Instructional Media and Technology in Asia by cph20060


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									                       English Teaching
and Autonomous Learning Conference,
Fu Jen University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2009
                   Dr. Lauren Cifuentes
The child’s
playhouse stands
thirty feet high         30
and is ten feet
across the front.

   Demonstrate the power of visualization for
    enhancing memory and retention
   Knowledge is constructed as a result of the
    interaction between the learner and
   Visualizations on paper or computers can
    function as cognitive tools to help support,
    guide, and extend learners’ thinking processes-
    ◦ express one’s ideas, and understandings
    ◦ build connections among old and new knowledge
    ◦ meaning making of to-be-learned materials
1.   Cifuentes, L., & Hsieh, Y. C. (2004). Visualization for middle school students’
     engagement in science learning. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and
     Science Teaching, 23(2), 109-137.
2.   Cifuentes, L., & Hsieh, Y. C. (2003). Visualization for construction of meaning
     during study time: A Qualitative Analysis. International Journal of Instructional
     Media, 30(3), 407-417.
3.   Cifuentes, L., & Hsieh, Y. C. (2003). Visualization for construction of meaning
     during study time: A Quantitative Analysis. International Journal of Instructional
     Media, 30(4), 263-273.
4.   Hsieh, Y.C., & Cifuentes, L. (2006). Student-generated visualization as a study
     strategy for science concept learning. Educational Technology and Society. 9(3),
5.   Kwon, S. Y., & Cifuentes, L. (2007). Using computers to individually-generate
     vs. collaboratively generate concept maps. Journal of Educational Technology
     and Society. 10(4), 269-280.
6.   Kwon, S. Y., & Cifuentes, L. (2008). The comparative effect of individually-
     constructed vs. collaboratively-constructed computer-based concept maps.
     Computers and Education.
7.   Hsieh, Yi-Chuan & Cifuentes, L. (unpublished). Visualization As A Study
     Strategy: A Cross-Cultural Study.
   Well written expository text lends itself to visualization.
   Autonomous learners can analyze text to determine
    how content should be visualized to clarify meaning.
   That process enhances comprehension, memory, and
   Both paper and pencil and computer-based
    representations are facilitative when students have
    computer literacy.
   Both individually and collaboratively constructing
    visualizations are facilitative when students know how
    to collaborate.
   Visualization is equally effective for American and
    Taiwanese learners.
   show interrelationships among concepts;
   make connections with what they already
   indicate special characteristics of concepts.

    Let’s see how.
1) Show Inter-      2) Relate to         3) Indicate
   relationships       something            Special Char-
                       already              acteristics
1a) Causal          2a) Direct           3a) circles or other
1b) Hierarchical        representation       shapes
1c) Chronological   2b) Metaphor         3b) asterisks
1d) Sequential      2c) Example/         3c) color
1e) Oppositional        Nonemample       3d) shading
1f) Comparative     2d) Mneumonic        3e) visual blowup
1g) Categorical
 Cause and Effect
 Hierarchy
 Chronology
 Sequence
 Opposition
 Comparison
 Categories
  What visual conventions do we use to represent
  each of these interrelationships?
 Cause and Effect   causal chain
 Hierarchy          tree, flow chart, pyramid
 Chronology         timeline
 Sequence           numbers, letters, arrows
 Opposition         Ying/Yang, arrows
 Comparison         bar, line, pie graphs
 Categories         matrices
    Cause & Effect: Example
Most ocean pollution caused by humans is concentrated
along the coasts of continents. Industrial wastes, often
containing concentrations of metals and chemicals,
sometimes get into seawater and harm organisms. Pesticides
(insect killers) and herbicides (weed killers) used in farming
reach the ocean as runoff. Crop fertilizers and human
sewage create a different kind of problem. They fertilize the
water. This causes some types of plant plankton to
reproduce very rapidly. When these plants die, they’re
decomposed by huge numbers of bacteria. The problem is
that the bacteria use up much of the oxygen in the water
during respiration. Therefore, other organisms such as fish
can’t get the oxygen they need, and they die.
 Industrial wastes      Pesticides (insect killers)    Crop fertilizer
(metals, chemicals)     Herbicides (weed killers)      Human sewage

                      Ocean                           Rapid growth
                      Pollution                       of plankton

                                                      Plankton die

                                               Consume oxygen
          Organisms                                        Fish
 Cause & Effect: Your Turn
The earth’s climate has cooled and
warmed naturally with irregular
fluctuations over millions of years.
However, man’s activities are
contributing to climatic changes. As
a result of man’s activities during
the industrial and nuclear ages, the
rate of climatic change is predicted
to increase dramatically.
    Hierarchy : Example
 According to Maslow, peoples'
 lower needs must be met in order
 for the higher needs to be met. First
 physiological needs must be met,
 then safety needs, then social needs,
 then esteem needs, and then the
 need for self-actualization.
   Esteem needs
   Social needs
  Safety needs
Physiological needs
      Hierarchy: Your Turn
According to the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990,
pollution should be prevented or reduced at the
source whenever feasible. However, pollution that
cannot be prevented or reduced should be recycled
in an environmentally safe manner whenever
feasible. For the pollution that cannot be prevented
or recycled, it should be treated in an
environmentally safe manner whenever feasible.
Disposal or other release into the environment
should be employed only as a last resort and
should be conducted in an environmentally safe
    Chronology : Example
Earth’s history on the geological time scale is
divided into four geological eras: Precambrian Era,
Paleozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, and Cenozoic Era.
The Precambrian Era is the longest era. It lasts
about 4 billion years and accounts for 87 percent of
Earth’s history. The Paleozoic Era last about 345
million years, and the Mesozoic Era about 160
million years. The Cenozoic Era, the era in which
we now, has lasted for only 65 million years.
      The Earth’s History
             Paleozoic Era (345 million
Precambrian Era (4 billion

             Mesozoic Era (160 million
              Cenozoic Era (65 million
Chronology: Your Turn
The Scientists divide the Mesozoic
Era into three periods. The oldest
period is called the Triassic Period.
The middle period is called the
Jurassic Period. The youngest
period is called the Cretaceous
    Sequence: Example
The life-history of the butterfly and fly is
made up of four stages, egg, larva, pupa,
and adult. These insects show complete
metamorphosis. The larva stage resembles
a caterpillar or worm. In the pupa stage,
the insect lives in its cocoon.
Grasshoppers and dragonflies are
examples of insects that go through
“incomplete metamorphosis” in which
insects show three stages, egg, larva, and
adult. In the larva stage the insect looks
like a small adult insect.
        Complete Metamorphosis
             Butterfly & Fly





   Moon phases are the changing
    appearances of the moon as seen from
    Earth. The phases of the moon start
    firstly with the “New Moon”, secondly the
    “Waxing Crescent”, thirdly the “First
    Quarter”, fourthly the “Waxing Gibbous”,
    fifthly the “Full Moon”, sixthly the
    “Waning Gibbous”, seventhly the “Third
    Quarter”, and the last “Waning Crescent”
    before the next “New Moon” occurs. The
    complete cycle of the moon’s phases
    take about 29.5 days.
   Among insects we find two suborders,
    Apterygota and Pterygota. Apterygota includes
    insects without wings and Pterygota includes
    those insects with wings.
Apterygota   Pterygota
   Two endocrine glands, the thyroid and
    the parathyroid, work together to keep
    the levels of calcium in the blood at
    equilibrium. Eating calcium-rich foods
    causes a high level of blood calcium.
    This cues the thyroid to release a
    hormone that causes calcium to be
    deposed in the bones and to be excreted
    in urine from the kidneys. On the other
    hand, a low level of blood calcium
    stimulates the parathyroid gland to
    created a hormone that causes bones to
    partially dissolve and causes the kidneys
    to conserve calcium, not excrete it.
   Human blood is much like sea water. While sea
    water contains 55% chlorine, blood contains
    45% chlorine. Sea water contains 34% sodium,
    3% calcium, and 1% potassium. Blood contains
    38% sodium, 2% calcium, and 3% potassium.
Human blood is much like sea water. While
sea water contains 55% chlorine, blood
contains 45% chlorine. Sea water contains
34% sodium, 3% calcium, and 1%
potassium. Blood contains 38% sodium, 2%
calcium, and 3% potassium.
 55                                                     Hu ma n Bl ood
 50                                                     Se a Wa te r
      Ch lori ne   So diu m   Ca lciu m   Po tassiu m
 There are two kinds of cells in blood: red
 cells and white cells. Red cells carry food
 and oxygen, and white cells fight disease.
 Red Cells       White Cells

Carry food and   Fight disease
   The technology for tidal power is
    essentially the same as that for river
    hydroelectric power. With rivers, however,
    the water flows in only one direction,
    whereas a tidal plant must be adapted for
    the two-way movement of sea water.
   There are many types of glaciers. For example:
 Mountain    Glaciers develop in high mountainous regions,
  often flowing out of icefields that span several peaks or even
  a mountain range. The largest mountain glaciers are found in
  Arctic Canada, Alaska, the Andes in South America, the
  Himalayas in Asia, and on Antarctica.
 Valley Glaciers are commonly originating from mountain
  glaciers or ice fields, these glaciers spill down valleys,
  looking much like giant tongues or rivers. Valley glaciers
  tend to be very long, often flowing down beyond the snow
  line, sometimes reaching sea level.
 Cirque Glaciers are named for the bowl-like hollows they
  occupy, which are called cirques. Typically, they are found
  high on mountainsides and tend to be wide rather than long.
Create a direct representation
Create a visual metaphor
Create a visual nonexample and/or
Create a visual mnemonic
 Cyme-  where the primary axis
 ends in a flower, further growth
 being continued by lateral
 branches which may again end
 in a flower.
   The sun is a ball-shaped object made of
    extremely hot gases. Since it is made only of
    gases, there are no clear boundaries within it.
    The outermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere is
    called the corona. Beneath the corona is the
    middle layer of the sun’s atmosphere, the
    chromosphere. The inner layer of the sun’s
    atmosphere is called the photosphere. The
    center of the sun is called the core.
   Remember the “tongue” like valley glacier?
   Spiders have book lungs connected to
    tracheal tubes. Book lungs work to remove
    oxygen from air instead of water. Book lungs
    are series of thin “plates” full of blood vessels
    that catch and carry oxygen throughout the
    animal’s body.
  Spider’s Book Lung
Catches and Carries Oxygen
 Nerve cells have extensions that
 look like electric wires. The job
 of nerve cells is to pass
 messages in the form of
 chemical impulses from nerve
 cell to nerve cell throughout the
 Cholesterol exists in food as a
 dietary lipid. You'll find
 cholesterol only in animal
 products, such as meat and dairy
Examples of   Nonexamples of
Cholesterol   Cholesterol
   Ice insulates. When temperatures dropped in
    Florida, workers in the orange fields raced
    into the grove hauling long water hoses!
    These workers began to spray the trees with
    water. The water would freeze into ice. The
    ice would keep the oranges warm!
 Nine Planets

Mars Mercury Neptune
Venus   Earth Saturn
Jupiter Pluto  Uranus
My         Mercury
Very       Venus
Educated   Earth
Mother     Mars
Just       Jupiter
Served     Saturn
Us         Uranus
Nine       Neptune
Pizzas     Pluto
 Theproper ordering of the
 biological groupings used in

     Kingdom Phylum Class
  Order Family Genus Species
 Highlighting special characteristics
• Labels (1,2,3… A.B.C…)
• Circles or other shapes
• Asterisks/arrows
• Color
• Shading
• Visual blowup
 Highlighting Special Characteristic:

  3        1
legs      2                  2
         3                           4
       Insects            Spiders
   A grasshopper has pairs of small openings
    called spiracles that lead to thousands of
    tracheal tubes. Through the spiracles, air
    travels into the tracheal tubes, then to all
    cells of the grasshopper’s body. By using
    muscles to squeeze its abdomen, the
    grasshopper forces air out of the tracheal
    tubes. When it relaxes these muscles, air
    enters again, repeating the breathing
 Show  interrelationships among
 Make connections with what you
  already know.
 Indicate special characteristics
  of what you are learning.
   Students should
    ◦ be trained to identify the underlying structure of
      English text
    ◦ practice visualizing text using both paper and
    ◦ apply their visualization skills for autonomous AND
      collaborative learning.
Thank you

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