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					      Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service




                              RTC A1(M)
Investigation Into Incident Number 10644




                Sub Officer Paul Mallaghan
                      Resulting in the death of




              Leading Firefighter Ian Crook
                                and injuries to




                                 16 June 2007
Contents
1.   Executive Summary

2.   Sequence of Events

3.   Operational Procedures

4.   Clothing, Equipment, Vehicles and
     Communications

5.   Training and Competence

6.   Findings

7.   Recommendations

8.   Bibliography

9.   Appendices
     Appendix 1   Plan drawings showing stages of vehicle positions
     Appendix 2   Glossary of Fire Service terms
     Appendix 3   Appliances and crews attending the incident
     Appendix 4   Sequential Timed Event Plotting Information
1 Executive Summary
1.1 Introduction




1.2 Background
   This is an investigation report into incident number 10644 on Saturday, June
   16, 2007 attended by Blue Watch Stevenage. Whilst dealing with this incident
   Sub Officer Mallaghan was fatally injured, Leading Firefighter Crook
   sustained head and leg injuries and a Highways Agency Traffic Officer
   sustained a fractured leg.




   On June 16 2007, just after 09.15 pm, Fire Control received a call to a car fire
   between junctions 8 and 7 on the A1(M). Two pumps from Stevenage Fire
   Station were mobilised. The car on fire was a burgundy coloured Saab
   registration number R471 DNW.

   It was during this incident, just after the car fire had been extinguished, a red
   Volkswagen Golf hatchback, registration number L75 DPY, travelling
   southbound left the main A1(M) carriageway and hit the rear of the Saab. LFf
   Crook was standing to the front near-side (next to the wing mirror) of the
   Saab and SubO Mallaghan was standing at the front of the Saab looking under
   the bonnet. The Saab was shunted approx 15m along the hard shoulder from
   its original position, throwing LFf Crook into a Highways Agency Traffic Officer
   and trapping SubO Mallaghan underneath the front of the Saab.

   The photographs (fig 1 and 2) on the next page show the scene immediately
   prior to the collision and were taken by an off-duty Police Officer.

   The exact time the photographs were taken is not known, however, fire
   appliance 231 does not appear in the photograph because it had already left
   the incident at 21.29.01 due to the arrival of the Highways Agency vehicle –
   which can be seen parked behind the Saab. Two Highways Agency Traffic
   Officers also appear to be standing next to the Saab.

   It was after this point in time that the VW Golf collided with the Saab just
   before the subsequent ‘priority message’ was sent to Fire Control at 21.35.24
   by Ff Jennings.

   A detailed narrative sequence of events is included in Section 2 of this report
   together with the tabulated Sequential Timed Event Plotting (STEP)
   Information at Appendix 4.




                                                                                       3
                                                                                        Fig 1
       Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




                                                                                        scene prior to
                                                                                        the collision




                                                                                        Fig 2
                                                                                        scene prior to
                                                                                        the collision




    1.3 Police Investigation

        Hertfordshire Constabulary attended the scene post collision to manage the
        road traffic incident and immediately commenced a Crash Investigation.
        Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service (HFRS) have cooperated with the
        Police throughout their investigation, providing information on HFRS safe
        systems of work and operational procedures. Three firefighters from
        Stevenage were interviewed as witnesses by the Police to assist them in their
        investigation.



4
   On the night of Saturday 23 June 2007 the police undertook a reconstruction
   of the scene and event with the cooperation of HFRS and the Highways
   Agency. HFRS provided the same fire appliance with another Service driver,
   and the Highways Agency provided their vehicle to enable the reconstruction
   to be as accurate as possible. Divisional Officer Robinson attended this
   reconstruction and this enabled him to take some video footage.




1.4 Accident Investigation
   The police were unable to share the outcome of their Crash Investigation at
   the time this accident investigation was produced. The identity of the drivers
   of the vehicles is therefore unknown in addition to any scientific
   measurements made by the police at the scene and subsequent technical
   calculations following the reconstruction. The Saab driver’s account is also
   not known.




   At 22.24 on the night of the 16 June 2007 StnO Macdonald was alerted by
   Command and Control and instructed to attend incident 10644 in order to
   carry out the initial accident investigation and gather evidence on behalf of
   HFRS. StnO Macdonald liaised on scene with StnO Harding and Divisional
   Officer Hardy who had been mobilised to the incident and briefed him. He
   also liaised with Police Constable Marsh, the officer carrying out the Crash
   Investigation. StnO Macdonald took photographs of the scene post-collision.
   He has subsequently confirmed that in order to draw a picture of the scene he
   was able to pace the distance between the positions of the vehicles in a fairly
   accurate manner utilising the markings put in position by the police officer
   during his investigation.

   On 17 June 2007 the Health and Safety Executive was informed of the incident.
   However the HSE Inspector for the area explained that the HSE does not
   regard such an incident to be reportable because it is a road traffic accident
   and as such is not considered by the HSE to be an injury at work.

   The Strategic Leadership Group (SLG) made a decision to undertake an
   internal Accident Investigation and this was led by ACO Mills who appointed
   Divisional Officer Robinson and Health and Safety Manager Veronica Adlam to
   carry this out.

   This process involved a tested method of ascertaining the sequence of events
   in detail using the following sources of information:

          1. Contemporaneous notes of those firefighters who attended the
             incident, (Stevenage, Hitchin, Baldock & Letchworth and the
             Hatfield Rescue Support Unit – see Appendix 3).

          2. Contemporaneous notes of the officers who attended the incident.

          3. HFRS Command and Control Log.


                                                                                     5
       Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




              4. Taped recordings of telephone calls and radio messages to
                 Command and Control.

              5. Highways Agency Control Log.

              6. The Highways Agency Traffic Officers account of the incident.

              7. The Highways Agency ‘Hot Debrief’.

       Once the facts of the event were established an analysis of the circumstances
       involved a review of these main areas:

         HFRS operating procedures for working on roads compared to the
       national arrangements (e.g. Generic Risk Assessment and Fire Service
       Manuals) and the operating procedures used by the Highways Agency and
       Police Service.

         Statutory and legal requirements relating to working on roads to ensure
       HFRS complies with the safety standards for working on roads, including
       conspicuity of personal protective equipment and vehicles.

         The use and availability of operational equipment and personnel, plus the
       effectiveness of communications.

       These will be covered in separate sections in the report.

       The list of reference documents and bibliography can be found at the end of
       this report.

       There are some discrepancies and inconsistencies which exist in both the
       Highways Agency Officers and firefighters assessments of the distances that




    1.5 Fire Brigades Union
       vehicles were originally parked and subsequently ended up. Without the
       details and technical calculations from the Police Crash Investigation it is
       impossible to be accurate with any certainty. The distances quoted by
       individuals therefore need to be considered as their perceptive estimates.
       The distances quoted by StnO Macdonald are possibly the most accurate
       available to the Investigation.




       The HFRS Accident Investigation officers met regularly with the Fire
       Brigades’ Union to ensure they were kept fully involved and updated on the
       progress of the internal investigation.




6
1.6 Statistics
    The Highways Agency national statistics reveal that in the last 18 months
    there have been 12 incidents involving Highways Agency Traffic Officers
    working on roads across the country, but to date no fatalities. However, for a
    five year period from 2000-2004 accidents on the hard shoulder claimed the
    lives of 67 people and a total of 950 people were injured.




1.7 Safe Operational Procedures
    Although there have been no reported fatalities involving UK Fire Service
    personnel whilst working on roadways, on 25 February 2007 in Eire a
    firefighter from Limerick County Fire Service and a Garda (National police
    officer) were killed by a speeding motorist whilst dealing with an road traffic
    collision (RTC).



    Not withstanding the recommendations made in this report, and the safe
    operating procedures adopted by all those attending this incident, no
    reasonable additional precautions could have guaranteed the safety of
    individuals working on the hard-shoulder of the motorway.




                                                                                      7
    Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




8
        2 Sequence of Events
                 A detailed sequence of the events has been gathered from the following
                 evidence:

                          Contemporaneous notes of individual firefighters and officers who
                          attended the incident, (a list of crews and appliances attending can
                          be found at Appendix 3),
                          HFRS Command and Control Log,
                          Taped voice recordings of telephone calls and radio messages to
                          HFRS Command and Control during this incident,
                          Highways Agency Control Log,
                          Highways Agency Hot Debrief,
                          Highways Agency Traffic Officers’ notes.

                 The sequence of activities and individual tasks are estimated within the given
                 time parameters. Any distances or measurements given by individuals in their
                 contemporaneous notes are quoted as stated and may not necessarily be
                 accurate or correspond with others.

                 Significant events are in blue bold type; informative messages and other
                 important information are in black bold type. Quotation marks have been used
                 to indicate individuals’ words taken from their contemporaneous notes.

                 Fig 3 is a photograph of the A1 motorway junction 8 to 7 southbound in daylight
                 showing the slip road merging with the main carriageway on the right of the


       Fig 3
                 picture.


View of A1(M)
   motorway,
  southbound
    junction 7
with onbound
     slip road
     indicated




                                                                                                   9
     2.1 The sequence of events below is provided in the present
         tense as the event occurs.
        Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




        This stretch of the motorway was not lit and at the time of the incident it was
        dusk. There are no closed circuit television cameras present at this junction.




        (A glossary of fire service terms can be found at Appendix 2).

        At 21.16.36 on Saturday 16 June 2007 Command and Control receive a 999 call
        from a mobile phone reporting a car on fire on the hard shoulder of the A1(M)
        at junction 8 to 7 southbound.

        Stevenage appliances 230 and 231 are alerted at 21.17.44/53 respectively.
        The Highways Agency is also fully aware of the incident at 21.19.22 - informed
        by the police.

        231 booked mobile at 21.20.02 to the northbound unaffected carriageway with
        LFf Scotchford as the officer in charge and a crew of four: Ff Hanmer - driver,
        Ff Maher and Ff Hampton.

        230 booked mobile at 21.20.24 to the affected carriageway southbound with
        Sub Officer Mallaghan in charge and a crew of four: Ff Jennings driving, LFf
        Crook and Ff Williams.

        As 231 approach from the northbound carriageway of the A1(M) LFf Scotchford
        confirms that there are two cars just on the motorway southbound and radios
        to SubO Mallaghan in 230, now approaching on the slip road, that it is the
        nearest car to them – the burgundy Saab - which is the one on fire.

        230 are at this time on the slip road travelling south to join the A1(M) and Ff
        Jennings, the driver, sees a second car with “hazards and people”, and smoke
        coming from the bonnet of the first car – the burgundy Saab. (Firefighters
        subsequently recall the second car as possibly being a silver Nissan Micra.)

        230 books in attendance at 21.24.58.

        Ff Williams states that when LFf Scotchford radioed 230 was too close for
        them to pull in behind the vehicle on fire so Ff Jennings parks the appliance in
        front of the Saab “6 lengths” – Ff Williams estimates 15 metres away from the
        front of the Saab. The blue lights are on.

        When parked LFf Crook says he can see the Saab has a small fire under the
        bonnet and it is mainly steam plus oil dripping from the bottom.

        Ff Jennings gets his fire kit off and wears his high visibility jacket because
        “traffic is heavy.” He stands at the pump.




10
Ff Williams takes off a BA set from the nearside of the fire appliance whilst LFf
Crook and SubO Mallaghan proceed to the vehicle on fire. Ff Williams runs the
hose reel out from the nearside and takes it to the vehicle. By the time he
reaches the fire car 231 have arrived.

231 books in attendance at 21.25.47. The appliance parks in the 'fend off'
position (at approximately a 45 degree angle) across the slip road and hard
shoulder behind the Saab. LFf Scotchford radios SubO Mallaghan to ask if he
needs assistance. SubO Mallaghan replies “no.” The crew remain on the
appliance.

SubO Mallaghan is wearing his helmet and also the OIC surcoat over his fire
tunic.

LFf Crook says that SubO Mallaghan is talking to the vehicle owner whilst LFf
Crook opened the bonnet of the car for Ff Williams to put the hose reel on the
minor fire. Ff Williams is not under air and extinguishes the fire fairly quickly.

LFf Scotchford sees the Highways Agency vehicle approaching on the
northbound carriageway. SubO Mallaghan then radios LFf Scotchford that “the
Highways Agency is here, you might as well get yourself away and they can
move into your position.” In the appliance off-side mirror Ff Hanmer also sees
the Highways Agency vehicle coming up the slip of junction 8 southbound.

LFf Crook asks SubO Mallaghan if he wants him to get the details for the FDR1
and LFf Crook walks to the appliance (230) where the owner is stood. LFf Crook
removes his helmet and gloves to talk and write the information down. It is
whilst LFf Crook is talking to the owner that SubO Mallaghan radios LFf
Scotchford on 231 and tells him to go.

At 21.28.58 the Highways Agency (HA) vehicle arrives and books in attendance
with their Control. They are a crew of two Traffic Officers – one female (EJ), one
male (MB). They park behind the Saab some distance away, in their ‘fend off
position’ suitable for the incident (i.e. in line).

The photograph overleaf (fig 4) was taken post-collision during the accident
investigation showing the exact position of the Highways Agency vehicle which
had not been moved since its arrival. (In the background are cars parked by the
oncoming fire officers).

231 books mobile return at 21.29.01 and leaves the incident down the A1
towards junction 7.

Ff Jennings asks SubO Mallaghan if cones are wanted and SubO Mallaghan
tells FF Jennings that the Highways Agency will do that. Ff Jennings is then
standing at the rear of the pump acting as Safety Officer.




                                                                                     11
                                                                                         Fig 4
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




                                                                                         Position of
                                                                                         Highways
                                                                                         Agency
                                                                                         Vehicle on
                                                                                         hard
                                                                                         shoulder (fire
                                                                                         service cars
                                                                                         parked to
                                                                                         rear post
                                                                                         collision)




     The Highways Agency officers exit their vehicle and MB goes to the rear of the
     HA vehicle and Highways Agency Traffic Officer EJ speaks to SubO Mallaghan
     and states they will get the car moved when it is cool.

     LFf Crook walks with the owner to the rear of the Saab where the Highways
     Agency officers are standing and introduces the owner to Highways Officer EJ.
     EJ and the owner of the Saab now stand behind the barrier on the hard
     shoulder to discuss recovery of the vehicle. The Highways Officer MB
     approaches the ‘scene’/Saab because he feels that the vehicle needs
     immediate removal due to the location being unlit. He tells EJ this and she
     radios HA Control to ask them to arrange this (21.30).

     21.30.23 Ff Jennings sends an informative message to Control from 230
     “SubO Mallaghan, small fire in engine compartment, 1 BA 1 hose reel in use,
     Tactical Mode Oscar.”

     After checking the engine Ff Williams asks SubO Mallaghan if it’s OK to
     remove his Breathing Apparatus and return to 230. Ff Williams re-stows his
     Breathing Apparatus set in the rear of the appliance, which is a spare
     appliance (provided because Stevenage’s main appliance (230) was being
     serviced).

     Ff Jennings is preparing to send a STOP message from the OIC seat.

     LFf Crook walks back towards 230 and SubO Mallaghan is now standing at the
     front of the Saab looking at the damage. Ff Crook says SubO Mallaghan points
     to the engine block and says “it’s something down there.” LFf Crook moves
     towards the front of the Saab to talk and look at what SubO Mallaghan is doing.
     LFf Crook is standing next to the near-side wing mirror and the other
     Highways Agency Officer (MB) is standing next to LFf Crook.

     LFf Crook hears a sudden bang and massive noise and he sees



12
     “blackness/light/black/light/black/light.” It goes all quiet and he is now laying
in the road feeling confused with fluid/blood running down his face. He moves
his left arm and felt a curb and moved himself half on that for safety. He is also
lying on top of the fire hose.

Ff Jennings hears a noise whilst he is in the cab and looks in the mirror. Ff
Williams is getting kit together when he hears “a quiet bang” and says to Ff
Jennings “what was that?” He is aware that something went past the
appliance.

LFf Crook sees Ff Jennings and Ff Williams get off 230.

Ff Williams sees a firefighter laying on the hard shoulder some distance away
where the “fire vehicle” originally was and a different car on the motorway.

The male Highways Traffic Officer MB has been knocked over the barrier by LFf
Crook being thrown into him.

Ff Williams goes over to LFf Crook, speaks to him and confirms he is OK and
then scans the scene looking for SubO Mallaghan. Ff Williams says he didn’t
realise the initial fire vehicle (the Saab) was now right behind 230 but then he
sees a new vehicle is involved (a red hatchback Volkswagen Golf), heavily
damaged and facing the wrong way up the motorway. On getting closer to the
Saab he sees SubO Mallaghan and assesses his condition.

Ff Jennings initially sees that the Saab had been shunted into lane one, LFf
Crook is laying on the hard shoulder and Ff Williams goes over to him. SubO
Mallaghan is under the Saab and Ff Jennings goes over to SubO Mallaghan, but
he isn’t responding and “he is obviously in a bad way.”

At 21.35.24 Ff Jennings returns to the appliance and sends a priority message
“Collision on A1 Make pumps 2 ambulances required RTC involving appliance,
persons trapped.”

The crew of 231 hear this priority message and they mobilise back to the A1.

As Ff Jennings climbs down from 230 the owner of the Saab has run up to the
appliance and is standing right next to him. The driver is in shock but uninjured
so Ff Jennings sent him to “wait with the vehicle” – (Ff Jennings later clarified
that he sent this driver towards the unknown car (identified later as possibly a
silver Nissan Micra) parked further down the carriageway, south of the
incident).

Fire Control mobilises 231 to return at 21.35.38 and alerts Hitchin 320 at
21.35.57.

21.35.42 The female Highways Agency Traffic Officer EJ sends an urgent
assistance message via her handset radio to Highways Agency Control that a
“fire engine has been hit and people are injured – the whole carriageway is



                                                                                     13
closed.”
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     The female Highways Traffic Officer is not injured and is instructed by Ff
     Williams to fend off as much of the motorway as possible. A car has already
     stopped in lane two of the dual carriageway and the Highways Officer instructs
     this car to remain there. In this car is an off-duty London paramedic who gets
     out offering help.

     Ff Jennings approaches LFf Crook with a first aid bag and gives him a
     bandage. LFf Crook tells him he is OK and to help Ff Williams who he can see
     is with SubO Mallaghan.

     Ff Jennings approaches the Highways Officers who are now standing together
     and checks they are OK and they instruct him to help his colleagues.

     At some point after the crash LFf Crook remembers talking on the radio to LFf
     Scotchford but cannot recall the time or what he said.

     Below is a photograph (fig 5) taken of the scene post-collision during the
     accident investigation, showing the position of the fire appliance, the Saab and


                                                                                        Fig 5
     in the distance the VW Golf facing the wrong way across lane one.


                                                                                        Scene post


                            SAAB
                                                                                        collision
                                                                                        showing
                                                                                        position of
                                                                                        230, Saab
                                                                                        and Golf




             GOLF

     StnO Harding is alerted about the collision by Fire Control and is mobile at
     21.37.55.

     21.38.39   Fire Control inform the Ambulance Service.

     21.38.41 231 books mobile to incident.




14
The uninjured female Highways Agency Traffic Officer continues to send
messages to HA Control centre updating on the situation and HA Control liaise
with HFRS Command and Control, the ambulance service and the police.

21.39.54 Baldock’s second appliance, 320, books mobile to incident with a crew
of 5.

The driver of the VW Golf remained in the car. Ff Jennings checks on this driver.

Ff Williams goes to the appliance to get “the RTC kit off – Lukas power pack,
ram support etc.” Ff Jennings returns to the appliance and collects the
spreaders.

Ff Williams thinks that 230 is “too close” to the Saab so he gets in and moves
it forward about 8-10 feet.

An off-duty London paramedic/nurse held up in the stationary traffic assists Ff
Jennings and Ff Williams with SubO Mallaghan. The paramedic advises them
that SubO Mallaghan needs “getting out” and Ff Jennings puts the spreaders
under the near-side front wheel and lifts the vehicle sufficiently for the
paramedic to commence CPR.

231 arrived at the incident at 21.40.30. They park in the 'fend off' position
across both lanes of the A1(M) motorway, (see Appendix 1 Fig IV). LFf
Scotchford notices that the Highways Agency vehicle had not moved into their
“original fend off position.”

LFf Scotchford gets off the appliance and sees a firefighter laying on the ground
with a bandage to his head and SubO Mallaghan with “an ambulance woman
working on him.”

Ff Maher gets off the appliance and has a quick look at the vehicle in lane 1-2
and can see the driver upright and calling out. He goes over to LFf Crook.

LFf Crook is aware of the arrival of 231 and Ff Maher gives him another
bandage to put on his head. Ff Maher sees SubO Mallaghan under the front of
the Saab. As he gets closer he can see SubO Mallaghan is trapped and is not
breathing. Ff Maher assists the off-duty London paramedic inserting an airway
and using the bag valve mask with the paramedic doing chest compressions.

Ff Hampton goes to LFf Crook who tells her SubO Mallaghan is under the car
and she sees Ff Maher and the paramedic working on SubO Mallaghan. She
fetches the oxygen mask at Ff Maher’s request and then she collects airmats.

21.42.01 LFf Scotchford sends an informative message from 231 “priority
make pumps 4.”




                                                                                    15
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Ff Hanmer sends a message by mobile phone to Control stating there are two
     firefighters on the roadway and an ambulance and police are required.

     LFf Scotchford gets the crew to provide more blocks and he checks the driver
     of the second collision vehicle (VW Golf) who is complaining of pains to his
     chest but he appears ‘OK’ so LFf Scotchford goes to speak to Ff Maher.

     21.42.16 StnO Harding arrives and sees the orange lights of the Highways
     Agency vehicle and the blue lights of the fire appliance further up the road.

     StnO Harding sees LFf Crook on the hard shoulder and immediately requests
     Control mobilise the attendance of a DO due to the seriousness of the incident.

     LFf Scotchford approaches Ff Maher who advises him that they need to get
     SubO Mallaghan “out fast.” The rest of the Stevenage crew are working to
     stabilise the vehicle and place airmats whilst Ff Maher continues to work on
     SubO Mallaghan. SubO Mallaghan begins breathing and gags on the airway
     but then stops breathing again. Another paramedic crew arrive and take over
     from Ff Maher so he returns to LFf Crook.

     StnO Harding is briefed by LFf Scotchford. StnO Harding sees that SubO
     Mallaghan is being attended to by two ambulance personnel and efforts are
     being made to raise the vehicle to release SubO Mallaghan. StnO Harding
     ascertains LFf Crook is conscious and talking.

     21.43.01 LFf Scotchford sends an informative requesting the RSU.

     LFf Scotchford sees Hitchin approaching and radios for their blocks.

     21.44.41 320 Hitchin is in attendance - SubO Huthwaite with a crew of 5: Ff
     McGrinder (driver) Ff Codd, Ff Hollis, and LFf Broom.

     StnO Harding is now Incident Commander and appoints SubO Huthwaite to be
     his Command Support Officer. 320 is made the Control Point and fire ground
     radio contact maintained through Ff McGrinder.

     Hitchin crew, Ff Codd, Ff Hollis and LFf Broom, provide blocks and airmats
     and assist Ff Hampton and Ff Williams to raise the Saab.

     Baldock 310 is alerted and books mobile at 21.45.34.

     21.46.23 Hatfield RSU is mobile to incident (alerted 21.43.52) with OiC LFf
     Pidduck and Ff Cowan.

     Whilst Ff Maher is dealing with LFf Crook he notices that the driver of the Golf
     is slumped over his steering wheel so he goes over, opens his door and raises
     his head. Ff Maher looks for assistance but everyone is working on the Saab.
     StnO Harding briefly comes over and advises Ff Maher that other crews are
     coming.


16
21.46.33 An ambulance arrives on scene.

21.48.53 Two police units arrive on scene.

21.49.04 Ff Hanmer sends an informative message by mobile phone from 231
for LFf Scotchford which Control logs as “2 cars in collision on motorway; 2
firefighters injured plus 1 civilian suffering from head injuries and trapped.
Lukas airmats in use. StnO Harding in charge. Make ambulances 3.”

21.50.16 Hitchin 321 is in attendance – OiC LFf Tasker, Ff Bethell and Ff
Huthwaite.

StnO Harding instructs SubO Tasker to stay with LFf Crook who is laying
motionless and has a lot of blood around his head. SubO Tasker asks Ff
Huthwaite to get the first aid kit and LFf Broom comes over to assist.

21.50.23 DO Hardy arrives and can see the activity and that StnO Harding is
heavily involved in command and control.

DO Hardy liaises with Police Inspector Phil Bloor who appraises him of the
situation and advises him that there are four persons with varying degrees of
injuries (2 firefighters, 1 Highways Agency and 1 public). The focus of attention
is on the two firefighters and male occupant of the VW Golf.

StnO Harding gives DO Hardy a concise briefing and DO Hardy advises him he is
taking over Incident Command (IC) and obtained an IC surcoat from LFf
Scotchford. DO Hardy advises StnO Harding to continue to coordinate within
the rescue area. DO Hardy observes the urgent activity surrounding SubO
Mallaghan’s treatment.

21.52.45 Baldock first appliance, 310, in attendance – SubO Izzard, Ff Bennett
driving, LFf Poulter and Ff Smith.

Ff Huthwaite sends a radio message to Baldock 310 requesting their airmats
urgently. He fetches a second spinal board and takes it to the scene of
operations but, as there are a lot of people working on the Saab, Ff Huthwaite
goes to assist the firefighter attending the casualty in the VW Golf. The casualty
is not trapped and wants to get out of the vehicle so the firefighters explain he
needs to stay there and be checked by paramedics. The photographs overleaf
(fig 6 and 7) show the VW Golf which is facing the wrong way across lane one of
the motorway.




                                                                                     17
                                                                                      Fig 6
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




                                                                                      Front view of
                                                                                      VW Golf post
                                                                                      collision




                                                                                      Fig 7
                                                                                      Side view of
                                                                                      VW Golf
                                                                                      facing wrong
                                                                                      way on
                                                                                      carriageway




     SubO Izzard reports to StnO Harding and sees firefighters and ambulance staff
     attending to the injured firefighter on the hard shoulder. Baldock crew are
     asked to provide airmats urgently and SubO Izzard returns to 310 and gets LFf
     Poulter and Ff Smith to bring equipment to the main scene of operations.

     On arrival the gear is no longer required so SubO Izzard goes to the other
     vehicle (VW Golf) to check the situation where Ff Maher and an ambulance
     technician are dealing with the driver of the vehicle, who is injured but not
     physically trapped. Ff Maher is relieved by a Baldock firefighter and Ff Maher
     assists a paramedic in applying a stiff neck collar to the casualty.

     21.53.33 Control request three ambulances.




18
DO Hardy checks with the paramedics assisting the driver of the VW Golf and
they indicate to DO Hardy they do not need additional assistance, confirming
that the driver is not trapped and they are stabilising him.

SubO Tasker gets a spinal board from an ambulance and a stretcher and takes
them to the Saab. Several firefighters are assisting in the removal of SubO
Mallaghan: they are Ff Hampton, Ff Williams, Ff Codd, Ff Hollis, Ff Jennings,
and LFf Broom. The vehicle is raised and SubO Mallaghan is slid out and put
onto the spinal board where the Ambulance crews work to try and stabilise him.
SubO Tasker, Ff Codd, Ff Williams and Ff Hollis hold the stretcher with SubO
Mallaghan on it whilst the ambulance service get the straps on the stretcher.

21.58.59 Hatfield RSU is in attendance with riders LFf Pidduck and Ff Cowan.

22.00.25 An informative from 320 is sent “further information – Station Officer
Harding – details as previous steady progress being made. Tactical Mode
Oscar.”

SubO Mallaghan is conveyed to Lister hospital.

Ff Jennings goes to the Highways Officers who are still next to the crash barrier
and gives them a bottle of water from the appliance. Ff Jennings learns that
one of them (MB) is injured and he informs a member of the ambulance service.

LFf Broom goes to LFf Crook who is now lying alone on the hard shoulder. She
sees a dressing has been put on his head and she and Ff Poulter stabilise him
with a stiff neck collar and oxygen. They cut off LFf Crook’s fire kit and move
him to a more comfortable position. Ff Codd points out that another man is still
trapped by his injuries in his car (VW Golf) and LFf Broom instructs Ff Codd to
gather resources and start the extrication of this driver.

Ff Huthwaite is chocking the Golf and checks the hose reel which is not charged
so he traces it back to the Stevenage appliance (230) and asks a Stevenage
firefighter to charge it. The Stevenage firefighter (possibly Ff Jennings) returns
and says it isn’t possible. Ff Jennings states that LFf Crook has been laying on
top of it and the hose reel had been used for the car fire. Ff Huthwaite runs out
a hose reel from 320 and asks Ff McGrinder to engage the pump and charge the
reel.

At some point Ff Jennings and Ff Smith from Baldock get the hose reel from
the off-side of 230 and charge it ready for use.

22.05.15 LFf Scotchford sends an informative by mobile phone from 231 “ DO
Hardy now OIC; 1 firefighter released and being taken to hospital by
ambulance; 1 firefighter still trapped expected to be released soon; driver of
other vehicle still trapped by injuries ambulance still working.” (As per Control
Log on page 85).




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     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     LFf Crook is moved onto a stretcher and handed over to the ambulance and
     transported to Lister Hospital.

     More paramedics arrive and they discuss how to remove the casualty from the
     Golf, deciding to bring him out on a spinal board through the rear of the
     hatchback. Ff Huthwaite, Ff Codd , Ff Hollis, LFf Pidduck and Ff Cowan work
     to remove the driver of the VW Golf on a spinal board through the rear
     hatchback.

     Ff Bethell co-ordinates with the ambulance until the casualty from the Golf is
     transferred to Lister Hospital.

     DO Hardy liaises with StnO Harding regarding the welfare of the Stevenage
     crew and agree to get them away from the incident as soon as possible and
     discuss securing the scene for investigation purposes.

     22.07.39 SubO Huthwaite sends an informative message from 320 that a flexi-
     duty officer is required at Stevenage Fire Station to liaise and that
     Occupational Health needs to be informed of two firefighters injured.

     DO Hardy takes a call from ACO Hazeldine and appraises him of the situation.
     DO Hardy liaises with the Paramedic Press Officer, other paramedics, police
     officers and firefighters. DO Hardy notices another car with hazard lights on
     parked approximately 100m in front of 230 along the hard shoulder. Ff
     Williams informs him that this was parked there when 230 arrives. DO Hardy
     notes later that this car had driven away.

     ACO Hazeldine arrives at the incident at 22.13.43.

     DO Hardy is approached by Police Inspector Bloor who informs him that the
     hospital has informed him that SubO Mallaghan condition is not good and that
     he is not expected to pull through. ACO Hazeldine is nearby talking on his
     mobile phone so DO Hardy interrupts this phone call to advise the ACO of this
     message.

     ACO Hazeldine leaves the incident to collect SubO Mallaghan’s wife and take
     her to the hospital.

     22.16.18 StnO Parkhouse arrives at the incident with StnO Stokes who is off-
     duty but they leave to go to Lister Hospital where SubO Mallaghan has been
     taken.

     At 22.17.18 the Highways Agency Traffic Officer MB is taken to hospital as a
     precaution.

     22.19.47 320 sends an informative from DO Hardy requesting a flexi-duty
     officer to attend Lister Hospital, an officer required for the incident
     investigation at the scene and clarifies the names of the firefighters involved.



20
At 22.28.37 Stevenage crews leave the scene on 231 to return to Stevenage
Fire Station.

DO Hardy is approached by a paramedic (SS) returning to the scene who had
earlier been treating SubO Mallaghan and accompanied him to the hospital.
She advises DO Hardy that there is an excellent trauma care team at the
hospital providing treatment for SubO Mallaghan.

All casualties have been removed from the scene and Police Inspector Bloor
speaks to DO Hardy again and advises him of the bad news that SubO
Mallaghan has passed away at the hospital. DO Hardy passes this information
on to StnO Harding. They discuss how to break the news to the crews still at the
scene and SubO Huthwaite is instructed by DO Hardy to gather all firefighters
together so he can speak with them.

22.53.29       The Police commence their accident investigation.

22.53.43       DCO Yates is informed.

23.05.46       310 Baldock leaves the incident.

23.08.23       StnO Macdonald attends the incident to carry out the accident
               investigation. StnO Macdonald takes photographs and writes up
               a summary of the event.

23.10.52       321 Hitchin leaves the incident.

23.11.22       320 Hitchin leaves the incident.

23.12.42       185 Hatfield leaves the incident.

23.28.40       STOP MESSAGE: Sierra 01: 1 person code 1; 3 persons code 2.

00.48.00       230 Left in situ for the police Road Crash Investigation.

03.34.38       Hertford 240 removes 230 from the scene.

03.48.45      Stn O Harding clear of incident.

03.49.28       Stn O Macdonald clear of incident.

03.49.34       DO Hardy clear of incident.




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     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




22
3 Operational Procedures
   This section provides an abridgement of the National and Local procedural
   guidance relating to the Fire and Rescue Service when attending incidents on
   the roadway, and in particular, on the motorways. It also presents an
   overview of the role of the Highways Agency, and how it operates alongside
   the Fire and Rescue Service at any such incident.

   This section will then seek to provide a detailed operational account of
   incident number 10644, leading up to the road traffic collision that
   subsequently led to the death of SubO Paul Mallaghan, and the serious
   injuries to LFf Ian Crook, a Highways Agency Traffic Officer, and a member of




3.1 Nationally Agreed Fire Service Procedures for Incidents
   the public.




    on Roadways
   There is a separate section on the findings based on the facts revealed.

   The full list of national and local procedural guidance documentation is
   identified in a bibliography at the end of the report.




   The Fire and Rescue Service Manual Volume 2, entitled Fire Service
   Operations – Incidents Involving Rescue from Road Vehicles was issued to
   HFRS in May 2007 under the authority of the Department for Communities
   and Local Government (DCLG). The manual is designed to promote current
   best practice, and reflects the most up to date information sourced from
   vehicle specialists.

   The manual author acknowledges assistance from a number of contributing
   authorities for their invaluable assistance in completing the publication.

    The organisations include:

            The Association of Chief Police Officers
            Chief Fire Officers Association Operations Committee
            Fire Brigades’ Union
            The Highways Agency
            Her Majesty’s Fire Service Inspectorate Operational Practices
            Her Majesty’s Fire Service Inspectorate Publications
            Her Majesty’s Fire Service Inspectorate Scotland
            London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority
            The Fire Service College
            The Scottish Fire Service College


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     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     The manual is used in conjunction with the policy guidance of individual Fire
     and Rescue Services. It replaced the guidance provided in Manual of
     Firemanship Book 12 Chapter 3, and also FRS Manual Volume 4 ‘Foundation,
     Training and Development’ Chapter 4.

     The manual provides detailed guidance in the following areas:
               Vehicle design and construction
               Dealing with incidents
               Safety procedures
               Operational procedures
               Extrication equipment; medical considerations and trauma care
               Integrated personal development systems

     Significantly, Chapter 4 of the manual provides guidance on motorway
     procedures. Chapter 4.4 gives general details on:
               The make up of carriageways, junctions and interchanges
               Service areas
               Emergency crossings
               Emergency telephones
               Marker posts
               Motorway crash barriers (including the types of barriers in use)

     It provides guidance when approaching an incident on the motorway and the
     positioning of fire appliances and other responders. This guidance is the
     same as the guidance that appears in the Policing Motorways 2006 Manual
     produced on behalf of The Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO).

     It also provides guidance on the 'fend off' positions for fire appliances and
     coning, including signage and use of emergency lighting when attending an
     incident. It details the responsibility of the police in conjunction with
     Highways Agency Traffic Officers (HATO) to provide a safe working area for
     other services.

     It states that subsequent emergency services arriving at an incident will be
     directed by the police to the safest position to park their vehicle considering
     the dangers of passing traffic, and the need for those attending to perform
     their roles.

     It goes on to state that if the Police are not in attendance on arrival of the
     Fire and Rescue Service, an appliance should be positioned as a warning to
     approaching traffic in a fend off position 50m to the rear of the incident. This
     is the distance recommended to give adequate warning to fast moving traffic
     and should be adhered to wherever possible.

     Further, it gives detailed guidance on what procedures to adopt when




24
‘In line’
attending an incident on a motorway. It states that there are two main
methods of positioning emergency service vehicles in the carriageway. Both of
the following procedures are in use by the Police and local planning will assist
in identifying the one that the local police force will adopt.




‘Fend off’
The emergency vehicle is parallel to the running lanes of the carriageway this
maximises rear facing lighting due to the size of the car compared to the
carriageway. Patrols should be aware that to the approaching traffic the
stationary in line vehicle could appear to be moving with the traffic.


The vehicle is angled pointing front end towards the carriageway in the
direction the traffic should pass (see Appendix 1 Fig i). This method will
effectively fill the lane to be closed and will act as a visual reinforcement of
the cone taper. It will appear stationary to the approaching traffic, but the
effectiveness of the lighting will be reduced.

The Fire Service Manual also provides detailed instructions for use of coning
and signing and use of emergency lighting.

Section 4.4.13 of the Fire Service Manual ‘Positioning of fire appliances and
other responders states:

 “It is the responsibility of the police in conjunction with the HATOs to provide
a safe working area for other services. Emergency services arriving at the
scene will be directed to the best position in which to stop their vehicles,
taking into account the danger of passing traffic and the needs of those
attending to perform their role. Priority should be given to life saving and
casualty handling requirements.

Emergency vehicles will be directed to stop within the coned off area beyond
the police vehicle(s) which will be positioned to provide advance warning. The
50 metre area between the police vehicle and the incident should be left clear
for the Fire and Rescue Service to position their appliances. This should allow
sufficient space for specialist firefighting or extrication equipment to be
deployed. In the event of a fire where the Fire and Rescue Service is in
attendance, responsibility for fighting the fire rests with the senior fire officer.
The police are responsible for assisting with any reasonable request.

The ambulances will usually be positioned beyond the incident. This allows
the safer loading of casualties into the ambulances and enables them to leave
more quickly. The cooperation of all emergency services and other partners is
required to maintain free passage to and from the scene, and to keep traffic
moving at a safe speed. The police are responsible for the overall control and
scene management. They must inform partners at the earliest opportunity of
any special road conditions at the scene.’’



                                                                                       25
     3.2 Guidance on Policing Motorways 2006 Manual (GPMM)
        Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




        This document was produced by the National Centre for Policing Excellence
        (NCPE) on behalf of the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) and is
        updated according to legislative and policy changes and re-released as
        required.

        The NCPE was established by the Police Reform Act 2002. As part of its
        remit the NCPE was required to develop policing doctrine, including
        guidance, in consultation with ACPO, the Home Office and the Police Service.

        The Guidance on Policing Motorways 2006 Manual (GPMM) produced by the
        NCPE is used by Chief Police Officers to shape Police responses to ensure
        that the general public experience consistent levels of service.

        The GPMM advises that Police should work closely with the other attending
        units to ensure that they adopt the correct parking position and advises the
        procedures for blue light usage at the scene.

        It reaffirms that the priority for the Fire and Rescue Service is the immediate
        rescue of injured people and the extinguishment of fires. Police will inform
        the Fire and Rescue Service and any other partner of any known hazards
        present at incidents.

        The GPMM advises that when a vehicle is on fire the police should:
                 Set matrix signs to close the lane containing the burning vehicle
               and adjacent lanes.

                 Close lane one when the burning vehicle is on the hard shoulder so
               that the Fire and Rescue Service can carry out their duties.

                 Cone and sign the lane(s), having regard to their own safety, and
               create a sterile working area for the Fire and Rescue Service. If the
               Fire and Rescue Service are required in a particular position,
               sufficient space must be created.

                 Consider the need to increase the number of lanes closed and the
               method of coning required to achieve this, should the situation
               change for the worse.

                  Consider their own and the public’s safety if smoke is present as it
               is likely to be highly toxic and can affect a wide area.

        Additionally, the GPMM explains that there was joint working between ACPO
        and the Highways Agency in 2002 and it was agreed that the Agency should
        become more involved in the operational management of the Agency’s
        motorway network. The joint operational goals for the police and the



26
   Highways Agency are given in detail in the document ‘Highways Agency and




3.3 A Guide to Operational Risk Assessment - Fire Service
   ACPO (2005) The Network Operations National Guidance Framework’.




    Guide Volume 3
   In summary this is to improve road safety, reduce incident related congestion
   and free up police resources. Further details relating to the relationship
   between the Highways Agency and the Fire and Rescue Service are covered
   later in this section.




   To enable dynamic management of risk at operational incidents, the above
   national generic risk assessment guide has been produced and was first
   issued to Fire and Rescue Services in 1998 previously under Her Majesty’s Fire
   Service Inspectorate. This is now under the authority of the Department for
   Communities and Local Government and is currently undergoing a series of
   reviews by a national working group. Generic Risk Assessment (GRA) 4.1
   entitled ‘Incidents Involving Transport Systems – Roads’ has not been revised
   or updated since its first issue.

   This GRA highlights the hazards, risks and control measures that relate to
   incidents on roadways that include vehicle accidents and vehicle fires.

   Significant hazards and risks identified are:

            Moving traffic
            The vehicles involved and their loads
            The occupants
            The site conditions
            Use of specialist rescue equipment

   The key control measures identified in the risk assessment are:

            Pre-planning, which includes equipment carried on appliances and
          training.

            Safe systems of work, which includes the positioning of appliances
          and the assessment details that the police officers at the scene of an
          incident will be in control of.

            Traffic movement. It is recommended that the Fire Service Incident
          Commander should take account of police views in the positioning of
          appliances.

   The Generic Risk Assessment 4.1 provides a list of considerations for the
   Incident Commander for incidents on roadways, which includes:




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     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Appliance approach should be slow and controlled for the following reasons:

              Adverse weather and road conditions including visibility
              Obstacles and debris on the road
              Casualties wandering or thrown onto the roadway
              Enable drop off of a firefighter to deploy police sign 900m from
            incident if the police are not in attendance. A slow approach will also
            enable the Incident Commander time to make a brief assessment.

     The position of fire appliances will normally be 50m before the incident at a
     shallow angle to fend off approaching traffic with the fire appliances
     remaining within the confines of the affected lanes.

     For motorway incidents where police are not in attendance, appliance
     positioning may vary depending on which of the lanes are involved. It states
     that further guidance is provided within the Manual of Firemanship Book 12.

     (NB: This book has now been superseded by Fire and Rescue Service Manual
     Volume 2 Fire Service Operations - Incidents Involving Rescue from Road
     Vehicles as outlined above).

     The Generic Risk assessment 4.1 also includes instructions for the Fire
     Service Incident Commander to ensure that all Fire Service personnel wear
     appropriate protective equipment in addition to normal fire kit, e.g. high
     conspicuity jackets and gloves.

     Further initial considerations from the Generic Risk Assessment 4.1 include:

     That police in attendance will be responsible for the traffic management. If
     they are not in attendance then fire service vehicles should ‘fend off’ at a
     shallow angle 50m from the incident, using the police signs: ‘Accident’,
     ‘Accident Slow’ at 900, 600, 300m respectively.

     Cones should be laid out for a distance of 100m per lane from the
     obstruction. In poor visibility lighting should be considered for the incident
     area.

     When there are multiple appliances in attendance at an incident, it is
     advisable that only the appliances at the rear should be showing blue
     flashing lights. In fog, fog lights should be used. At night or in fog, search
     lights should be used to illuminate ‘fend off’ appliances.

     Firefighting equipment should be laid out to cover the whole of the incident
     area and an assessment should be made to ensure that adequate resources
     are on the scene. If not, what further assistance is required should be based
     upon the number of casualties, the number of persons trapped, and special
     risks e.g. vehicles carrying hazardous loads, information retrieval, likelihood



28
     Crew Safety
     of fire, fire spread and water supplies, medical assistance required, specialist
     equipment and appliances required.




     As the Incident develops
     Crews should be briefed on the plan of action and safety considerations
     including dismounting the appliance on the safe side, and personnel staying




3.4 Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Policies and Procedures
     within the coned area and avoiding other lanes.



     Further generic guidance is given in the event that the incident becomes more
     involved.




3.4.1 Service Information System Operational Procedure - Incidents Involving Road
      Vehicles (Ops 2/30)

     Following the introduction of the Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service
     (HFRS) Information System (SIS) in April 1999, the Service recognised that
     Service Information System documents need to be reviewed and updated on a
     regular basis. Currently, unless there are major changes to an operational
     procedure, all operational documents will be reviewed within a three year
     period. SIS Ops 2/30 was issued on 14 June 2004. The replacement draft for
     2007, in line with the three year review, is being finalised to reflect the
     updates in operational procedures highlighted in the newly issued Fire Service
     Manual and will be circulated shortly.

     The current procedural document provides detailed information on hazards
     associated with fires and accidents involving vehicles on motorways and other
     roadways.

     The Key Information in this document includes prompts for Incident
     Commanders and advises considerations for initial actions when approaching
     an incident of this nature. It includes the following guidance:

     If the Police are not in attendance fire crews should:

              Fend off at a shallow angle at an appropriate distance for the class
            of road, and deploy ‘Police Slow’ signs.

              Lay out cones at an appropriate distance from the incident. In poor
            visibility they should consider lighting for the incident area.

               When there are multiple appliances in attendance at an incident, it
            is advisable that only the appliances at the rear should be showing a
            blue light. In fog, fog lights should be used. At night or in fog search
            lights should be used to illuminate ‘fend off’ appliances.


                                                                                        29
         Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




                  Have firefighting equipment laid out to cover whole of incident
                area.

                  Consider prioritising vehicles where persons are trapped when
                planning firefighting response.

                  Ensure that adequate resources are on the scene. If not, they
                should assess what assistance is required.

                  Appoint a Safety Officer.

         Section 1 provides a warning on the potential hazards and dangers when
         attending incidents on motorway carriageways. It gives information on the
         requirement to wear full personal protective clothing and high visibility
         surcoats. It advises fire service drivers and oncoming supervisory support to
         dress on arrival before venturing on to the carriageway. It advises personnel
         dismounting from appliances to ensure that they are on the side away from
         passing traffic.

         The SIS Ops 2/30 reflects the guidance issued in Book 12 Manual of
         Firemanship, and advises on the dangers of carriageways including the
         proper PPE to be worn and how to dismount from the fire appliance
         complementing Generic Risk Assessment 4.1 as follows:

          “It cannot be over emphasised that there is always danger from fast moving
         traffic. All personnel must be constantly alert to this fact when working and
         moving about the incident. The speed and weight of vehicles will vary
         depending upon the type of road and time of day. However, on most
         occasions the likelihood of being struck by a vehicle travelling at speed is


     3.4.2 The Highways Agency and the Fire and Rescue Service –
         high.”


         Partnership Working

         The Highways Agency was established in 1994, and is an executive agency of
         the Department of Transport and is responsible for operating, maintaining
         and improving the strategic road network in England on behalf of the
         Secretary of State for Transport.

         The Secretary of State for Transport is responsible for overall Government
         policy on motorway and trunk roads in England and for determining the
         strategic framework and the financial resources within which it operates.
         The Agency’s purpose is to provide safe and reliable long distance journeys
         on strategic national routes by managing the traffic using roads as well as
         administering the network as a public asset.




30
     The aims, objectives and values of the Highways Agency are to deliver high
     quality services to customers by reducing congestion, improving reliability and
     improving road safety while respecting the environment and seeking feedback
     from customers.

     The Fire and Rescue Service and Highways Agency have a joint interest in
     ensuring they deliver the best possible service to members of the public
     involved in fires, accidents or other incidents on the motorway and trunk road
     network. Both organisations acknowledge the need to develop the partnership
     to maximise synergy and benefit the management of incidents on the road
     network.

     The Highways Agency has been charged by the Secretary of State with
     developing its role as a network operator to achieve greater efficiency in
     traffic and congestion management and to help the existing trunk road system
     work more efficiently.

     As part of this objective the Highways Agency has introduced a Traffic Officers
     Service. Highways Agency Traffic Officers (HATO) are uniformed officials that
     patrol the Secretary of State’s motorways and selected trunk roads in
     England. They undertake a range of traffic management functions such as
     dealing with breakdowns, obstructions, debris and supporting the police at
     major incidents. They have the power to set variable message signs and stop
     or direct traffic in order to manage traffic and help to keep it moving.

     The Fire and Rescue Service deals with fires and other emergencies. They
     also carry out other various emergency planning activities and are governed
     by the Fire and Rescue Services Act which requires Fire Authorities to make
     provision for firefighting, road traffic collisions, fire safety and other
     emergencies. The latest Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, places a legal
     requirement on the Fire and Rescue Service to make provision for rescuing
     people in the event of road traffic accidents (now termed collisions) and
     protecting people from serious harm to the extent that it considers it


3.4.3 National Memorandum of Understanding
     reasonable to do so in the event of a road traffic accident.



     A national Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Highways
     Agency and Chief Fire Officers Association (CFOA) sets out a purpose and
     scope that ensures proper partnership working. The document seeks to
     provide a framework for the Fire and Rescue Service and the Highways
     Agency to work in partnership.

     The aim of the joint working between the Fire and Rescue Service and the
     Highways Agency is to develop a structured working relationship in order that
     each organisation understands in more depth the issues that face each other
     and provide a framework to manage and resolve them. It also aims to develop
     areas of mutual interest and opportunities for joint working.


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     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     The MOU is not intended by either party to be legally binding as some or all
     of the arrangements/procedures referred to in the MOU may be terminated
     in writing by either party though they will use their best endeavour to give
     reasonable notice to the other party of such termination.

     The Police Service has responsibility for the co-ordination of the emergency
     services at a major incident. The Highways Agency Traffic Officers (HATOs)
     will assess, plan and implement the restoration to normality of the
     carriageway and infrastructure at the scene, and undertake traffic
     management including the approach to the incident scene.

     Traffic officers will support the implementation and management by police of
     a safe working environment for emergency services. For minor incidents e.g.
     embankment fires, single vehicle fires etc, it will not always be appropriate
     for police to attend.

     For minor incidents the Traffic Officers will implement and manage the
     creation of a safe working environment for the emergency services. If
     appropriate it will arrange for incident support units to provide additional
     support by removing debris or implementing a full closure of the roadway.

     The Eastern Region of the Chief Fire Officers Association, which includes
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service, has also signed up to a regional MOU
     with the Highways Agency. The MOU indicates the background, purpose and
     scope of the aims of the joint partnership working between the Highways
     Agency and the Fire and Rescue Service.

     The purpose of this Regional MOU is to ensure understanding between
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service and the Highways Agency in the
     management of any incident on a “fast road” within the county. This
     document aims to ensure that both agencies are clear as to their individual
     responsibilities and duties when working on the highway.
     It also provides guidance as detailed below:

       Liaison meetings - Strategic regional meetings between the lead officers
     of each organisation that will take place every six months to discuss
     planning, management, procedural, intelligence and performance issues.
     Matters arising locally considered being of a regional or national nature will
     be forwarded to the lead officers by the respective agency/service.

       Notification of Incidents - Calls to incidents on the road network that are
     received by Fire Service Control Rooms will be passed to local county Police
     Control Rooms. The local county Police Control Room will be responsible for
     notifying the Highways Agency Regional Control Centre at South Mimms if
     appropriate.

       Calls received at the Highways Agency Regional Control Centre will be
     discussed with the permanently present Police Liaison Officer and passed to



32
     the relevant fire service control room as appropriate. Road closures and traffic
     management, although powers exist under the Fire Services Act 2004 for Fire
     Services to close roads and manage traffic if required. The expectation is that
     Highways Agency personnel will be responsible for closures and traffic
     management at incidents on motorways in liaison with the Police and Fire and
     Rescue Service.

       Information Sharing - Information dissemination or matters affecting more
     than one Fire Service within the region will be dealt with by the Regional Lead
     Officers.

       Training and Exercises - Any training events or exercises affecting more
     than one fire service will be co-ordinated through the Regional Lead Officers.

     In August 2005 HFRS issued a Station Memorandum 10/2005 to all personnel.
     This detailed the roll out of the Highways Agency Traffic Officer Service in
     Hertfordshire. Attached to the Station Memorandum was a leaflet giving brief
     details of the ‘Traffic Officers Service’. In addition it gave details of a DVD
     produced by the Highways Agency that has been placed on HFRS’ intranet site
     to enable personnel to familiarise themselves with the role of the Highways
     Agency.

     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service also arranged a series of
     familiarisation visits to the South Mimms Regional Control Centre for
     personnel working within the M25 catchment area. This provided an
     opportunity to discuss how fire and rescue operations work with HATO and
     how we can assist each other at incidents in the future. These were not


3.4.4 Variable Message Signs
     service-wide familiarisation visits and did not include Stevenage.



     As mentioned, the Highways Agency have the power to set variable message
     signs and stop or direct traffic in order to manage traffic and help keep it
     moving.

     Issues have subsequently been discussed with the Highways Agency during
     this investigation in relation to the setting of the halogen matrix signs above
     the motorway. These provide messages and warnings to road users including
     speed restrictions. Speed restrictions and messages can appear in orange,
     meaning they are advisory, or in red which are mandatory. For any accident
     reported to the Highways Agency these signs will be set at an advisory 50mph.
     Only the Highways Agency or the Police have the authority to reduce the
     speeds further. The process for setting the signs ensures that the matrix signs
     on approach to an incident will be set to display incrementally decreasing
     advisory speeds (e.g. 50, 40, 30, down to 20mph) in order that drivers are given
     time to reduce their speed.

     At 19.56 on the evening of 16 June 2007, there was a report of what has been


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        Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




        described by the Highways Agency as a ‘flooding incident’ on both the
        northbound carriageway junction 7 to 8 and the southbound carriageway
        junction 8 to 7 of the A1(M). This resulted in the signs being set to reduce
        the speeds to 50mph. These speed restrictions ended at 21.08.50.

        It has been confirmed from the Highways Agency signal logs that on arrival
        of the two fire appliances at Incident no 10644 (the car fire), at 21.24.58 and
        21.25.47 respectively, there were no advisory speed settings on the overhead
        matrix signs for either carriageway.

        The Highways Agency Traffic Officers arrived at the scene at 21.28.59 hrs.
        They immediately made a request to the Highways Control Centre to set the
        motorway matrix signs and reduce the speed of traffic in the vicinity. The
        matrix signs were set to 50mph at 21.33.27.

        Following the collision a radio message was sent by a HATO at the scene to
        their Control at 21.35.42 advising them of the collision and the signs were
        then re-set to 20mph at 21.38.32.

        During this investigation the Highways Agency advised that the Fire and
        Rescue Service can directly make a request to the Highways Agency Control
        that matrix signs are set to reduce the speed (this will be done at the
        standard 50mph). Enquiries have revealed that this is not common
        knowledge in the Fire and Rescue Service.

        The Highways Agency will undertake to raise this issue at a National Signs
        and Signals Users Group and request that the Fire Service can be given


     3.5 The Highways Agency account of their Operational Procedure at
        authority to set the speed.


         Incident no. 10644

        On Saturday, 16 June 2007 the Highways Agency (HA) were assigned via their
        control centre to attend a vehicle (Saab) on fire at location A1(M) Junction 8
        slip road southbound.

        The Highways Agency Traffic Officers (HATO) vehicle arrived at 21:28. Both
        Stevenage fire appliances call signs 230 and 231, were already on scene and
        dealing with the incident. All activity was confined to the hard shoulder. 230
        fire appliance was parked on the main carriageway hard shoulder
        approximately 15m in front of the Saab. According to LFf Scotchford, Fire
        appliance 231 was parked within the slip road leading to the main
        carriageway. 230 was in the ‘fend off’ position as illustrated in Fig i opposite.
        The exact location is unknown but the drawing provides an illustration of
        the positioning only gathered from individuals’ contemporaneous notes.

        As the HATO vehicle approached, SubO Mallaghan allowed 231 to leave the
        scene. The HATO vehicle took up the fend off position 30m, (according to the



34
Representation only of the
positions of 231, the Saab,
230 and the “second
vehicle.”




Fig i                         SCENE @ 21:25:47


                                                 35
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     HATOs’ account of the incident), behind the Saab displaying full emergency
     lighting, at low power, appropriate for the location and darkness level. The
     HATO vehicle was parked in the ‘in line’ fend off position, on the slip road
     hard shoulder. Fig ii opposite.

     The HA officers exited the HATO vehicle and liaised with the fire officers at
     the scene to establish if the vehicle fire had been extinguished and was ready
     for recovery.

     The fire crew of 230 were in the process of ensuring that the Saab was safe
     to leave. A HA officer also spoke to the driver of the Saab. At this point both
     Highways Traffic Officers were standing behind the hard shoulder barrier.

     A HATO had decided that the car needed an immediate removal placed on it,
     due to the location and the fact it was unlit. At 21.30 the HATO radioed their
     control to ask for them to arrange this.

     SubO Mallaghan was standing in front of the Saab apparently trying to
     establish the cause of the fire and the extent of the damage to the vehicle.
     One of the HATOs collected the driver’s name and mobile telephone number;
     this was being done behind the hard shoulder barrier.

     The other HATO was speaking to LFf Crook adjacent to the Saab when at
     approximately 21:35 the Saab was impacted from the rear by a passing car
     from the main carriageway. LFf Crook was propelled into the HATO by the
     impact, which in turn pushed the HATO over the crash barrier. Both LFf
     Crook and the HATO were injured. The Saab travelled approximately 15m
     further up the main carriageway trapping SubO Mallaghan beneath the front
     of the car as it stopped.

     The drawing, Fig iii on page 38, is not based on any exact scientific
     measurements but taken from witness estimates of the distances and
     photographs of the scene post-collision.

     The Service do not know which lane the VW Golf had been travelling in on the
     A1(M) before it left the main carriageway and entered the hard shoulder,
     hitting the Saab.

     Fig iii on page 38 - The uninjured HATO called the HA Control Centre
     requesting urgent assistance via her handset radio, explaining that there
     were serious injuries to fire officers, a HATO and also the driver of a
     Volkswagen Golf, (the vehicle that had caused the subsequent impact).




36
Representation only of the
positions of the Highways
Agency Vehicle, the Saab,
230 and the “second
vehicle.”




Fig ii                       SCENE @ 21:29:01


                                                37
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




      Representation only of the
      positions of the Highways
      Agency Vehicle, the Saab,
      230, the Golf and the
      “second vehicle.”




     Fig iii                                                         SCENE @ 21:35:24


38
4 Clothing, Equipment,
  Vehicles and
  Communications

 4.1 Personal Protective Clothing
     The purpose of this section is to analyse whether adequate and appropriate
     equipment was available and/or used to control the risks relating to the
     original incident – a car fire on the hard shoulder of the A1(M) – and the
     subsequent incident – a multi-vehicle road traffic collision involving persons
     trapped.




     Under the requirements of the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) at Work
     Regulations 1992 HFRS supplies appropriate protective clothing in the form of
     firefighting kit and associated wear to all operational personnel.

     The Generic Risk Assessment 4.1 relates to fire services working at ‘Incidents
     Involving Transport Systems – Roads’ and this includes advice on crew safety
     (3.2.5.). It instructs the Incident Commander to ensure that all personnel
     wear appropriate PPE in addition to normal fire kit, for example high
     conspicuity jackets and gloves (heavy duty and/or surgical,) ear defenders, eye


4.1.1 Firefighting kit
     protection etc. and BA should be worn at vehicle fires.




     HFRS provide firefighters with the personal protective clothing through a total
     care package arrangement with Cosalt Ballyclare. All the items comply with
     the appropriate British and European standards for firefighting kit as follows.

               Leggings        tested to EN367 convective heat tests
               Tunic           as above
               Boots           EN345
               Helmet          EN166
               Gloves          EN233 & EN366



4.1.2 Conspicuity Clothing
               Fire hood       EN13911




     The fire tunic has reflective strips on the arms, body and legs. This complies
     with the legal requirements to ensure safety during work on roads when worn
     with a reflective high visibility surcoat or tabard.


                                                                                       39
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     In addition, for use when working at road traffic collisions or car fires each
     fire appliance carries six high visibility tabards or surcoats. These conform


     Fire kit
     to the appropriate standard when worn with the fire kit. (See pictures below.)


                                                                                      Fire kit
                                                                                      showing
                                                                                      high visibility
                                                                                      reflective
                                                                                      strips




     High visibility surcoats/waistcoats
                                                                                      Three styles of
                                                                                      high visibility
                                                                                      surcoats/
                                                                                      waistcoats
                                                                                      currently
                                                                                      issued by HFRS




     The legal standard for conspicuity clothing is BS EN471:1994 – (previously
     BS6629: 1985 and also referred to as BS EN471:2003) Table 1 Class 2 or 3.
     This must be worn at all times. Jackets with sleeves must be worn on dual
     carriageway roads with a speed limit of 50mph or above, unless operatives
     stay within the working space at all times.

     The colour of the background material should normally be fluorescent yellow
     (from table 2 of the BS EN471:1994) and the retro-reflective material should
     comply with Table 5 of this standard. This requirement is based on people
     who might be required to direct traffic.


40
     The HFRS waistcoat style hi-vis jacket (called a ‘surcoat’) is rated to Class 2
     but fulfils the requirement of Class 3 retroflective material at operational
     incidents on dual carriageways with speed limits above 50mph. Class 2 is the
     lesser standard and is only suitable when it is worn in conjunction with the fire
     tunic. There is an acceptance from the police that this level is suitable
     because firefighters work within the protected zone. HFRS issue different
     coloured surcoats in a white or white and yellow version. All yellow surcoats
     are standard hi-vis, white and yellow are issued for Incident Command or
     Command Support roles.

     However, HFRS Incident Command surcoats do not comply with Class 3 or
     Class 2 because they are not all yellow in colour, although Incident
     Commanders are unlikely to be asked to direct traffic because they work
     within the ‘protected zone’. The Incident Command surcoats comply to the
     Fire Service national standards to identify the officer in command of the


4.1.3 Other PPE
     incident.




 4.2 PPE worn at the Incident
     Disposable gloves are provided on all appliances for firefighters to use when
     administering first aid to protect against biological hazards. These are worn
     under the fire gloves.




     According to their notes and further enquiries all firefighters wore their PPE –


4.2.1 Sub Officer Mallaghan
     full fire kit in addition to their high visibility surcoats.



     It is almost certain from witness statements that SubO Mallaghan was
     carrying his fire helmet in his hand at the time the VW Golf collided with the
     Saab. SubO Mallaghan’s fire helmet was photographed at the scene of the
     incident in two locations – once on top of a generator and once on the OiC seat
     in the fire appliance. It was impounded by HFRS and given to the Police as an
     exhibit on 21 June 2007. It was also photographed by the Health and Safety
     Department prior to this and it showed signs of ‘new’ damage to the top.

     According to the police, SubO Mallaghan was also wearing the OiC hi-vis
     surcoat over his fire tunic.

     The police took SubO Mallaghan’s fire kit: fire boots, leggings, polo shirt,
     trousers and high-vis surcoat from Lister Hospital as exhibits on 16 June
     2007.




                                                                                         41
     4.2.2 Leading Firefighter Crook
          Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




          At the time of the collision LFf Crook was not wearing his fire helmet or
          gloves because he had taken them off to speak with the driver of the car.
          During the collision LFf Crook sustained head injuries. He also sustained leg
          injuries and at one point said he could not feel his legs.

          LFf Crook had his fire kit cut at the incident by LFf Broom and LFf Poulter in
          order to make him more comfortable and to apply a stiff neck collar.

          His fire tunic, over trousers and hi-vis surcoat were removed at Lister
          Hospital and placed in a clear plastic bag which was handed to HFRS staff.
          These items were taken by Hertfordshire Police as exhibits on 21 June 2007.

          LFf Crook’s firefighting gloves were also impounded into a yellow bio-hazard


     4.2.3 Other PPE
          bag and handed to the police as exhibits on 21 June 2007.




      4.3 Equipment
          Disposable gloves were worn by firefighters as stated by LFf Poulter 310.
          This is standard practice by crews going to RTCs to protect against biological
          hazards when dealing with casualties.




     4.3.1 Breathing Apparatus
          A range of equipment used during the incident.



          Ff Williams wore breathing apparatus, but was not ‘under air’ due to the fact


     4.3.2 Hose Reel
          it was a very small ‘fire’.



          Ff Williams used a hose reel jet from the near-side of 230 to put out the
          small fire in the car. Subsequently, later on into the incident Ff Jennings and
          Ff Smith pulled an additional hose reel from the off-side of 230 and charged
          it ready for use.

          Ff Huthwaite ran out hose reel from 320 to the VW Golf car and charged the


     4.3.3 RTC Equipment
          hose reel.



          The following equipment was referred to in some of the firefighters’
          contemporaneous notes.
                    Lukas equipment: spreaders, power pack, combi-tool


42
                    Ram support
                  Chocks and Blocks
                  Air mats

      Prior to the return of 231, the two uninjured firefighters – Ff Jennings and Ff
      Williams – were utilising as much of the RTC equipment as they could from
      230 to commence the lifting of the Saab – which according to their notes
      included: “Lukas, power pack, blocks etc.” “ram support” “spreaders.”

      All the RTC equipment was utilised from 230 and 231 to lift the Saab car in
      order to release SubO Mallaghan. In addition RTC equipment from other
      appliances was used to supplement this and to assist in the removal of the


4.3.4 First aid
      driver of the VW Golf.



      LFf Crook was administered oxygen therapy, fitted with a stiff-neck collar and
      given bandages for his head injuries during the incident by Ff Jennings, Ff




 4.4 Vehicles
      Maher and LFfs Broom and Poulter.

      Ff Maher assisted SubO Mallaghan by inserting an airway and used a bag
      valve mask (BVM) and oxygen.

      A stiff-neck collar was used for the occupant of the VW Golf.




4.4.1 Fire appliances

      Stevenage had a spare fire appliance registration no: N929 KMJ on the run on
      the evening of the 16 June 2007. This was due to the fact that call-sign 230,
      fleet number: W715, was with Venson - (HCC contracted vehicle maintenance
      company) - having a ‘B Service’. This is the major service to every appliance
      carried out once a year.

      Stevenage's other appliance, call-sign 231: fleet number W705, was on the


4.4.2 Maintenance and Servicing
      run as normal.



      DO Hardy confirmed in his statement that a post-incident inspection was
      requested by the police and carried out by StnO Harding at the request of PC
      Marsh. StnO Harding operated all 230’s rear lights and StnO Harding
      confirmed to PC Marsh that all side and blue lights were operating when he
      arrived at the scene. All lights were functioning correctly.




                                                                                        43
           Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




           There is a Service history for this spare appliance which has been inspected
           and the vehicle appears to have had no serious defects prior to the incident.
           Its last main service was undertaken by Venson in August 2006 but it also


           Lighting and Conspicuity
           had minor ‘on-site (A)’ services in November 2006, January and May 2007.




     4.4.3 vehicle and the blue lights of the fire appliance were on during the incident.
           StnO Harding confirmed that the orange flashing lights of the Highways


           There is a CFOA User Requirement Statement which allows Fire and Rescue
           Services the right to choose their vehicle livery within any statutory provision
           and to promote the use of Battenberg (red and yellow chequers) marking (as
           per CFOA policy published 25 May 2000) as an accepted example of good
           practice.

           Statutory provision is made through the Conspicuity Order VTS 23/9/16/59,
           enacted on 5 July 2006, which refers to the use of yellow reflectivity to the
           rear and side of the vehicle (this is the same order that permits the use of
           red flashing lights to the rear of a stationary appliance).




                                                                                               Fig 8
           Below is a picture (fig 8 ) of the rear of this appliance following the collision
           showing the conspicuity markings.

                                                                                               Rear of 230
                                                                                               showing
                                                                                               conspicuity
                                                                                               (high visibility)
                                                                                               markings




           Guidance was offered by the Department for Transport (DfT) on how Fire and
           Rescue Authorities may choose to comply and this guidance introduces the
           description of the ‘Battenberg’. The Order itself does not require adherence
           to the DfT’s guidance.

           In conclusion, HFRS appliances comply with all the current national



44
           requirements.
 4.5 Safe systems of work at the incident
     Positioning and fending off is covered under the Operational Procedures
     section, but the circumstances at this incident led to the first appliance pulling
     in front of the Saab car and the second appliance (231) behind taking up the
     ‘fend off’ position and parking at an angle to block the whole slip road onto the
     hard shoulder. See drawing Fig i on page 35.

     The Highways Agency vehicle pulled in behind 231 just as they were leaving
     the incident and adopted an ‘in line’ fend off position in the hard shoulder.
     See the drawing in Fig ii on page 37. The Highways Agency adopt different


4.5.1 Safety Signage
     fend off positions to the Fire Service.



     All fire appliances carry the following
     signage for use at RTCs, see picture
     right (fig 9 ):

     6 x orange and white traffic cones
     (approx. 470mm high)
     1 x blue and white ‘Police Slow’ sign
     1 x flashing blue beacon for
     mounting on a traffic cone

     None of this equipment was deployed
     at this incident, although Ff Jennings
     asked SubO Mallaghan if cones were




 4.6 Communications
     wanted - SubO Mallaghan told him
     that the Highways Agency would do
     it. The Highways Agency Traffic
     Officers are responsible for traffic


                                               Fig 9 Safety signage carried on
     management when they attend
     incidents.




     LFf Crook’s hand-held radio was put into a bio-hazard bag because it was
                                               appliances - police slow sign, cones and



     contaminated with blood. He had used it after the collision to send a message
                                               flashing beacon



     to 231. It was handed to the police as an exhibit on 21 June 2007. LFf
     Scotchford heard Ff Jennings make the priority message (at 21.35.24) from
     230 over the main-scheme radio and 231 mobilised back towards the A1 just
     as they receive the mobilising instruction from Command and Control at
     21.35.38.

     Fireground radios were used during the incident to call for more equipment
     from oncoming appliances. There were no reported problems experienced
     with reception.


                                                                                          45
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     During the incident when messages of a delicate nature needed to be sent
     crews adhered to the Service procedures and used the appliance mobile
     telephones.

     Although Hitchin’s first pump were initially unaware of the full circumstances
     of the developing incident until their arrival (they were mobilised to a car
     fire), Fire Command and Control did advise oncoming appliances via mobile
     telephone that the original car fire incident now involved an RTC with Service
     personnel injured.

     There appeared to be no problems experienced in general with
     communications to and from the incident ground throughout the incident.




46
5 Training and
  Competence
5.1 Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service Training Module 7

   The Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service Training and Development Centre
   based at Stevenage have produced Training Module 007 which gives
   information on general procedures during road traffic collisions.

   This training module is based on the Foundation Training and Development
   Book Volume 4, issued by the Department for Communities and Local
   Government. It aims to introduce the trainee to the general procedures to be
   adopted at road traffic collisions and working on the roadways.

   All trainee firefighters are trained and assessed in line with this training
   module by qualified instructors as part of their ‘phase one’ training before
   they are assigned to operational stations.

   The objective on completion of the module is to ensure that the trainee will be
   able to:
     State the correct positioning of appliances, signs and cones used at RTCs,
     Recognise the safety procedures necessary when attending RTCs
     Identify the considerations when making an appraisal and determining
     priorities in an RTC.

   The training module links to the National Occupational Standards on personal
   and organisational development for firefighting hazards and risks in
   operational incidents, and key skill units FF3 ‘Save and preserve endangered
   life’. It is also linked to Integrated Personal Development System unit 057
   ‘Dealing with transport incidents’.

   The training module provides detailed information on the approach and
   attendance to RTCs on motorways and dual carriageways. It gives guidance on
   positioning of appliances, and illustrates the positioning of fire appliances
   prior to the arrival of the police for incidents in lanes one, two or three of
   carriageways.

   In addition, the training module provides motorway guidance when the
   incident involves:
     Lane two and the hard shoulder is clear
     When the incident covers lane two and the hard shoulder is obstructed
     For incidents in lane three, or for incidents covering lanes two and three.



                                                                                     47
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     The training module also provides guidance on safety provision including the
     safety of crews, ensuring they have the appropriate PPE and additional
     protective clothing including high visibility surcoats.

     In order to ascertain the level of competence and experience with regard to
     working on roadways the training records of those crew members who
     attended Incident 10644 were examined. Their training is organised both
     centrally by the HFRS Training and Development Centre and locally, by the
     station management.

     The following is a summary of the central training and promotion history
     relating to the crews attending the incident.

            KEY
            LFf        Leading Firefighter also known as Crew Manager
            SubO       Sub Officer also known as Watch Manager
            RTC        Road Traffic Collision
                       (previously RTA = Road Traffic Accident)
            BA         Breathing Apparatus
            CMMI       Crew Managers Managing Incidents
            DCT        Driver Continuation Training
            LGV        Light Goods Vehicle


     SubO Paul Mallaghan
     Joined the Service                                    07.01.91
     Was promoted to Leading Firefighter                   01.08.00
     and to Sub Officer                                    01.09.01
     He attended the following courses:
     RTA course                                            27.02.95
     Crew Managers Incident Command course                 21.06.00
     Fire Service College for Crew Managers
     (Leading Firefighter) course                          03.12.01 to 21.12.01
     RTC course                                            28.09.05

     LFf Ian Crook
     Joined the Service                                    17.04.01
     Was promoted to Leading Firefighter                   30.04.07
     He has held LGV since                                 27.11.03

     He attended the following courses:
     BA/RTA course on                                      23.10.03
     CMMI course from                                      30.10.06 to 10.11.06




48
Ff Adam Jennings
Joined the Service                                11.03.02
He has held LGV since                             28.08.06
He attended the following courses:
BA/RTA course                                     01.10.02
DCT course                                        02.02.07

Ff Dave Williams
Joined the Service                                04.01.93
He attended the following courses:
RTA course                                        22.02.95
BA/RTA course                                     22.04.03.

LFf Daren Scotchford
Joined the Service                                21.08.00
Was promoted to Leading Firefighter               01.07.04
He has held LGV since                             14.11.02
He attended the following courses:
BA/RTA course                                     22.04.03
RTC course                                        28.09.05
CMMI course                                       29.01.07 to 02.02.07.

Ff Richie Hanmer
Joined the Service                                17.11.97
Held an LGV since prior to joining Service.
He attended the following courses:
DCT course                                        16.09.02 to 19.09.02
BA/RTA course                                     01.10.02
RTC course                                        28.09.05

Ff Abigail Hampton
Joined the Service                                27.11.06
She undertook her trainee firefighter course at the Training and Development
Centre at Longfield, Stevenage. She joined Blue Watch in April 2007.

Ff Chris Maher
Joined the Service                                26.07.99
He has a range of experience and completed a course for
‘Basic Life Support and Automatic Electronic
De-fibrillation’ (BLS/AED)                       16/07/04
and qualified as an AED instructor on            30/08/05



                                                                               49
     5.2 Central Training
        Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




        Below is a table summarising the crews’ central training records which are
        relevant to working at this incident.

         Name               RTC course      BA/RTA      CMMI       Recruit
         P. Mallaghan       28.09.05
         A. Jennings                        01.10.02
         I. Crook                           23.10.03    10.11.06
         D. Williams                        22.04.03
         D. Scotchford      28.09.05                    02.02.07
         R. Hanmer          28.09.05
         A. Hampton                                                  2007
         C. Maher                                                    2001


        The CMMI course includes a training module specifically training newly
        promoted junior officers on incidents on the roadway including safety
        measures when operating on roadways as follows:
                    Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004
                    Fend off
                    Coning
                    Motorways


        First Aid
                    Police ‘slow’ signs



        Some of the crew were involved in immediate casualty care and this is the
        summary of their relevant training.


         Name                    Immediate casualty care
         Ian Crook               23/11/04
         Adam Jennings           01/11/06
         Dave Williams           01/11/06
         Daren Scotchford        01/11/06
         Richie Hanmer           01/11/06
         Abigail Hampton         04/04/07
         Chris Maher             01/11/06




50
5.3 Station Based Training
   The interim recording system for station based training was introduced on 16
   May 2005 and instructions were issued on Station Memorandum 62/05. The
   recommended training frequency for all skills or competencies is ‘at least
   once in every three month period’.

   The training records provided for April, May and June of 2007 were incorrectly
   dated. The year shown on the HFRS 52 was 2006. The correct date has been
   verified by LFf Scotchford and the hard copy in the training file has been re-
   dated and initialled.

   The table below shows station based training recorded, relating to roadways.
   Records considered were January 2006 to June 2007. Only the most recent
   date that training occurred is shown. There are further tables showing
   training in the use of equipment relating to road traffic collisions and first
   aid/trauma care.

   Abigail Hampton is a newly qualified firefighter from the Training and
   Development Centre who joined the Watch in April 2007 and covered the
   basics of RTC training during her Trainee Firefighter training. This included
   vehicle safety systems; injuries; cuts on cars; fending off and coning off; Road
   Traffic Act and Fire Services Act etc.


                    Traffic Law    Siting      Siting      Fend Off     Fend Off
    Name              Theory       Theory     Practical    Theory       Practical
    P. Mallaghan    March 07      March 07     March 07
    A. Jennings     March 07      March 07     March 07    March 07      April 07
    I. Crook        March 07      March 07     June 07     March 07     March 07
    D. Williams     March 07      March 07     March 07    March 07      April 07
    D. Scotchford   March 07      March 07     March 07
    R. Hanmer       March 07      March 07     March 07    March 07      April 07
    A. Hampton
    C. Maher        March 07      March 07                 March 07




                                                                                      51
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Use of equipment relating to Road Traffic Collisions


      Name                           Lukas           Air mats          Stabilisation
      Ian Crook                      06/07                                06/07
      Adam Jennings                  05/07             01/07              05/07
      Dave Williams                  06/07             01/06              06/07
      Daren Scotchford               06/07             01/07              06/07
      Richie Hanmer                  06/07             01/07              06/07
      Abigail Hampton                06/07                                06/07
      Chris Maher                    06/07             01/07              06/07


     First Aid and Trauma Care

                               Bag Valve
       Name                   Mask/MARS        De-fib          CPR         Casualty care
       Ian Crook                 06/07         06/07           06/07           06/07
       Adam Jennings             11/06         11/06           11/06           03/07
       Dave Williams             11/06         11/06           11/06           11/06
       Daren Scotchford          11/06         11/06           11/06           11/06
       Richie Hanmer             11/06         11/06           11/06           11/06
       Abigail Hampton
       Chris Maher               11/06         11/06           11/06           06/07


     In conclusion, all members of the crew were suitably trained and experienced
     in working safely on roadways and dealing with casualties.




52
6 Findings
1 Between 2000 and 2004 accidents on the hard shoulder claimed the lives of 67
  people and injured a total of 950 people. Although there has been no report of
  any other Fire Service personnel being killed on the motorway in recent years
  while responding to an incident in the UK, it is widely accepted that fast


2 Although there is clear and comprehensive guidance for fire crews working on
  moving traffic on a motorway poses a serious danger.


  motorway carriageways, there appears to be no specific operational
  procedures for Fire Service vehicles working on a hard shoulder. It should also
  be noted that the Fire Service Generic Risk Assessment 4.1. Incidents
  Involving Transport Systems – Roads was issued prior to arrangements being


3 HFRS Service Policies and Procedures reflect the National Guidance for
  put into place for the Highways Agency to manage the road network.


  procedures to be adopted on the motorway. The current SIS also provides
  concise guidance on motorway procedures and the associated dangers.
  However, this SIS does not mention detailed illustrated guidance on fend off


4 National guidance from the Fire and Rescue Service Manual (Volume 2)
  and coning procedures.


  provides direction on the safest approach to take to incidents on the
  motorway, and how to fend off if an incident occurs within the carriageway. It
  does not however give explicit guidance on incidents that may occur on
  carriageways that merge with or lead to motorways or provide explicit
  procedures for incidents on hard shoulders.

  Many calls to car fires on the motorway tend to be either of a minor nature or
  false alarms. Due to the potential traffic disruption caused by a lane closure,
  fire crews will assess the nature of the call prior to deciding on any lane
  closures. If the vehicle is on the hard shoulder and fully involved in fire, the
  Fire Service may need to shut down both the hard shoulder and at least lane
  one to protect the firefighters working. The Incident Commander will risk
  assess and make decisions based on the scene.

  Guidance from the Fire and Rescue Service Manual (Volume 2) states that
  when the fire service attend a working Road Traffic Collision ( RTC ) at any
  location including motorways, it is expected that an action circle
  extending outwards for 2 – 5 metres in every direction will be put in place.
  This circle provides a 360 degree view of the scene and saves valuable time by
  allowing fire service personnel to develop an adequate plan while operating
  safely. It therefore follows that an RTC on the motorway (including the hard
  shoulder) will result in the closure of more than one lane. There is
  clear national and HFRS guidance on lane closures and coning procedures
  in this instance.



                                                                                     53
        Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service    RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




        However, for the fire service attending a vehicle fire on the hard shoulder,
        there is no clear fire service guidance and therefore the Incident Commander
        will be expected to make a decision based on their dynamic risk assessment
        in the absence of either the police of Highways Agency being in attendance.


      5 The Guidance on Policing Motorways 2006 Manual (GPMM) advises that when
        This will result in variations of operational practices nationally and locally.


        a vehicle is on fire the police should close lane one when the burning vehicle
        is on the hard shoulder so that the Fire and Rescue Service can carry out
        their duties. There is no reference to this in The Fire and Rescue Service
        Manual Volume 2, entitled Fire Service Operations – Incidents Involving


      6 HFRS has a good relationship with the Highways Agency and is signed up to a
        Rescue From Road Vehicles.


        Regional Memorandum of Understanding. On the introduction of the
        Highways Agency into Hertfordshire in 2004, a clear process was introduced
        into the Fire and Rescue Service to ensure that all information available was
        disseminated to personnel by Station Memorandum and by the use of the
        HFRS local intranet. At top level management there is a clear link between
        the Highways agency and HFRS. However, HFRS does not have a clear


      7 All national guidance indicates that it is the responsibility of the police in
        process for communicating information to operational personnel.


        conjunction with the HATOs to provide a safe working area for other


      8 The Fire and Rescue Service will be guided at an incident by the police or
        emergency services when they are in attendance.


        HATOs on parking of emergency vehicles on the motorway when they are in


      9 HFRS Command and Control were unaware of the ability they have to request
        attendance.


        Highways Agency to set matrix signs to control the speed of approaching


     10 The investigation shows that Incident Commander and crews appear to have
        traffic prior to the HATOs arriving.




     11 It is almost certain that the Incident Commander SubO Paul Mallaghan had
        followed HFRS Standard Operating Procedures at this incident.


        removed his fire helmet as he attempted to view the damage to the Saab. He
        was carrying his fire helmet in his hand at the time of the collision. LFf Ian
        Crook was not wearing his fire helmet or gloves because he had taken them
        off to speak with the driver of the Saab and this directly led to him receiving
        serious head injuries. However, all fire crews in both 230 and 231 fire
        appliances were rigged in the appropriate PPE clothing for an incident of this
        nature to ensure high conspicuity and were complying with the appropriate
        standards.




54
12 The HFRS waistcoat style hi-vis jacket is rated to class 2 but fulfils the
   requirement of class 3 retroflective material at operational incidents on dual
   carriageways with speed limits above 50mph. Class 2 is the lesser standard
   and is suitable when it is worn in conjunction with the fire tunic.

   Although compliant with the appropriate standards, it appears that HFRS
   Incident Commanders wear a lesser standard of surcoat in a white or white
   and yellow version in accordance with the correct Incident Command System
   as they would not normally be required to direct traffic and would work within


13 The fire appliance in attendance at the time of the collision (i.e. 230;
   a ‘protected zone’.


   registration N929 KMJ) was a spare vehicle which was being used by
   Stevenage whilst their substantive fire appliance was being serviced. The
   spare vehicle meets all the minimum legal standards for lighting and
   conspicuity markings relating to emergency vehicles. The police inspected
   the vehicle at the scene on the night of 16 June 2007 during their Crash
   Investigation and found it to be in working order and compliant with the


14 The ‘In Line’ fend off position on the hard shoulder of the slip road deployed
   requirements for working on the roadway.


   by the HATO vehicle at this incident provided limited protection from vehicles
   travelling south bound on the main carriageway of the motorway. Its aim was
   to provide a physical barrier from vehicles travelling down the slip road and
   provide a visible presence for on-coming traffic. There are differences in the
   choice of ‘fend off’ positioning between the Police, Highways Agency and Fire
   Service due to varying responsibilities and operating procedures. On this
   occasion both the Highways Agency and HFRS were fending off in accordance


15 The Service meets the statutory requirements in relation to conspicuity and
   with their current standard operation procedures.


   working on highways and roadways, in terms of personal protective clothing,


16 The range of training undertaken by the Stevenage crews who attended this
   vehicle markings and lighting.


   incident shows that there were adequate and appropriate levels of experience
   and knowledge to enable them to deal with an incident on the roadway which
   developed from a small car fire to a multi-vehicle collision involving several
   casualties.




                                                                                    55
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




56
7 Recommendations
1 Specific operational procedures for fire service vehicles working on a hard
  shoulder need to be drawn up. These need to incorporate the guidance
  offered from the ACPO Guidance on Policing Motorways 2006. The Fire
  Service Generic Risk Assessment 4.1 Incidents Involving Transport Systems –


2 No cones or warning signage were deployed by the Fire Service at this
  Roads needs to be revised and updated.


  incident because the Highways Agency were in attendance and would take
  responsibility for this task if it was felt necessary. However, the HFRS SIS
  OPS 2/30 Incidents Involving Road Vehicles does not mention detailed
  illustrated guidance on fend off and coning procedures. The SIS needs to take
  into consideration the Highways Agency role, the Police role and the incident


3 The Fire and Rescue Service Manual (Volume 2) needs to have explicit
  location – which on this occasion was on the hard shoulder.


  guidance on incidents that may occur on carriageways that merge with, or


4 When attending a vehicle fire on the hard shoulder, there is no clear fire
  lead to motorways.


  service guidance and therefore the Incident Commander will be expected to
  make a decision based on their dynamic risk assessment. This could result in
  variations of operational practices. It is recommended that a defined
  procedure for all operational activity on the hard shoulder is designed and


5 The Guidance on Policing Motorways 2006 Manual (GPMM) advises that when
  implemented.


  a vehicle is on fire the police should close lane one when the burning vehicle
  is on the hard shoulder so that the Fire and Rescue Service can carry out their
  duties. This working practice needs to be consolidated and introduced into


6 There is no reference to point 5 above in The Fire and Rescue Service Manual
  HFRS and national standard operating procedures.


  Volume 2, entitled Fire Service Operations – Incidents Involving Rescue From


7 HFRS has a good relationship with the Highways Agency and is signed up to a
  Road Vehicles. This needs to be addressed.


  Regional Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). However, a clear process for
  communicating the MOU to operational personnel is required in order to


8 The Highways Agency has invited Command and Control staff to visit their
  maintain operational efficiency across the different agencies.


  Control Centre in South Mimms and this offer should be taken up for all of
  Command and Control personnel in order to improve cross-agency working
  and knowledge of procedures and systems.



                                                                                    57
      9 In addition there should be formalised procedures put in place to ensure all
        Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




        Command and Control staff are aware that they can contact Highways
        Agency Control to request matrix signs are ‘set’ for incidents on roadways,
        (this would be at 50mph until a HATO or police officer instructs them


     10 All high visibility jackets worn were adequate, appropriate and fit for purpose
        further).


        but it is recommended the standard issue should be consistent across all


     11 High visibility clothing and all Personal Protective Equipment including head
        ranks in HFRS.


        protection must be worn whilst working on any part of a highway.


     12 Statistically more accidents and near misses occur during the closing stages
        Operational personnel need to be reminded of this requirement.


        of an incident than at any other time. Personnel need to be reminded to


     13 The Fire and Rescue Service are increasingly being called to vehicle fires and
        continue to be vigilant and alert at the closing stages of an incident.


        also need to be aware of the different types of fuel that could be involved
        (gas, diesel etc) and the control measures required to deal with these


     14 The Fire and Rescue Service should seek to promote and participate in an
        incidents. This information must be included in the appropriate SIS.


        active national campaign to raise the public awareness of the dangers
        associated with stopping on the hard shoulder of motorways and roadways.




58
8 Reference Documents
  and Bibliography
 ACPO – Guidance on Policing Motorways 2006 Manual (GPMM)
 Traffic Management Act 2004
 Essex Fire and Rescue HSE Improvement Notice
 Fire Service Manual volume 2
 Manual of Firemanship Book 12
 Generic Risk Assessment 4.1 – Incidents Involving Transport Systems - Roads
 DCOL 4/1991 Fire Service Procedures for Incidents on Motorways
 DCOL 8/1997 the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) (Amendment)
 Regulations 1997
 DCOL 9/1994 Attendance at road Accidents
 DCOL 6/1992
 DCOL 13/1982 Hazards from Vehicle Fires
 DCOL 8/1994
 DCOL 4/1991 Fire Service Procedures for Incidents on Motorways
 HSE SIM 7/2005/16
 Hard shoulder Accidents 2005 (Highways Agency)
 Hard Shoulder Safety Systems PRSE 62302
 Highways Agency SOP
 HFRS SIS 2/030 – Incidents Involving Road Vehicles June 2004
 ACPO Road Death Investigation Manual 2001
 Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
 Unsafe Stopping – The AA Motoring Trust
 Regional MOU between Highways Agency/Fire and Rescue Service East
 Region
 Cambridgeshire FRS: Operational Technical Order: Special Services: Road
 Traffic Accidents
 Cambridgeshire FRS: Hazard Warning Bulletin: Coning Off Procedures
 Cambridgeshire FRS: Motorway/Dual Carriageway Coning off Procedure
 HM Fire Services Inspectorate: Significant Safety Event No. 9: Coning at
 motorway/dual carriageway incidents
 Essex Fire and Rescue Service – Service Information System – Motorway and
 Dual Carriageway Procedures


                                                                               59
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




60
9 Appendix 1
 Plans showing staged vehicle positions up to
 and including the collision.




                                                61
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




       Representation only of the
       positions of 231, the Saab,
       230 and the “second
       vehicle.”




     Fig. i   At 21.25.47: 231, Saab, 230, and “second vehicle” approx. 100m along hard



62
 Representation only of the
 positions of the Highways
 Agency Vehicle, the Saab,
 230 and the “second
 vehicle.”




Fig. ii   At 21.29.01: Highways Agency, Saab, 230 and “second vehicle”



                                                                         63
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report



       Representation only of the
       positions of the Highways
       Agency Vehicle, the Saab,
       230, the Golf and the
       “second vehicle.”




     Fig. iii At 21.35.24: Highways Agency, estimated line of travel of VW Golf, Saab shunted
     approx 15m, 230


64
 Representation only of the
 positions of the Highways
 Agency Vehicle, 231 (returned
 to incident) the Golf, 230, and
 the Saab, post collision.




Fig. iv   Post-collision At 21.40.30: Highways Agency, 231 returned, VW Golf, Saab, 230



                                                                                          65
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




66
9 Appendix 2
 Glossary of Fire Service Terms




                                  67
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     CFO            Chief Fire Officer
     DCFO           Deputy Chief Fire Officer
     ACO            Assistant Chief Fire Officer
     DO             Divisional Officer
     StnO           Station Officer - also known as Station Manager
     SubO           Sub Officer - also now known as Watch Manager




     Messages and Language
     LFf            Leading Firefighter - also now known as Crew Manager
     Ff             Firefighter
     CREW           A collection of firefighters – can be of differing ranks and have
                    different tasks assigned, but will usually be from one fire
                    engine.
     IC             Incident Commander – in charge of the entire incident
     OIC            Officer in Charge – the person in charge of an appliance/crew
     CONTROL        Fire Service Command and Control Centre where all the
                    telephone calls, radio messages and mobile phone calls are
                    received.
     CU             Mobile Control Unit (also known as: CCU or CSU)
     RSU            Rescue Support Unit



     TM                     Tactical Mode
     TM OSCAR               Tactical Mode Offensive – in operational terms
     TM DELTA               Tactical Mode Defensive – in operational terms
     MAKE PUMPS...          A request that further fire appliances are required.
                            (With 2 pumps in attendance, ‘make pumps four’ is a
                            request for two additional appliances, totalling 4).
     RTC                    Road Traffic Collision (formerly RTA: Road Traffic
                            Accident)

     CODE                   Details the condition of the person/s involved in the
                            incident
                            Code 1 = Fatal
                            Code 2 = Injured; casualty referred to hospital
                            Code 3 = First aid only; precautionary check
                            Code 4 = Involved but not injured

     FDR1                   Fire Damage Report 1 form completed for every fire

     INFORMATIVE            a message to Control detailing current status of the
                            incident

     MOBILE                 A fire appliance is responding to the call and is on the


68
                            way to the incident
Firefighting Equipment and Operations
STOP            Message to Control indicating no further resources
                required at the incident



PUMP/WAGGON/    Fire Appliances/engines referred to by the station call-
MOTOR/LORRY     signs. ‘2 3 0 (two three zero)’ or ‘2 3 1 (two three one)’.
                The first pump from Stevenage station is 230 the
                second pump is 231.
FIRE KIT        Personal protective clothing comprising fire helmet,
                fire hood, tunic, leggings (overtrousers), boots, gloves.
HAT/HELMET      Head protection

SURCOAT         A sleeveless waistcoat style over-jacket usually high
                visibility colour worn over a fire tunic.

IN-LINE         The emergency vehicle (police car, Highways vehicle,
                fire engine) is parallel to the running lanes of a
                carriageway
FEND OFF        In Fire Service terminology this means that a vehicle is
                positioned at an angle – usually 45 degrees – on the
                high risk side of an incident pointing the traffic in the
                direction it should pass.
‘RIGGING EN     Attempting to dress in fire kit and/or BA whilst
ROUTE’          the fire engine is moving. This is prohibited by
                the Service.

BA              Breathing Apparatus
BA Team         Comprises a minimum of two breathing
                apparatus wearers.
No1/No2         Breathing apparatus team members role – BA 1
                is the ‘leader’
                This is also indicated in their ‘positions’ on the
                fire engine i.e. where people sit indicates their
                role.

BA Set          Breathing Apparatus Set – comprising air
                cylinder, harness, face mask and ancillary
                equipment.
RIGGING IN BA   Putting the BA set on your back and adjusting
                the fittings.
START UP        Going through the start up procedure – turning
                on the air, ensuring the face mask fits and taking
                the first in-breath of air.

UNDER AIR       A firefighter is breathing air from the BA cylinder



                                                                              69
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     HOSE REEL              Small bore (19mm size) hose supplied from high
                            pressure outlet of the fire engine
     LENGTH                 A length of hose measured in meters but also in
                            millimetre diameter – i.e. a length of ‘45’.
     BRANCH                 Attached to the end of the hose. Used to direct
                            the water and adjust the spray – a lever is pulled
                            back to ‘open’/operate it.
     CHARGED                There is water in the length of hose.
     LUKAS, COMBI-     Range of specialist equipment for use with RTCs.
     TOOL, POWER PACK,
     RAM SUPPORT

     CHOCKS/BLOCKS          Wooden and hardened blocks used to stabilise
                            vehicles.

     AIR MATS               Expanded under pressure and used to lift
                            vehicles.

     MARS,                  Equipment which supplies oxygen to a casualty.
     BAG VALVE MASK
     COMMS                  Communication

     RADIOS/COMMS           Hand-held radios – for use by firefighters on
                            the fireground.
                            Main scheme – on the fire engine only.
                            Mobiles – on all fire appliances and every
                            officer is issued with a Service mobile phone.




70
9 Appendix 3
 Appliances and Crews attending Call 10644
 16th June 2007




                                             71
     230 Stevenage 1st Pump
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     231 Stevenage 2nd Pump
     OIC            SubO Paul Mallaghan
     DVR            Ff Adam Jennings
     BA1            LFf Ian Crook
     BA 2           Ff David Williams




     320 Hitchin 1st Pump
     OIC            LFf Daren Scotchford
     DVR            Ff Richie Hanmer
     BA 1           Ff Abigail Hampton
     BA 2           Ff Chris Maher




     321 Hitchin 2nd Pump
     OIC            SubO Paul Huthwaite
     DVR            Ff John McGrinder
     BA 1           Ff Denzil Codd
     BA 2           Ff Dan Hollis
                    LFf Rachael Broom




     185 Hatfield Rescue Support Unit
     OIC            SubO Julian Tasker
     DVR            Ff Neil Bethell
     BA             Ff Mark Huthwaite




     310 Baldock & Letchworth 1st Pump
     OIC            LFf Mark Pidduck
     DVR            Ff Sam Cowan




     OIC            SubO Clive Izzard
     DVR            Ff Adam Bennett
     BA 1           LFf Simon Poulter
     BA 2           Ff Kevin Smith




72
OFFICERS                    Call Sign

CFO Roy Wilsher                 B1
DCFO Mark Yates                 B2
ACO Peter Hazeldine             B3
StnO Dave Harding               SM2
DO Paul Hardy                   G10
StnO Ian Parkhouse              SM9
StnO Mark Cheshire              SM5
StnO Dave Stokes                SM23
StnO Ian Markwell               SM11




COMMAND AND CONTROL
DO Neil Newberry                G6
StnO Paul Macdonald             SM14
DO Dave Connor                  A3
StnO John Jackson               SM3




16 June 2007          Mick Story
                      Kevin Wright
                      Claire Haynes
                      Janine King

17 June 2007          Emma Wrangles
                      Gerald Busby
                      Dean Risley
                      Helen Firman




                                        73
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service   RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




74
9 Appendix 4
 Sequential Timed Event Plotting Information




                                               75
                                                                                             KEY
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service      RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Time       Event                                                 Evidence
                                                                                                   Significant
     21.16.36   999 Mobile phone call to Control: Car Fire Diesel   Control Log                    event
                Special Service Junc 8 7 MW A1(M)
                                                           21.53.33 230424                         Fire Service
                                                                                                   attendance
     21.17.44   230 Stevenage Alerted to incident
                                                                                                   Non Fire
                                                                                                   Service
     21.17.53   231 Stevenage Alerted to incident                                                  activity
     21.19.12   Agency Police informed                                Police log 1266        Bold Key
                                                                      Control Log 230426     type informative
                                                                                                  or other key
     21.20.02   231 Mobile –                                          Control log 3723396         information
                (northbound unaffected carriageway) 7-8
                LFf Scotchford – Crew of 4
     21.20.24   230 Mobile –                                          Control log 3723397
                (southbound affected carriageway) 8-7
                SubO Mallaghan – Crew of 4
                As 231 approaching from northbound carriageway        LFf Scotchford,
                LFf Scotchford radios there are 2 cars on the         LFf Crook,
                motorway.                                             Ff Williams &
                Ff Jennings says 231 said there is no sign of any     Ff Jennings
                fire northbound.                                      contemp. notes.
     21.24.58   230 In Attendance                                     Control Log 3723400
                Receive message from 231 too late to park behind
                Saab so park between cars in front of Saab.
                Ff Jennings says as they head up slip road the car
                                                                      Ff Jennings &
                at the top didn’t appear to be on fire. There is a
                                                                      Ff Williams
                second car with hazards and people.
                                                                      Contemp. Notes.
                Ff Jennings (driver) parks “6 lengths” from Saab
                with blue lights on.
                Ff Williams estimates 15m from rear of 230 to fire
                car.
                                                                      DO Hardy’s notes.
                2nd vehicle/car in front has hazards on.
                This was estimated to be located approx. 100
                metres further down the hard shoulder in front of
                230.
                LFf Crook states that when parked we can see the      LFf Crook contemp.
                second vehicle (SAAB) was the vehicle on fire.        note.
                Small fire under bonnet, mainly steam plus oil
                dripping from bottom.

                Ff Jennings asks SubO Mallaghan if cones are          Ff Jennings contemp.
                wanted and he says Highways Agency will do that.      note.

                Ff Williams & LFf Crook get off.                      Ff Williams’s
                Ff Williams gets BA set off nearside whilst LFf       contemp note.
                Crook and SubO Mallaghan proceed to vehicle on
                fire.




76
                Ff Williams then got hose reel off and took this to
                the vehicle on fire.
KEY                  Time                                                             Evidence
                                Event
      Significant
      event                     Ff Jennings gets fire kit off and wears hi-viz        Ff Jennings
      Fire Service              because he says “traffic is heavy”. Stands at         contemp. note.
      attendance                pump bay acting as Safety Officer.
      Non Fire                  SubO Mallaghan speaks to owner of Saab.
      Service                                                                         LFf Crook
      activity                                                                        contemp note.
Bold Key                        Ff Williams & LFf Crook are at the Saab with hose     LFf Crook
type informative                reel and BA; LFf Crook pops bonnet; Ff Williams       contemp. note.
     or other key
     information                extinguishes fire fairly quickly.
                     21.25.47   231 In Attendance                                     Control Log 3723401
                                Parks in the fend off position (45º angle) across     LFf Scotchford &
                                the hard shoulder and the end of the on slip of jct   ff Hanmer
                                8 behind the Saab. LFf Scotchford Radios SubO         contemp. notes.
                                Mallaghan to ask if he needs assistance and Paul
                                replies no.

                                LFf Scotchford sees Highways Agency approach on       LFf Scotchford
                                northbound carriageway.                               contemp. note.

                                Ff Williams doesn’t know where the HA vehicle         Ff Williams’s
                                was.                                                  contemp note.

                                LFf Crook asks Paul if he wants him to get FDR1       LFf Crook
                                (fire report) information.                            contemp note.

                                LFf Crook goes to rear of 230 where owner is          LFf Crook
                                stood. Ian takes off helmet and gloves to talk and    contemp. note.
                                write information.

                                Whilst LFf Crook does this SubO Mallaghan radios      LFf Crook &
                                LFf Scotchford and tells him “the Highways Agency     Ff Hanmer
                                are here you might as well get yourself away and      contemp note.
                                they can move into your position”.

                                Ff Hanmer looks into his off-side mirror and sees     Ff Hanmer
                                the HA coming up the slip of Jct 8 southbound.        contemp. notes.
                     21.28.58   Highways Agency Vehicle arrives –                     Highways Log
                                crewed by 2 personnel: 1 female 1 male

                     21.29.01   231 Status changed from In Attendance to              Control log 3723404
                                Mobile Return

                                Highways Agency Officer (EJ) speaks to SubO           Ff Williams’s
                                Mallaghan and states they would get car moved         contemp note.
                                when cool.




                                                                                                            77
                                                                                             KEY
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service      RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Time       Event                                                 Evidence
                                                                                                   Significant
                Ff Jennings asks SubO Mallaghan if cones are          Ff Jennings                  event
                needed and SubO Mallaghan tells him that              contemp note.                Fire Service
                                                        21.53.33
                Highways will do that.                                                             attendance
                LFf Crook walks towards the rear of the Saab          LFf Crook                    Non Fire
                where Highways Agency are now and introduces          contemp note.                Service
                owner of car.                                                                      activity
                                                                                             Bold Key
     21.30.23   230 Informative sent by Ff Jennings: Sub O        Control Log                type informative
                Mallaghan small fire in engine compartment 1BA 3723405/404                        or other key
                1HR in use TM Oscar                                                               information
                Ff Jennings tells SubO Mallaghan message is sent.

                The owner and the HA Officer (EJ) stand behind the    Highways Agency
                barrier now.                                          Hot-debrief
                LFf Crook walks back towards 230.                     LFf Crook
                Ff Williams is restowing BA in 230.                   contemp. notes
                SubO Mallaghan is now standing at the front of the
                Saab looking at the damage “assume to work out
                what happened for FDR1.”
                                                                                                                  21.
                SubO Mallaghan points to the engine block and         LFf Crook
                says “it’s something down there.” Ian moves           contemp. notes.
                towards the front of the Saab to talk/look at what
                Paul was doing.
     21.29.01   LFf Crook says there is a sudden bang/massive         LFf Crook,
                noise and he sees “black/light/black/light.”          Ff Williams &
                Ff Williams was getting kit together when he          Ff Jennings
                heard a “quiet bang” and said to Adam “what           contemp. notes
                was that?” and something went past the
                appliance.
                Ff Jennings was in the OiC seat going to send
                STOP message when he heard a noise in the cab
                and looked in the mirror.
                Ff Williams and Ff Jennings get out of 230.           Ff Williams &
                                                                      Ff Jennings contemp.
                                                                      notes.
                Ff Williams saw a firefighter on the hard shoulder    Ff Williams’s
                where the fire vehicle originally was; he saw         contemp. note.
                different car on the motorway; he got to LFf Crook
                – spoke to him, confirmed he was OK. Scanned
                scene looking for SubO Mallaghan. Went past new
                vehicle involved and he didn’t realise initial fire
                vehicle was right behind 230.




78
KEY                                                                                    Evidence
                     Time       Event
      Significant
      event                     Ff Jennings sees the vehicle on fire has been          Ff Jennings
      Fire Service              shunted into lane one.                                 contemp. note.
      attendance                Ff Jennings goes to SubO Mallaghan. He was not
      Non Fire                  responding and he is “obviously in a bad way”.
      Service                   The driver of the vehicle is in shock but uninjured.
      activity                  Ff Jennings sent him to wait with ‘the vehicle’.
Bold Key                        Driver of 2nd vehicle now facing the wrong way up
type informative                the motorway remained in car.
     or other key
     information                LFf Crook is laying in the road, confused,         LFf Crook
                                blood/fluid running down his face. Moves his left  contemp. note.
                                arm and felt the curb and moved half on that for
                                safety.
                                LFf Crook sees Ff Jennings and Ff Williams get out
                                of 230.
                                One Highways Agency crew (MB) is injured and has       StnO Macdonald’s
                                fallen backwards over the barrier when LFf Crook       Contemp notes
                                was thrown into him. He had been speaking to the       Highways Agency
                                driver of the Saab who was the other side of the       info.
                                barrier.
                                SubO Mallaghan is under the Saab car.                  LFf Crook;
                                                                                       Ff Jennings and
                                                                                       Williams
                                                                                       contemp. note
                                Ff Jennings goes back to appliance to send             Ff Jennings
                                message                                                contemp note.
                     21.35.24   230 Informative: Collision on A1 Make pumps 2          Sent by Ff Jennings
                                ambulances required RTC involving appliance            Control Log:
                                person trapped                                         3723407 3723409
                                                                                       3273410,
                     21.35.38   231 Status changed from Mobile Return to               Control log
                                Assigned                                               372407/372410
                                Ff Jennings speaks to the owner of the Saab who is Ff Jennings
                                now standing next to the appliance and tells him to response.
                                wait with the ‘unknown’ vehicle which is further
                                down the carriageway south of the incident.
                     21.35.42   The Highways Agency Traffic Officer (EJ) sends an      Highways Log
                                assistance message via handset radio to Highways
                                Agency Control that ‘fire engine been hit - people
                                injured – whole carriageway closed’.
                                Ff Williams asks Highways to fend off as much of       Ff Williams’s
                                motorway as possible.                                  contemp. note.
                                Highways Agency Officer (EJ) instructs driver of a     Ff Jennings
                                vehicle now stopped in lane 2 to remain there.         contemp. note.




                                                                                                             79
                                                                                       Highways Agency
                                                                                       Hotdebrief
                                                                                              KEY
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service       RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Time       Event                                                   Evidence
                                                                                                    Significant
     21.35.50   Highways Agency ring Control: request fire engine Control Log 230429                event
                to junction 7 to 8 northbound carriageway as they   HA reference                    Fire Service
                                                           21.53.33
                state there has been a further incident. Believe    RD1600 16.6.07                  attendance
                one of our pumps struck: HFRS Control Op.                                           Non Fire
                confirms operating on southbound between 8 to 7                                     Service
                already.                                                                            activity
     21.35.57   320 Hitchin Alerted                                                           Bold Key
                                                                                              type informative
                Ff Jennings gives Ian a bandage: LFf Crook tells        Ff Jennings &              or other key
                him he is OK and to go and help Ff Williams with        LFf Crook’s                information
                Paul;                                                   contemp. note.
                Ff Jennings checked on driver of crash vehicle 2        Ff Jennings
                (Golf); Ff Jennings goes to the Highways Officers       response.
                who are standing together next to the crash barrier
                and they confirm they are OK and tell him to help
                his colleagues, then assists Ff Williams with Paul.

                Ff Williams gets RTA kit off – Lukas/power pack,
                ram support.
                Ff Jennings gets spreaders off appliance.
     21.37.01   StnO Harding alerted
                                                                                                                   21.
     21.37.27   Highways Agency Officer sends a message: ‘2             Highways Log
                firemen – 1 HATO and 1 other person injured –           Highways Hot
                vehicle smoking’.                                       Debrief
     21.37.55   StnO Harding Mobile

     21.38.39   Ambulance Informed Ref 1814198                          Control Log 230432
     21.38.41   231 Mobile to incident
     21.39.44   The Highways Agency calls Fire Control to advise        Highways Agency
                re accident on the A1(M) – one vehicle is smoking       Log &
                                                                                                                   21.
                and says a second unit may be required. Fire            Fire Control Log
                Control confirms that they have 2 on way.               230434
     21.39.54   320 Hitchin Mobile to incident –                        Control Log 3723414
                OIC Sub O Huthwaite: Crew of 5
                An off-duty paramedic who was stuck in the traffic      Ff Williams &
                assists with SubO Mallaghan and advises Ff              Ff Jennings
                Williams that SubO Mallaghan needed getting out.        contemp. notes.

                Ff Jennings put spreaders under near side front
                wheel and lifted vehicle sufficiently for paramedic
                to commence CPR.

                Ff Williams thinks that 230 is too close so gets into
                it and moves it forward about 8 feet.




80
KEY
                     Time       Event                                                  Evidence
      Significant
      event                     LFf Crook can see Ff Jennings & Ff Williams had        LFf Crook
      Fire Service              set the Lukas up and using the spreaders under         contemp. note.
      attendance                the sill to lift the Saab off Paul.
      Non Fire       21.40.14   DO Hardy assigned
      Service
      activity       21.40.23   Police Informed
Bold Key
type informative     21.40.30   231 In attendance
     or other key               LFf Scotchford got off appliance and sees a         LFf Scotchford
     information
                                firefighter laying on the ground – LFf Crook – with contemp. note.
                                a bandage to his head and he says he’s OK that
                                Paul needs attention.
                                LFf Scotchford goes to SubO Mallaghan and he has
                                an ambulance woman working on him.
                                Ff Maher dismounts and sees the Golf in lane           Ff Maher
                                one/two has a quick look in the vehicle and could      contemp. note.
                                see the driver upright and calling out. He then
                                goes to LFf Crook on the hard shoulder.
                                LFf Crook is aware of 231 arriving as Ff Maher         LFf Crook
                                comes up to LFf Crook and gives him a bandage to       contemp. note.
                                put on his head. Ff Maher leaves LFf Crook to help
                                with SubO Mallaghan.
                                Ff Maher then sees SubO Mallaghan under the            Ff Maher
                                front of the Saab and that he is trapped, and was      contemp. note.
                                not breathing.
                                Ff Maher assists an off-duty paramedic with CPR.
                                Ff Hampton goes to LFf Crook and he tells her that     Ff Hampton’s
                                SubO Mallaghan is under the car. She sees Ff           contemp. Note.
                                Maher and a London paramedic working on SubO
                                Mallaghan and goes to assist by providing oxygen.
                     21.42.01   231 Informative Priority (LFf Scotchford) -            Control Log:
                                Make Pumps 4                                           3723416
                                                                                       LFf Scotchford
                                                                                       contemp. note.
                                Ff Hanmer makes a mobile phone call from 231 to        Control log 230436
                                Control (FCO Wright) stating “got 2 firemen down
                                on the roadway - need ambulance and old Bill.”
                                FCO Wright confirms StnO Harding and Hitchin
                                are on their way.
                                LFf Scotchford goes over to Ff Maher and Ff Maher      Ff Maher
                                informs him that Paul is in a bad way and they         contemp note.
                                need to get him out fast. The rest of the crew
                                continue to stabilise the vehicle and place air mats
                                whilst Ff Maher works on SubO Mallaghan. SubO
                                Mallaghan initially begins breathing for himself but




                                                                                                            81
                                stops.
                                                                                             KEY
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service       RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Time       Event                                                  Evidence
                                                                                                   Significant
                LFf Scotchford gets crews to provide more blocks     LFf Scotchford                event
                and he checks the driver of other collision vehicle
                                                            21.53.33 contemp. note.                Fire Service
                who complains of pains to his chest but appears                                    attendance
                OK so LFf Scotchford leaves him.                                                   Non Fire
     21.42.16   StnO Harding in attendance                                                         Service
                                                                                                   activity
                Ff Williams is briefed by LFf Scotchford and he        LFf Scotchford
                                                                       contemp note.         Bold Key
                puts him in charge of scene lighting.                                        type informative
                Ff Williams sees that SubO Mallaghan is being                                     or other key
                attended to by 2 ambulance personnel and efforts                                  information     21.4
                are being made to raise the vehicle. He ascertains
                that Ian is conscious.
     21.42.17   321 Hitchin (2nd pump) Alerted
                Ff Maher returns to LFf Crook and applies a            Ff Maher
                second dressing to his head wound, quickly             contemp note.
                assessing his injuries.
                Whilst dealing with him he notices the driver of the
                other vehicle is now slumped over his steering
                wheel so Ff Maher goes to the vehicle, opens the
                door and raises his head.
     21.42.42   StnO Harding Informative:                              Control Log
                Request DO attendance                                  3723416                                    21.2
     21.43.01   231 Informative:                                       Control Log
                RSU Required sent by Ff Hanmer.                        3723419
     21.43.22   185 (Hatfield RSU) Alerted                             Control Log 3723419
                Ff Hanmer gets power pack and combi tool off 231.      Ff Hanmer
                                                                       contemp. Note.
     21.43.40   DO Hardy informed                                      Control Log 3723419
     21.43.52   321 Mobile to incident –                               Control Log
                OIC LFf Tasker: Crew of 3                              3723422
                Mobile phone call from 321 at req of Control to        Control Log 27955
                advise of what they are going to: RTC 2 firefighters
                injured/trapped
                LFf Scotchford sees Hitchin approaching so radios      LFf Scotchford
                them for their air mats.                               contemp note.
     21.44.04   310 Baldock & Letchworth Alerted
     21.44.41   320 Hitchin In attendance                              Control Log 3723422
                StnO Harding appoints SubO Huthwaite as
                Command Support Officer and 320 is made
                Control Point
                Hitchin crew Ff Codd, Ff Hollis & LFf Broom
                provide blocks & airmats and assist Stevenage




82
                crew working to lift the Saab to release
                SubO Mallaghan.
KEY                                                                                      Evidence
                     Time       Event
      Significant
      event          21.45.34   310 Baldock Mobile to incident SubO Izzard:              Control Log
                                Crew of 4                                                3723422/26
      Fire Service
      attendance                Advised to ring Control via mobile
      Non Fire                  310 SubO Izzard rings Control on mobile phone:           Control log
      Service                   confirms 8-7, advised by Claire Haynes that they         27952
      activity                  are going to 2 firefighters trapped
Bold Key             21.46.23   185 Hatfield Mobile to incident -
type informative                                                                         Control log
     or other key               OIC LFf Pidduck 2 Riders                                 3723426
     information                185 on way ring Control via mobile phone: advised        Control log
                                attending incident involving 230 - a vehicle             230448
                                ploughed into it whilst dealing with car fire and 2
                                firefighters trapped.
                     21.46.33   Ambulance on scene                                       Highways Agency Log
                     21.48.53   Two police units on scene                                Highways Agency Log
                     21.49.04   231 Informative LFf Scotchford 2 cars in collision       Control Log
                                on MW 2 firefighters injured plus 1 civilian             230442
                                suffering from head injuries and trapped; Lukas          mobile phone call
                                airmats in use Stn Officer Harding in charge.            to Control by
                                Make ambulance 3.                                        Ff Hanmer
                                “Richie 231 – can I send an informative from LFf
                                Scothford – 2 cars in collision on A1(M); 2 firefight-
                                ers injured; one firefighter suffering from head
                                injuries and trapped under vehicle; Lukas air mats
                                & everything else RTC wise in use; ….Hitchin is
                                with us…Dave Harding now in charge of incident;
                                make ambulances 3; confirm 2 firefighters and
                                one civilian injured – apologise forgot that one”.
                     21.49.19   StnO Parkhouse Alerted
                     21.49.55   B3 ACO Hazeldine informed of incident
                                Ff Hanmer checks on LFf Crook and the driver of          Ff Hanmer
                                the Golf and then arranges lighting.                     contemp. note.
                                Ff Maher is with the driver of the Golf.                 Ff Hanmer
                                                                                         contemp note.
                     21.50.16   321 Hitchin In attendance                                Control log 3723434
                                StnO Harding instructs SubO Tasker to stay with
                                LFf Crook and first aid is administered with
                                assistance from Ff Huthwaite and LFf Broom.
                     21.50.23   G10 DO Paul Hardy in attendance                          Control log 3723434
                                DO Hardy sees the activity and that StnO Harding
                                is heavily involved in command and control so DO
                                Hardy liaises with the Police Inspector Bloor who
                                appraises him of the situation.




                                                                                                               83
                     21.51.32   G6 DO Neil Newberry to attend Control
                                                                                           KEY
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service      RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Time       Event                                                Evidence
                                                                                                 Significant
     21.51.52   320 Informative Now Control Point                    Control log 3723437         event
     21.52.45   310 Baldock/Letchworth In attendance 21.53.33        Control log 3723443         Fire Service
                                                                                                 attendance
                Baldock receive a radio message from Ff Mark
                Huthwaite requesting their airmats urgently.                                     Non Fire
                                                                                                 Service
     21.52.58   StnO Parkhouse Mobile                                Control log 3723445         activity
                StnO Harding provides DO Hardy with a concise        DO Hardy contemp
                                                                                           Bold Key
                briefing and DO Hardy advises he is taking over      note.                 type informative
                Incident Command but advises StnO Harding to                                    or other key
                continue to coordinate the rescue.                                              information
                Ff Huthwaite assists Ff Maher who is attending       Ff Huthwaite
                the casualty in the VW Golf.                         contemp note.
     21.53.33   Agency Ambulance Informed: Ambulance                 Control Log
                Information of Make Ambulances 3                     230450
                185 calls Control via mobile: going to RTC           Control log
                involving 230 2 firefighters trapped;                230448
     21.58.59   185 Hatfield RSU In attendance
                185 Control via mobile phone: Available at           Control log 230470
                incident. KW advises colleagues from Toddington      From 185 via mobile
                Heavy Rescue Tender, Beds send message they          phone
                are available if needed.

                Firefighters Hollis, Ff Codd from Hitchin and        Contemp notes.
                Baldock crews assist Stevenage crews
                Ff Hampton, Ff Williams in a variety of tasks
                including the release of SubO Mallaghan, first aid
                for LFf Crook and the extrication of the driver of
                the VW Golf car.

     22.00.25   320 Informative: Further info – StnO Harding –   Control Log
                Details as previous – steady progress being made 3723454
                – Tactical Mode Oscar
                SubO Mallaghan is released from under the Saab
                and put on a spinal board, into an ambulance and
                conveyed to Lister Hospital.
     22.01.35   StnO Markwell – Mobile to Incident                   Control Log
                                                                     3723454
     22.01.43   ACO Hazeldine Assigned
     22.02.11   DO Newberry Mobile
     22.02.44   DO Newberry In attendance at Command &
                Control
     22.03.54   StnO Markwell will be attending Stevenage Fire
                Station
                LFf Broom and LFf Poulter assist LFf Crook           LFf Crook.
                providing a stiff neck collar and oxygen mask and    Ff Broom &




84
                cut off his PPE. They work with the ambulance to     Ff Poulter
                get him on a spinal board and in to an ambulance.    contemp. notes.
KEY                                                                                    Evidence
                     Time       Event
      Significant
      event          22.05.15   231 Informative LFf Scotchford: DO Hardy now
                                OIC 1 firefighter released and being taken to
      Fire Service
      attendance                hospital by amb – 1 ff still trapped expected to
                                be released soon – driver of other vehicle still
      Non Fire
      Service                   trapped by injuries – ambulance still working
      activity                  “ Paul has been released and is being taken to         Control Log
Bold Key                        hospital; Ian Crook is shortly being taken to          Mobile phone call
type informative                hospital now – he was not trapped; the car driver      230456 from
     or other key               of other car is still inside the vehicle but is only   LFf Scotchford 231
     information                trapped by his injuries not trapped mechanically
                                ambulance is still working on him; nothing in use
                                at the moment. …. he (Paul) was semi-conscious
                                when he left (in answer to Control Op asking how
                                he was)”
                                Ff Huthwaite, Ff Codd, Ff Hampton, Ff Hollis,          Contemp. notes
                                Ff Maher work to release the driver of the VW Golf.
                                Ff Bethell coordinates with the ambulance until
                                the driver is released and conveyed to hospital.
                     22.07.39   320 Sub O Huthwaite: SM2 Informative Flexi duty
                                officer required at C23 to liaise – Occ Health
                                required to be informed (of 2 firefighters injured)
                                FCO Wright advises DO at Control; StnO Stokes          Control Log 27961
                                being collected: ACO Hazeldine sent StnO               Mobile phone call to
                                Markwell to Stevenage; DO Newberry at Control.         FCO Wright due to
                                Cover in hand.                                         nature of message
                     22.13.26   StnO Markwell – Informative:
                                Closing Stevenage Fire Station
                     22.13.43   ACO Hazeldine In Attendance
                     22.16.18   StnO Parkhouse – In attendance
                     22.16.43   StnO Stokes (Station Manager Stevenage) In
                                attendance at incident but off duty
                     22.19.47   320 Informative: From DO Hardy flexi duty to
                                attend Lister Hospital
                                “also wants Flexi Officer at Stevenage for             Control log 27962
                                returning crew and asks for Flexi duty officer for     mobile phone call to
                                investigation of incident                              FCop Story
                                Advises Control of names of firefighters injured:
                                Ian Crook and Paul Mallaghan so there is no
                                doubt.”
                                320 further to previous message: requires              Control log 27963
                                officer for incident investigation at the scene        mobile phone call
                     22.20.42   DO Newberry informing G4 DO Paul Drakes
                     22.24.17   StnO Macdonald Alerted




                                                                                                              85
                     22.24.33   StnO Macdonald to attend Lister Hospital
                     22.24.55   StnO Jackson Recalled to Duty
                                                                                    KEY
     Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service      RTC A1(M) Investigation Report




     Time       Event                                                Evidence
                                                                                          Significant
     22.26.47   StnO Macdonald re-directed to Control. StnO                               event
                Parkhouse to attend Lister Hospital                                       Fire Service
                                                          21.53.33
     22.28.28   StnO Macdonald re-direction to incident for                               attendance
                incident investigation                                                    Non Fire
     22.28.37 231 Mobile return                                                           Service
                                                                                          activity
     22.30.22   DO Connor to attend control – brief description on
                                                                                    Bold Key
                incident given                                                      type informative
     22.33.52 CFO informed                                                               or other key
                                                                                         information
     22.53.29   Police accident investigation is on scene            Highways Log
     22.55.31   DO Connor in attendance at Control
     22.53.43 DCO Yates aware
     23.05.46 310 Not available – clear of incident
     23.08.23 StnO Macdonald In attendance
     23.10.21 StnO Cheshire Mobile to incident
     23.10.52 321 Home – clear of incident
     23.11.22 320 Home – clear of incident
     23.12.11   StnO Cheshire to pick up CFO
     23.12.42 185 Home - clear of incident
     23.28.40   STOP
                SIERRA 01
                1 PERSONS CODE 1 3 PERSONS CODE 2




86
KEY                  Time                                                           Evidence
                                Event
      Significant
      event                     17th June 2007
      Fire Service   00.16.18   StnO Cheshire in attendance at Stevenage FS
      attendance                with CFO
      Non Fire       00.17.21   DO Robinson recalled to duty
      Service
      activity       00.22.52   Occupational Health in communication with
Bold Key                        DO Connor
type informative     00.32.30   DO Blande recalled to duty
     or other key
     information     00.48.00 230 Not available – clear of incident
                     01.47.15   StnO Jackson In attendance
                     02.35.42   DO Newberry In attendance
                     03.12.14   DO Hardy Request 240 Hertford to come to incident
                                to collect 230 pump
                     03.22.42   DO Newberry available clear of incident
                     03.23.39   DO Connor available clear of incident
                     03.32.22   StnO Parkhouse available clear of incident
                     03.48.45   StnO Harding available clear of incident
                     03.49.28   StnO Macdonald available clear of incident
                     03.49.34   DO Hardy available clear of incident
                     04.02.45   StnO Jackson available clear of incident
                     04.07.12   ACO Hazeldine available clear of incident
                     04.13.32   StnO Cheshire available clear of incident
                     08.52.38   Duty officer at DCLG informed – will pass on at
                                09.00 to oncoming officer who may contact Control
                     10.12.33   Veronica Adlam Health & Safety informed – will
                                liaise with ACO Hazeldine & will then inform HSE.
                                END


                                                                                    Control log 27962
                                                                                    mobile phone call to
                                                                                    FCop Story




                                                                                    Control log 27963
                                                                                    mobile phone call




                                                                                                           87
Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service
Service Headquarters
Old London Road
Hertford
Hertfordshire
SG13 7LD.

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