Devil’s claw
subterranean), Rooi bos tea (Aspalathus                  showing the most anti-inflammatory/chemo-
linearis),    Cancer       bush    (Sutherlandia         preventive activities. In addition, by
fructescens) and Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum             suppressing DNA strand breakage after
procumbens) where collected in Southern                  photolyse of H2O2 generating hydroxyl radical
African areas with low risk of cancer. Anti-             (OH ), those plant materials revealed their
oxidative activity was demonstrated in plant             capacity to protect cells against oxidative DNA
extracts by their ability to scavenge superoxide         damage leading to cancer. These food plants
anion, to bleach the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-              could be recommended in the diet of
picrylhydrazil radical and to protect DNA                populations living in areas with high risk of
supercoiled after DNA strand scission induced            digestive and liver cancers for reducing their
by UV-photolyse of H2O2. Evaluation of                   incidence.




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F-Z Squali, Morocco

Nutritional Impacts of a diet enriched with             rations of malnourished populations. This
green plants in Malnutrition                            project is included in the initiative for the
                                                        development of indigenous foods of Africa
The human communities have recourse to a                (IDIFA). Through research collaboration,
very large variety of vegetable foods                   scientist from African countries participating
(grains/vegetales) to satisfy their food needs.         in IDIFA strive to establish a database of
The plants can normally contain the nutritional         health risks and benefits associated with
needs for the populations except for the B12            indigenous African food-plants, many of which
vitamin. The livestock products are usually             are neglected and underutilized crops.
expensive, and are used only seldom for quasi-
exclusive satisfaction of the needs. To compare         Zerrari A, Morocco
with the international context Africa seems as
well as Asia the continent which depends on             GLOBAL ALLIANCE FOR IMPROVED
the vegetable sources. In Morocco malnutrition          NUTRITION GAIN
is a problem of public health since one child on        According to the WHO, more than half of the
four 6-60 months old suffers from proteino-             world population suffers from micronutrients
calorie malnutrition. Our previous studies              deficiencies. The correction of these
showed that in the malnourished children,               deficiencies bring lot of sanitary and socio -
selenium, zinc, the retinol, alpha tocopherol           economic advantages on individuals, families
and then carotenoids are significantly                  and nations. The food fortification product is
decreased. Conversely, the TBARS, the ferritin          an efficient, sure and less expensive strategy.
and the index of inflammatory and nutritional           Global Alliance for Improvement of Nutrition:
forecast (PINI) are significantly increased in          GAIN reinforces the activities led by countries
the children malnutris. Reduction in the                where the micronutrients insufficiencies in
antioxydant micronutriments and increase in             food of the peoples threaten lives, delay the
markers of stress confirm the imbalance                 physical growth          , mental, cognitive
between prooxydants and antioxydants in                 development and alter health. World wide,
situation of malnutrition in bond with the              GAIN was launched in May 2002 to complete
inflammatory syndrom and the staturo-                   existing programs that aim the reduction or
ponderal delay.                                         even the elimination of micronutrients
The aim of this project is to locally open the          deficiencies disorders. GAIN           supports
way with the use of foliar extracts of plants           national programs to make available and
available as food complement in the child               accessible fortified     food to the general
suffering of chronic malnutrition, in order to          population. The support is granted for the
study and to develop the concentrates of sheets         fortification of one or many vehicles,
of local green plants to balance the deprived           particularly once that are largely consumed by

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the population. The GAIN                requires         Van der Walt AM, South Africa
complementary integrated plan of action wich
includes      fortification of product largely           INITIATIVE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT
consumed using sure and efficient fortification          OF INDIGENOUS FOOD-PLANTS OF
technologies        and     applying    efficient        AFRICA (IDIFA) – A FOCUS ON
surveillance and evaluation processes.The                TRADITIONAL FOOD SYSTEMS OF
Kingdom of Morocco launched in 2002 its                  AFRICA
fortification program of oil by vitamins A and           The devastating impact of HIV/AIDS on rural
D3 and of the industrial flour by iron, B1               population in many regions of sub-Saharan
vitamin, B2, PP and in folic acid. During the            Africa is fast eroding the ability of households
three last years two conventions were signed             to cope with the demands of providing health-
between the Ministry of Health and the                   sustaining food for their families by means of
Industrials. To this effect, the first one was           subsistence farming. In addition to food
signed in May 8, 2002 between the Ministry               insecurity and malnutrition compromising
of Health and the National Federation of                 human resistance to disease, the spiralling
Millers and the second one in February 5, 2004           effect of HIV/AIDS on Africa’s population is
between the Ministry of health, the Ministry of          also eroding indigenous knowledge of the
agriculture, of rural Development and of                 cultivation and safe storage of traditional
Fishing and the association of oil producers in          African crops. Rural communities could derive
Morocco. Among the fifteen mills having                  long-term benefits from research that would
gotten the logo food enriched "Siha Wa                   change the paradigm of emergency famine
Salama" ten have already produced fortified              response as a means of addressing the food
flour by iron and vitamins.          Also, four          crisis in Africa, to one of the advancement of
producers of oil among the five validated                indigenous African edible plants and
produced fortified oil (about 90% of oil of              traditional vegetable crops in sustainable rural
table is fortified). GAIN project, for 3 years           subsistence farming. This strategy would
periods, will reinforce the national program of          secure nutritional advantages of vegetable
fortification of the food of large consumption.          consumption for poor rural households
its covers five components, : production                 generally marginalized by poor infrastructure
distribution, quality control, marketing social          and technological developments in commercial
and advocacy, monitoring and evaluation and              agriculture. A model for research collaboration
management. The success of the GAIN project              and interaction, IDIFA strive to optimize
will contribute to reach the National Program            scientific expertise and research capacity in
objectives wish are the reduction by third of            Africa to compile a database of indigenous
the anaemia due to iron deficiency, the                  food-plants and traditional crops of Africa,
elimination of vitamin A deficiency and the              many of which are neglected and / or
elimination of the disorders due to iodine               underutilized. Scientific information generated
deficiency in future new births, by 2015. This           through IDIFA research could support the
intervention will permit to share the national           development of strategies and implementation
experience concerning food fortification and to          of programs in rural regions of sub-Saharan
explain manage mechanism of monitoring and               Africa aimed at: (i) the restoration of Africa’s
evaluation of GAIN project.                              indigenous crop biodiversity and advancement
                                                         thereof in sustainable subsistence farming
                                                         employing         low-cost       microbiological
                                                         technologies for improved crop quality and
                                                         yield, (ii) the enhanced utilisation of African
                                                         vegetables in traditional staple diets; (iii) the
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reduction of diet-related health risks through          the improvement of the quality of life.
advancement of safe cultivation and storage of          Scientists in Africa have to embrace new
home-grown foods and (iv) the development of            knowledge and technologies, as they can no
novel urban food markets for traditional                longer afford to be mere spectators of their
African vegetables.                                     own destiny. As international boundaries
                                                        continue to become virtual is vital to be
Okezie I Aruoma, United Kingdom                         prepared to meet all the new challenges of this
                                                        technical revolution. The time is now. African
SCIENTIFIC INTEGRATION,
                                                        scientists needs to put to good use that innate
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND COMPETENCY
                                                        drive to understand the universe, the eternal
TRANSFER: FUTURE PROSPECTS IN
                                                        quest to know individual and collective powers
AFRICA
                                                        and limitations, for without knowledge, there is
The increasing number of learned Societies in           a compulsorily condemnation to living on the
Africa is a clear indication of the trust the           peripheries of modern progress. Now is the
international scientific community has in               time to revisit strategies for research through
Africa and its future. This is a strong message         increased funding to support research
that the time has come for the world to focus           infrastructure and training of scientists. It is
attention on the amazing potential for research         only this that will put knowledge back at
in, about, and for Africa. Endeavoring to build         Africa’s doorstep. Knowledge in modern times
a capacity within Africa that will sustain              must become a commodity available not only
growth in scientific research needs to embrace          to those who can afford it, but to all. The future
individual scientists, universities and colleges        focus must be that of fostering collaborative
of     higher    education     and    respective        initiatives and/or strengthen high caliber
governments in the region. So the way forward           medical and biotechnological research in
is for stakeholders to foster international             African countries and small island countries in
development, capacity building, cooperation in          the Caribbean and Pacific regions (ACP
scientific education and research. This needs to        countries). This is important for integrating
incorporate promoting all activities leading to         and transferring competency in advanced
                                                        scientific and medical research.




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                       PAEMS’ 2005 SCIENTIST AWARD
A selection committee was formed to evaluate the scientific presentations from young
scientists, 3 awards were offered, the first one by Dr A. Elhajouji from Novartis Pharma AG,
the second from PAEMS, and the third, from Pr J. Williams from the University of Georgia,
USA.




During the conference‘s gala Dinner, the PAEMS’ 2005 young Scientist Award was
presented to Dr. Kamal GOUIB, Dr. Fadil BAKKALI and Dr. Fatima-Zahra
AZZAHRAOUI.




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                                      African Perspectives
                              Report from Morocco PAEMS
By F-Z SQUALI, DM DeMARINI, Azeddine IBRAHIMI, and Khalid SENDIDE
1
   University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Faculty of Sciences Dhar Mehraz BP 1796 Atlas
Fès, Morocco.
2
  Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
3
   Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquée, Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taza, Université Sidi
Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Taza, Morocco
http;//members.lycos.fr/congrespaems2005
Keywords: Environmental mutagens; Population monitoring; Biomarkers; Genetic susceptibility;
Mutagenesis; Carcinogenesis


5th PAEMS International Congress
Since the 4th PAEMS International Congress held in Cairo under the Topic “An African
Agenda for Prevention Research,” many African collaborations and partnerships were born
leading to many conferences in the field of health and biology and the establishment of a
number of collaborative projects like the Initiative for the Development of Indigenous Food-
plants of Africa” IDIFA. All these achievements are consistent with the goals of the PAEMS
mainly spreading the new information and technology related to Environmental Mutagenesis
and encouraging cooperation and training programs between different African countries but
also with the rest of the world.
       To further boost the development of these research axes, we are pleased to accommodate
you, today, in Fez, for the 5th PAEMS International Conference where the main topic will be:
« Environmental Mutagens And Carcinogens: Genomics And Proteomics Era »
        Mutagen and the environmental carcinogens could be biological or chemical agents. The
known human carcinogenic chemicals are varied both in structure and origin, and they can result
from either industrial or natural products. Among the environmental factors, some food component
could be major carcinogenic factors, even if this role is not as well established for other
environmental carcinogens. Food brings to an organism a multitude of macro and micronutrients that
have various effects on promoting cancer. The development of new technologies of molecular
detection will make it possible to better investigate these new research fields.
        Population health depends also upon a good quality of the environment including air, water,
soil and food. Unfortunately, many of the problems are caused by the fact that these environmental
spaces are polluted creating a situation that can no more be accepted. Indeed, the world cannot
tolerate that over a billion children are malnourished and still live in poverty, and more than ten
million children under the age of five years still die every year of diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles,
malaria and AIDS (41% of them take place in Sub-Saharan Africa). These pathologies are in part a
consequence of a polluted environment and a bad management of the natural resources, and many of
these fatalities could be prevented.


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        The objectives of this 5th PAEMS were to explore the new tools for tracking mutagen and the
environmental carcinogens and at the same time to consolidate the African network, set up since
1983, by the proposed common Pan-African projects. In order to achieve these goals, we invited
renowned national and international experts. We tried to shed the light on three main topics: the first
related to the environment and health as well as the relative repercussions, the second focused on the
prevention, the risk evaluation and treatment, and the third topic related to discussion about the
possibilities of African collaborations based on the specificities of our continent.
        In addition, an Alexander Hollaender Course on Genetic Toxicology was conducted on the
day after the conference to reinforce the aims of the PAEMS to promote technology transfer to
African students in the filed of Environmental Molecular Biology. In parallel to these scientific
parts, a social program was set up to contribute to make the PAEMS 2005 a very convivial and
cordial gathering.
       A summary and perspective on the conclusions that emerged from the meeting are given
below. These include especially some critical problems encountered in research in developing
countries.
General Scientific Issues Raised During the Meeting
Many conclusions emerged from the meeting and specially concerning some critical problems
encountered in Africa and developing countries. These recommendations most likely will be very
helpful to establish a new vision of environmental research in these countries.
(a) Using molecular epidemiology techniques to evaluate air mutagenicity in Africa and examine
health impact and repercussions of its pollution.
(b) Considering toxicants exposure as a determinant factor in HIV infection and its propagation in
Africa.
(c) Considering aflatoxin exposure as an immunity and nutritional risk as important as the cancer
risk.
(d) Using the relationship between chemical structure and chemical activity as a bioinformatics tool
for risk assessment.
(e) Encouraging the identification of key active components of complex mixtures by using bioassay-
directed chemical fractionation of complex mixtures obtained from natural products and the
environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.).
(f) Considering curcumin and chlorophyllin as protective against DNA mutations induced by certain
classes of mutagens.
(g) Considering genetic polymorphism tests in Africa as a potentially useful diagnostic before
certain drug treatments.
(h) Considering nutrition in general as an important factor in environmental carcinogenesis.
(i) Using the Buea model (Presented by Dr Ndip from Cameroon), using this oil degrading bacteria
as a system for oil spill cleaning campaigns in Africa.
(j) Proposition of the GMOs seeds and particularly the maize hybrids as a safe and healthy
nutritional alternative protecting against the risk of exposure to mutagenic and infested crops
products.
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(k) Encouraging investigation of some beneficial effects of traditional medicinal plants as credible
alternatives or supplements to routinely used drugs for cancer and AIDS treatments.
The recommendations included :
   1- Organizing effective scientific activities in the years between PAEMS conferences.
   2- Encouraging the establishment of the Local Environmental Mutagen Societies
      (recommendation by Prof. Ndip from Cameroon).
   3- Establishment of Website for the society and to link it to that of the IAEMS
   4- Continuation of the publication of the PAEMS Newsletter. The next volume will be
      prepared by Prof. Fatima Zahra and will include the report of the 5th Conference.
   5- Seeking the continued support of the IAEMS to the PAEMS (Dr. David De Marini,
      President of IAEMS and Prof. Wagida Anwar, Secretary General of IAEMS).
   6- Encouragement of payment of the membership fees.
   7- Next meeting will be held Cape Town, South Africa in March 2008.
   8- Names of the International Advisory Board: Dr. David De Marini, Dr. William Au,
      Prof. Walter Marasas, Dr. Ray Tice, Prof. Chris Wild, Dr. Harri Vainio, Dr. Jonathan
      Williams, Dr. Chris Schownwalder, Dr. Michael Waters.


Course in Genetic Toxicology
       At the conclusion of the 5th PAEMS meeting, the Alexander Hollaender Genetic Toxicology
Course was conducted, which helped to promote technology transfer to African students. This course
was organized by Drs W. Au, A. Elhajouji, and D. DeMarini and lasted one day, during which many
toxicological techniques were explained and demonstrated to more than 50 students.
Organisational Propositions
(a) Creating a think tank to address the issues legislative issues associated with GMOs and
environmental pollution in Africa.
(b) Establishing a “transfer technology committee” to encourage and invite all the expatriate African
scientists to help members of the Pan-African Environmental Mutagen Society with their research
efforts.
(c) Proposing the IDIFA as a model for Pan-African collaboration and scientific integration.
(d) Introducing environmental ethics into African educational curricula.
(e) Organizing environmental awareness campaigns in cities and rural areas, especially of
environmental mutagens/carcinogens.
(f) Tackling environment problems as a global issue and proposing local solutions to environmental
problems that balance sustainable development with good environmental practices.
Perspectives: Moroccan Organization
The ICEMHP Conferences can be considered a unique and valuable international scientific outreach
program. It is not an exaggeration to state that the ICEMHP Conferences provide outstanding value
to many scientists that would not otherwise have the opportunity to attend world-class scientific
conferences. All participants gain academic knowledge and social connections that are useful for
improving their scientific careers and research efforts. Future success of this series of conferences
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rests on the continued support from dedicated scientists and sponsors and the involvement of
scientists and local organizers.
Acknowledgements
       The success of this series of international conferences could not have been possible and
sustainable without the dedicated support of many individuals and sponsors. Their valuable
contributions to each of the conferences are listed in the specific conference monographs.
        On behalf of the organizing committee, it is our privilege to welcome you in Fez to
participate in the Fifth International Meeting of the Pan African Environmental Mutagen Society
“PAEMS 2005.” We hope that beyond the scientific meeting, bonds of friendship will be weaved
between all the participant countries: Egypt, South Africa, Cameroon, Italy, Nigeria, Zimbabwe,
India, Greece, Belgium, England, Poland, United State of America, and Morocco.
       The organizing Committee kindly acknowledges our partners in organizing the meeting: The
University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, The region of Fes-Boulemane, Novartis Pharma AG
Switzerland, the Moroccan National Research Center, the Popular Bank for Education and Culture,
the NIEHS-USA, the EMS-USA, the Fes Faculty of Sciences, and the Fes Faculty of Medicine.
Announcement
In parallel to these scientific events, the PAEMS held its general assembly, and a new board was
elected. All the attendants approved that the 6th PAEMS International Conference be held in Cape
Town, South Africa in the spring of 2008 and will be organized by Dr. Hester Vismer, Medical
Research Council. Accordingly Dr. Vismer became the President-Elect of the Society.
 The newly elected Council Members include the following 7 persons:

   1- The President, Prof. Fatima-Zahra Squali, Morrocco, who organized the 5th
      conference.
   2- The President-Elect, Dr. Hester Vismer, South Africa, who will organize the next
      conference.
   3- The Former President, Prof. Wagida Anwar, Egypt, who organized the 4th conference.
   4- First Vice-President, Prof. A. Alaoui, who took major part in organization of the 5th
      conference.
   5- Second Vice-President, Prof. Roland N. Ndip, Cameroon, who is willing to share in
      organization of future conferences.
   6- Secretary General, Dr. Gelderblom, South Africa, from the same Institution that will
      be organizing the next conference.
   7- Treasurer, Dr. Shephard, South Africa, from the same Institution that will be
      organizing the next conference.


There was an agreement about the revised draft Constitution of PAEMS. The major changes
in the constitution are the movement of the location of the PAEMS Office to the Institution
organizing the next conference.

The Pan African Enviromental Muatgen Society (PAEMS) is planning to organize the next
scientific meeting in South Africa in the fall of 2007. Thus, the office will be moved there
and will be under the direction of Dr. Hester Vismer.

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     David DeMarini President, IAEMS
&
Betty Eidemiller, Executive Director, IAEMS

In my name and on behalf of the                      Fez, Region of Fez, the university Sidi
organizing and scientific committees, we             Mohamed Ben Abellah, the Faculty of
were very pleased to host the 5th PAEMS              Sciences Dhar El Mahraz…..
International meeting. Gathering all these           As one of the world’s great metropolitans
imminent scientists in the Fez city was a            cities, Fez way that captures the
very exciting event and allowed us and our           imagination and parallels of the ICEM
guest to enjoy the scientific exchanges and          programs.
strengthen our human relations.                      I hope that you will support this proposal
Building on the success of this meeting we           and let Fez be your host for the next
are much honored to be a candidate to host           IAEMS meeting.
the 11th ICEM in 2013.
To be able to host this event, we were able          By Fatima-Zahra SQUALI,
to secure the support of different                   PAEMS PRESIDENT
department for this candidature, council of




The PAEMS Officers cordially congratulate Dr Hester Vismer for her
nomination as a member of the IEAMS Council and Prof Wagida Anwar as an
honorary member of the Pan African Environmental Mutagen Society (PAEMS)
for her dedication to the PAEMS over the years.




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          International conference organized in collaboration with the PAEMS

                   The 4th French-Moroccan School of Neuroendocrinology
                          Genomics/Transcriptomics and Proteomics
                                       11-12 December 2006



by Rabia MAGOUL,                                         Dr. Lee E. Eiden, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda,
In the context of the annually organized                 Maryland, USA
French-Moroccan              Schools           of        Integrating transcriptome and proteome
                            th
Neuroendocrinology, the 4 French-Moroccan                profiling at the sympathoadrenal synapse:
School of Neuroendocrinology was organized               Non-linear pathways for intracellular signaling
on December 11th and 12th 2006, at Fez city              in neuroendocrine cells”
with the subsidy of University Sidi Mohamed              Dr. Maria M. Malagon.
Ben Abdellah, Moroccan CNRST, French                     University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Espagne
INSERM, CNRS and PAEMS.                                  Global gene expression profiling of skin color
The purpose of 4th French-Moroccan School of             change       in    amphibians--a       complex
Neuroendocrinology        was      related     to        physiological neuroendocrine reflex adaptation
Genomics/Transcriptomics and Proteomics.                 to the environment
This school is intended to teach new advances            Dr. Paul Pevet, CNRS UMR 7168-LC2,
in Genomics and Proteomics to Moroccan                   Strasbourg, France
students and teachers interested in these fields.        Melatonin and the multi-oscillatory circadian
The experts discuss experimental and                     and seasonal network
conceptual approaches allowing to insertion of           Pr. Khalid Sendide, Université Al-
proteomic      and      genomic/transcriptomic           Akhawayne, Ifrane, Maroc
information in the service of neuroendocrine
                                                         Introduction to Functional Genomics
function and adaptation to environment.
                                                         Dr. Olivier Laprévote, CNRS, Paris, France
                    Speakers                             « Différentes approches en spectrométrie de
Dr. Youssef Anouar, INSERM U413, Rouen,                  masse et protéomique : application à une
France                                                   pathologie humaine, la mucoviscidose »
Gene         expression       profiling       of         « Imagerie par spectrométrie de masse : vers
pheochromocytoma tumors: clues to the                    une protéomique et une métabolomique
biology      of     pheochromocytoma         and         localisées ? »
identification of pathophysiological targets”




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        PAEMS affiliated with the EMS
Newsletter PAEMS, issue N° 6 September 2008
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