Job in Afghan United Bank - PowerPoint by nqd11725


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College Students (1970s)
Soviet Invasion 1979
Soviet Invasion 1979
 December 24, 1979, the Soviet Union, to support
 the failing Communist regime that they backed in a
 1978 coup, invaded.

 Reasons for establishing a communist government
 and subsequent invasion:
   • Extend influence and create strategic depth:
     Afghanistan a strategic location just south of
     Soviet Central Asian holdings and a gateway to
     influence in the Middle East;
   • Political gamesmanship: rendered a battlefield
     as America began to support (both
     governmental and private sector) anti-
     communist elements provoking strong Soviets
   • Resolve to quell possibility of Central Asian
     nationalism movements and Iranian influence in
     Afghanistan and the region
                                      Soviet Invasion 1979
Invasion’s Effects
• 10% die;
• Many flee to the nation
  (in the 80s, 1/2 refugees worldwide were Afghan)
  the largest portion, 6 million, flee to Pakistan - coerced
  into sending sons to Saudi established, Pakistani-backed
  Madrassas connected to the ISI;
• 2 million more displaced inside Afghanistan;
• 70% of the country reduced to rubble (including 5,000 of
  15,000 villages) ;
• More than 50% of agriculture sector and most of the
  irrigation system destroyed;
• Rendered the most heavily mined nation in the world with
  10-15 million landmines planted by the Soviet soldiers;
• Ethnic split of Afghanistan begins.
               Soviet Withdrawal 1989
February 15, 1989,      Soviet troops
withdraw from Afghanistan.

Victorious Mujahideen consist of
various groups backed by different
foreign elements - this leads to each
developing its own agendas.

Allies who pushed Afghans to fight
Soviets generally leave the nation to
deal with subsequent problems itself
and no power structure to do so.
                 Civil War
    Soviet withdrawal and abandonment by
    allies creates a power vacuum.

    Various groups seek to take power for

    Civil war engulfs the nation resulting in:
•   fighting between warlords;
•   the destruction of much of what remains
    of Kabul;
•   an increase in extreme laws/unlawfulness
    in areas: marked by tribal, ethnic and
    religious killing, and executions;
•   increased corruption as warlords abuse
    their positions.
                          Rise of the Taliban
Much of the refugee population within Pakistan resurfaces.

Students schooled in Madrassas taught religious fundamentalism.

These students, led by an instructor, Mullah Omar, organize as a
political/military unit and call themselves the “Taliban.”

Backed by Pakistan’s ISI and funded mainly by elements in Gulf States.

Initially welcomed as liberators from corruption and chaos.
                      Life under the Taliban
The Taliban’s strict Sharia law

• Long list of sad, shocking, and absurd laws
  Examples: required beard length for men,
  various abuses of women’s rights, and
  banning of music and most sports.

• Inhumane punishments (often forcing public
  to watch or take part)
  Punishments included beatings by religious
  police, amputation of hands, public
  executions, and stoning
Life under the Taliban

 Legacy of destruction

 Kill more than 8,000 Hazara in Mazar-i-Sharif and Bamiyan;

 Attack those of different religious beliefs, Muslim or

 Destroy the Giant Buddhas in Bamiyan in 2001;

 Obliterate Afghan culture including poems and texts,
 libraries, artifacts, film, and music.
                              Fall of the Taliban

During the Taliban era, the world largely
ignores all crimes against the Afghan people.

The Taliban provide a haven for the al-Qaida
allowing them a base for orchestrating the
September 11, 2001 attacks on New York.

On November 27, 2001, after the Taliban had
been removed from power a month earlier,
various Afghan groups meet in Bonn Germany
to form an interim government. This is the
basis for the modern state of Afghanistan.
                      Problems - Corruption
•   5th worst on 2008 Corruption Perception Index
•   Internal perception
     a. Afghans citizens believe corruption high in governmental and
         non-governmental sectors;
     b. Government not afraid to address the issue.
•   Perceived most corrupt government areas
     a. Justice sector;
     b. Security sector;
     c. Customs;
     d. Municipalities.
•    Causes
     a. Narcotics;
     b. Uncompetitive salaries/lack of any salaries at times;
     c. Lack or feared lack of job security;
     d. Insurgency - causes government focus to be on other areas;
     e. Nepotism or job provision for other ulterior reasons.
                       Problems - Corruption
  Steps taken to address corruption
•    Creating transparency (information accessible to public, streamlined
     bureaucratic systems);
•    Implementing other safe-measures (requiring greater number of
     signatures to gain certain authorizations).

Specific programs/actions taken
   2004 - Government signed the UN Convention against Corruption;
            Law against corruption and bribery was promulgated;
            General Independent Administration for Anti-Corruption
   2005.1 - The Afghanistan Compact (a 5-year plan of action) agreed
                   between the Government and international community -
                   included anti-corruption benchmarks.
    2007.8 - Independent Directorate of Local Governance established to
                   focus on the sub-national government in areas such as
Problems - Narcotics

 •   Poppy farming endemic began due to collapse
     of economy and lawlessness;

 •   Generate about 90% of world’s opium;

 •   Largest Afghanistan-based revenue for the

 •   At least 1 out of 12 Afghans abuses drugs (UN
     survey 2009).
    Problems - Taliban

•   Recent resurgence;

•   Estimates say there are 25,000 Taliban

•   Attacks against civilians sharply escalated:
    2007 saw 140 suicide bombings - more than
    in the past five years combined, killing more
    than 300 people.
                           International Aid
•   Top donor - United States, Japan - 3rd (roughly US$2 billion);

•   Despite all that is pledged, roughly 1/3 remains undelivered;

•   Efficiency problems: around 40% of aid its way back to the
    donor countries.
•    Basic healthcare Package covers 85% (up
     from 9% in 2003);
•    Over 1,700 active health facilities

•    6.2 million children attending schools (40%
•    Around 4,000 school buildings constructed
     or rehabilitated
     4,400 more planned in next 4 years
     (eventually 73,000 new classrooms).

  Social Security
•    More than five million refugees have
     returned since 2002.
•    GDP per capita increased by more than 100% since
•    Micro Finance loans have benefited nearly 440,000

  Natural Resource Management
•    200,000 hectares of land benefited from irrigation
•    3 million people benefited from rural water and
     sanitation projects.

•     80% have access to telecommunications.

•    More than 80 radio stations and 30 TV stations,
     numerous newspapers.
  Women’s rights
•   28 % parliamentarians are women;
•   26% of all civil servants are women.

  Poppy eradication,
•    Poppy cultivation area down 22 % to 123,000 hectares
     (304,000 acres) in 2009 – 2nd consecutive year of
•    20 of 34 provinces poppy-free – two more than last year;
•    Afghan and NATO troops for destroying large amounts of
     chemicals, seeds, drugs, and 27 labs in 2009;
•    Alternative options offered to opium farmers: vouchers to
     buy cheap seeds and infrastructure jobs.

•    Roughly 8 million unexploded ordinances have been
•    Afghan National Army – 100,000 active soldiers;
•    Afghan National Police – 80,000 active officers.
      Achievements - Elections

•      Second free elections (after more than three decades) were held;
•      Run-off scheduled for November 7th;
•      6,969 polling stations in 1st round;
•      323 women ran for provincial council seats of the 3,300 candidates in
•      250,000 journalists and observers witnessed the election.
Achievements - Elections
   Reasons behind lengthy process

   •   Challenges
        Lack of infrastructure –no easy access computerized
            voting (electricity problems, lack of equipment, lack of
            Ballot boxes set up in remote locations and delivered
            back to a counting station;
        Security;
        Fraud – over-emphasized, but present.

   •   Transparency Procedure
        Independent Electoral Commission:
           Administrates and supervises all elections; consists of
           nine members, including a chairperson.
        The Electoral Complaints Commission:
           Independent body to review all challenges and
           complaints related to the electoral process; consists of
           five commissioners
                                                   Future Goals
Exploit opportunities

Natural resources
    •    Significant natural resource potential: resources remain
         greatly underutilized, untouched, or undiscovered;
    •    More than 1,400 mineral deposits identified including oil,
         gas and coal and other metallic and non-precious
         minerals such as gemstones, copper, iron, gold;
    •    The World Bank estimates value of solid minerals
         potential to reach US$600 million by 2015, up from
         US$60 million in 2004.

    1.   44.5% of the population: 14 or younger;
    2.   70% of the population: 20 or younger;
    3.   Motivated and ready for peace and prosperity.
 Key areas needing development

    1. Rely on imported energy;
    2. Desire self-sufficiency
       Development of untapped resources
       would allow this self-sufficiency and
       exportation of excess resources to other

     1. Aim for self-sufficiency;
     2. 80% involved in agricultural work: not
         man power or land problem; irrigation,
         proper techniques, proper crops, and
         infrastructure needed.

Problems are tied to neighboring state’s affairs
•      Taliban still funded, trained, and supplied outside Afghan borders;
•      Madrassas still train future militants – between 10,000 and 30,000
       madrassas across the border


•       Militants not one force. Insurgents include Taliban, al-Qaeda, Hezb-e
        Islami, and Haqqani Network (Taliban have multiple leaders);
•       No place for foreign militants;
•       Open to peaceful relations with Afghan insurgents if they:
      1. Lay down their arms;
      2. Accept our constitution.
•       Truth and Reconciliation Commission has brought some 3,000 to the
        government’s side;
•       Preventative steps most effective – soldiers typiclly join due to financial
        hardships or are other coercion – sense of hope, jobs, and future
        prospects will bring them to our side.
Increasing trade
1. Security concerns;
2. Lack of infrastructure, land locked with no maritime claims
      Agreement with Pakistan over access to sea port;
      Air freight needs to become feasible;
      Plans to build railroads both to the North and the East to
         decrease dependency on Pakistan and Iran.

Reintegrating returning refugees
Tend to flock to cities – already existing population problems bring
infrastructure challenges.

New Kabul City to address this
1. 500 square kilometer area north of the existing Kabul;
2. planned for 3 million inhabitants;
3. Envisioned 2025 completion.
Thank You – Manana - Tashakor

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