Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Templates by xrp50898

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									2. Motivational Strategies for Adult

      Curt Bonk, Indiana University
There is a problem…
  Do we want degrees in
electronic page turning???
• To get the certificate,
  learners merely needed to
  “read” (i.e. click through)
  each screen of material

• Is this pedagogically
 Online Training
From Forrester, Michelle Delio (2000),
Wired News. (Interviewed 40 training
 managers and knowledge officers)
Must Online Learning
    be Boring?

What Motivates Adult Learners
      to Participate?
“Motivation is critical to e-
  learning success. Would you
  rather go to the training room,
  sit with a friend and have a
  sweet roll while learning about
  the new inventory system, or
  stay in your cube and stare at
  your monitor all afternoon?
  Anything you do to motivate
  your students is good. Don’t
  be afraid to entertain them.
  Good trainers do it all the
Bob Burke (2000, Sept.), 10 e-learning lessons:
Please the customer or fail the course.
E-learning 1(4), 40-41.
               Intrinsic Motivation

 “…innate propensity to engage one’s
  interests and exercise one’s capabilities,
  and, in doing so, to seek out and master
  optimal challenges
 (i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and
    personal curiosity for growth)

See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985).
Intrinsic motivation and self-
determination in human behavior.
NY: Plenum Press.
           Extrinsic Motivation
“…is motivation that arises from external
  contingencies.” (i.e., students who act to get high
  grades, win a trophy, comply with a deadline—
  means-to-an-end motivation)

See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others:
  Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston:
  Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)
        E-Learning Pedagogical Strategies
Motivational/Ice Breakers: Creative Thinking:
1.   8 Noun Introductions                1.   Brainstorming
2.   Coffee House Expectations           2.   Role Play
3.   Scavenger Hunt                      3.   Topical Discussions
4.   Two Truths, One Lie                 4.   Web-Based Explorations & Readings
5.   Public Commitments                  5.   Recursive Tasks
6.   Share-A-Link                        6.   Electronic Séance

Critical Thinking:                       Collaborative Learning:
1.   Electronic Voting and Polling       1.   Starter-Wrapper Discussions
2.   Delphi Technique                    2.   Structured Controversy
3.   Reading Reactions                   3.   Symposium or Expert Panel
4.   Summary Writing and Minute Papers   4.   Electronic Mentors and Guests
5.   Field Reflection                    5.   Round robin Activities
6.   Online Cases Analyses               6.   Jigsaw & Group Problem Solving
7.   Evaluating Web Resources            7.   Gallery Tours and Publishing Work
8.   Instructor as well as Student       8.   Email Pals/Web Buddies and
     Generated Virtual Debates                Critical/Constructive Friends
              Motivational Terms?
  See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner
   motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)

1. Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
2. Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
3. Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement
4. Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
5. Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
6. Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
7. Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control
8. Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
9. Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
10. Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership
            1. Tone:
      A. Instructor Modeling
• The first week of a course is a critical
• If an instructor is personable, students
  will be personable
• If formal, students will be formal
• Too little instructor presence can cause
  low levels of student involvement
• Too much presence can cause
  uninspired student involvement
                   1. Tone:
      B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers
1. Introductions: require not only
  that students introduce themselves,
  but also that they find and respond
  to two classmates who have
  something in common (Serves dual
  purpose of setting tone and having
  students learn to use the tool)
2. Peer Interviews: Have learners
  interview each other via e-mail and then
  post introductions for each other.
         1. Tone/Climate:
    B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers
3. Eight Nouns Activity:
1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
2. Explain why choose each noun
3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings

4. Coffee House Expectations
1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they
    might be met
(or make public commitments of how they will fit into
    busy schedules!)
        1. Tone/Climate:
   C. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers
5. Pair-Ups: Have pairs of students
  summarize the course syllabus for each
  other or summarize initial materials sent
  from the instructor.
6. 99 Seconds of Fame: In an online
  synchronous chat, give each student 99
  seconds to present themselves and field
7. Chat Room Buds: Create a discussion
  prompt in one of “X’ number of chat rooms.
  Introduce yourself in the chat room that
  interests you.
        1. Tone/Climate:
   B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers
8. Cartoon Time: Find a Web site that has
   cartoons. Have participants link their introductions
   to a particular cartoon URL.
9. Share a Link/Favorite Web Site: Have
   students post the URL of a favorite Web site or
   URL with personal information and explain why
   they choose that one.
10.Who Has Polls: During initial meeting, pool
   students on various interesting topics (e.g., who
   has walked on stilts, swam in the ocean, sat in a
   casket, flown a plane, etc.)
         1. Tone/Climate:
    B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers
11. KNOWU Rooms:
   a. Create discussion forums or chat room
      topics for people with diff experiences
      (e.g., soccer parent, runner, pet lovers,
      like music, outdoor person). Find those
      with similar interests.
   b. Complete eval form where list people in
      class and interests. Most names wins.

12. Public Commitments:
Have students share how they will fit the
   coursework into their busy schedules.
              1. Tone/Climate:
      B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers
13. Scavenger Hunt
1. Create a 20-30 item online scavenger
    hunt (e.g., finding information on
    the Web)
2. Post scores

14. Two Truths, One Lie
1. Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
2. Class votes on which is the lie
       2. Feedback
A. Requiring Peer Feedback
1. Require minimum # of peer
  comments and give guidance (e.g.,
  they should do…)
2. Peer Feedback Through
  Templates—give templates to
  complete peer evaluations.
3. Have e-papers contest(s)
                  2. Feedback:
          A. Web-Supported Group
             Reading Reactions
1. Give a set of articles.
2. Post reactions to 3-4 articles
   that intrigued them.
3. What is most impt in readings?
4. React to postings of 3-4 peers.
5. Summarize posts made to their
(Note: this could also be done in teams)
        2. Feedback:
B. Acknowledgement via E-mail,
Live Chats, Telephone (Acknowledge
     questions or completed assignments)
          2. Feedback:
C. Self-Testing and Self-Assessments
               2. Feedback:
  C. Self-Testing and Self-Assessments
(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW
   Missouri State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002)
1. Post times when will be available for 30
   minute slots, first come, first serve.
2. Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to
   study for.
3. Tell can skip one.
4. Assessment will be a dialogue.
5. Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
6. Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
7. Ask q’s, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
8. Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.
   2. Feedback (Instructor)
     D. Reflective Writing
1. Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers
2. PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL
3. Summaries
4. Pros and Cons
  1. Email instructor after class on what learned or
     failed to learn…
  (David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23)
              3. Engagement:
              A. Questioning
       (Morten Flate Pausen, 1995;

1. Shot Gun: Post many questions or articles
  to discuss and answer any—student choice.

2. Hot Seat: One student is selected to
  answer many questions from everyone in
  the class.

3. 20 Questions: Someone has an answer
  and others can only ask questions that have
  “yes” or “no” responses until someone
  guesses answer.
           3. Engagement:
         Textbook Web Sites:
           A. Questioning.
(Post sample questions to the Web for reflection)
         3. Engagement
A. Questioning: XanEdu Coursepacks
        3. Engagement
B. Annotations and Animations:
        MetaText (eBooks)
          3. Engagement:
  C. Electronic Voting and Polling
1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or
   send directly to the instructor)
2. Instructor pulls out minority pt of view
3. Discuss with majority pt of view
4. Repoll students after class

(Note: Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique:
  anomymous input till a due date
  and then post results and
  reconsider until consensus
  Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)
      3. Engagement
C. Survey Student Opinions
 (e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
     4. Meaningfulness:
    A. Perspective Taking
1. Perspective sharing
  discussions: Have learners relate the
 course material to a real-life experience.

Example: In a course on Technology &
 Culture, students freely shared
 experiences of visiting grandparents on
 rural farms. The discussion led to a
 greater interest in the readings.
     4. Meaningfulness:
 B. Job or Field Reflections
1. Field Definition Activity: Have
  student interview (via e-mail, if necessary)
  someone working in the field of study and share
  their results
• As a class, pool interview results and develop a
  group description of what it means to be a
  professional in the field
         4. Meaningfulness:
     B. Job or Field Reflections
1. Instructor provides reflection or prompt
   for job related or field observations
2. Reflect on job setting or observe in field
3. Record notes on Web and reflect on
   concepts from chapter
4. Respond to peers
5. Instructor summarizes posts
          4. Meaningfulness:
   C. Case Creation and Simulations
1. Model how to write a case
2. Practice answering cases.
3. Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on
   field experiences.
4. Link to the text material—relate to how how text
   author or instructor might solve.
5. Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
6. Summarize the discussion in their case.
7. Summarize discussion in a peer case.
  (Note: method akin to storytelling)
            5. Choice:
        A. Multiple Topics
• Generate multiple discussion prompts and
  ask students to participate in 2 out of 3
• Provide different discussion “tracks”
  (much like conference tracks) for students
  with different interests to choose among
• List possible topics and have students
  vote (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
• Have students list and vote.
          5. Choice:
B. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper
          (Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000)

1. Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others
   participate and wrapper summarizes what was
2. Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for
   debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate).

Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or
    questioner to push student thinking and give feedback
       5. Choice:
C. Web Resource Reviews
           6. Variety:
       A. Brainstorming
• Come up with interesting or topic or problem to
• Anonymously brainstorm ideas in a chat
• Encourage spin off ideas
• Post list of ideas generated
• Rank or rate ideas and submit to instructor
• Calculate average ratings and distribute to group
                 6. Variety:
               B. Roundrobin
• Select a topic
• Respond to it
• Pass answer(s) to next person in group
• Keep passing until everyone contributes or ideas
  are exhausted
• Summarize and/or report or findings
                 7. Curiosity:
             A. Electronic Seance

• Students read books from famous dead people
• Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
• Present present day problem for them to solve
• Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
  read direct quotes from books or articles)
• Invite expert guests from other campuses
• Keep chat open for set time period
• Debrief
      7. Curiosity

B. Online Fun and
1. Puzzle games
2. Solve puzzle against
3. Learn concepts
4. Compete
5. Get points
            7. Curiosity:
 C. Electronic Guests & Mentoring
1. Find article or topic that is controversial
2. Invite person associated with that article
   (perhaps based on student suggestions)
3. Hold real time chat
4. Pose questions
5. Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone
   change their minds?)
(Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts
Assignments with expert reviews)
             7. Curiosity:
        D. Synchronous Chats
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Guest speaker moderated (or open) Q&A forum
3. Instructor meetings, private talk, admin help
4. Quick Polls/Quizzes, Voting Ranking, Surveys
5. Swami Questions
6. Peer Q&A and Dialogue
7. Team activities or meetings
8. Brainstorming ideas, What-Ifs, Quick reflections
9. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
10. Twenty Questions, Hot Seat, etc.
                  8. Tension:
                  A. Role Play
A. Role Play Personalities
• List possible roles or personalities (e.g., coach, optimist,
  devil’s advocate, etc.)
• Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key roles)
• Reassign roles if someone drops class
• Perform within roles—refer to different personalities
B. Assume Persona of Scholar
   – Enroll famous people in your course
   – Students assume voice of that person for one or
     more sessions
   – Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic
   – Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own
             8. Tension.
     B. Six Hats (from De Bono, `985; adopted
      for online learning by Karen Belfer, 2001, Ed Media)

•   White Hat: Data, facts, figures, info (neutral)
•   Red Hat: Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage…
•   Yellow Hat: Positive, sunshine, optimistic
•   Black Hat: Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy
•   Green Hat: New ideas, creativity, growth
•   Blue Hat: Controls thinking process & organization

Note: technique used in a business info systems
  class where discussion got too predictable!
             8. Tension:
   C. Instructor Generated Virtual
   Debate (or student generated)
1. Select controversial topic (with input from class)
2. Divide class into subtopic pairs: one critic and
   one defender.
3. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic
4. Critics and defenders post initial position stmts
5. Rebut person in one’s pair
6. Reply to 2+ positions with comments or q’s
7. Formulate and post personal positions.
            9. Interactive:
  B. Critical/Constructive Friends,
      Email Pals, Web Buddies
1. Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on
2. Post weekly updates of projects, send
   reminders of due dates, help where needed.
3. Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong
   and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark)
   as well as suggestions for strengthening.
    In effect, critical friends do not slide over
      weaknesses, but confront them kindly and
4. Reflect on experience.
                 9. Interactive:
        C. Symposia, Press Conference,
              or Panel of Experts
   1.   Find topic during semester that peaks interest
   2.   Find students who tend to be more controversial
   3.   Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme
   4.   Have them prepare statements
   5.   Invite questions from audience (rest of class)
   6.   Assign panelists to start

(Alternative: Have a series of press
   conferences at the end of small group
   projects; one for each group)
               10. Goal Driven:
          A. Group Problem Solving
•   Provide a real-world problem
•   Form a committee of learners to solve the problem
•   Assign a group reporter/manager
•   Provide interaction guidelines and deadlines
    – Brainstorming
    – Research
    – Negotiation
    – Drafting
    – Editing
    – Reflecting
Alternative: Jigsaw Technique:
Assign chapters within groups
(member #1 reads chapters 1 & 2; #2 reads 3 & 4, etc.)
         10. Goal Driven:
         B. Gallery Tours
• Assign Topic or Project
(e.g., Team or Class White
  Paper, Bus Plan, Study
  Guide, Glossary,
  Journal, Model Exam
• Students Post to Web
• Experts Review and Rate
• Try to Combine Projects
    Motivational Top Ten
1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing
2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions
3. Engagement: Q’ing, Polling, Voting
4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases
5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper
6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins
7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors
8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy
9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels
10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours

      Pick One…??? (circle one)
         Pick an Idea
• Definitely Will Use:

• May Try to Use:

• No Way:

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