Instructional Supervision Strategies of Principals - PowerPoint by ckf57287

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									The Principal’s Instructional
            Leadership Role

•   Exercise Vision for School
•   Establish & Maintain Climate for Teaching/Learning
•   Establish Learning Goals and Objectives
•   Organize School for Instruction (Scheduling)
•   Recruit/Maintain Competent Teaching Staff
•   Provide Instructional Spaces, Resources & Materials
•   Monitor Teaching/Learning Processes
•   Evaluate (Processes, Products, & Personnel)
     Principal’s Specific Instructional Responsibilities

• Recruitment and Development of Staff
  This is a principal’s most important responsibility.
• Development of School Master Schedule
  It can make or break the instructional program; it is the plan to achieve
  the instructional goals of the school; it has the potential to be the
  greatest “dis-satisfier” in the school.
• Optimal Assignment of Teaching Responsibilities
  Teachers are assigned to best use their expertise, abilities, & interests.
• Optimal Assignment of Students to Classes/Courses
   Students are assigned to classes where they can make maximum
• Supervision and Monitoring of Instruction
   This is the most important activity for fostering teaching & learning.
   The classroom is the focal point for transmitting the curriculum to
The Three Key Elements for Learning:
 Teacher, Student, and Curriculum
   What is the Principal’s Key Role ?

To bring these three crucial elements
 together so that the teacher can teach and
 the student can learn.
What if the expected level of
learning does not occur?

The problem may rest with the teacher, the
 instructional process, the curriculum, the
 teaching materials, the schedule, or the
The principal has the obligation to determine
 which of these factors may be responsible.
       Simplified model of Instruction

• From Supervision for Today’s Schools (6th
  ed., 2001) by Peter F. Oliva & George E.

  Planning        Presentation     Evaluation
Factors to Look for During Classroom Observations

Evidence of Teacher    Objectives of the Appropriateness of
Planning/Preparation   Lesson            Teaching Strategies

Conducisiveness of   Level of Student    On- and Off-Task
Learning Climate     Involvement &       Student Behavior
Teacher’s Attention  Teacher Pacing,     Teacher’s
and Reaction to Off- Transitions, &      Technique(s) for
Task and Misbehavior Classroom           Evaluation of
                     Monitoring          Lesson/Learning
Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain

• In the cognitive domain, it is important to determine if the
  teacher is focusing at the appropriate level(s) below:
• 1. Knowledge                        Lower Order Learning
• 2. Comprehension
• 3. Application
• 4. Analysis
• 5. Synthesis
• 6. Evaluation                       Higher Order Learning
• Although there are times when lower levels questions are appropriate,
  when possible, learning should be at the higher end of the
                An Effective Teacher:

•   Sets Clear Goals for the Class
•   Holds High Expectations for Students
•   Focuses on Academics
•   Maintains an Orderly Classroom
•   Uses Suitable Materials for Instruction
•   Monitors Student Performance
•   Provides Feedback to Students on their Performance
•   Uses Positive Reinforcement
•   Continues his/her Professional Development
          Effective Teaching Researchers
                          (Partial List)

•   David C. Berliner            * Carl Glickman
•   Wilbur B. Brookover          * Robert Starratt
•   Jere E. Brophy               * Morris Cogan
•   Thomas L. Good               * Keith Goldhammer
•   Lawrence W. Lezotte          * Thomas McGreal
•   Donald M. Medley
•   Ronald R. Edmonds
•   C. M. Evertson
•   Barak V. Rosenshine
•   Jane A. Stallings
•   Madeline Hunter

• Scope = Refers to what the curriculum or segment of the
  curriculum includes.
• Sequence = Refers to the order in which subject matter
  is arranged for instruction. The arrangement may be
  according to levels of complexity, according to
  chronology, or according to some other logical order.
• Articulation = Refers to the manner in which the
  various components of the curriculum relate to each other.
  A curriculum reflects good articulation when the transition
  from one segment to another is smooth and where
  unnecessary duplication is absent.
                     Terms Continued

• Instructional Supervision = The effort employed
  by school officials to provide leadership and assistance to
  teachers to improve teaching and learning.
• Clinical Supervision = The phase of instructional
  supervision which draws its data from first-hand
  observation of actual teaching and subsequently involves
  face to face interaction between the supervisor and teacher
  in the analysis of teaching behaviors for instructional
          Curriculum Alignment

• Before Curriculum Alignment

                What is actually What curriculum
                    taught       guides indicate
      What is                      should be
      Tested                         taught
• After Curriculum Alignment

   What is     What curriculum
               guides indicate   What is actually
                 should be           taught
Instructional Issues That Should Be Addressed
               and Monitored

• Curricula areas for major emphasis based upon test results
• Close monitoring of teachers whose students did not
  perform well on end of grade or end of course test
• Vertical and horizontal grouping of students
• Grading practices of teachers
• Teacher lesson plans
• Homework assigned by teachers
• Teacher comments on progress reports
• Students recommended for retention
The End

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