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					                           ALOHA-MARS Mooring (AMM):
                                   System Description




                                     4 November 2006
                                         Version 1.2

Document Control
Contact for Revisions and Proposed Changes
Tim McGinnis
tmcginnis@apl.washington.edu
Record of Versions
Version   Date    By                     Revision Description
    0.1 4/20/04      TM Draft
    0.2 6/30/04 TM, VM Added material from Vern’s specification document
    0.3 8/18/04      TM Added System Block Diagram figure
    0.4 9/16/04      TM Started Updating
    0.5 11/26/05     BH updating
    0.6   1/8/06 TM, BH Updating
    1.0 1/13/06      TM First Distribution
    1.1 10/16/06     TM Supplement Proposal
    1.2 11/03/06     BH Updates
Table of Contents

1.      Introduction ..................................................................................................... 5
1.1       Purpose and scope .......................................................................................... 6
1.2       Acronyms and abbreviations .......................................................................... 6
2.      General Description ........................................................................................ 6
3.      Functional Requirements ............................................................................... 8
3.1       Observatory Mooring Requirements .............................................................. 8
3.2       Long-term Goals ............................................................................................ 9
4.      System Description .......................................................................................... 9
4.1       MARS Observatory Interface ....................................................................... 10
4.1.1       Power ......................................................................................................... 10
4.1.2       Data Communications ............................................................................... 10
4.1.3       Time Distribution ...................................................................................... 11
4.1.4       ROV underwater mateable connector ....................................................... 11
4.1.5       Electrical-Optical (EO) converter ............................................................. 11
4.1.6       Seafloor Extension Cable .......................................................................... 12
4.2       Secondary Nodes .......................................................................................... 13
4.2.1       Seafloor Secondary Node .......................................................................... 14
4.2.2       Float Secondary Node ............................................................................... 15
4.3       Science Instrument Interface Module (SIIM) .............................................. 15
4.4       Sensors and Instruments ............................................................................... 16
4.4.1       Conductivity-Temperature-Depth-Oxygen (CTDO)................................. 17
4.4.2       Dual Backscatter-Fluorometer (BB2F) ..................................................... 17
4.4.3       Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) .............................................. 17
4.4.4       Acoustic Current Meter (ACM) ................................................................ 18
4.4.5       Float Orientation ....................................................................................... 18
4.4.6       Video ......................................................................................................... 19
4.5       Moored profiler ............................................................................................ 19
4.5.1       Moored Profiler Controller (MPC) ........................................................... 21
4.5.2       MMP Communications Format ................................................................. 21
4.5.3       Messages ................................................................................................... 22
4.6       Inductive Power System (IPS) ..................................................................... 23
4.6.1       DC-HFAC Converter ................................................................................ 24
4.6.2       Coupling Primary and Secondary Cores ................................................... 24
4.6.3       HFAC-DC Rectifier .................................................................................. 24
4.6.4       Inductive power system efficiency ............................................................ 25
4.6.5       MMP Battery Bank ................................................................................... 25
4.6.6       Battery Charger ......................................................................................... 27
4.6.7       MMP Battery Controller (MBC) ............................................................... 27
4.7       Inductive Modem (IM) Communications .................................................... 27
4.8       Mooring Infrastructure ................................................................................. 28
4.8.1       Mooring Riser Cable ................................................................................. 28
4.8.2       Mooring Float ............................................................................................ 29
4.8.3       Anchor and releases .................................................................................. 32
4.9       Software – better heading ............................................................................. 32
4.9.1       Mooring Observatory Control System ...................................................... 32
4.9.2        Mooring Observatory Power Management and Control System .............. 33
4.9.3        Secondary Node Controller ....................................................................... 33
4.9.4        MMP Profiler Controller ........................................................................... 33
4.9.5        Shore-side server ....................................................................................... 33
4.9.6        Connection to MARS DCS ....................................................................... 33
4.9.7        Connection to MARS PMACS ................................................................. 34
4.9.8        Interfaces to HOT, RoadNet, NEPTUNE Canada, and ORION ............... 34
4.10       Mooring System Installation ........................................................................ 34
4.10.1       Installing the extension cable and seafloor secondary node ..................... 36
4.10.2       Shipboard equipment................................................................................. 37
4.10.3       Deployment method .................................................................................. 37
4.10.4       Recovery method ....................................................................................... 38
5.       Integration and Testing ................................................................................ 38
5.1        APL work ..................................................................................................... 38
5.2        Puget Sound Test .......................................................................................... 39
6.       Pending Questions ......................................................................................... 40
Appendix 1 – Power Model ............................................................................................ 41
Appendix 2 – Seafloor Extension Cable Specification Sheet ....................................... 42
Appendix 3 – Mooring Cable Specification Sheet ........................................................ 43
Appendix 4 – Sensor Specification Sheets ..................................................................... 44
Appendix 5 – Infrastructure Details .............................................................................. 59
Appendix 6 – Moored Profiler Controller (MPC)........................................................ 64
List of Figures
Figure 1-1 Concept Observatory Mooring Sensor Network, originally planned for the ALOHA Observatory
north of Oahu at the Hawaii Ocean Timeseries (HOT) site, now planned for the MARS Observatory in
Monterey Bay in 900 m water depth. ............................................................................................................... 5
Figure 2-1 Upper part of mooring, with profiler ............................................................................................. 8
Figure 2-2. More detail of the sub-surface float .............................................................................................. 8
Figure 4-1     Secondary Node Block Diagram ............................................................................................ 10
Figure 4-2 ROV Mateable Receptacle                Figure 4-3 ROV Mateable Flying Plug ...................................... 11
Figure 4-4     In-Line Electro-Optical Converter ......................................................................................... 12
Figure 4-5     Seafloor Extension Cable ....................................................................................................... 12
Figure 4-6 Secondary node general block diagram ........................................................................................ 14
Figure 4-7. Seafloor secondary node .............................................................................................................. 15
Figure 4-8 – SIIM 4-channel printed circuit board ........................................................................................ 16
Figure 4-8 - WetLabs BB2F sensor (approximately 75 mm diameter) .......................................................... 17
Figure 4-9 - WetLabs BB2F sensor (approximately 75 mm diameter) .......................................................... 17
Figure 4-11 - Falmouth Scientific 4-axis ACM used on the profiler ............................................................. 18
Figure 4-11 Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor ........................................................................................ 18
Figure 4-12 Underwater LED Video Camera ............................................................................................ 19
Figure 4-13 Photograph and Line Drawing of the standard McLane Moored profiler .............................. 20
Figure 4-14 Moored profiler Inductive Coupler ........................................................................................ 23
Figure 4-15 Inductive Coupling Concept Electrical Block Diagram - update ........................................... 24
Figure 4-16 Graph of Efficiency vs. Gap and Output Voltage ...................................................................... 25
Figure 4-17Graph of Maximum Output Power vs, Gap................................................................................. 25
Figure 21 – MMP Battery Pack, 5 of these are used in the Battery Bank ...................................................... 26
Figure 19 Lithium-Ion Battery Charge Profile ............................................................................................... 27
Figure 4-20 IMSystem Configuration - update                          Figure 4-21 IMM Coupler Configuration - update . 28
Figure 4-22Mooring Float .............................................................................................................................. 30
Figure 4-23 Science instrument package – fix this! ................................................................................... 31
Figure 4-24 Mooring cable termination and swivel/slip ring configuration – missing D-plate ..................... 32
Figure 4-25 Planned mooring location and the MARS node (bathymetry map showing locations) ............. 35
Figure 5-1 - Seahurst nautical chart ............................................................................................................... 39
Figure 5-2 - Seahurst building ........................................................................................................................ 39
Figure 5-3 - Seahurst termination in building ................................................................................................ 39
Figure 5-4 - Seahurst block diagram .............................................................................................................. 39
1. Introduction
The ALOHA-MARS Mooring (AMM) project will demonstrate the scientific potential of combining
adaptive sampling methods with a moored deep-ocean sensor network for use with seafloor observatories
with power and communications provided by a connection to shore via an electro-optical cable.
(http://alohamooring.apl.washington.edu). This system will address the challenge of sampling the ocean
with both high temporal and vertical resolution. The mooring
will consist of three main components: a near-surface float at
a depth of 165 m with a secondary node and suite of sensors,
an instrumented motorized moored profiler moving between
the seafloor and the float that will mate with a docking station
on the float for battery charging; and a secondary node on the
seafloor with a suite of sensors. Both secondary nodes will
have ROV mate-able connectors available for connecting the
basic sensors and guest instrumentation. The profiler will
have real-time communications with the network via an
inductive modem that will provide some remote control
functions to allow the sampling and measurement capabilities
to be focused on the scientific features of greatest interest.
The power and two-way real time communications capability
provided by cabled seafloor observatories will enable the
capabilities of this sensor network, the adaptive sampling
techniques and the resulting enhanced science. The sampling
and observational methods developed here will be
transferable to ocean observatories elsewhere in the world.
After testing a shallow version of the mooring system in
Puget Sound, the system will be deployed in Monterey on the
MARS observatory in November 2007 and likely recovered
in summer 2008. A successor mooring will proposed to be
deployed at the ALOHA Observatory north of Oahu after a
cabled node is installed (http://kela.soest.hawaii.edu/ALOHA).
Additional moorings of this type are expected to play a
significant role in the NSF funded ORION program and the
Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) (see
www.orionprogram.org).
                                            Figure 1-1     Concept Observatory Mooring Sensor Network

Figure 1-1 above shows the Concept Observatory Mooring Sensor Network that was originally planned for
the ALOHA Observatory north of Oahu at the Hawaii Ocean Timeseries (HOT) site, now planned for the
MARS Observatory in Monterey Bay in a water depth of ~950 m.
This project is funded by NSF Ocean Technology and Interdisciplinary Coordination, NSF OCE 0330082,
Alexandra Isern, program officer. The PI is Bruce Howe at APL-UW; co-PIs are Roger Lukas at the
University of Hawaii and Emmanuel Boss at the University of Maine; Jason Gobat and Tim McGinnis are
co-PIs with Howe at APL-UW.
1.1    Purpose and scope
The purpose of this document is to describe the ALOHA-MARS Mooring System and to provide a detailed
description of the design, implementation and operation of the system. More weight will be given to the
newer, innovative aspects.
The scope of this document is to describe the ALOHA-MARS Mooring system for the single node MARS
Observatory. Detailed specifications for the external interfaces will be described in the project Interface
Control Document. This is a document that will be continually evolving during the course of the project.

1.2    Acronyms and abbreviations
       ACM            Acoustic current meter
       CTDO2          Conductivity, temperature, depth, oxygen sensor package
       DCS            Data Communication System
       DMAS           Data Management and Archiving System
       DP             Dynamic positioning
       EM             Electrical-Mechanical
       EO             Electical-Optical
       EOM            Electrical-Optical-Mechanical
       HOT            Hawaii Ocean Timeseries
       IM             Inductive Modem
       IPS            Inductive Power System
       J-box          Junction box
       LCM            Load Control and Monitoring
       MBC            MMP Battery Controller
       MPC            Moored profiler Controller
       MARS           Monterey Accelerated Research System
       MMP            McLane Moored Profiler
       NCS            Node Controller Software
       NTP            Network Time Protocol
       OCS            Observatory Control System
       PBOF           Pressure balanced, oil filled
       PMACS          Power Management and Control System
       PPS            Pulse Per Second (GPS-derived precise timing signal)
       ROADNet        Real-time Observatories, Applications, and Data Management Network
       ROV            Remotely Operated Vehicle
       SMF            Single mode fiber
       SNC            Secondary Node Controller
       SNMP           Simple Network Management Protocol
       SIIM           Science Instrument Interface Module


2. General Description
The AMM is a deep ocean sensor network which extends from the seafloor at ~900 m water depth to a
subsurface float at 165 m. The mooring contains three “nodes” that include network connections and suites
of sensors located on the seafloor, on the subsurface float and on a moored profiler which is capable of
traversing from the seafloor to the float (Figure 2.1). All three locations have a CTDO2 and BB2F optical
backscatter sensors; in addition, on the float is an ADCP, camera, and attitude sensor. There are dual
CTDO2 sensors on the float and on the seafloor. There will be a WHOI acoustic modem on the subsurface
float and the seafloor.
The AMM is electrically connected to the MARS Observatory Node (the “primary” node) which provides
100BaseT Ethernet communication, 375/48 Vdc power and precision time distribution. Each Secondary
Node in AMM provides 48 Vdc, 100BaseT Ethernet and precise time distribution to user instrumentation
with ROV-mateable connectors. The profiler communicates in real time with the float secondary node via
an inductive modem.
Command and control of the mooring as well as data monitoring and archiving is accomplished from shore
via the MARS network. Voltages, currents and ground faults throughout the system are monitored and
action taken as necessary to remotely connect or disconnect an electrical connector.
The Subsurface Float on the mooring is a ~2 m diameter syntactic foam float. The float contains the Float
Secondary Node and serves as a mounting platform for sensors (Figure 2.2). The framework around the
float is designed for ease of serviceability by ROV and it has a modular design to simplify modifications
and allow for future expansion.
The mooring system uses a combination of electrical, electrical-mechanical (EM) and electrical-optical-
mechanical (EOM) cables. The long cables (> 70 m) are EOM type which allows optical Ethernet
communication and the short cables are EM type and use Cat5E unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wire
Ethernet cables. The EOM and EM cables use synthetic fibers (Kevlar or Vectran) as strength members.
The EOM cables contain a stainless steel tube with 4 optical fibers for communications.
The system uses a variety of underwater electrical connectors. The science connector ports (on the MARS
primary node and the mooring system secondary nodes) utilize ROV type wet mateable electrical
connectors. The number of these ROV wet mateable connectors is limited because of high cost. Whenever
possible, dry mate connectors are used and components which do need a ROV type disconnect are grouped
together with a Science Instrument Interface Module (SIIM) to allow the use of a single ROV connector to
connect multiple instruments. The EOM cables are connected into the system with dry mate EO connectors.
An Ethernet optical-to-electrical “in-line” converter is inserted between each pair of EO connectors and
electrical connectors. The sensors are attached by dry mate underwater electrical connectors to the SIIM
which has a single ROV wet mateable electrical connector.
                                                                 ROV-serviceable
                                                                   Instrument
                                                                    Platform




                                                                Swivel/Sliprings

                                              Termination and
                                               EO Converter
                                                                Inductive Power
                                                                System Coupler




                                                                MMP Profiler




                           Figure 2-1             Upper part of mooring, with profiler


                                           Instrument              TI Center
                                           SIIM Bays              Post in Slot

                             ROV-mateable                                           Guard
                              Receptacles                                            Rail



                               2ndary Node
                             Electronics (with                                        SIIM
                             IPS, IM, attitude,
                              ADCP, camera)                                        Float, 2400 lb
                                                                                     floatation
                                             ROV                       Swivel, 16
                                           Positioning                 conductors
                                              Pins

                                        Cable Termination
                                        with EO Converter
                                                                       Cable, 0.825in, 4
                                                                      fiber, 6 conductor,
                                                                         kevlar, fishbite




                            Figure 2-2            More detail of the sub-surface float
Deployment and recovery requires a dynamically positioned (DP) ship and an ROV. Deployment is anchor
first. The seafloor cable will be laid and connected by the ROV.

3. Functional Requirements
3.1    Observatory Mooring Requirements
The science user requirements are:
      Provide water column current profiling for entire water column
      Near continuous in-situ profiling from near surface to seafloor with CTDO2, acoustic current meter
       (ACM), bio-optics
      Profiler rate of advance will allow 1 sampling cycle per tidal half cycle (6 hours)
      Profiler charging time (in dock) must be less than 6 hrs
      Profiler duty cycle must be greater than 90%
      Provide extra Science User Connectors with standard power and data interface on float and seafloor
      Provide near real-time, high bandwidth communication for Science User instruments
      Compatible with MARS power and data interfaces
      Provide 48 Vdc, 100BaseT communications and PPS Timing at Science User Connectors
      Provide connection method for standard 12V, RS-232 sensors at SIIMs
      ROV serviceable with replaceable SIMM/instrument packages
      Testable during deployment
      Operational life of > 2 years
      Located sufficient distance from the primary node to allow ROV access to Observatory node and
       instruments

3.2    Long-term Goals
If circumstances permit, without increased risk, the following will be pursued:
      Work towards the concept of the profiler as a “truck” responding to science commands
      Real-time command of profiler sampling “patterns” and mission during a profile
      Implement adaptive sampling with profiler – with real-time changeable profiling range and speed
      Provide video at Float and Seafloor Nodes and a still camera on the Profiler
      Profiler speed of 0.50 m s-1 (standard is 0.25 m s-1)
      Profiler (and other active components) install/remove/service by ROV
      Increase payload and energy storage of profiler
      Increase communications data rate (> present 1200 baud) with profiler
      Increase inductive power coupler transfer and efficiency
      Multiple docks and profilers on a single mooring
      More sensors, improve ease of interfacing to profiler
      Interface shallow winch system on the subsurface float, extending the observatory infrastructure to
       the surface
      Develop energy storage capability on mooring/seafloor to accommodate high peak loads (and/or
       autonomous operation)
      Add an acoustic modem to profiler and/or float; use for local communications, mooring and mobile
       platform navigation, and tomography with bottom transponders and remote sources
      Deal with biofouling issues
      Conduct extensive testing to improve survivability and reliability, while reducing cost
      Improve energy efficiency of profiler (include buoyancy engine, streamlining, etc.)
      Extend precise timing to profiler

4. System Description
Figure 4-1 shows the mooring system block diagram. A seafloor extension cable connects the primary
observatory node to the mooring system secondary seafloor node. Connected to the latter are the mooring,
project instruments, and guest instruments. The mooring cable rises through the water column to the
subsurface float. There, a float secondary node connects to project instruments, guest instruments, and
transfers power and communicates with the profiler.
                                                                                                                           Float
                                                                                                          AMM                                  Guest
                                                                                                                         Secondary
                                                                                                       Instruments                          Instruments
                                                                                                                           Noce


                                                                                                                        Mooring Float


                                                                                                                          Inductive
                                                                                                                          Charging




                                                                                                                                 Mooring
                                                                                                                                 Profiler




                                                     Instruments                                                     Mooring Riser Cable




                                    Observatory
                                      Node
                                                                                         AMM              Guest
                                                                                      Instruments      Instruments


             Observatory Backbone                                   1.7 km Seafloor
                    Cable                                           Extension Cable
                                              Instruments
                                                                                                Seafloor
                                                                                               Secondary
                                                                                                 Node
                                                                                                                          Mooring
                                                                                                                          Anchor




                                           Figure 4-1              Secondary Node Block Diagram

Need system block diagram and discussion of reliability spreadsheet and philosophy. Introductory system
level discussion.

Overall design philosophy and guidelines.

Thermal stuff


4.1    MARS Observatory Interface
4.1.1 Power
The voltages available at the MARS Observatory Node will be 375 Vdc and 48 Vdc (originally 400 Vdc
was specified; this was changed by MARS to 375 Vdc summer 2006). The 375 Vdc will be transmitted to
the mooring network and the 48 Vdc will be used to power the electrical-optical converter in the near end
of the seafloor extension cable. The overall power budget for the mooring system is approximately 500-
1200 W, depending on whether the MMP is being charged. The detailed power model is given in Appendix
1. The SIIMs will provide 12 Vdc power for connected instruments.

4.1.2 Data Communications
The data communications provided by the MARS Observatory is 100BaseT Ethernet. This will also be
provided at each of the Secondary Node Science Connectors. RS-232 will provided by the SIIM located at
each secondary node. The seafloor connecting cable and the mooring cable have lengths that exceed the
limit for Ethernet transmission over copper twisted pair cable and will require electrical-optical conversion
at each end of the cable.

4.1.3 Time Distribution
The time distribution will include two different levels of resolution and access. For time information on the
order of 10 ms, Network Time Protocol (NTP) can be utilized. For time information on the order of 1-10 µs,
a GPS pulse-per-second (PPS) signal (not corrected for the 20-30 µs transmission latency, which will be
calibrated) will be provided at the secondary node science connectors. The PPS signal will be converted
with an optical converter for transmission to the Seafloor and Float Nodes over the EOM cables.

4.1.4 ROV underwater mateable connector
ROV underwater mateable connectors will be utilized on the underwater nodes to allow modularity and
maintainability in the infrastructure and also to allow science instruments and SIIM to be connected and
disconnected by ROV without the requirement of bringing any of the infrastructure equipment to the
surface. There will be ROV mateable science connectors at both the Seafloor and Float Nodes. The science
connectors will be compatible with the science connectors on the MARS Primary Node, and also with the
science connectors on the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada nodes (no 48 V provided). The science
connectors are supplied by Ocean Design and have 12 pins: 375 Vdc (2), 48 Vdc (2), 100BaseT Ethernet
(4), PPS Timing (2), Spare (2).




Figure 4-2     ROV Mateable Receptacle                              Figure 4-3      ROV-Mateable Plug

4.1.5 Electrical-Optical (EO) converter
In-line media converters are required to converter electrical communication and timing signals to optical
form for transmission over optical fibers and back again (Figures 4-4). A total of four converters are
required, two for each end of the seafloor extension cable and two for each end of the mooring riser cable.
Each cable has 4 fibers. One optical fiber is used for the Ethernet communications and one for the PPS/RS-
422 time distribution. Wave division multiplexers (WDMs) allow bi-directional data transmission using
1310 and 1550 nm wavelengths on the fibers. The two remaining fibers in each cable are spares.
The Ethernet and time distribution converters (Omnitron model xx, Figure 4-5, 4-6) plug into a common
backplane that provides power to the converters and also provides SNMP management of the converters.
Management features include event monitoring, trap notification, temperature range violations, etc. It will
also send a “Dying Gasp” trap if it loses power.
                     48V (copper)
                    400V (copper)
             100Base-TX (copper)

               100Base-FX (fiber)
            PPS time dist (copper)
              PPS time dist (fiber)




                                                                                                Enet

                                                                                                PPS




   MARS                                              ROV           ROV         Electrical    Housing with
                Electrical      Oil-filled Hose                                                                E-O
  Primary                                          Mateable       Mateable       Cable       E-O & DC-DC                 E-O cable
                Penetrator      (Cat5 for Data)                                                             Penetrator
   Node                                           Receptacle       Plug      (Cat5 for Data) Converters



                                             Figure 4-4             In-Line Electro-Optical Converter Schematic



                                                  Figure 4-5            In-Line Electro-Optical Converter Photo


Figure x Electro-optical converter boards.
The EO converters are housed in a beryllium-copper pressure case, 4.38 inch inside diameter, 12.8 inch
long, weighing 32 lbs, and rated for 5000 m. (Beryllium-copper was chosen because it is now cheaper than
titanium.)

4.1.6 Seafloor Extension Cable
The cable between the primary node and the seafloor secondary node junction box is a 12.7 mm diameter
electrical/optical cable with 6 conductors and 4 single mode optical fibers in a 1.2 mm stainless steel tube
[water blocked? Thiroxic(?) gel?)] (Figure 4.6, Table 4.1, Appendix 2). An electro-optical penetrator
terminates each end of the cable in to the EO converter (above). ROV mateable connectors will allow
connection of the cable to the primary and secondary nodes. The Seafloor cable (with EO converters and
connectors) will be installed by ROV with a reel that will be mounted in the cable laying tool sled on the
ROV; the spool will be left on the seafloor at the end of the cable laying process.




                                                               Figure 4-6             Seafloor Extension Cable
                 Type                                   Electro-optical-mechanical
                 Manufacturer                           Cortland
                 Length                                 1700 m (5580 ft)
                 Diameter                               12.7 mm (0.50 inch)
                 Minimum bend radius                    20 cm (8 inch)
                 Conductors                             6 #16 AWG
                 Resistance                             4.7 /1000 ft/conductor
                 Voltage Rating                         600 Vdc
                 Fiber optic                            4 SMF, 9/125/250 m, 100 kpsi
                 Fiber Attenuation                      0.4 dB/km at 1310 nm
                 Outer Jacket                           Polyurethane, 0.060 inch, black
                 Fishbite Protection                    none
                 Breaking Strength                      2,100 lbs, Vectran
                 Weight in air (195 kg/1000 m)          330 kg (1700 m)
                 Weight in water (140 kg/1000 m)        240 lbs (1700 m)
                              Table 4-1 Seafloor extension cable specifications

4.2    Secondary Nodes
The AMM has two secondary nodes that will provide the same connectivity functions that are available at
the primary observatory nodes, though with reduced power and communications rate capability. Figure x
shows the basic block diagram for the secondary nodes; there are small differences between the seafloor
and float secondary nodes that will be discussed in the following sections. Much of the design is based on
that of the MARS power system.
ROV mateable connectors are the same as on the MARS primary node. An input of 375 V can come in on
any connector; there is one 375 V output, either on one connector for the mooring cable (seafloor node) or
internally to the inductive charging system (float node). All connectors output 48 V.
The precise timing signal is split into four and distributed to the user connectors.
The secondary node controller (SNC, PC-104 stack, Diamond model xx) acquires data from the current
sensors, the ground fault isolation circuits, and controls the FET and deadface relays. It communicates with
the shore server via the 100 Mb/s Ethernet switch (Sixnet model xx, 8 channels, SNMP controlled), through
which all the communications to/from the instruments also passes.
Within the secondary nodes are six custom printed circuit boards:
    375-48V/300 W dc-dc converter
    48-12V/50W dc-dc converter
    PC/104 Secondary Node Controller Stack (SNC - CPU, Load Switching, A/D Converter)
    Load Control and Monitoring (LCM)
    Ground Fault Monitor (GFM) [how mounted?]
    Timing Repeater (1 to 4 channel)
In addition, the Float Secondary Node has the following additional components:
      Inductive Power System driver board
      Inductive modem for communicating with the MMP
      Attitude (gyro/orientation) sensor
      Video Server
      SIIM board for connecting RS-232 instruments that are either inside or connected directly to the
       Float Secondary Node (Inductive Modem, Gyro, ADCP)
Each secondary junction box consumes about 40 W for the “hotel” load, and there is 375V/400W available
for other uses (mooring cable or inductive power system) and 48V/50W for system and guest instruments.
The Load Control and Monitoring (LCM) board has four 48 V channels and one 400 V channel that each
have a current sensor, a deadface switch to provide galvanic isolation, and a semiconductor FET switch.
Both switches are controlled by the Secondary Node Controller (SNC) - the FET switch can be switched by
the SNC in less than 0.1 s. The maximum current/power through these switches at 48 V is 2 A/100 W
[effect of dead short?]. The ground fault protection board monitors the ground isolation by measuring
leakage current differential with a hall effect current sensor. [more detail on ground fault – need to cycle,
MARS will have more resolution….] The timing repeater board splits the PPS timing signal to the four
science connectors. These components are packaged in a stainless steel (SS 17-4PH) pressure case, 7 inch
inside diameter by 30.5 inch long, weighing 230 lbs, and rated for 6000 m.

                                                              400V
                                                           Load Power
                                                           Switching &
                                                            Monitoring


                                                                                     400V
                                                              48V
                     Ground
                                                           Load Power
                      Fault
                                                           Switching &
                    Monitoring
                                                            Monitoring

                                                                                        400V
                                                                                                  MARS
                                                                                        48V                   Mooring
                                                                                                 Science
                                         Analog              PC/104                       Eth                  Cable
                                                                                                Connectors
                                                            Controller                   PPS
                                 48V
             400V                                           Ethernet
                                                     12V                                          MARS
                                                   5V                                   48V
                                                                                                 Science       SIIM
                                                            Ethernet                      Eth   Connectors
                                                             Switch                      PPS


                                                                                        400V
 Extension           DC-DC              DC-DC                                                     MARS
                                                                                         48V                   Guest
  Cable to          Converter          Converter                                                 Science
                                                                                          Eth                Instrument
   MARS             400V-48V           48V-5/12V                                                Connectors
                                                                                          PPS
   Node

                      Eth
                                                                                        400V
                                                              PPS                                 MARS
                                                                                         48V                   Guest
                                  PPS                        RS-422                              Science
                                                                                          Eth                Instrument
                                                            Repeater                            Connectors
                                                                                          PPS


                                   Figure 4-7          Secondary node general block diagram

4.2.1 Seafloor Secondary Node
The Seafloor Secondary Node serves as the terminus for the 1.7 km seafloor EOM cable which runs from
the MARS node to the base of the mooring. The node includes a frame, electronics housing, and ROV
mateable electrical connector ports (Figure 4.8). The mechanical design of the node was done in
consultation with the ROV pilots at MBARI.
The seafloor secondary node is different from the standard version as follows.
    Five ROV-mateable connectors
           o 1 for connection to the MARS Node via the seafloor cable
           o 1 for connection to the mooring riser cable
           o 1 for connection to the seafloor SIIM
           o 2 available for Guests
    Power capacity
           o AMM sensor load of approximately 15W
           o 48 Vdc to guest ports with a total power of approximately 25-50 W
       Removable ballast (lead weights) and “fork” slots to facilitate moving the entire frame with ROV (I
        don’t see these in the solid works)
       Syntactic Foam Flotation (use updated picture(s)) – separate photo or solid works – must show
        size!)



                                               Lifting
                                                Bale


       ROV-mateable
        Receptacles
                                     Electronics


  Removable                                       ROV
    Ballast                                     Fork Slots




                                  Fiberglass
                                   Grating


                Figure 4-8     Seafloor secondary node (syntactic foam flotation not shown)

4.2.2 Float Secondary Node
The float secondary node differs from the standard version as follows:
    Three ROV mateable science user connectors
            o 1 for connection to the float SIIM
            o 2 available for Guests
    Power capacity
            o Hotel load of approximately 15 W
            o AMM sensor load of approximately 45 W
            o 48 Vdc to guest ports with a total power of approximately 10-25 W
    Inductive power coupler electronics (see below)
    SIIM electronics modules (see below) connected to:
            o Sea-Bird inductive modem (for communication to profiler, internal)
            o Attitude sensor (internal)
            o Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP, external)
            o Video camera with lights, directed at profiler docking station (external)

4.3     Science Instrument Interface Module (SIIM)
Attached to the secondary nodes will be a number of science instruments that are mounted to a frame that is
deployable and recoverable by ROV. The instruments are connected to a SIIM housing that has several RS-
232 ports, serial device servers, an Ethernet switch, a DC-DC converter and a single ROV-matable
cable/connector that is used for connection to one of the nodes. The suite of sensors that is initially
deployed on each of the SIIMs is:
    Dual SBE 52MP CTDO2 units
    Wetlabs BB2F bio-optical sensors
    WHOI acoustic micromodem

To minimize the number of (expensive) ROV wet mateable connectors used, an intermediate
multiplexer/SIIM will be required to first connect all the sensors together (using dry mate connectors); then
the SIIM is connected to the secondary J-box housing using a single ROV-mateable connector. This SIIM
will need to have a mix of the following features:
     4-8 RS-232 ports (dry-mate connectors)
     Provide required instrument voltages (48 Vdc and 12 Vdc)
     Provide RS-232 to Ethernet conversion (to communicate with the network)
     Ethernet Switch
     Node ROV-mateable cable connector interface
     Individual software controlled load switching and deadface switching



                             Figure 4-9     SIIM 4-channel printed circuit board


This is accomplished with a custom, configurable 4-channel SIIM board. Each channel has a Digi Connect
ME embedded device server module, a FET switch, and a 2-pole deadface relay. The Digi Connect module
provides a 10/100Base-T network interface, 1 high-speed TTL serial interface, 2 MB Flash memory, and 8
MB RAM. It is built on 32-bit ARM technology using the network-attached NetSilicon NS7520
microprocessor. It provides an extremely convenient way to convert instrument RS-232 to Ethernet. It is
the only “smart” device on the SIIM board. [power consumption? Spec sheet in appendix?]
On the float and at the base of the mooring, two SIIM boards will be housed in a titanium pressure case 130
mm inside diameter by 345 mm length (5.13 inch x 13.6 inch), weighing 30 lbs in air, and rated for 5000 m
[safety factor – ALOHA is exactly 5000 m]. One SIIM board will also reside in the float secondary node
for the attitude sensor, ADCP, Sea-Bird and inductive modem.

4.3.1 Seafloor sensor module
The seafloor sensor module is a small rack which is suspended on the mooring a few meters above the
anchor. The rack is designed to hold at least 4 sensors that are electrically connected via a SIIM (also on the
rack) to the seafloor secondary node by a 12 m cable and ROV wet-mateable connector.

4.3.2 Float sensor module
The float sensor module is a small rack which is mounted on the grating deck of the subsurface float. The
module is designed to hold at least 4 sensors that are electrically connected via a SIIM (also on the rack) to
the float secondary node by a x m cable and ROV wet-mateable connector.

4.4    Sensors and Instruments
The fixed sensors will be sampled once per second. The sensors on the profiler will be sampled as fast as
possible: for the MMP sensors (CTDO2, ACM) this is nominally at 1.8 Hz (every 0.14 m at 0.25 m s-1)
while for the BB2F, this is nominally at 1.15 Hz. [should there be a table of power etc?]
4.4.1 Conductivity-Temperature-Depth-Oxygen (CTDO)
The Sea-Bird 52MP/43F CTDO2 will be used, 2 each (for redundancy) on the subsurface float and at the
base of the mooring, and one on the profiler. These have titanium pressure cases rated for 6000 m. They
use a pump to control the flow past the thermistor and through the conductivity cell and oxygen sensor.




                                     Figure 4-10    Sea-Bird CTDO2


4.4.2 Dual Backscatter-Fluorometer (BB2F)
The WetLabs BBF2 sensor will measure optical backscatter at 470 nm and 700 nm, and chlorophyll
fluorescence within the same volume. There will be 1 each on the float, on the seafloor and on the MMP.




                  Figure 4-11    WetLabs BB2F sensor (approximately 75 mm diameter)

4.4.3 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)
The ADCP on the subsurface float is a RD Instruments Workhorse Sentinel 150 kHz. It is permanently
mounted on the float with a dry mate connector to the float secondary node electronics case. The ADCP has
an integral attitude sensor package.


Figure x. RD Instruments 150 kHz ADCP used on the subsurface float
4.4.4 Acoustic Current Meter (ACM)
The ACM on the profiler is a Falmouth Scientific 4-axis device measuring a 3D velocity vector. It draws 84
mW.




                    Figure 4-12    Falmouth Scientific 4-axis ACM used on the profiler

4.4.5 Float Orientation
To better understand the float/mooring dynamics, related stresses, and impact on the optical fibers, an
orientation sensor package will be included inside the secondary node electronics case.
A 3DM-GX1 Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor combines three angular rate gyros with three orthogonal
DC accelerometers, three orthogonal magnetometers, multiplexer, 16 bit A/D converter, and embedded
microcontroller, to output its orientation in dynamic and static environments (Figure 4-13).




                             Figure 4-13    Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor
Operating over the full 360 degrees of angular motion on all three axes, 3DM-GX1 provides orientation in
matrix, quaternion, and Euler formats. The digital serial output can also provide temperature compensated,
calibrated data from all nine orthogonal sensors at update rates of up to 350 Hz.
3DM-GX1 utilizes the triaxial gyros to track dynamic orientation and the triaxial DC accelerometers along
with the triaxial magnetometers to track static orientation. The embedded microprocessor contains a
programmable filter algorithm, which blends these static and dynamic responses in real-time.
Specifications are given in Table 4-2.


                             Manufacturer              Microstrain
                             Model                     3DM-GX1
                             Sensor Range
                                Gyros                   300°/s full scale
                                Accelerometers         5 g full scale
                                Magnetometers          1.2 Gauss full scale
                             Non-linearity
                                Gyro                  0.2 %
                                Accelerometer         2%
                                Magnetometer          0.4 %
                             Orientation Resolution   < 0.1° minimum
                             Repeatability            0.20°
                             Table 4-2       Orientation sensor specifications


4.4.6 Video
There will be a color camera (with video server to make it a web cam) on the subsurface float looking at the
profiler dock to allow monitoring the MMP docking and undocking. The primary purpose of this camera is
to better understand the MMP docking dynamics and to ease any necessary trouble shooting. The camera is
a Deep Sea Power and Light LED Multi SeaCam 2065. Note: below 14Vdc, LED output may be
diminished [?? Not clear]
                Manufacturer                Deep Sea Power & Light
                Model                       LED Multi SeaCam 2065
                Lens                        3.0 mm, F2.0, wide angle
                Field of View in Water      75°H x 60°V x 85°D
                Image Sensor                1/3 inch CCD
                Pixels                      768 (H) x 494 (V)
                Resolution                  460 TV lines
                Scene Illumination          1.1 lux at f2.0
                Power                       11-30Vdc, Camera 200mA, LEDs 0-250mA
                Depth Rating                4000m
                                      Table 4-3 Video Camera Specs




                              Figure 4-14    Underwater LED Video Camera

4.5    Moored profiler
A standard McLane Moored Profiler (MMP, Figure 4-15) provides long time-series, in situ profiles of
temperature, salinity, velocity, and other quantities by following a programmed trajectory along a mooring
cable, automatically sampling the water column with a suite of sensors, and logging the results. This project
will modify and use an MMP that has been modified as described below.



                                                   ACM
                                                   Sting              CTD

                                                                                                 Transponder
                                                            Glass Spheres




                                                            Guide Wheel and
                                                             Cable Retainer

                                                    ACM
                                                    Sting




                                                                 Drive Motor


                                                              CTD



                                                            Guide Wheel and
                                                             Cable Retainer




                                                                 Mooring Cable



                                                                                                 Controller
                                                                               ACM Electronics
                                                                                                 Housing




          Figure 4-15     Photograph and Line Drawing of the standard McLane Moored profile

The standard McLane Moored profiler has the following specifications:
    6000 m depth rating
    Trajectory and sampling schedule programmable pre-deployment
    Resistant to cable fouling
    Primary Lithium batteries capable of 1 Mm of travel per battery pack
    Profiling speed 0.25 m s-1
    Weight (in air) 684  8 N (154  2 lb) check
    Weight (in water) after ballasting 0  1 N (0  0.25 lb) check
    2600 Wh lithium battery check
    Length xx.y m check
    Standard sensors
          o FSI CTD
          o 2 axis Acoustic Current Meter (ACM)
This project will make the following modifications to the standard design:
    New motor, gearbox, wheel re-design to fit larger EOM cable (0.85-inch, ~22 mm)
    Mount WetLabs BB2F optical sensor
    Use Sea-Bird CTDO2
    Interface APL MPC controller to the MMP controller to offload data after every profile
    Replace primary Li battery pack with rechargeable 860 Wh Li-Ion battery pack mounted in glass
       sphere
    Mount inductive charging coupler and electronics
    Use extended length McLane housing with additional glass sphere for rechargeable battery pack and
       for increased buoyancy
    Ratio run time : charging time = 4 days : 4 hours with reasonable size battery packs
   The modified profiler solid works model and a photograph is shown in Figure 4.16.




                   Figure 4-16    The MMP modified with the inductive power coupler

4.5.1 Moored Profiler Controller (MPC)
APL will be adding a Moored Profiler Controller (MPC) to the modified MMP. The MPC hardware will
consist of:
         Motherboard with:
            o watchdog reset timer
            o 2-axis accelerometer (alignment?)
            o load switching
            o TTL-serial conversion
            o external port connectors
         CF-2 CPU board
         Two OES U4S 4-port Serial Communications boards
The primary tasks of the MPC are:
        collecting optical data (backscatter and fluorescence)
        interfacing with and downloading data from the MMP (CTDO2, ACM, engineering data)
        interfacing with and transferring data/commands to/from the shore server (SS)
        interfacing with and controlling the MMP Battery Controller (MBC)
        supervising charging of the battery bank
More detailed descriptions of the tasks can be found in Appendix 6.

4.5.2 MMP Communications Format
All commands sent from the MMP to the MPC or sent from the MPC to the MMP have a standard format
of an ASCII text stream terminated by a carriage return or line feed character. Any additional CR/LF
characters are ignored. Each message is sent as a command string with a six upper-case character command
identifier. The command identifier may be followed by additional parameters, which are separated by
spaces. All communication is in the form of ASCII text messages. However, some messages will have the
ASCII text string immediately followed with binary data (in particular, messages containing file content).

4.5.3 Messages
The following messages can be sent from the MMP to the MPC:
               MMPRDY indicate readiness of the MMP to accept commands
               ACKCHG acknowledge receipt of CTLCHG
               ACKEOT       acknowledge receipt of CTLEOT
               MMPDCK indicate that the MMP has docked with the charging station
               MMPOBS indicate that the MMP has reached an obstruction
               MMPPOS       indicates the current pressure reading from the MMP
               ACKDIR       acknowledges a CTLDIR request for directory listing
               MMPDIR       contains a directory listing
               MMPEOD marks the end of the directory listings
               ACKFIL       acknowledges a CTLFIL request for file contents
               ACKNEW acknowledges a CTLNEW request for file contents
               MMPFIL       indicates file information
               MMPEOF indicates end of file contents

The following commands can be sent from the MPC to the MMP:
                CTLEOT      indicate the end of communications for this instance.
                CTLCHG      indicate that the MMP should travel to the charging station
                CTLDIR      request list of all files on the flash card
                ACKEOD      acknowledge receipt of directory listing
                CTLNEW      request next file contents
                CTLFIL      request a specific file contents
                ACKEOF      acknowledge receipt of file contents
                NAKEOF      negatively acknowledge receipt of file contents

For each message that is sent, there is a response message that is received. There may be a particular
response message expected, or one of a number of responses, depending on the message sent. The only
exception is the MMPPOS message, which is broadcast without requiring acknowledgment. All other
messages the expected responses are indicated below:

               Message       Expected Response
               MMPRDY        CTLEOT or CTLCHG or CTLDIR or CTLNEW or CTLFIL
               CTLEOT        ACKEOT
               CTLCHG        ACKCHG
               CTLDIR        ACKDIR followed by MMPLST followed by directory
                             contents followed by MMPEOL
               MMPEOL        ACKEOL
               CTLNEW        ACKFIL followed by MMPFIL followed by file contents
                             followed by MMPEOF
               CTLFIL        ACKNEW followed by MMPFIL followed by file contents
               MMPDCK        ACKDCK
               MMPOBS        ACKOBS
               MMPPOS        no expected response
               MMPEOD        ACKEOD
               MMPEOF        ACKEOF or NAKEOF

4.6    Inductive Power System (IPS)
The inductive power transfer to the profiler is the key new technical development of the project.
The MMP will periodically connect or “dock” to the mooring Float infrastructure to charge its battery bank.
Due to the fact that the system components are submerged in conducting seawater, the connection must not
utilize any contacts that allow an electrical connection to contact the seawater. Wet-mateable connectors
that have enclosed, oil-bathed contacts have some potential for this but they typically require a relatively
high mating force and have a limited number of mate/de-mate cycles. The technique that has been selected
is to use inductive coupling for the power. S&K Engineering has been contracted with to make the
inductive power coupler (the “dock”) and the associated drive and charging electronics.
The solid works model of the inductive coupler is shown in Figure x. Specifications are given in Table x.
                              Table x. Inductive Power System Specifications:
                           Supplier                S&K Engineering
                           Input voltage           375 Vdc
                           Input Power             up to 300 W\
                           Output voltage          15 Vdc
                           Output Power            up to 225 W
                           Efficiency              70% with 2 mm gap
                           Operating Frequency     10 kHz




 Primary on
      cable



  Secondary
    on MMP




   Attach to MMP,
      2-inch spring


                             Figure 4-17    Moored profiler Inductive Coupler
At the end of a profile, the MMP with the coupler secondary core will ascend and make contact with the
guide and coupler primary core. As soon as the primary and secondary cores are engaged, as indicated by a
proximity/contact switch, current will start to flow. Keeping the mating gap small is crucial to the transfer
of power. Similarly, the MPC will be continually polling the MMP Controller and as soon as the MMP
docks, the MMP will reply and the data transfer [which data transfer – just mmp-mpc, right?] will begin.
A block diagram of the inductive charging system is shown below.

                                           External Communication

      PRIMARY SIDE
                                                                                                Input Power
     POWER SYSTEM                                                                               From Mooring Cable

   MICROCONTROLLER            DC-HFAC CONVERTER                                SHUNT REGULATOR
                              Series-Resonant 100kHz                             PRIMARY SIDE
                                                                               BATTERY CHARGER
                                                                                                                         FLOAT
   RF/IR TRANSCEIVER
                                                                                                                       BATTERY
       DATA Link




                                          High Frequency AC Power
                Short Range                                         Inductive Power             FLOAT
                RF/IR Link                                          Coupler


                                                                                              CRAWLER
                                           High Frequency AC Power
                                                                                                                     VEHICLE
                                 HFAC-DC ACTIVE
                                   RECTIFIER                                                                         BATTERY

   RF/IR TRANSCEIVER                REGULAOR
                                                                                        CRAWLER SIDE
       DATA Link
                                                                                       POWER SYSTEM
                                                                                      MICROCONTROLLER
                                                                                                               On-Board
                                                                                 CHARGE CONTROLLER             Communication




       1/7/04                           S&K Engineering, Inc. Confidential



Figure 4-18        Inductive Coupling Concept Electrical Block Diagram - update

4.6.1 DC-HFAC Converter
The DC-HFAC Converter (DHC) converts the float 375 Vdc to a high frequency alternating current
(HFAC) that can be transmitted across the inductive coupler. This circuit board, inside the float secondary
node housing, generates 40 W of waste heat that is conducted to the pressure case endcap through a long
wedge section of copper.

4.6.2 Coupling Primary and Secondary Cores
The primary and secondary ferrite cores can survive long term submergence in seawater (cf. Sea-Bird
inductive modem). The shapes and mechanical design of the cores will need to allow reliable coupling
between the primary and secondary and be tolerant of biofouling. Both the primary and secondary cores
will be bolted around the mooring cable (a future version might have them more easily removable for ROV
servicing).

4.6.3 HFAC-DC Rectifier
The HFAC-DC Rectifier (HDR) converts the HFAC power to DC. The DC output can them be converted
to the required voltages with DC-DC converters. Again, a copper plate attached to backside of the circuit
board conducts 20 W of waste heat to the endcap. To improve heat transfer, a fan is included (phrase this
better).
4.6.4 Inductive power system efficiency
The efficiency of the inductive power coupler is important for several reasons. Low efficiency leads to long
charge times and waste heat inside pressure cases. This IPS can be considered a part of the sensor network
infrastructure. This project is clearly showing that the infrastructure of sensor networks is a major use of
the observatory power (e.g., see Appendix 1). Power within a cabled observatory, as well as an ORION
“global buoy” observatory, will very quickly become a limited resource.
Figures x shows the efficiency as a function of the coupler gap and input/output voltage. It is clearly
important to be sure the profiler secondary core couples efficiently with the primary core on the cable.
Figure y shows the maximum output power as a function of the gap; with a 2 mm gap ~260 W can be
transferred. [mention measured on the barge?]
                                                                Overall Efficiency

                        0.8



                       0.78



                       0.76



                       0.74                                                                                14Vout 140 Vin
                                                                                                           16Vout 140Vin
       Efficiency




                                                                                                           18Vout 140Vin
                       0.72                                                                                14Vout 240Vin
                                                                                                           16Vout 240Vin
                                                                                                           18Vout 240Vin
                        0.7                                                                                20Vout 240Vin



                       0.68



                       0.66



                       0.64
                                0       1             2                3               4       5       6
                                                            Physical Gap mm




Figure 4-19                                 Graph of Efficiency vs. Gap and Output Voltage
                                                Maximum Output Power at 14.66Vdc

                      350




                      300




                      250
 Output Power Watts




                      200




                      150




                      100




                      50




                       0
                            0       1             2                3               4       5       6
                                                            Physical Gap mm




Figure 4-20                                 Graph of Maximum Output Power vs, Gap

4.6.5 MMP Battery Bank
The profiler battery bank must have sufficient capacity to allow the profiler to operate for the required
survey duration. The profiler battery bank must utilize a chemistry that has high power density, is capable
of a high number of charge/discharge cycles and that can be charged as rapidly as possible. Lithium Ion
batteries have good density, cycling and charging characteristics and have been selected. The AMM MMP
battery bank will consist of 5 battery packs connected in parallel. Each of the packs consists of two parallel
stacks of four 3.6V Li-Ion cells in series.




Figure 4-21    MMP Battery Pack, 5 of these are used in the Battery Bank

    Battery Bank parameters:
      Chemistry                            Lithium Ion
      Supplier                             Ultralife
      Battery Pack Part Number             UBI-2590
      Battery Pack Voltage                 14.4 V, (4 x 3.6V cells in series) x 2 in parallel
      Battery Pack Capacity                172 Wh (12 Ah)
      Number Battery Packs/Bank            5 in parallel
      Battery Bank Capacity                860 Wh
      Battery Pack size                    62.2 mm x 111.8 mm x 127.0 mm (2.45 in x 4.40 in x 5.0 in)
      Battery Pack weight                  1449 g
      Battery Pack Website                 http://www.ulbi.com/datasheet.php?ID=UBBL02
    Battery Bank Charging
      Charging Current                     15 A/225 W initial charging current 3 A/45 W per pack
      Charging Time                        4-5 hours
    Battery Bank Performance
      Standard MMP Energy Capacity         2592 Wh
      Standard MMP Duration                46 days
      Standard MMP Energy Rate             56 Wh/day
      AMM MMP Energy Rate                  100 Wh/day (conservative estimate)
      AMM MMP Energy Capacity              860 Wh
      AMM MMP Energy Reserve               215 Wh
      AMM MMP Energy Available             645 Wh
      AMM MMP Duration                     6.4 days
      Charge time                          5 hours (0.2 days)
      AMM MMP Duty Cycle                   97%

There are two built in protection functions to reduce the risk of fire. When temperature increases past
~90 °C, a switch opens; when the temperature decreases below this temperature, the switch re-closes and
the battery can continue to be used. If the temperature exceeds 100 °C a fuse opens and the battery is
permanently disabled.
4.6.6 Battery Charger
The battery charger function is contained on the IPS Rectifier board, located in the MMP pressure housing.




                             Figure 4-22    Lithium-Ion Battery Charge Profile
Li-Ion batteries need to be charged with a constant current until the cell/pack voltage is 4.1 V/16.4 V and
then with that constant voltage until the charging current drops below some desired fraction of the original
charging current (Figure x). The rate of change of pack capacity falls off after 4 hours and reasonable
efficiency would be obtained by terminating the charge with a pack/bank charging current of 1 A/5 A –
which is reached in a little over 4 hours. The last hour of charging (20% of the charge time) only increases
the capacity from 11.5 to 12.2 Ah (6% increase). Li –Ion batteries do not have any “memory effect” and,
consequently, there is no negative impact from terminating the charge before 100%. Terminating the
charge earlier may also reduce the chance of over charging the battery cells which would cause permanent
damage.
The battery pack voltage is monitored by a voltage-to-frequency sensor directly connected to a frequency
counter on the CF2.

4.7    Inductive Modem (IM) Communications
The SeaBird Inductive Modem (IM) system is used for communications between the Float and the MMP.
The Float contains the IM node that is connected to shore through the mooring network and the MMP will
contain another IM node that will connect to the MPC, allowing bi-directional communications.
The IM system uses differential phase shift keying (DPSK) protocol. The DPSK Transceiver is the
electronic system that transmits and receives data on the inductive mooring line. The transceiver is usually
turned off. It is turned on in response to a command or an event from the DPSK Signal Detector. The latter
is a low-power electronic system that detects the presence of a wake-up tone or DPSK transmission on the
inductive mooring line. When the detector identifies a signal it enables the DPSK Transceiver to receive
and decode the signal. The Signal Detector can be disabled to save a small amount of power if it is not
required.
The Cable Coupler is a mechanical device that inductively couples the DPSK Transceiver to an inductive
mooring cable. If the Cable Coupler is damaged or incorrectly installed the communications system will
not be reliable. The IM has the ability to measure the performance of an assembled cable coupler.
Figure 4-23    IMSystem Configuration                     Figure 4-24      IMM Coupler Configuration
Need to update both of these

4.8    Mooring Infrastructure
As defined here, mooring infrastructure consists of the mooring riser cable with terminations, the
subsurface float and associated mechanical structure, and the acoustic releases and anchor at the bottom.

4.8.1 Mooring Riser Cable
The 22 mm (0.85 inch) diameter mooring cable has 6 #18 conductors with polypropylene insulation, 4
loose fibers in a 1.3-mm diameter steel tube, a Kevlar strength member, and a steel mesh for fishbite
protection, all enclosed in a polyethylene jacket, Figure x. This cable, connecting the seafloor secondary
node to the float secondary node, has connector terminations which are identical to the seafloor cable
connecting the MARS primary node to the seafloor secondary node. Some specifications for the mooring
riser cable are given in Table x; detailed specifications are in Appendix X.




                        Figure 4-25    Cross section of 22 mm mooring riser cable.


                                Table x. Mooring riser cable specifications
   Cable Type                             EOM, water blocked
   Manufacturer                           Falmat
   Length                                 800 m (2620 ft.)
   Diameter                               22 mm (0.865-in)
   Conductors                             6 #18 AWG (4-power, 1-IM, 1-spare), 21 /km
   Voltage Rating                         1 kV, 2.5 A ac
   Fiber optic                            4 fibers, Corning SMF-28™
   Outer Jacket                           Polyurethane, yellow
   Fishbite Protection                    Stainless steel braid, 70% coverage, 0.25 mm 304 SS wire
   Breaking Strength                      24,000 lbs
   Working Load                           4,000 lbs
   Elongation                             < 0.5% at working load (< 4 m for 4000 lbs and 800 m length)
   Weight in air                          864 lbs for 800 m (330 lbs/1000 ft)
   Weight in water                        241 lbs for 800 m (92 lbs/1000 ft)

The top end of the Mooring cable uses a potted socket for mechanical termination of the of the Kevlar
fibers in the cable assembly. Figure.
Need electrical and optical termination info.

4.8.2 Mooring Float
The subsurface float tensions the mooring riser cable and serves as an instrument platform. The float
contains a Secondary Node with ROV-mateable connector manifold, the profiler dock (just below the float),
four instrument/SIIM bays and several sensors. The Secondary Node operates as the power and
communication port for the instrument modules and the moored profiler and is described in detail above.
The instrument modules are designed to be installed, removed and serviced by ROV. They will snap and
lock into one of the module bays on the subsurface float. The modules allow for simple customization for
individual instrumentation and provide space for future instrument expansion. Each of the instrument
modules consists of a titanium frame, a pressure housing and a cable storage tray. The pressure housing
contains an Ethernet hub, a science instrument interface module (SIIM) and the appropriate voltage
conditioning electronics for connection to a sensor. The instrument modules are electrically connected by a
2 meter jumper cable and a wet-mate ROV electrical connector to the connector manifold.

4.8.2.1        Structure and Flotation
The surface float and structure have the following characteristics:
    Designed for ROV servicing in collaboration with MBARI and ROPOS ROV pilots
    Non-corrosive materials (plastic, painted aluminum, easily made with water jet cutting)
    Secondary junction box, float sensor package, inductive modem, inductive power system, 2 extra
       guest ports
    SIIM with sensors (dual CTDO2, 1 BBF2)
    Float structure slotted to engage titanium post at top of mooring cable
    Slip Ring/swivel beneath float (16 electrical passes)
Tables x and y give specifications; Figure x shows the float and structure.

                                          Table x. Syntactic Foam
                         Vendor                           Flotation Technology
                         Diameter                         1.829 m (72 inch)
                         Height                         0.813 m (32 inch)
                         Weight                         2052 lbs
                         Net Buoyancy                   2400 lbs
                         Depth Rating                   300 m
                         Material                       28 lb/ft3 Syntactic Foam

                                         Table y. Float Structure
     Float Structure Material           Aluminum 6061-T6       Paint type?
     Float Structure Height, w/o post   1.295 m (51 inch)
     Float Structure Height, w/post     1.778 m (70 inch)
     "D" plate height                   0.210 m (8.25 inch)    Pin center-to-center
     Slip Ring height                   0.660 m (26 inch)      Pin center-to-center
     Termination Height                 0.363 m (14.3 inch)    Pin center-to-end of bend restrictor
     Float Structure Diameter           3.226 m (127 inch)
     Float Structure Total Weight       3050 lbs               Includes flotation, frame, secondary
                                                               node, SIIM, sensors, slip ring, etc.
     Float Structure Net Buoyancy       1800 lbs               [test at Seahurst?]




Figure 4-26   Mooring Float [update]

4.8.2.2       Instrument Modules and ROV Access
Using a SIIM permits combining several instruments that are natural to have together (i.e., the CTDO2 and
the BB2F bio-optical sensors) together in one package that can be easily installed/removed from the
network using an ROV, Figure x.
                             Conductivity,
                             Temperature,          Lifting Bale
                            Depth, Oxygen,
                              Bio-optics
                                                                       SIIM Electronics
                                                                     (will replace ADCP)




                                               ROV Fork                    ROV Mateable
                              Latch             Slots                      Plug (parked)

                            Figure 4-27      Science instrument package [update]

4.8.2.3        EM Swivel
An electro-mechanical swivel/slip ring assembly is used at the top end of the mooring cable just beneath
the subsurface float. The swivel has 16 slip rings in an oil-filled pressure compensated housing with an
external pressure compensator. The swivel is rated at 3 tonnes (6600 lbs) working load. The transmission of
100 Mb/s Ethernet signals is of concern; various tests indicate there should not be a problem, but this needs
to be verified as the system is built.
                                             EM Swivel Description
          Model                              Focal Technology 196
          Material                           Stainless Steel
          Load Rating                        3 tonnes (6600 lbs)
          Nominal Diameter                   140 mm (3.5 inch)
          Length overall                     728 mm (28.68 inch)
          Length, pin-to-pin                 266 mm (26.24 inch)
          Depth Rating                       300 m (oil filled, pressure compensated)
          Number of electrical passes        16
          Inductive Power Connectors         4-pin Subconn BH4FSS on each side of swivel
                            Wire Gauge       18 AWG, 600 V, 2 A
          Mooring Cable Connector            12-pin Subconn BH12FSS on each side of swivel
                            Wire Gauge       18 AWG - Power and timing: 600 V, 2 A
                                             Cat5 data: 300 V, 1 A
                                  FLOAT                             Mooring
                                                 Inductive
                                                                  Cable Power
                                                   Power
                                                                    & Data




                                                                  Slip
                                                                  Ring


                                                                  E-O
                                                                  Conv




                                                                     Cable
                                                                  Termination




                                             Inductive
                                               Power
                                              Coupler




                                          Current Meter           Mooring
                                                                  Profiler
                                       CTD, Bio-optics

                                                          Motor



                                                    Mooring
                                                     EOM
                                                     Cable


                Figure 4-28    Mooring cable termination and swivel/slip ring configuration

4.8.3 Anchor and releases
The mooring anchor has not yet been designed. It will likely consist of either a stack of steel railroad
wheels mounted on a central hub, or a cast steel cylinder with an eye (to minimize drag and dynamic
loading during deployment and recovery, and overall height above bottom). The anchor weight in air is xx
lb and in water yy lb. Given the upward force of xx lb, this gives a net vertical force of xx lb on the bottom.
What about tangential forces?.
The mooring release will likely use tandem Benthos 865-A (2 year) deep sea acoustic releases. The releases
are rated for an operational period of 2 years, have a 4500 kg load rating (10,000 lbs) and are pressure
certified to 11,000 meters. They may have acoustic modem capability.

4.9    Cyberinfrastructure
Overview – are these the right sub-topics?
http://aloha.apl.washington.edu/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

4.9.1 Mooring Observatory Control System
There is currently no plan for an integrated observatory control system (OCS) for the mooring sensor
network. Project personnel will perform this role, including arbitration between different users on the
AMM for power and communications resources. This is likely to become a problem only when more
instrumentation is added to the system (e.g., a near-surface winch system competing for power).

4.9.2 Mooring Observatory Power Management and Control System
The mooring will use a scaled-down version of the MARS power management and control system
(PMACS) with the Secondary Node Controller (SNC) serving a similar role as the MARS Node Power
Controller. The Shore Server will run a scaled-down version of the MARS PMACS server program (this is
a SOAP-based server). The PMACS “console” will be a SOAP client process most likely running in a web-
browser.

4.9.3 Secondary Node Controller
The secondary node controller (SNC; a PC-104 stack) will run a modified version of the software from the
MARS Node Power Controller. It will monitor load current and bus voltage, allow for the setting of per-
load current limits, and provide circuit-breaker and ground-fault monitoring capabilities. The PMACS
server will communicate with the SNC via an XML-RPC interface.

4.9.4 MMP Profiler Controller
The MPC has been described above.

4.9.5 Shore-side server
The Shore Server (SS) will run a dedicated process for each sensor, aka an instrument server process. Each
process will interface to its respective sensor over the network and archive the sensor data on the local disk.
All sensor configuration will be handled through the SS. The system will also run the PMACS server
process. The system operator will be able to remote access the server to make changes to the infrastructure
and instrumentation, via the PMACS and instrument server processes. Given the present absence of an
explicit OCS, user access will be limited.

4.9.6 Mooring IP network
The mooring internet protocol network will be branched off of a single MARS Science Port. Each Science
Port is allocated its own subnet with addresses in the form 10.1.1X.YYY where X is the port index, 1-8,
and YYY is on the range 2 to 254 (.1 is reserved for the gateway and .255 is the broadcast address). That
allows us 252 IP addresses for the mooring. All of our switches (secondary nodes, SIIM instrument
packages, and Digi-Connects on each SIIM board) can be managed using SNMP should MARS DCS have
a need to do so. Further, the EO converters can also be managed. From the point of view of MARS DSC,
we are just another Science User. There are presently 26 items that are part of the mooring network
infrastructure that are managed; there are presently 39 available user ports. See the following URL for the
more detailed network description: http://aloha.apl.washington.edu/wiki/index.php/In-water_Network.


Items                                       Number       Number       Number of user        Number of user
                                              To         of user        ports used          ports available
                                            manage        ports
Shore server gateway                           1            0
Seafloor cable EO converters (2 ea;            4            0
includes ethernet and timing)
Seafloor secondary node switch                 1            8                3                      5
Seafloor instrument package switch             1            5                5                      0
Seafloor instrument package SIIM Digi          4            4                4                      0
Connects
Mooring EO converters (2 ea; included          4            0
Ethernet and timing)
Float secondary node switch                    1            8                5                     3
Float secondary node SIIM Digi-                4            4                4                     0
Connects
Float camera server                            1            1                1                     0
Float instrument package switch                1            5                5                     0
Float instrument package SIIM Digi             4            4                4                     0
Connects
Totals                                        26           39               19                     8


4.9.7 Connection to MARS PMACS
From the point of view of MARS PMACS, we are just a Science User and will need to follow their
procedures with regards to setting current limits and starting/shutting-down the mooring.

4.9.8 Interfaces to HOT, RoadNet, NEPTUNE Canada, and ORION
At an appropriate time, an interface with the HOT DMAS and live-action server at the University of
Hawaii (Roger Lukas) will be established, so that we can operate the mooring jointly; he (with Emmanual
Boss) will be addressing the science processing including adaptive sampling, while APL will be the
“operator.” With respect to other data management/cyberinfrastructure systems, we expect our system is
sufficiently flexible that we will be able to provide our data in a suitable format as needed.

4.10 Mooring System Installation
The mooring will be installed approximately 1500 m southeast of the MARS observatory primary node,
near the edge of the Monterey Canyon (Figure x); we call the anchor location Point Love. It is thought this
location will minimize any possible negative interaction with fishing activity.
An overriding consideration in the mooring installation is to have the entire system to the extent possible in
operation for testing. For instance, as the mooring cable is being lowered, we can stop the winch and easily
connect test gear to the end on the winch drum to be sure all is in order. The mooring system should be
operable from either the seafloor end (as normal) as well as the shipboard end (i.e., the float secondary
node can accept a deck cable that mimics the seafloor/mooring cable. All the equipment on the subsurface
float should be operable on the deck from the secondary node to the swivel and a dummy mooring cable
with the profiler communicating. When the mooring is hanging fully assembled, the entire system should
be operation. Only for the final lowering of the last 170 m or so, will the mooring be inactive, until the
ROV connects the bottom mooring termination to the seafloor node and MARS.
Figure 4-29 Planned mooring location and the MARS node (bathymetry map showing locations – update
with location)
                     570,000                      571,000                  572,000               573,000             574,000                  575,000               576,000               577,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                 4   00
                                                                                                                                                                                              -1
        4,064,000




                                                                                                 HydroGeo Borehole




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         -15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          00
                          ³




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               36°43'0"N
        4,063,000




                                                                                               MARS Node
                                      Seismo Borehole
                                                                                                                                                  Proposed Aloha Site
                                                                                                                                                  UTM: 574520E, 4061663N
        4,062,000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               36°42'0"N
                                                                                                                                                  36 41’ 51.742”N 122 9’ 56.775”W




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -1300
        4,061,000




                                                                                                                          MOBB




                                                                                                                                                                                                           00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               36°41'0"N
                                                                                                                                                                                                          -12
        4,060,000




                    122°13'0"W        122°12'30"W            122°12'0"W         122°11'30"W    122°11'0"W   122°10'30"W          122°10'0"W      122°9'30"W      122°9'0"W       122°8'30"W                      122°8'0"W

                                                           Meters
                            200   0   200   400    600   800                                  MARS ALOHA Mooring Location                                                     Datum:       WGS1984
                                                                                                                                                                              Grid:        UTM Zone 10N
                                      1:20,000                                                                                                                                Survey Date: October 22, 2004




            The tentative coordinates of the MARS node and the AMM are given in Table x. To have the grating of the
            float at 165 m water depth, the mooring cable, from termination pin to termination pin will be 798 m; this
            takes into account expected elongation under static load of 2 m. UTM coordinates are for region x. Latitude
            and longitude are measured in WGS84.
                                                                           Table x. ALOHA-MARS Mooring coordinates
        UTM X                           UTM Y                             Lat                                       Lat N                     Lon W                                                               Lon W                    Dep
          m                               m                                 N        min                           dec deg                       deg          min                                                 dec deg                   m
                                                                          deg
 RS     572,600                       4,063,200                            36        42.000?                      36.7000?                          122       10.000?                                           122.16000?                 90
e
 e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         95
 end
nt B
floor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      95
e
nt A
nt      574,520                       4,061,663                           36                                     36.69771                           122       9.9463                                            122.16577                  95
 e                                                                                   41.8624



            4.10.1                      Installing the extension cable and seafloor secondary node
            The seafloor extension cable, secondary node, and SIIM with the CTDO2 will be deployed by ROV before
            the mooring deployment, to assure it is working perfectly (currently planned for August 2007). At the same
            time, the shore server will be installed in the MARS operations center.
The 1700 m seafloor secondary extension cable (with E-O converters and ROV-mate connectors attached
at each end), connecting the AMM to the MARS Node, will be deployed using a cable spool/sled designed
by MBARI for use with their ROVs. The cable will be deployed as the ROV/cable spool is moved along a
track a few meters above the ocean bottom. Once the cable has been laid to the seafloor secondary node
location, the spool will be released from the ROV and laid on the seafloor. The ROV will then remove a
length of cable with an ROV-mateable plug and make the connection to the seafloor node. The secondary
node with SIIM and anchor instrument package (and any guest instruments available at the time) will be
sited 20 m clear of Point Love.

4.10.2              Shipboard equipment
We presently plan to use a large diameter winch owned by MBARI for the mooring operations. More detail
is needed.
On the deck will be a rail deployment system mounted on the fantail, Figure x. During mooring cable
deployment and preparation, the float is on its truck in-board. When ready to insert the titanium post, the
float can be easily pushed out on the rails using a small hydraulic system, and locked in place until ready
for deployment. The deployment frame dimensions are 5.2 m x 2.1 m (204 inch x 82 inch) and it weighs
600 lbs.
 Rail system – moves float and     Requires DP ship
       mooring cable in and out    Mooring winch
                                   Trawl winch
                                   Load transfers
                                   Anchor first




           Lays on fantail
      Bolts to 2-ft pattern

                                  Float and Ti post
                                  locked during prep

Figure x. The deployment rail system.
The overboarding sheave/block.
C-Nav or real time differential GPS should be used to drive the ship’s DP system, with the latter centered
on the deployment block with the A-frame extended. Performance of this system needs to be verified
before deployment [how?].

4.10.3              Deployment method
The mooring will be deployed in an anchor first configuration with the winch lowering the anchor to the
seafloor. When the top end of the mooring cable is reached, the load is transferred to the top float and a
separate lowering line is used to continue lowering the anchor to the bottom. Two blocks on the A-frame
will be necessary. The ship is navigated to the desired location and a release is used to separate the float
from the lowering line. Acoustic navigation/role of ROV watching?
Can the IP coupler, and the D-plate, and swivel be attached while on the winch?
    1. Deploy anchor, releases, and mooring using EOM cable winch; test every 100 m
    2. Attach MMP 100 m before top of mooring and test IM communications
    3. Stop with top termination in-board of block (A-frame out)
    4. Attach grip/chain (through block to capastan?) to mooring cable outboard of block and take load off
       termination
    5. Remove last section of leader from EOM cable winch drum
    6. Attach inductive coupler to cable (attached before?), connect
   7. Attach D-plate (attached before?), swivel, and Ti post to termination, test
   8. Attach trawl wire (now in block) to termination, take strain
   9. Guide into float slot, move float out, lock, release strain
   10. Connect electronics, test, disconnect
   11. Attach acoustic release to 2-m nylon spring line on float ring (diameter?)
   12. Attach acoustic release to 15-m nylon spring line attached to trawl wire
   13. Move float and cable outboard on deployment frame with A-frame following
   14. Take strain on trawl wire and lift float slightly, swing out, lower to 3 m above bottom (pinger?)
   15. Move to Love Point (should be there), drop
   16. ROV moves bottom node closer, connects mooring, puts instrument package on the bottom-of-
       mooring frame, clears lowering line if necessary, inspects

4.10.4         Recovery method
A pair of acoustic releases are used to attach the mooring line to the anchor. Recovery is initiated by
actuating the releases, allowing the top float to rise to the surface. A recovery line is attached to the float
top eye or the 2-m nylon line and the float is lifted on-board. The mooring cable is detached from the top
float at the swivel and subsequently spooled onto the winch.
   1. ROV disconnects bottom SIIM and node, moves clear of mooring (recovers if necessary), attaches
       recovery line to float ring (detail?) if possible
   2. Ship recovers line float (recovers anchor?), or uses acoustic release and snaps ring (??)
   3. Take strain and lift using trawl line (with nylon leaders, shackle through block?)
   4. Swing float and post into deck frame and lock, release strain
   5. Disconnect electronics
   6. Connect trawl wire directly to Ti post ring
   7. Disconnect Ti post from float, take strain, and swing out
   8. Lift post high, attach grip below inductive power coupler and cable termination, chain, release strain
   9. Disconnect swivel/post inductive power coupler from cable
   10. Attach trawl winch to grip, pull up to block
   11. Thread termination through block, attach to mooring winch leader
   12. Take strain
   13. Release trawl line from grip and remove latter
   14. Pull in mooring cable until the MMP shows; recover, continue
   15. Recover releases
If immediate redeployment is anticipated or planned, spare anchor(s) are needed.

5. Integration and Testing
5.1      APL work
Initial test of MMP and IPC on barge.
Pressure testing: seafloor cable with EO converters and connectors; seafloor secondary node; seafloor siim,
IPC, MMP, - rationale for what to test and what not to test.
Pull test terminations
Comms systems tests
FAT?
Set up complete system from 400 V/48 V, Ethernet, and 1 PPS simulating MARS node, through EO
converters and seafloor cable and secondary node, through mooring riser cable to the subsurface float, etc.
On 3rd floor of APL, on barge, …

5.2      Puget Sound Test
A 30-m prototype mooring will be constructed and deployed in Puget Sound on the Seahurst Observatory
Node. This mooring will be as close as possible to the full-scale AMM system.
Timeline
Diver inspections
Test secondary + seafloor cable at our dock first – or in acoustics tank (too small?); install this first.
Mooring Cable length
Anchor – full size
Installation of main cable
Installation of Seahurst node
Installation of seafloor secondary cable and node, and siim.
Installation of mooring
Testing, divers
Recovery
refurb
                                    Figure 5-1       Seahurst nautical chart




                                        Figure 5-2     Seahurst building
                                Figure 5-3      Seahurst termination in building
                                    Figure 5-4       Seahurst block diagram
6. Pending Questions
Measures of success “FAT” from Puget sound, what from MARS?
Grounding – seabird modems, other sensors? (E-field?)
Cross talk between IM and noise on electrical power lines in mooring cable.
Ethernet through swivel – continue to confirm
Other guest instruments – interactions
Precise timing
Reliability estimates and analysis
Software
Dmas
Appendix 1 – Power Model
MARS Node Voltage                        400        vdc
MARS Node Power                         1000       watts
Cable Current                           2.50       amps                                    Hotel
Cable wire gauge                          16       AWG                                     Load
Cable Length                             1.7        km                     333 V           45 W
Conductors in leg 1                       3                                536 W
Conductors in leg 2                       3        #                         Float          Basic
Resistance per conductor                15.4   ohms/km                       J-Box          Float
Total Cable Resistance                  17.5    ohms                                       Sensor
Voltage Drop                              44      vdc                                      13 W
Cable Power Loss                         109     watts
Extension Cable Efficiency              89%        %                                        MMP
Anchor J-Box Voltage                     356      vdc                                     Charging
Power to Anchor J-Box                    891     watts                                    300 W
Power to for Anchor Sensors             13.0     watts
Power to Hotel Load                     40.4     watts                                      Guest
Power to Guest Instruments               200                                              Instrument
Power from Anchor J-Box                  574       watts                                     Load
Anchor J-Box Voltage                     356                                               71 W
Mooring Cable wire gauge                  18       AWG
Mooring Cable Length                     0.8        km
Conductors in leg 1                       2
Conductors in leg 2                       3        #                              18   AWG
Resistance per conductor                  22   ohms/km                             6   cond
Total Riser Cable Resistance              15    ohms                             0.8   km
Riser Cable Voltage Drop                  24      vdc                           1.61   A
Riser Cable Power Loss                    38     watts                            24   Vdrop
Riser Cable Current                     1.61    amps                              38   W
Riser Cable Efficiency                  93%        %
Float Voltage                            333      vdc
Power to Float                           536     watts
Power to Charge Float Batteries          300     watts
Power to Hotel Load                     45.3                                               Guest
Power to Float Sensors                  13.0                                             Instrument
Power available for Guest Instruments     71       watts                                    Load
Total Power (check)                     1000       watts                                  200 W
Converter Efficiency                    80%         %
Power to Loads                           682       watts                                    Hotel
Conversion and Transmission Loss         318       watts                                    Load
Total Power (check)                     1000       watts                                   40 W
                                                              16   AWG
                 MARS Node Power          1000 W     MARS      6   cond     Anchor          Basic
                MARS Node Voltage          400 V     Node    1.7   km        J-Box         Sensor
                                                            2.50   A       356 V            Load
                                                              44   Vdrop   891 W           13 W
                                                            109    W
Appendix 2 – Seafloor Extension Cable Specification Sheet
Appendix 3 – Mooring Cable Specification Sheet
Appendix 4 – Sensor Specification Sheets
Manufacturer               Sensor                                Model
Seabird                    CTDO2                                 52MP/43F
WetLabs                    optical backscatter and florescence   BB2F
Falmouth Scientific        ACM                                   3D-MP
Teledyne RD Instruments    ADCP                                  Workhorse 150 kHz
Microstrain                Orientation                           3DM-GX1
Deep Sea Power and Light   Video camera                          LED Multi SeaCam
WHOI                       Acoustic micromodem
Video camera with lights
Appendix 5 – Infrastructure Details

Manufacturer             Item                                  Model
                         EO convert board
Seabird                  Inductive modem
McLane                   MMP
Digi                     Embedded module                       Digi Connect ME
                         Ethernet switch, secondary node
                         Ethernet switch, instrument package
Focal                    Swivel/slip-ring
Flotation Technologies   Float
                         MMP battery bank
S&K Engineering          Inductive Power System
                         Acoustic releases
Ocean Design             ROV-mateable connectors
SubConn                  connectors
Falmut                   Mooring riser cable
Cortland                 Seafloor extension cable
                         Timing boards
                         SIIM board(s)
                         Load Monitoring and Control board
                         Moored Profiler Controller
                         375-48 Vdc converter board
                         Secondary node controller PC



Eo converters
Pps converters
Digi-Connect ME

Digi Connect ME is a connector-style embedded module that enables manufacturers to keep pace with
ever-evolving networking technology by easily adding secure web-enabled network connectivity to their
products.

Built on leading 32-bit ARM technology using the network-attached NetSilicon NS7520 microprocessor,
Digi Connect ME combines true plug-and-play functionality with the freedom and flexibility of complete
product customization options. It is based on the NetSilicon NET+Works development platform and the
unique Integrated Systems Architecture (ISA), which streamlines the entire software development process
and ensures a future-proof application design.

Hardware
    32-bit NET+ARM high-performance RISC processor (NS7520 @ 55 MHz)
    2 MB Flash and 8 MB RAM on-board memory
    On-board power supervisor
    High-speed TTL serial interface
         o Throughput up to 230 Kbps
         o Full signal support for TXD, RXD, RTS, CTS, DTR, DSR and DCD
         o Hardware/software flow control
    Five shared General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) ports
    Wave-solderable design (no clean flux process)
Network Interface
    Standard: IEEE 802.3
    Physical Layer: 10/100Base-T
    Data rate: 10/100 Mbps (auto-sensing)
    Mode: Full or half duplex (auto-sensing)
    Connector: RJ-45
    802.3af mid-span power pass-through
Environmental
    Operating temperature: -40° C to +85° C (-40° F to +185° F)
    Relative humidity: 5% to 90% (non-condensing)
    Altitude: 12,000 ft (3657.6 m)
Wireless Security
      WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
          -   64/128-bit encryption (RC4)
      WPA/WPA2/802.11i
          -   128-bit TKIP/CCMP encryption
          -   802.1x EAP authentication
                       LEAP (WEP only), PEAP, TTLS, TLS
                       GTC, MD5, OTP, PAP, CHAP, MSCHAP, MSCHAPv2, TTLS-MSCHAPv2
          -   Enterprise and Pre-Shared Key (PSK) mode
LEDs
      Link integrity
      Network activity
Dimensions
    Digi Connect ME




           o Length: 1.445 in (36.7 mm)
           o Width: 0.75 in (19.05 mm)
           o Height: 0.735 in (18.67 mm)
Regulatory Approvals
    FCC, Part 15 Class B
    EN55022, Class B
    EN61000-3-2 and EN61000-3-3
    ICES-003, Class B
    VCCI, Class II
    AS 3548
    FCC Part 15 Subpart C Section 15.247
    IC (Industry Canada) RSS-210 Issue 5 Section 6.2.2(o)
    EN300 328
    EN301 489-3
    UL 60950-1
    EN60950 (European Union)
    CSA C22.2, No. 60950
    EN55024
Power Requirements
    3.3VDC @ 250 mA typical (825 mW)
Line Art




      Digi Connect ME – Back
   Digi Connect ME - Bottom
Cf2
Batteries
Battery monitor
Swivel
Float – flotation
Termination
Connectors – ocean design
Connectors – others
Appendix 6 – Moored Profiler Controller (MPC)
1.0      Introduction
As part of the ALOHA/MARS Mooring Project, APL will be adding a Mooring Profiler Controller (MPC)
to the modified MMP. The MPC hardware will consist of:
     Motherboard with:
         watchdog reset timer
         2-axis accelerometer
         load switching
         TTL-serial conversion
         external port connectors
     CF-2 CPU board
     Two OES U4S 4-port Serial Communications boards

The primary tasks of the MPC are:
    collecting optical data (backscatter and fluorescence)
    interfacing with and downloading data from MMP (CTDO, ACM, engineering data)
    interfacing with and uploading data to SS
    interfacing with and controlling MBC
    supervising charging of the battery pack

More detailed descriptions of the tasks are given below.


2.0      Nomenclature
SS: Shore Server
MMP: McLane Moored Profiler
MPC: APL Moored Profiler Controller
MBC: Moored Battery Controller
IMM: Seabird inductive modem module

3.0      Tasks during profiling
As the MMP profiles, the MPC is doing the following tasks sequentially in a loop:
 Polling the WETLabs BB2F optical sensor at ~1 Hz.
 Polling the MBC (battery controller) at X min interval
 Reading pressure info from MMP
 Reading the acceleration frequency output from the accelerometer ??
 Listening for a message from MMP signaling the end of the current profile
 Formatting a data packet and sending it to the SS via a SBE inductive modem at 1200 bps.

The data packet consists of:
         Packet type                   1 byte
         Battery status                1 byte
         Time                          4 bytes
         Pressure                      4 bytes
          BB2F                          12 bytes
          2 records of ACM data         36 bytes
          2 records of CTDO data        22 bytes

          Total                         80 bytes

A placeholder will be substituted for a parameter if a current value (for ex. battery status) is not available.
The ACM and the CTDO data are from the previous MMP profile which has been transferred to MPC at
the end of the last profile. Note that there is also a MMP engineering data file which is not sent during
profiling because of its much smaller size, but at the end instead (see the next section).

Reed-Solomon error correction algorithm is applied to the 80-byte packet, generating a 16-byte parity for a
total of 96 bytes that need to be sent. Due to the idiosyncrasy of the IMM, the data packet has to be
encoded into a string with the most significant bit of all the bytes set. The encoding increases the packet
length by a factor of 8/7, resulting in a final size of 112 bytes. For more details please see:
http://aloha.apl.washington.edu/wiki/index.php/MPC_to/from_Shore_Server

Timing issues:
 The inductive modem has an output buffer of 128 bytes. At 1200 bps, the packet should take just over
   a second to send. Error correction algorithm will also be applied.
 The MMP data was sampled at 1.82 Hz max. Therefore as long as the polling loop runs at a rate faster
   than that, the MPC should have time to send all the MMP data before the end of a profile.

During the profiling, the MPC-MMP comm. is one-way with the MPC listening for MMPPOS/MMPRDY
messages only. The MPC-SS communications is also one-way with the MPC talking (sending data) only.


4.0       Tasks at end of profiling
At the end of a profile, the MMP sends a MMPRDY message to MPC to notify that data are ready for
transfer. MPC can request new data with the CTLNEW command. The data will be transferred at 38,400
baud and will take several minutes.

After MMP-MPC data transfer, the MPC will initiate transfer of engineering data to the SS.

If the battery level has dropped below a prescribed threshold, the MPC will issue a CTLCHG command to
the MMP to dock and charge.
If not, the MPC issues a CTLEOT to MMP to resume profiling.

Question: Do we want to allow charging at either the top or the bottom of a profile, or only at the top (if
assuming we have enough margin in the threshold)?


5.0       Charging
The MMP sends a MMPDCK message when it reaches the dock for charging.
The MPC monitors the battery voltage during charging and sends CTLEOT to the MMP when the charging
is complete. The MMP then resumes profiling.
6.0          MPC-SS clock synchronization
The MPC clock will be synchronized to the SS clock at the end of each profile. The following record will
be sent by the MPC and returned by the Server.
  $ACCLK,ATIME,STIME*HH

The ATIME field is the time at the MPC and the STIME field is the time at the SS (this latter field is left
blank in the initial record from the MPC). Times are specified in seconds since 1/1/1970 UTC. Clock
synchronization will proceed as follows:

      1.   MPC sends a record with ATIME set and STIME left blank
      2.   SS receives the record, adds the STIME field and returns it
      3.   MPC receives the new record and records the time it was received, RTIME
      4.   MPC calculates the one-way travel time as TTIME = (RTIME - ATIME)/2
      5.   MPC sets its clock to STIME + TTIME



7.0          Serial ports assignment

            Comm.     connector device                       baud       power
            port
            8         J4           WETLabs BB2F              19,200     switched
            7         J5           SBE inductive modem       38,400     switched
            6         J6           MMP                       38,400
            5         J7           MBC                       ???
                                   console                   9600


8.0          Digital I/O Ports
      a. Digital input for magnetic Proximity Switch (0 or 5V)
      b. Accelerometer (frequency output?)

9.0          Devices setup
           9.0. 1 WetLABS B2F:

           Sample rate must be set to average xx points (AVE 28) or faster for a sample interval of less than
           1.8*2 sec. (1.82 Hz is the sampling rate of ACM & CTDO on the MMP.)

           9.0. 2 SBE IMM:

           Prompt must be set to: IMM>

           9.0.3 MMP:

           See ‘MMP-Protocol-v1.5.doc’ for MMP-MPC protocol.
                                                REFERENCES


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[15]   LEO-15: http://marine.rutgers.edu/nurp/factech.html
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[19]   Ocean Research Interactive Observing Networks (ORION): http://www.orionprogram.org.
[20]

				
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