P4.1 Session 02 v.4

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P4.1 Session 02 v.4 Powered By Docstoc
					Skills for Life Quality Initiative




Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the
Pre-entry Curriculum Framework
Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability
                Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




Session plan
Time      Contents                                                    Resources

15 mins   Aims and learning outcomes

          •   Recap Session 1 using OHT 1.
                                                                      Mind map for
          •   Introduce Session 2 using OHT 2.                        Session 1

          •   Share the aims and learning outcomes of the
              session using OHT 3.                                    Mind map for
                                                                      Session 2



                                                                      Mind map for
                                                                      Session 2


                                                                      Aims and learning
                                                                      outcomes for
                                                                      Session 2



                                                                      Aims and learning
                                                                      outcomes for
                                                                      Session 2



                                                                      Programme for
                                                                      Session 2

30 mins Attitudes to disability

          Link this section to the inter-session reading task.
                                                                      Video ‘Talk’
          •   Acknowledge that entrenched attitudes or
              preconceived notions about disability exist in all of
              us. Introduce the video ‘Talk’ made by the
              Disability Rights Commission (DRC).

          •   Ask participants to be prepared to give feedback in
              the group discussion afterwards on the issues that
              the video raised for them.

          •   Take feedback and in the discussion encourage
              participants to think about the changes that they
              have seen in society’s attitude towards disability.     Social, legislative
                                                                      and educational
          •   Use OHT 4 to illustrate some of the changes and         timeline
              to note others that are raised on the flipchart.

          •   Link this section with the next on barriers to
              learning.                                               Social, legislative
                                                                      and educational
                                                                      timeline




                                        Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability         1
                Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




Time      Contents                                                    Resources

45 mins Exploring barriers

          •   Explain that barriers to learning for individuals can   Medical or deficit
              be raised (1) externally; (2) within educational        model
              settings; and (3) by the individual from within.

          •   Ask participants to use an ideas storm to identify
              barriers from all three categories; record these to     Medical or deficit
              the flipchart.                                          model

          •   Ask participants to identify the particular barriers
              that may be pertinent to learners with learning         The social or
              difficulties and/or disabilities.                       structural model
          •   Ask participants to comment on the issues arising
              from the two models.
                                                                      The social or
          •   Use the social model of disability to link to the       structural model
              next section on inclusive learning.

                                                                      Social model of
                                                                      disability



                                                                      Social model of
                                                                      disability


                                                                      Medical model of
                                                                      disability



                                                                      Medical model of
                                                                      disability



                                                                      Barriers to learning

30 mins Inclusive learning and the eco-learning environment
                                                                           to
          •   Point out that ‘inclusive learning’ is a widely-used Inclusive learning
              term and that it is understood differently by        (1 to 4)
              different people.
                                                                          to
          •   Using OHTs 9 to 12, talk through what the term is
              (and is not).                                        Inclusive learning
                                                                   (1 to 4)
          •   Take questions and comments.

          •   Introduce the learning ecosystem model to achieve
              inclusive learning.                                     The learning
                                                                      ecosystem
          •   Take any comments or issues arising.

          •   Create a link to assignments 3 and 4.
                                                                      The learning
                                                                      ecosystem



                                         Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability       2
                Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




Time      Contents                                                   Resources

15 mins   Assignments

          •   Introduce Assignment 3 Classroom observation and
              Assignment 4 Visit to a specialist establishment. Assignment 3 –
                                                                 classroom
          •   Point out to the participants the necessity of     observation
              beginning to make arrangements to complete
              these, although neither should be undertaken until
              after Session 4.                                   Assignment 4 –
                                                                     visit to a specialist
                                                                     establishment



                                                                     Assignment 3 –
                                                                     assessment criteria



                                                                     Assignment 4 –
                                                                     assessment criteria

5 mins    Review of the session

          •   Use OHTs 1 and 2 to look back at the aims and
                                                                     Mind map for
              learning outcomes of the session. Remind
                                                                     Session 2
              participants of what they have done to achieve
              these.
                                                                     Aims and learning
                                                                     outcomes for
                                                                     Session 2


   Activity Worksheet       Handout         OHT         Post it       Video      Flipchart




                                        Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability          3
Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                  Handout 1




                        Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability      4
                   Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                     Handout 2
Aims

•   To discuss the meaning of the term ‘disability’.

•   To explore three models of disability.

•   To explore the impact of social changes on educational thinking and practice.

Learning outcomes

By the end of the session participants will have:

•   considered changing attitudes to people with learning difficulties and/or disabilities

•   explored barriers in learning

•   understood the social and medical models of disability, and the ecosystemic
    inclusive learning model.




                                             Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability    5
                   Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                     Handout 3
Programme
•   Aims and learning outcomes

•   Attitudes to disability

•   Exploring barriers

•   Inclusive learning and the eco-learning environment

•   Assignments

•   Review of the session.




                                           Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability      6
                                   Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                                    Handout 4
                Social, legislative and educational timeline

                                                    PAST
               1913 Mental Deficiency Act
   Saw people labelled as ineducable. People
    categorised as idiots, feeble-minded and
                                     imbecils
                                                               1944 Education Act
                                                               Classifies people with educationally
                                                               subnormal, severe EBN(S) as ineducable
                  1959 Mental Health Act
Uses the term ‘subnormality’ for adults with
                       learning difficulties
                                                               1971 Education Act
                                                               Children with severe learning difficulties
                                                               formerly deemed as ineducable gain the
                                                               right to school education
                 1978 The Warnock Report
    Highlights the importance of continuing
education for adults with learning disabilities

                                                               1981 Education Act
                                                               Uses the term learning difficulties instead
                                                               of educationally subnormal

                         1992 Education Act
         Establishes a new framework for the
              organisation and funding for FE
                                                               1993
                                                               The FEFC set up and fund the Tomlinson
                                                               Committee
                                        1996
      FEFC Report for Inclusive Learning (The
       Tomlinson Report) is published and its
           recommendations taken on board                      Learning and Skills Act 2000
                                                               Set up the LSC which took over from the
                                                               FEFC and TECs with a continued
                                                               commitment to ‘have regard for the needs
                                                               of learners with learning difficulties and
                                                               disabilities’ and ‘to promote equality of
                                 May 2000                      opportunity between disabled and non-
               Freedom to Learn is published                   disabled learners’

                                                               March 2001
                                                               A New Strategy for Learning Disability is
                                                               published. (A White Paper)
      2001 The Special Educational Needs
          and Disability Act (DDA Part 4)
      Brings education into the remit of the
          Disability Discrimination Act 1995
                                                  PRESENT




                (Extracted from Sutcliffe (1996) and reproduced by kind permission of the publisher.)

                                                           Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability       7
                                  Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                                    Handout 5
The medical or deficit model




                          Can’t
                       communicate                      Can’t walk




        Needs carers                                                            Can’t use hands




  Can’t see                    The problem is                                                   Is sick
   or hear
                                 the person




            Can’t                                                                   Can’t
         concentrate                                                              understand




                                                       Is confined
                       Has seizures
                                                     to a wheelchair




                                                          Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability      8
                                     Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                                       Handout 6
The social or structural model




                              Low                       Badly designed
                          expectations                    buildings




                                                                                  Didactic teaching
         Lack of staff                                                                methods
           training




                                 The problem lies
                                                                                                Prejudiced
The curriculum                   within society and                                              attitudes
                                 the environment




        Poorly-designed                                                              Inaccessible
           teaching                                                                    transport
           material



                          Assessment                      Segregated
                           methods                         education




                                                             Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability      9
                  Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                    Handout 7
Social model of disability
                                 Society disables people
                                      who have an
                                       impairment

                                            via




 physical / environmental                                             Medical Model
          barriers                                                     segregation




                  attitudes based on
                                                   inadequate legislation
                   misconceptions




                             It is the responsibility of society
                            to change itself, rather than trying
                                 to change disabled people

                                            via



                                                                   self-representation of
 the removal of barriers                                           disabled people in an
                                                                     integrated society



                    the changing of                 anti-discrimination
                       attitudes                         legislation




The social model puts the responsibility on society.

(Reproduced by kind permission of Lancaster and Morecambe College.)




                                          Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 10
                 Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                   Handout 8
Medical model of disability

                                   The person has an
                                      impairment




                                Therefore, the person
                                       is “ill”




                               The person is treated by
                                 doctors and other
                                     specialists

                                          and




             is “cured”
                                                                is not “cured”
     (the system has worked)




                                                      segregation continues via special
                                                           facilities / instructions



             RESULT                                                RESULT



                                                       Society can continue to evolve
  enters into mainstream society                         without taking account of
                                                              disabled people



                                                                Barriers to:
                                                           employment, housing,
                                                         education, leisure, services


The medical model puts the responsibility
on society.
                                                            POWERLESSNESS /
(Reproduced by kind permission of                             OPRESSION
Lancaster and Morecambe College.)




                                         Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability     11
                  Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                    Handout 9
Barriers to learning
Factors within education
•   Organisation
•   Labelling
•   Past experience
•   Teachers’ expectations
•   Quality of teaching
•   Assessment methods
•   Classroom management, organisation or interaction
•   Curriculum
•   Attendance
•   Status of curriculum, for example, high academic, low vocational
•   Resources
•   Attitudes to learners
•   Mismatch between curriculum and life
•   Importance placed on staff development and training.

Factors outside education
•   Cultural
•   Peer group or pressure
•   Relationship of education to other structures within society
•   Economic state, government policy or ideology
•   Material disadvantage
•   Social advantage or disadvantage
•   Unemployment
•   Housing
•   Environment
•   The family – its size and position
•   Socialisation patterns
•   Attitudes
•   Expectations
•   Aspirations
•   Race and cultural views, and competing cultural values
•   Support
•   Communication
•   Gender.

Factors within the individual person
•   Past experience
•   Ability
•   Aptitude
•   Learning needs and preferences
•   Self esteem
•   Heredity
•   Personality
•   Nutrition – health, medication
•   Motivation
•   Attitude to learning
•   Medical factors.

                                          Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 12
                      Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                     Handout 10
Inclusive learning (1)
Inclusive learning:

•   is a way of thinking about further education

•   focuses on learning

•   at its heart, is the concept of ‘matching’.




                                              Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 13
                  Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                  Handout 11
Inclusive learning (2)
The match between what an individual needs to learn and what is provided
is on three levels:

•   the teacher and learner

•   the learning establishment

•   the sector.




                                          Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 14
                   Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                  Handout 12
Inclusive learning (3)
To achieve the match, there is a need to:

•   understand how individuals learn

•   understand what they need to learn

•   provide a learning environment that is fit for this purpose

•   use this understanding to develop quality assurance, organisation and
    management.




                                            Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability    15
                   Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                  Handout 13
Inclusive learning (4)
Inclusive learning is what you do when you have widened participation.

•   It is not about inclusiveness or inclusivity.

•   It is not the same as learning support.

•   It is not only about students with learning difficulties and/or disabilities.




                                            Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 16
                 Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                Handout 14
The learning ecosystem


                                        Ethos
                            Individual learning programme

                   Curriculum which promotes progress in learning

                                  Effective teaching

                         Assessment of progress and learning

                                Access to accreditation

         Opportunities for learners to discuss and manage their own learning

                                  Initial assessment

                             Learner and learning support

                                      Counselling

                        Advice and guidance on entry and exit

         Learning materials, resources, technology, technical aids, equipment

         Trained staff – teachers, tutors, learning assistants, support workers

                                Physical surroundings

                      Environment                Ecosystem



(Taken from Walters and Quilter 2003)




                                         Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability     17
                                                     Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                                                     Handout 15
Assignment 3 – Classroom observation
Within your own (or a partner) organisation, arrange a classroom visit. Your aim is to observe the lesson closely and
to identify possible barriers to successful learning. The barriers might fall broadly into three categories, as follows.

•     Physical – for example, a hearing impaired learner has no access to an induction loop.

•     Psychological – for example, the subject matter appears to bear little or no relevance to the lifestyle or interests
      of a particular learner.

•     Social – for example, a learner with poor communication skills is supported by a support worker. Little attention
      is paid to developing the learner’s ability to communicate for themselves.

Describe the session and outline your perceptions of any barriers to full and effective participation. Show how you
have collected your information. Discuss your findings and relate them to relevant theory and current legislation.

Classroom observation
                                    Subject specification reference                            Location       Feedback and
                                                                                                              comments

    Has organised and               A02b
    conducted a classroom           Making effective use of a range of note-taking
    observation that identifies     techniques when recording information
    possible barriers to
    successful learning within
    the given deadline

    Show the ability to collect,    A02b
    synthesise and interpret        Reading and using complex texts and other source
    information                     materials critically

    Show knowledge and              A02c
    understanding of current        1. Showing structure, coherence, clarity and
    legislation and relevant           fluency of written expression.
    theories                        2. Applying the rules of grammar consistently and
                                       ensuring that spelling and punctuation are used
                                       accurately, making the meaning clear.
                                    3. Showing a discerning use of language.
                                    4. (Expression and vocabulary), using style, tone
                                       and presentation to enhance the effectiveness
                                       of written work.




    Passed:                                                      Signature:


    Referred:                                                     Date:




                                                                              Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 18
                  Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                 Handout 16
Assignment 4 – Visit to a specialist establishment
In small groups, visit a specialist establishment to find out about a variety of
communication systems. Produce a short presentation of research findings following
your visit. Write an individual report with reference to the relevant theory. You will
need to consider how you work as a group and ensure that each group member
contributes equally to the presentation.

Structure and criteria for the presentation

•   You should aim for your presentation to last 15 minutes, plus 10 minutes for a
    question and answer session.

•   Your presentation should give clear, detailed descriptions of the communication
    methods that you saw in use.

•   Also, include the strengths and limitations of the systems that you saw in use.

•   Consideration of delivery and effective teamwork will be made in the assessment
    process.

Structure and criteria for the individual report

•   It should be a minimum of 1,000 words.

•   Visual aids can be used for presentation.

•   There should be evidence of further reading, research and/or relevant theory.




                                          Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 19
                                                Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                                                Handout 17
Assignment 3 – Assessment criteria
                              Subject specification           Location           Feedback and comments
                              reference

Has organised and
conducted a classroom
observation that identifies
possible barriers to
successful learning within
the given deadline

Has prepared and              A02a
delivered a presentation      1. Understanding the
of findings                      factors that contribute
                                 to fluency and coherence
                                 in oral expression.
                              2. Presenting complex
                                 information clearly and
                                 articulately and receiving
                                 and understanding
                                 complex information.
                              3. Understanding and
                                 demonstrating how to
                                 use language, style, tone
                                 and delivery techniques
                                 effectively and
                                 recognising their use by
                                 others.
                              4. Using a range of delivery
                                 techniques to establish a
                                 presence and to enhance
                                 the accessibility of
                                 information.
                              5. Appreciating the role of
                                 non-verbal communication
                                 when conveying and
                                 interpreting meaning,
                                 using it to enhance the
                                 effectiveness of oral
                                 communication exchanges,
                                 and recognising and
                                 responding to its use by
                                 others.




                                                                         Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 20
                                               Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                            Subject specification             Location             Feedback and comments
                            reference

Has produced a written      A02c
report giving additional    1. Showing structure,
detail and demonstrating       coherence, clarity and
the link between practice      fluency of written
and theory                     expression.
                            2. Applying the rules of
                               grammar consistently
                               and ensuring spelling and
                               punctuation are used
                               accurately, making the
                               meaning clear.
                            3. Understanding of the
                               linguistic features of
                               different styles of writing.




Passed:                                                       Date:


Referred:                                                     Signature:




                                                                           Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 21
                                                  Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework




                                                                                                 Handout 18
Assignment 4 – Assessment criteria
                               Subject specification           Location             Feedback and comments
                               reference

 Has undertaken a visit to
 a specialist organisation
 within given deadlines

 Has prepared and delivered    AO2a
 a presentation of findings    (see below)

 Has produced a written        Ao2c
 report giving additional      Showing structure,
 detail and demonstrating      coherence, clarity and
 the link between practice     fluency of written expression
 and theory
                               Applying the rules of
                               grammar consistently and
                               ensuring spelling and
                               punctuation are used
                               accurately, making the
                               meaning clear

                               Understanding of the
                               linguistic features of
                               different styles of writing



 Passed:                                                       Signature:


 Referred:                                                     Date:



Ao2a Speaking and listening
Understanding the factors that contribute to fluency and coherence in oral expression.

Presenting complex information clearly and articulately and receiving and understanding complex information.

Understanding and demonstrating how to use suitable language, style, tone and delivery techniques effectively, and
recognising their use by others.

Using a range of delivery techniques to establish a presence and to enhance the accessibility of information.

Appreciating the role of non-verbal communication when conveying and interpreting meaning, using it to enhance
the effectiveness of oral communication exchanges, and recognising and responding to its use by others.

Recognising and evaluating the information needs of different audiences, showing insight and understanding when
responding to these needs.

Showing the ability to listen critically and attentively, and to respond appropriately.

Producing well-structured responses to oral communication challenges.

                                                                            Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 22
             Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                         OHT 1

Mind map 1




                                     Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 23
                                                     Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                                OHT 2

Mind map 2

                                                                                                                OHT 3
Aims
To discuss the meaning of the term ‘disability’.
To explore three models of disability.
To explore the impact of social changes on educational thinking and practice.
Learning outcomes
By the end of the session, participants will have:
considered changing attitudes to people with learning difficulties and/or disabilities
explored barriers in learning
understood the social and medical models of disability, and the ecosystemic inclusive
learning model.
                                                                                                                OHT 4
Social, legislative and educational timeline
Designer insert timeline from PDF
(Extracted from Sutcliffe (1996) and reproduced by kind permission of the publisher.)
                                                                                                                OHT 5
                                                                             Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 24
                                                                   Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                                              OHT 3

Aims

• To discuss the meaning of the term ‘disability’.

• To explore three models of disability.

• To explore the impact of social changes on educational thinking and practice.



Learning outcomes

By the end of the session, participants will have:

• considered changing attitudes to people with learning difficulties and/or disabilities

• explored barriers in learning

• understood the social and medical models of disability, and the ecosystemic inclusive learning model.




                                                                                           Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 25
                                                                                                           Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                                                                                            OHT 4

Social, legislative and educational timeline
                   1944 Education       1971 Education Act            1981 Education Act        1993           Learning and Skills Act 2000             March 2001
                   Act                  Children with severe          Uses the term             The FEFC set   Set up the LSC which took over           A New Strategy
                   Classifies people    learning difficulties         learning difficulties     up and fund    from the FEFC and TECs with a            for Learning
                   with educationally   formerly deemed as            instead of                the            continued commitment to ‘have            Disability is
                   subnormal, severe    ineducable gain the           educationally             Tomlinson      regard for the needs of learners         published. (A
                   EBN(S) as            right to school               subnormal                 Committee      with learning difficulties and           White Paper)
                   ineducable           education                                                              disabilities’ and ‘to promote
                                                                                                               equality of opportunity between
                                                                                                               disabled and non-disabled learners’


        PAST                                                                                                                                                              PRESENT



        1913 Mental            1959 Mental               1978 The Warnock           1992 Education      1996                             May 2000                2001 The Special
        Deficiency Act         Health Act                Report                     Act                 FEFC Report for                  Freedom to              Educational Needs
        Saw people labelled    Uses the term             Highlights the             Establishes a new   Inclusive Learning               Learn                   and Disability Act
        as ineducable.         ‘subnormality’ for        importance of              framework for the   (The Tomlinson                   is published            (DDA Part 4)
        People categorised     adults with               continuing education       organisation and    Report) is published                                     Brings education
        as idiots, feeble-     learning difficulties     for adults with            funding for FE      and its                                                  into the remit
        minded and imbecils                              learning disabilities                          recommendations                                          of the Disability
                                                                                                        taken on board                                           Discrimination Act
                                                                                                                                                                 1995




(Extracted from Sutcliffe (1996) and reproduced by kind permission of the publisher.)


                                                                                                                                       Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 26
                                                         Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                                    OHT 5

The medical or                  Can’t
                             communicate          Can’t walk
deficit model

              Needs carers                                               Can’t use hands




        Can’t see                    The problem is                                     Is sick
         or hear
                                       the person




                  Can’t                                                      Can’t
               concentrate                                                 understand




                                                  Is confined
                             Has seizures
                                                to a wheelchair



                                                                                 Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 27
                                                              Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                                         OHT 6

The social or
                                     Low             Badly designed
structural model                 expectations          buildings




                                                                                 Didactic
                Lack of staff                                                    teaching
                  training                                                       methods




                                        The problem lies
                                                                                          Prejudiced
       The curriculum                   within society and                                 attitudes
                                        the environment




               Poorly-designed                                                 Inaccessible
                  teaching                                                       transport
                  material



                                 Assessment            Segregated
                                  methods               education


                                                                                      Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 28
                                                                                Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                                                           OHT 7

Social model of disability                    Society disables people
                                                   who have an
                                                    impairment

                                                         via




              physical / environmental                                                Medical Model
                       barriers                                                        segregation




                               attitudes based on
                                                                inadequate legislation
                                misconceptions




                                          It is the responsibility of society
                                         to change itself, rather than trying
                                              to change disabled people

                                                         via


                                                                                                                The social model puts the
                                                                                  self-representation of        responsibility on society.
               the removal of barriers                                            disabled people in an
                                                                                    integrated society          (Reproduced by kind permission of
                                                                                                                Lancaster and Morecambe College.)


                                 the changing of                 anti-discrimination
                                    attitudes                         legislation

                                                                                                        Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 29
                                                                       Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                   The person has an                                                              OHT 8
                                                      impairment


Medical model of disability                     Therefore, the person
                                                       is “ill”


                                               The person is treated by
                                                 doctors and other
                                                     specialists

                                                         and



                             is “cured”
                                                                               is not “cured”
                     (the system has worked)


                                                                   segregation continues via special
                                                                        facilities / instructions


                             RESULT                                               RESULT


                                                                       Society can continue to evolve
                  enters into mainstream society
                                                                         without taking account of
                                                                              disabled people                The medical model puts the
                                                                                                             responsibility on society.

                                                                                Barriers to:                 (Reproduced by kind permission
                                                                           employment, housing,              of Lancaster and Morecambe
                                                                         education, leisure, services        College.)


                                                                  POWERLESSNESS / OPRESSION


                                                                                                Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 30
                                                 Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                            OHT 9

Inclusive learning (1)

Inclusive learning:
• is a way of thinking about further education
• focuses on learning
• at its heart, is the concept of “matching”.




                                                                         Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 31
                                                 Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                          OHT 10

Inclusive learning (2)

The match between what an individual needs to learn and what is provided is on three
levels:

• the teacher and learner

• the learning establishment

• the sector.




                                                                         Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 32
                                                    Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                             OHT 11

Inclusive learning (3)

To achieve the match, there is a need to:
• understand how individuals learn
• understand what they need to learn
• provide a learning environment that is fit for this purpose
• use this understanding to develop quality assurance, organisation and management.




                                                                            Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 33
                                                      Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                               OHT 12

Inclusive learning (4)

Inclusive learning is what you do when you have widened participation.
• It is not about inclusiveness or inclusivity.
• It is not the same as learning support.
• It is not only about students with learning difficulties and/or disabilities.




                                                                              Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 34
                                                                                        Pre-entry 4.1: Working in the context of the Pre-entry Curriculum Framework



                                                                                                                                                 OHT 13

               The learning ecosystem
                                                                       Ethos
                                                            Individual learning programme

                                                   Curriculum which promotes progress in learning

                                                                  Effective teaching

                                                         Assessment of progress and learning

                                                               Access to accreditation

                                         Opportunities for learners to discuss and manage their own learning

                                                                  Initial assessment

                                                             Learner and learning support

                                                                     Counselling

                                                        Advice and guidance on entry and exit

                                         Learning materials, resources, technology, technical aids, equipment

                                         Trained staff – teachers, tutors, learning assistants, support workers

                                                                Physical surroundings
(Taken from Walters and Quilter, 2003)
                                                      Environment               Ecosystem


                                                                                                                Session 2: Changing attitudes to disability 35

				
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