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                     Timothy Hoye ( and Joseph Kozak (

Abstract - In today’s society, the way in which we physically           Dr. Andrew Hsu, an expert on touch screen
interact with electronic devices is changing how we focus       technologies, states that “IR (infrared) screens are among the
our technological research. This change has led to many         most durable surfaces and can handle hostile environments,
great advances, including the development of touch screen       making them well suited for military applications”[3].
technology. Through the use of touch screen technology, the     Although we will not be focusing on the technology in terms
operator is given an alternative method of how he or she can    of military applications, we can see that infrared touch
interact with a device. This technology operates in three       screen technologies, while being the most durable surfaces,
distinct ways: resistive systems, capacitive systems, and       are also quite possibly the most versatile. This versatility
infrared systems. This paper will investigate, discuss, and     comes from having two variant systems of infrared touch
compare these different technologies, focusing on the           screen. The first system is similar to resistive systems, which
differences in application, aspects of sustainability, as well  will be discussed later, in that it consists of a two
as the positive and negative qualities.                         dimensional grid of infrared light.
                                                                       In this technology, infrared LEDs (light emitting
Key Words – Capacitive, Infrared, Multi-Touch, Resistive, diodes) are arranged on opposite sides of the unit underneath
Sustainability, Touch Screens                                   the glass. The diodes project infrared light into sensors
                                                                located directly across from them. The sensors read the
       A BRIEF HISTORY OF TOUCH SCREENS                         strength of the beams, and “when a user makes contact with
                                                                the screen, the system measures the drop in the sensor-
Throughout the past century, technology has improved in output signal; this measurement allows the system to
many ways. The way in which humans interact with compute the location of the touch” [3]. This is to say that
technology is one of the most important ways technology is when the finger touches the screen, the infrared beams are
changing. By using touch screen technology, the user is able obstructed by the user’s finger; however, some light
to manipulate a digital environment by only the touch of continues to pass to the sensor. The sensors send the
their finger, or another input device, on the screen. measurements of light to the operating system, which
Throughout this paper we will discuss the different analyzes the data and recognizes where the user touched.
technologies that make this possible: infrared, resistive, and This technology has multi-touch capability because the
capacitive touch screens, as well as their qualities in modern beams of light are never fully obstructed by the user’s touch.
devices.                                                               The second type of infrared system requires more
     Touch screen technology first entered the public eye in space than the first. This system is based upon internal
1971, with the invention of the Elograph, by Elographics, reflection; a beam of light is emitted from within the unit,
Inc [1]. This company was created to “produce Graphical hits the glass, and part of the beam exits through the lens
Data Digitizers for use in research and industrial while the other part goes back into the unit. Cameras are
applications” [1]. This technology set the stage for many placed inside the unit and are calibrated to the standard
devices to come. One of the next devices to be invented was reflection to the beams so that, “when objects such as fingers
the HP-150, the first touch screen computer. Hewlett touch the surface, the light diffuses at the contact point,
Packard invented this device in 1983 [2]. This technology is causing the acrylic’s internal-reflection pathways to change.
important because it “had infrared touch-screen capability, A camera below the surface captures the diffusion and sends
allowing for creation of ATM-like applications” [2]. These the information to image-processing software, which can
are two of the most important devices in the development of read multiple touches simultaneously and translate them into
touch screen technology. As time progressed, touch screen a command” [4]. In the example stated, the screen is an
devices have become increasingly more complex and acrylic screen rather than standard glass, allowing for a
sustainable, providing the user with greater accuracy and thinner lens that is just as durable, cheaper, and more
more features to improve the quality of life.                   resilient.
                                                                       Advances are being made in internal reflection systems
                                                                to make the instruments much smaller. One of these
The first type of touch screen technology we shall discuss is advancements, called ThinSight, is “a thin form-factor
based upon infrared light. There are two main infrared interactive surface technology based on optical sensors
systems: a standard grid and an internal reflection system. embedded inside a regular liquid crystal display” [5].
These systems are very accurate; however, they require more ThinSight will allow a row of circuitry that possesses
space than other touch screen systems.                          hundreds of small infrared LEDs, similar to the emitters and
                                                                sensors, used in standard infrared systems. These sensors
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and emitters are much smaller and would cover a much                   application buttons, paint across the screen, and further
smaller area of the screen. Traditional internal reflection            interact with the Surface. Blobs are generic objects that are
system only required four or five emitters and cameras.                given a circular or oval reading with a major and minor axis.
Thinsight technology is still in development; however, it is           Blobs include inanimate objects like paper or other pieces of
believed that these advancements could make infrared touch             technology like smart phones or cameras [7]. Microsoft
screen technology much smaller. The advancements would                 products, like the Microsoft Zune music player, can interact
also cause the system to be more available for future                  with the Surface just by laying Zune upon the top of the
consumer touch screen devices.                                         screen. Multiple Zunes can interact with one another using
                                                                       the Surface as an intermediary, transferring songs from one
                                                                       to another. Cameras and phones can also perform similar
                                                                       tasks with contacts, pictures, maps, and many other pieces of
                                                                       data. Microsoft has been “initially selling Surface to
                                                                       Starwood Hotels for guest check in, Harrah’s Entertainment
                                                                       for video gambling, and T-Mobile for providing customers
                                                                       with technical information about the company’s mobile
                                                                       phones” [4]. The Surface allows for the use of tagged items,
                                                                       specific to where the device is located. Tagged items could
                                                                       include gambling chips at a Harrah’s Casino or an electric
                                                                       keycard at a Starwood Hotel. The tagged items give the
                          FIGURE 1                                     Surface very specific data, which includes the facing
   THINSIGHT TOUCH SCREEN INFRARED EMITTERS AND DETECTORS [5]          direction of the object as well as electric data on the tagged
                     Microsoft Surface                                 item itself [7].

As mentioned above, the Microsoft Surface is a great
example of internal reflection infrared touch screens. In
early 2001, “Steve Bathiche of Microsoft Hardware and
Andy Wilson of Microsoft Research began brainstorming
concepts for an interactive table”, beginning the
development of the Surface [6]. The process continued in
development until 2003 when the idea was presented to Bill
Gates, and 85 prototypes were created for developers on the
Surface Computing group, a group created in 2004 to solely
develop the Surface. In 2005, various prototypes were
created and analyzed, and eventually, in 2008, the Microsoft
Surface was on sale to the public for $12,500 or $15,000 [6].
      The Surface’s “technology uses multiple image sensors
around one side of the touch surface and IR backlights on
the other side. When a user places his finger on the surface,                                   FIGURE 2
intercepting the infrared beam, the device projects a shadow.                              MICROSOFT SURFACE [6]
Using multiple cameras, the unit converts this shadow into a                Through previous advances in touch screen
touch point through triangulation” [3]. As stated by Dr. Hsu,          technology, Microsoft took a step forward in infrared
the Surface uses a system of cameras and IR LED’s to                   systems with their Surface. The Surface’s starting price is
capture the image of the object touching the surface. The              $12,500. This high cost makes the Surface inaccessible to
Surface took a step forward with their technology,                     personal consumers, and is therefore marketed toward
developing a special motherboard to compute the data,                  corporations or companies.
transmitted at 100 megabytes per second, from the cameras.
The board then divides the data into sections that decide                           RESISTIVE TOUCH SCREENS
what is relevant and what is not. Relevant data is considered
                                                                       Resistive touch screen systems are the most common type of
to be any information from the cameras that has changed
                                                                       touch screen technology in today’s market. These devices
since the last transmission. An example of that is the shadow
                                                                       are used in many applications, such as cell phones, handheld
from the infrared light changing as someone touches the
                                                                       games, GPS navigation devices, and even some digital
                                                                       cameras [3].
      This software is also revolutionary in that it detects and
                                                                             The resistive touch screen technology operates in a
distinguishes different types of touches. The Surface
                                                                       very simple way. These screens are built using two layers of
categorizes touches into three sets: finger, blob, and tagged
                                                                       the conductive material Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), separated
objects. Fingers are given the ability to click on software
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by a small gap of air [3]. The bottom layer is generally on            due to the slight electromagnetic charge contained in the
glass, and the top on a flexible material, often plastic [8].          human body [8]. These changes in capacitance are measured
When the user presses down on the top ITO layer, it                    and calculated as touch points in a very similar way to
physically bends to make contact with the bottom ITO layer,            resistive touch screens, by using the X and Y components.
changing the resistance of the two layers [8]. A typical
resistive touch screen uses 4 wires, 2 of them on each panel.
As seen in Figure 3, each panel corresponds to a different
axis. These perpendicular axes allow the computer to take
the measurements of the change in resistance from each
panel, and calculate the position of the touch point from its
X and Y components [3].

                                                                                                FIGURE 4
                                                                                PROJECTED CAPACITIVE TOUCH SCREEN LAYERS [8]

                                                                                   Surface Capacitive Touch Screens
                                                                             Surface capacitive is another form of capacitive touch
                                                                       screen technology. The primary difference between surface
                                                                       capacitive and projected capacitive is that surface capacitive
                                                                       uses only one ITO surface [3]. This layer calculates touch
                                                                       points using principles that are very similar to projected
                          FIGURE 3                                     capacitive touch screens, in that touch points are observed
                                                                       by changes in capacitance if the ITO layer in the touch
            CAPACITIVE TOUCH SCREENS                                   screen. However, these touch points are measured in a very
                                                                       different way. The computer measures the change in
Capacitive touch screens are very important within the field           capacitance from each corner of the ITO layer, and with
of touch screen technology. In the early 1990s, this                   these 4 separate measurements, the X and Y coordinates of
technology made its initial appearance into the touch screen           the touch point are calculated [3].
market in laptop computers, as touch pads [3]. Recently,
                                                                                        Multi-Touch Technology
capacitive popularity has grown, as it has become one of the
leading technologies used in touch screen devices. In 2001,            An important feature of capacitive touch screens is their
it began appearing in consumer devices, such as MP3-                   ability to recognize and calculate multiple touch points at
players and smart phones [3]. This increase in attention is            one time, commonly called multi-touch. “Multi-touch
likely due to the effectiveness of its design, its use of multi-       technology has been around since early research at the
touch technology, and the popularity of Apple products                 University of Toronto in 1982” [4]. The uses of this
using this technology: iPod Touch, iPhone and most recently            technology are very vast, allowing for greater human-
the iPad. [9].                                                         computer interaction. This technology is traditionally
                                                                       associated with capacitive touch screens, but is not limited to
           Projected Capacitive Touch Screens                          this technology. It can also be found in infrared touch
The design of projected capacitive touch screens is                    screens and is beginning to appear in resistive touch screens
somewhat similar to that of resistive touch screens, in that           [3]. Currently, multi-touch technology is being used with a
they both utilize 2 layers of ITO, with perpendicular                  purpose similar to the function keys (Control, Alt, Option,
conductive measuring strips on the ends of each layer [8],             Command, etc.) on a standard keyboard. By adopting these
which are encased between two glass layers (See Figure 4).             functions, the user is able to complete the same tasks as
This “grid,” formed by the perpendicular conductive layers,            before, but with one hand. With advances in hardware, multi
projects the electric field through the top layer of glass-            touch will allow multiple users to access the same device
hence the name projected capacitive touch screens [8].                 simultaneously, like the Microsoft Surface’s capability of
Because of this projection, when the user touches the top              300 plus touches. While the hardware is available to create
layer of glass it “changes the measured capacitance values of          such devices, software implementation is holding back the
the electrodes closest to it” [3]. This change in capacitance is       growth of multi touch.

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                            Apple                                     manipulate documents, images, and other files with motions
                                                                      that feel like the task actually being completed, the user is
Apple Corporation is a pioneer in the field of consumer
                                                                      able to work more efficiently and with less specific training
electronics. With their innovative designs, Apple products
                                                                      or knowledge.
have been setting new standards to which other technology
                                                                             Apple recently announced their next step in the field of
is compared. In 2007, Apple revealed the iPhone, changing
                                                                      touch screen technology: the iPad. Little is known about this
the face of telecommunications and touch screen technology
                                                                      device, aside from general technical descriptions of what it
[10]. This device was revolutionary because it incorporated a
                                                                      can do, and its 9.7-inch multi-touch display [9]. It can be
cell phone, iPod, and Internet communications device,
                                                                      assumed that it operates very similarly to that of the iPhone
making it the only electronic device you need [11]. Apple
                                                                      and iPod touch. This device was designed to browse the
also created a version of this device to be the next generation
                                                                      web, read and send email, view photos, movies, listen to
of iPod, called the iPod Touch or the iTouch. It is very
                                                                      music, play games, and read e-books, among many other
similar to the iPhone, except for the difference that it does
                                                                      things [13]. With these tasks in mind, the iPad is creating a
not have cell phone capabilities. For our purposes, these
                                                                      new market for touch screen devices, much as the iPhone
devices will be described as interchangeable, because they
                                                                      changed the mobile phone industry. By integrating
both rely on the same touch technology and the same user-
                                                                      innovative hardware, and creating arguably the most
interface [9].
                                                                      intuitive user interface available, Apple continues to raise
                                                                      the bar for all of their competitors in the consumer touch
                                                                      screen industry.

                                                                                           PROS AND CONS
                                                                      The two types of infrared systems are internal reflection and
                                                                      infrared grid. Infrared grids systems are reliable and can be
                                                                      manufactured inexpensively into appropriate sizes. Due to
                                                                      the grid of lasers and sensors, users do not need to press
                         FIGURE 5                                     fully down on the screen putting less wear on screen
                       APPLE IPHONE [9]                               increasing the life expectancy of the unit. The grid also
      The iPhone and iTouch both use a projected capacitive           increases the precision of the users touch.
touch screen, and are often used as examples in comparing                   Internal reflection systems are large systems because
projected capacitive technology to other touch screen                 of the space required for cameras to accurately measure the
technologies [10]. The patent application for this system is          shadow produced by the infrared LEDs. The large space
where most of our knowledge of the screen is from. It                 required for larger instruments does make internal reflection
describes two different types of touch technology, self-              devices the most accurate touch screen technology. Units
capacitance and mutual capacitance [12]. Self-capacitance is          like the Microsoft Surface, the leading internal reflection
“a simple passive array of 2436 sensing electrodes in a              device, are also able to increase their multi-touch capabilities
single plane” [12]. Mutual capacitance, on the other hand,            to 300 plus touches.
works much more like other capacitive touch screens. By                     Resistive touch screen technology is the cheapest of
setting two layers on top of each other, aligning the                 the different types of touch screens; however, there are a few
measuring strips perpendicular to each other, and calculating         drawbacks. The first problem with this technology is the
the touch point based on the X and Y coordinate of the                flexibility of the top layer of screen. This causes the ITO
touch, greater accuracy is achieved [10]. Another                     coating to crack due to the continual stretching and
technologically relevant aspect of the iPhone is its use of           retracting of the flexible later [3]. This wear also relates to
multi-touch input, which allows for 15 touches at a time              the air gap between the ITO layers. This gap allows dirt and
[12]. It is with this technology that the iPhone and iPod             dust to collect between the two conductive surfaces, making
touch revolutionized the touch screen industry.                       the display appear dirty. Additionally, these devices are “less
      These devices are important to the development of               than ideal for harsh environments,” due to the fact that they
touch screen technology, because of their superior user               are vulnerable to temperature and humidity changes, which
interface (UI). There are six main functions of the iPhone’s          would affect the accuracy of the touch screen [3]. This is not
touch screen: “Single tap to select or activate something,            to say that they do not perform consistently under standard
double tap to change the display format, drag and drop to             conditions. One benefit of this technology is that the user is
move something, a stroke (“swipe” or “flick”)                         able to use his or her finger or a stylus as input devices [3].
up/down/left/right to scroll, “pinching” two fingers together         Overall, resistive touch screens perform very well,
to shrink something,” and “spreading” two fingers apart to            considering that they are the cheapest of the different touch
enlarge something” [10]. These intuitive controls have set a          screens.
new precedent for all user interfaces. By being able to
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       Capacitive touch screens are very common in many                screens [3]. The size of resistive and capacitive touch
consumer devices. Although there are two different types of            screens is relatively similar, due to the similar nature of their
capacitive touch screens, their performance is very similar,           technologies. However, there is quite a difference in price
with the exception that projected capacitive touch screens             between these touch screens. Capacitive touch screens are
are a little more accurate than surface capacitive touch               more expensive than resistive touch screens because the
screens, but this difference is relatively negligible. An              systems of circuitry and measurement are more complex [3].
important feature of this technology is its use and application              It is with these differences in mind that we discuss the
of multi-touch gestures. This is because less force is required        applications of these technologies. Infrared touch screens are
to maintain a “touch point”, making dragging and zooming               best suited to devices like the Microsoft Surface, which
items much easier. However, a drawback of this technology              require a very large touch screen. While resistive and
is that you can only touch the screen with your finger. This           capacitive screens have the potential to be this size, they do
means that stylus and gloves, depending on their thickness,            not perform as well as the infrared technology. This is
will not work with this technology [8]. Another drawback is            because infrared technology uses sets of infrared LEDs and
the cost of the screen. These screens are more expensive               either cameras or sensors to detect the changes. Having a
than resistive touch screens [3]. Overall, capacitive touch            large capacitive or resistive system would require a large
screens are very effective in their current uses.                      amount of wire throughout the screen; wires of that size
       Resistive and capacitive technologies are very similar,         would increase the chance for malfunction in detection, as
but also have several important differences. One of these              well as wear and tear.
differences is in durability and the need for calibration. In                Capacitive touch screens are best suited for high end,
resistive touch screens, due to the deformation and warping            portable electronic devices, and devices that need to perform
of the ITO layer, the screens performance will be changed.             consistently in many conditions. This is because of its
This change creates a need to recalibrate the screen [8]. This         durability, accuracy, multi-touch support and ease, and its
problem, however, is not found in capacitive touch screens.            aesthetically pleasing appearance.
This is because the ITO layers are less susceptible to                       Finally, resistive touch screens are best suited for
damage. Additionally, this is capable “because the system              mobile applications, in which conditions will be consistent.
can self-calibrate for environmental changes and is better
able to adapt to environmental issues than resistive                                        SUSTAINABILITY
technology” [3]. Infrared devices also have the capability to
self-calibrate for scratches because the sensors only react            One definition of sustainability is the improvement of the
when something changes on the screen. A sensor would                   quality of life by making life more enjoyable and less
initially react to a scratch however, once the device is in rest       burdensome. Touch screen technology fits within this
it would read the new dimensions of the screen to be                   definition very well. Touch screen devices make life more
standard.                                                              enjoyable by creating a fun and intuitive user interface. This
        This difference has a large impact on the use of each          is a reason that the iPhone, iPod Touch, and similar devices
of the devices. Since capacitive and infrared devices do not           are so successful. By allowing the user to operate the device
need to be calibrated, they are more accurate than resistive           in many different ways, the devices are more versatile and
devices after some wear. This difference between capacitive            create a better interface for many applications. With a better
and resistive also increases because the ITO layers in                 interface, the devices become more enjoyable to use, and
resistive devices deteriorate over time. Capacitive touch              allow for other applications of the device.
screens are, therefore, more accurate and more durable than                  Sustainability also pertains to making life less
resistive touch screens.                                               burdensome. Touch screens are very sustainable because of
       Another difference between the types of touch screens           the vast amount of applications that can be done on one
is the type of input devices allowed. In both resistive and            device. This can be seen very easily in the iPhone and
infrared systems, you can use nearly any object to create a            Microsoft Surface. Before the iPhone, many people carried
touch point. The only limitation on resistive systems is that          around a cell phone, iPod, and PDA. With the
the object needs to be somewhat pointed. This means that               implementation of a versatile touch screen, the iPhone and
these touch screens allow for the use of fingers, a stylus,            other touch screen devices are able to do the tasks of all
and, in infrared devices, just about any other object. This is a       three of these devices. This is because of the adaptability of
great benefit over capacitive touch screens, where a user can          the interface. The Microsoft Surface is similar to the iPhone
only use a finger to create touch points. The flexibility of           because it makes many applications available to the user.
using a stylus or finger allows for greater accuracy, and also         Users are able to transfer contact information, calendars,
allows the technology to be used in varied ways.                       pictures, etc. with just the touch of a finger. The
       The main difference between touch screen                        sustainability aspects of both of these devices show the
technologies is size and cost. Infrared touch screens are by           importance of these technologies. These devices improve the
far the biggest of the touch screen technologies. They are             quality of life for the user by simplifying everyday tasks and
also more expensive than resistive and capacitive touch                making them more enjoyable for the user.
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                                      TENTH ANNUAL FRESHMAN CONFERENCE
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                  THE FUTURE OF TOUCH                                            [5]Izadi, Shahram, et al. "ThinSight: A Thin Form-Factor Interactive
                                                                                 Surface Technology." Association for Computing Machinery.
                                                                                 [6]"The Origins of Microsoft Surface".
For now, the latest developments in touch screen technology             Accessed 3
include what is considered as an interactive touch screen—it                     March 2010.
is perceived that the screen shapes itself allowing a user to                    [7]"The Microsoft Surface Vision System".
click a button. A. Peshkin and J. Edward Colgate, professors            Accessed 3 March 2010.
                                                                                 [8] Gray, Tony. “Projected Capacitive Touch Screen Technology”. Ocular,
at Northwestern University, are at the forefront of this                         Inc. Accessed 3 March 2010.
innovation. The Tactile Pattern Display, TPaD, has a small                       [9] “”. Accessed 3
devise, piezoelectric ceramic disc that vibrates the outer                       March 2010.
most layer of glass. The vibrations through the glass create a                   [10] Walker, Geoff. “The Apple iPhone’s Impact on the Touch-Panel
                                                                                 Industry”. Information Display 5/07. Accessed 3 March 2010.
small layer of air between the user’s finger and the screen                      [11]"Apple Reinvents the Phone with iPhone".
itself. This changes the coefficient of friction between the            Accessed 3 March
finger and screen making it appear that the glass itself has                     2010.
changed. Peshkin and Colgate explain that, “the entire plate                     [12] Walker, Geoff. “Touch and the Apple iPhone”. Veritas et Visus.
                                                                                 Accessed 3 March 2010.
vibrates, so the amount of friction is the same all over the                     [13]"Apple Launches iPad".
TPaD’s surface at any given time. But because the                       Accessed 3 March
oscillations are modulated as your finger’s position changes,                    2010.
the device fools you into thinking that there are varying                        [14]Jones, Willie D. “Touch Screens with Feeling” IEEE Spectrum May.
                                                                                 2009: 15. Accessed 3 March 2010.
amounts of friction at different locations. The prototype uses
optical sensors to keep track of your finger’s position. The                                            ADDITIONAL SOURCES
friction reduction can be switched on and off so quickly
(within about 4 milliseconds on average) that the pitch of                       Aguilar, R.N., and G.C.M. Meijer. "Fast interface electronics for a resistive
                                                                                 touch screen." Proceedings of IEEE SENSORS 2002. 2002.
virtual bumps or dips can be made far finer than what a                          Hill, Anthony. "Touch screen technologies: Their advantages and
fingertip can discern” [14].                                                     disadvantages; the guidelines offered will point you toward the best touch
       The TPaD is still in the prototype phase of                               technology for your application needs." Control Solutions, September 2002:
development; however, it is a step forward with human                            24.
                                                                                 Hoggan, Eve, Topi Kaaresoja, Pauli Laitinen, and Stephen Brewster.
interaction with technology. How far and how fast touch                          "Crossmodal Congruence: The Look, Feel and Sound of Touchscreen
screen technology develops is only limited to the funding                        Widgets." ICMI. 2008. 157-164.
and resources available. Expect to be interacting with your                      Kim, Hong-Ki, et al. "Transparent and flexible tactile sensor for multi touch
devices more and more as advances are made in technology.                        screen application with force sensing." Solid State Sensors, Actuators and
                                                                                 Microsystems Conference. 2009. 1146-1149.
                                                                                 Loviscach, Jorn. "Two-Finger Input with a Standard Touch Screen."
          TOUCH SCREENS AND CONSUMERS                                            Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informatik, October 7-10, 2007: 169-172.

Moving towards the future, consumers will continue to see                                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
the growth of the touch screen industry, due to extensive
engineering advancements in user interfaces. The ability to                      We would like to thank Luis Bon and Rowoli Scott-
physically touch a screen is easier than searching for a                         Emuakpor for their guidance in this project. We also thank
specific key in a sea of buttons. Society, for these reasons,                    those at the Engineering Library, Writing Center, and those
has found touch screens to be the future of many devices.                        involved in the Freshman Engineering Writing Program who
The social norm of today includes walking down the street                        have helped us with our research and in editing this project.
surfing the web on an iPhone or sifting through music on an                      We would additionally like to thank our peers in the
iPod Touch. No additional buttons are necessary, just the                        Freshman Engineering Program, especially the SPACE
small, portable device in one’s pocket until needed. Society                     Floors, for their support and assistance with the editing and
will continue to see the development of touch screen                             revisions necessary to completing this project.
technology as human-device interaction is perfected.

[1]“Company history from Elographics to Elo TouchSystems, 1971 -
present - Elo TouchSystems - Tyco Electronics”. Accessed 3 March
[2]“The HP-150”. Accessed 3 March 2010.
[3]Hsu, Andrew. "Choosing a touch technology for handheld-system
applications." EDN, January 8, 2009: 40-44.
[4]Nichols, Steven J. Vaughan “New Interfaces at the Touch of a Fingertip”
IEEE Society August. 2007: 12-15.

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                                            TENTH ANNUAL FRESHMAN CONFERENCE

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