New BREEAM for retail developments
Waste reduction at Greenwich Millennium Village
AUTUMN 2003 ISSUE 18
Protecting older buildings against dampness
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
Air quality in aircraft cabins
Overview: news, p1. Construction Masters: a new MSc degree will provide a mix of technical, business and management expertise, p 5. A nation of sustainable shopkeepers? A new version of BREEAM has
dealing with dampness problems in older buildings often needs specialist advice, p 10. Energy Performance of Buildings Directive: this EU Directive is going to have important strategic and business implications
been developed for retail buildings, p7. Reduced waste at GMV: the Greenwich Millennium Village development has exceeded its waste reduction targets, p9. Dampness and flooding in older buildings:
for building owners, operators and developers, p11. Air quality in aircraft cabins: recent years have seen rising interest in the impact of flying on health, with considerable media coverage of the issue, p13.
Laying the demonstration road (control mix) The demonstration road contains ISF slag to the right of
the line and control mix to the left
energy use in buildings, fire prevention and control, and risk management. BRE is owned by the Foundation for the Built Environment,
Constructing the future is published by BRE, the UK’s leading centre of expertise on the built environment, construction,
Non-ferrous waste in road
construction – update
Research into the use of non-ferrous
industry waste as bound aggregate in road
a registered charity with a mission to champion excellence and innovation in the built environment.
construction has reached a key stage with
the recent laying of a demonstration asphalt
road containing ISF slag as aggregate at the
Britannia Zinc site at Avonmouth, near Bristol.
In an earlier phase of the project, a concrete
road pavement containing the ferro-silicate
For a free subscription to Constructing the future telephone 01923 664303
Printing: Croxsons Sheetfed, T 01923 692500, E firstname.lastname@example.org
slag aggregate from the Imperial Smelting
Furnace production of zinc (ISF slag) was
laid at the site (in September last year).
Design: OPX, London, T 020 7729 6295, www.opx.co.uk
Laboratory tests have indicated that ISF Whilst the quantities of non-ferrous industry
slag is also an effective fine aggregate when wastes are small in relation to the volumes
bound with bitumen and this was the subject of aggregates consumed annually by the
of the latest trial. UK construction industry, the requirement
Editor: Tom Harvey, E email@example.com
Test and control sections (with and without to landfill these materials is costly in both
ISF slag) were manufactured, laid and economic and environmental terms.
compacted using full-scale plant by The waste can easily be consumed in the
Aggregate Industries under the direction of locality of production without affecting the
local economy reliant on production of
Scott Wilson Pavement Engineering (SWPE).
The section of road containing the ISF slag
proved easy to lay. In the longer term, the project partners*
These road sections will, as with the concrete hope to secure funding for a demonstration
roadway laid previously, carry a significant trial using other secondary and recycled
amount of heavy industrial traffic and will be aggregate materials.
monitored over the next year. This will involve For more information –
coring, dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) Andrew Dunster, 01923 664365
and falling weight deflectometer (FWD) E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
testing. An evaluation of the data and a
comparison of the predicted pavement lives
of the trial and control pavements for a * The Partnership includes:
– Alcan Smelting and Power UK Ltd.
hypothetical design traffic will be carried out. – Anglesey Aluminium Metal Ltd.
A suite of performance-related tests will be – Aluminium Federation Ltd
used on the cores to determine the – BRE
fundamental mechanical properties of the – Britannia Zinc Ltd.
– Britannia Refined Metals Ltd.
ISF slag asphalt and control material, and – Engineering Industry Directorate, DTI
likely future behaviour. – Environment Agency
– Hanson Premix
The aim of this project is to encourage the use – Heckett Multiserv
of non-ferrous waste in construction in areas
– Highways Agency
local to the manufacturing sites, to reduce – The Non-Ferrous Alliance
the use of valuable landfill space and to – Ready Mixed Concrete Bureau
– Rowan House Ltd.
support the economic viability of the local – Scott Wilson Pavement Engineering Ltd.
manufacturing industry. – Tarmac Group
Screen image from BREMAP The uptake of energy efficiency measures has followed Floor testing laboratories – looking down into the
the S-curve behaviour characteristic of most markets lower room
New report sheds light on
Government CO2 targets
UK energy efficiency must improve very
rapidly between now and 2050 if the
Government’s Energy White Paper ambition
New system to cover all waste of putting the UK on a path towards a 60%
options reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by
A new web-based information system has Many existing databases and much 2050 is to be realised.
been developed to identify the best ways industry literature detailing landfill sites, The scale of the task can be better
of dealing with waste materials, taking transfer stations, incinerators, recycling appreciated in light of information in a
full account of the options available at sites, reclamation companies, composting newly published report, which documents
a user’s location. facilities and manufacturer take-back progress over the past thirty years on
The system is made up of two schemes, are encapsulated by BREMAP improving energy efficiency in the largest
complementary elements – BREMAP, into a consistent and accessible format. energy use sector – housing. Domestic
a geographical information system, and Currently, around 9,000 companies able Energy Fact File 2003 presents detailed
SalvoMIE, a materials information exchange. to perform some type of service to the information on energy use trends and
Together they define the best practicable industry are registered on the website. energy efficiency in the housing stock.
option for any UK site or company having Anyone wanting to edit their company It provides the basic demand-side data
to deal with waste. details or add their company to BREMAP needed for informed speculation on what
can complete the registration form might happen in the future.
BREMAP (www.smartwaste.co.uk) available at www.smartwaste.co.uk or
provides the locations of reputable One chart in particular in the report,
send an e-mail to email@example.com. summarises the data on a wide range of
businesses involved in the collection,
storage, haulage, reuse, reclamation, For more information – individual energy efficiency measures,
recycling and disposal of construction and Michelle Leong, 01923 664516 and shows how their uptake has closely
demolition wastes. It has been developed E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org followed the s-curve behaviour
by BRE and funded by Biffaward through characteristic of most markets. It shows
landfill tax credits and a grant from the that even for the measures with the fastest
Institution of Civil Engineers R&D uptake rates, some of which have been
Enabling Fund. subsidised by Government, it has taken
about 30 years to go from zero ownership Sound insulation of floors –
SalvoMIE (www.salvomie.co.uk) provides to saturation. So any new energy efficiency Approved Document E
an advertising and trading ground for a technologies being introduced now are Sound insulation is now a key issue for
selection of available materials. These likely to take at least as long to achieve full manufacturers of building materials and
will range from large quantities of scrap uptake, and will need careful monitoring components. Major changes to Approved
demolition timber and recycled aggregates, to check on actual progress. Document E mean that designers and
to smaller quantities of new bricks and contractors must meet more stringent
plasterboard off-cuts left over from a However, some measures can be expected
to take much longer. For example, based on performance targets for sound insulation.
building project, or shrubs and topsoil Facts and figures are needed to prove
from a landscaping project. SalvoMIE was current trends, the very important measure
of cavity wall insulation is unlikely to reach a product is suitable and complies with
originally funded by the Department of standards.
Environment Transport and Regions and saturation until around 2050. This rate of
is now being managed by Salvo. uptake must be accelerated if the CO2 In view of this, two vertical laboratories for
emissions reduction target is to be met. use by flooring manufacturers to test the
Entering a user’s postcode into BREMAP sound insulation value of their products
brings up a map of the different waste “The challenge that we face is clearly
enormous,” says Les Shorrock, one of the have been opened by BRE. The facilities can
services – and available materials and be used to test internal or separating floors
products (this part of the database being report’s authors. ”Domestic Energy Fact File
can help us start on the path by providing as well as floating floors and other floor
updated daily) – in that area. Basic and coverings (eg carpet, vinyl).
advanced searches can be made. For information that defines in great detail
example, a basic search could look for the departure point from which it has BRE is UKAS-accredited for laboratory and
waste management facilities within 20 to be met.” field testing of airborne and impact sound
miles of a user’s postcode. An advanced Domestic Energy Fact File 2003 is available insulation.
search could look for waste facilities from the BRE Bookshop, visit For further information –
dealing in timber pallets within 20 miles, www.brebookshop.com or phone Robin Hall, 01923 664300
but restricted to Bedfordshire or the Midlands. 020 7505 6622. E-mail email@example.com
News from LPCB and BRE Certification
New roofing system approval
LPCB has approved Liquid Plastics Limited’s Decothane Gamma 20 and
Decothane Delta 25 Roofing Systems to BS 476:Part 3 and ENV 1187: Test 1,
Test 2 and Test 3. This is the first liquid roofing membrane to be approved by
LPCB. The product is applied cold and therefore there is not the fire risk
associated with flame applied roofing products.
By using LPCB approved roofing products, roofing contractors are
demonstrating their commitment to reducing the number of hot work
fires and this will hopefully drive down their liability insurance premiums.
Transportable pressure equipment directive
BRE Certification (incorporating LPCB) is now a Notified Body under the
Transportable Pressure Equipment Directive. Following a successful
assessment, the manufacturer may apply the ‘Pi’ Mark shown here. This Mark
symbolises the conformance of individual elements or assemblies with the
requirements of the directive. Such marking does not provide an indication
of performance, but rather that the equipment is safe to transport
First ISO14001 Environmental Certificate awarded
Hochiki Europe (UK) Ltd is the first company to be awarded a certificate for
Environmental Management Systems certification following a satisfactory Fire safety engineering explained
assessment by BRE Certification. The issue of this certificate is a significant Approval of steel frame housing
system A new guide to fire safety engineering
step forward in providing an increased range of certification services. has been published – in both web-based
A factory-assembled light steel frame
system for building houses has gained and printed versions – to provide simple
LPS 1181 Revision technical approval from BRE Certification. guidance to this complex topic.
LPS 1181:Issue 3 has now been withdrawn and superseded by two new Developed and produced by Irish company Commissioned by ODPM, the guide is
documents: LPS 1181: Parts 1 and 2. The new parts have the generic title Fusion, the system has been used in Ireland aimed at meeting the needs of those
‘LPS 1181 series of fire growth tests for LPCB approval of construction product on a number of housing developments. designing, constructing or managing
systems’. Part 1 covers systems used as the external envelope to buildings, “The UK market is generally slow to accept buildings, who are not experts in fire safety
and Part 2 covers systems used as internal cladding systems, eg for food innovative building methods,” says Michael engineering but encounter it in the course
preparation areas or cold stores. Martin of Fusion. “One way of overcoming of their work.
As well as separating external cladding systems from internal cladding this is to gain certification from a recognised Fire safety engineering is a diverse and
systems, the primary changes are: body. Fusion believes that its steel frame complex discipline. It can involve physics
– the introduction of testing to BS 476:Part 15/ISO5660-1 as an audit test for system has real potential in the UK housing (eg heat transfer, movement of smoke),
all sandwich panel cores market, and therefore decided to seek chemistry (eg behaviour of materials), civil,
approval from BRE Certification to electrical and mechanical engineering, and
– the introduction of a minimum shielding requirement for tests carried out encourage the system’s acceptance by psychology (eg behaviour of people), as
‘out of doors’ housing developers and NHBC. well as procedures used by firefighters and
– the fire testing of internal cladding systems in a way that represents their “BRE Certification was chosen as the issues relating to the management of large,
installation practice certifying body because of its experience complex buildings.
Other changes have been made to clarify the standard. of light steel framing systems,” said Books on the subject are few and usually
Mr Martin, “and BRE’s unique test facilities, aimed at a high technical level. It is not
LPS 1181 Part 1 provides for two grades of products, EXT-A and EXT-B, particularly for fire testing”. Certification easy for someone unfamiliar with fire safety
replacing the old Grade A and Grade B. Part 2 provides for three grades of was awarded following a successful engineering to find, for example, a simple
product, INT-1, INT-2 and INT-3. INT-2 and INT-3 replace the old Grade A and test programme, structural reviews and description of some of the terms used.
Grade B. INT-1 is the higher standard with a gas burner being used instead of inspections of the manufacturing process The new publication is aimed at meeting
a timber crib. and facilities. the need for simple guidance at a basic
Fusion is now establishing an operation in technical level so that fire safety
Additional parts to LPS 1181 are being prepared. A new Part 0 will be the UK dedicated to this market. “We are engineering can be made more accessible.
introduced as a general introduction to the standard. Part 3 is being prepared now seeing significant changes in attitude The guide provides basic descriptions for
for prefabricated units that can be inserted directly into buildings (often by housebuilders to using light steel frame a number of key topics encountered in fire
referred to as pods). Part 4 will cover rain screen claddings and external and modular construction,” says Michael safety engineering and highlights aspects
insulated cladding systems – this will be based on the test given in BS8414- Martin. “As a result, a number of strategic that should be considered by designers,
1:2002. alliances are being established in the enforcers and other responsible people.
A copy of the standard can be downloaded free of charge from the LPCB industry to enable steel framing to be Fire safety engineering: a reference guide is
website at www.redbooklive.com. incorporated at concept stage.” available as a series of web pages at
For more information – For more information visit the website at www.bre.co.uk/frs, or can be purchased in
Helpdesk, 01923 664100. www.redbooklive.com or contact the printed form at www.brebookshop.com or
Email firstname.lastname@example.org Helpdesk on 01923 664100. phone 020 7505 6622.
Supply chain management
A conference on 18 November 2003, which is being
jointly organised by Contact Journal and BRE, will
focus on taking cost and waste out of the supply
chain. The aim is to equip delegates with practical
ideas about how to achieve better supply chain
This will be done with joint presentations – where
possible – of case studies by, for example, a client
and prime contractor, a main contractor and
specialist contractor(s), and a specialist contractor
and manufacturer. They will explain the ideas behind
Making brownfield land safe with their relationships and the results that have been
dynamic compaction achieved so far.
Making brownfield land safe and The advantages of true partnering, the early
economically viable is a key issue for the involvement of the supply chain at the design stage,
construction industry in view of the establishing a rolling programme of work, keeping
Government’s determination to achieve teams together, etc, will be examined.
60% of new housing on brownfield land,
and to encourage the regeneration of For more information –
former industrial areas. Kellie Percival, 01923 664800
This requires a range of measures, but one
of the simplest and most basic methods of
improving ground is the repeated dropping Fire performance of external thermal
of a heavy weight onto its surface. In the insulation
UK this has mainly been used to compact A second edition of Fire performance of external
loose, partially saturated soil or fill, and so Testing thermal comfort on thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings is
is commonly referred to as dynamic underground trains Revision of Part F – Ventilation now available
compaction. In August BRE took delivery of an unusual ODPM plans to revise Part F of the Building
piece of laboratory equipment – a London Regulations in order to further develop Following a fire in a multi-storey residential housing
A new report, Specifying dynamic compaction, Underground train carriage, complete with and improve the provision of ventilation block in Scotland in 1999, a Parliamentary inquiry
provides a technically prescriptive driver’s cab. The carriage is an essential part to people in buildings. An ODPM Working took place to investigate the potential risk of fire
specification for dynamic compaction. of a project looking at the thermal Group, which will include members of the spread in buildings via external cladding systems.
It has been structured to encourage the environment in underground trains and Building Regulations Advisory Committee As part of this activity FRS (the fire division of BRE)
clear definition of a rationale for treatment stations, which is being carried out by BRE and Government officials, will be responsible was commissioned by ODPM to revise the current
(the geotechnical principle of improvement) Environment for London Underground. for the revision process. BRE has been BRE guidance document, BR 135 Fire performance
and the technical means (method of awarded the contract to provide the of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey
compaction) by which this improvement The first stage of the project, which began buildings.
in December 2002, consists of surveys of necessary expert technical and
will be achieved. Its use should save administrative support to the Group. This second edition provides updated guidance
considerable time at tender stage, avoid the thermal comfort conditions on
underground trains and stations. Thermal The Working Group will consider important and a method of classifying fire performance for
misunderstandings between those these systems based on the recently published
specifying the works and the specialist comfort refers to the way that people feel changes and additions to Approved
about the temperature. It is affected not Document F, which gives technical British Standard full-scale fire test BS 8414-1:2002
contractors, particularly in the use of Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1.
standard terminology, and provide only by the temperature of the air, but also guidance to the construction industry on
common benchmarks for all parties to a by that of the surroundings (including other meeting the requirements of Part F. It will BRE 135 (Second edition) is now available from
dynamic compaction contract. Use of this passengers), the humidity, the amount of take account of the conclusions of current www.brebookshop.com
specification should raise technical air movement that people can feel, how research projects, and the introduction of
standards within a framework of fair they are dressed and how active they are an alternative more performance based
competition for specialist contractors (eg sitting, standing or walking). approach is likely to be considered. The Controlling construction pollution
and provide value for money for clients. Interviews have been carried out by market structure of the document itself will be Construction projects will increasingly need to
research company FDS, and BRE will collate examined for ways of making it easier demonstrate that the noise and air pollution they
“The publication of Specifying dynamic to follow. cause are within acceptable and legal limits.
compaction and, in 2000, of Specifying vibro and analyse the results. The second stage
stone columns, has provided clear incentives of the project will take these results and A key part of the process will be a public Pollution emissions from construction sites can
to raise technical standards in a context of refine them in the controlled conditions of consultation on any proposed revisions and cause nuisance and risks to the health of site
fair competition for specialist contractors the carriage at BRE. A special HVAC system an investigation of their impacts on small personnel and local residents. New guidance
and value for money,” says Ken Watts, is being designed and constructed so that businesses. Dr David Ross of BRE who is on good environmental practice to control these
a principal consultant at BRE. “Confidence the impact of temperature, humidity and air leading the BRE team says, “We are looking pollutants, comply with environmental legislation
in these two basic techniques has grown movement with different numbers of to integrate recent research and feedback and prevent problems, is being launched at a
through the availability of independent passengers can be tested in the carriage. from the public and industry to provide conference at BRE on 30 October 2003.
authoritative guidance,” says Mr Watts. A platform will also be constructed over healthier buildings for the occupants and The guidance will cover pre-project planning,
“The proper implementation of such one end of the carriage so that platform easier to follow guidance for industry”. site preparation, demolition, earthworks and
guidance should ultimately help in conditions can be simulated and tested. This contract to provide support for the landscaping; haulage routes, vehicles and plant;
achieving the Government objectives The results of this project will help London revision of Part F is quite distinct from the and the fabrication process and internal and
of wider brownfield land use and lower Underground to better manage the research work that ODPM is currently external finishes. The conference fee includes
whole life costs for stakeholders.” temperatures in their trains, tunnels commissioning to underpin the a free copy of each of five new guides.
Specifying dynamic compaction can be and stations. development of the Regulations. For more information –
obtained from the BRE Bookshop, For more information – For further information – Kellie Percival, 01923 664800,
www.brebookshop.com, or phone Gary Raw, 01923 664300 David Ross at BRE, 01923 664505 E-mail email@example.com or visit the website at
020 7505 6622. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail email@example.com www.bre.co.uk/events
A new MSc degree is being launched to provide the mix of technical, business and management
expertise that construction industry managers need to take the industry forward. Margo Cole reports.
The construction industry has traditionally marketing and communications at BRE, managing change and leadership. over 40 hours during a week-long residential
been one in which senior staff gain little says: “there are lots of technical degrees Bob Moore says: “One of the things the stint at the University during which the
formal training in management techniques, but very little that deals with business – steering committee is very keen on is that students attend lectures, work on case
with directors often learning their skills and nothing that deals with the mix of construction industry people can pick up examples and in syndicates. Typically a
on the job or – in the case of large firms – understanding technical issues and good best practice from other industries, and one student will attend a module every 8 weeks.
brought in from other industries. Over the business ideas and disciplines.” Another of of the best ways of learning is to sit and On returning to their workplace they will
past few years, however, that situation BRE’s key aims was to contribute towards study with people from automotive, then spend a further 40 hours on an
started to change, and an increasing implementation of the Rethinking industrial and aerospace companies”. assessed post module assignment focused
number of mid-career engineers, designers Construction agenda, and this is reflected in Robin Davies agrees. “Managers from on applying what they have learnt to their
and contractors’ staff are opting to take an innovative new modules being developed the construction industry will be rubbing own business.
MBA or other Masters degree. and delivered by BRE as part of the course. shoulders with those from other industries,” But the commitment must also come from
Even so, there are still very few courses The outcome of this work is a new he says. “I think that’s 50% of the benefit.” the students’ employers. In addition to the
designed specifically for the construction Construction Business Management MSc But, says Bob Moore, the benefits work financial commitment – all students on
industry that address the needs of the which will blend modules tailored from both ways. “Some techniques are only just the MSc have to be sponsored by their
industry as it stands today. those already taught on the existing degree being applied in the construction industry, employer – the business must also be
A new Masters degree course will launch courses with others that are totally new. but there are other areas, for example willing to release the students for the
in the New Year aimed specifically at “We’ve put together a comprehensive in contracting, where the construction residential blocks and also get involved
rectifying this situation and training the and challenging programme to suit the industry has more experience than the in their course work and final dissertation.
potential managing directors and senior very particular needs of the construction automotive industry.” After two years of modules the students
managers of the future. It is being put industry in 2004” explains Bob Moore, Warwick’s existing Engineering Business start working towards their industrial
together by Warwick University’s acclaimed senior fellow at WMG. “There will be a set Management MSc is highly flexible, with project, which carries half the marks for
Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG), of core modules that everyone must do, different modules running at different times the entire course. “They do this within their
BRE and CITB and people working for and then a recommended set from which throughout the year to enable students company,” says Mr Moore, “and I would
consultants and contractors within the to choose to make up the total of 12.” to develop the programme that suits them expect it to be a real project of importance
construction industry Compulsory modules will include best. This flexibility will be retained for the to the company that will improve the
Robin Davies, business development Sustainability, Rethinking Construction Construction Business Management MSc, company’s performance.”
director at housebuilder Westbury, is and Innovation in Construction, and so students from the construction Robin Davies says there are many issues
a member of the steering committee for there will be an emphasis on developing sector can opt for modules such as IT within his company, Westbury, that an MSc
the programme. He says: “It is absolutely managers to implement change within their and e-business, as well as supply chain student could tackle, such as how the
essential that the construction industry organisations and the industry as a whole. management and traditional business skills. company procures raw materials, how it
develops some capability for change Other subjects will include fundamentals A key component of the modules is input plans out processes so things go smoothly
and development. This course gives us an of construction industry operations, people from people working in the industry, who on site, waste reduction through the supply
opportunity for training a continuing cohort in organisations, project planning, will give students an insight into how chain, and time compression. Although the
of change managers to help bring the management and control, collaboration the theory they are learning is applied in firm currently sponsors occasional PhD
construction industry into the 21st century.” and contract management, quality different businesses. Leading contractors, or MBA students to do projects at the
BRE conceived the MSc as a means of management and enabling IT and designers and suppliers will contribute to company, he says: “It’s not quite the same
raising standards within the construction communication tools. teaching on the new course. as a person in senior or middle management
industry, improving the industry’s image Within the curriculum will be subjects that really pursuing a particular line of research
Like all Masters courses, the Warwick or development within a company they
and helping the industry recruit – and retain are common to all the Masters degrees degree requires considerable commitment
– the best people. Simon Guy, head of offered by WMG , such as finance, know well.
from the students. Each module is taught
“When you’ve got people who understand need for the basic training. That’s where it’s
the needs of the business and know the important to have a wide range of modules
basics, and add to that what they learn at so you can tailor the course to suit the
Warwick, I would expect to get significant individual and the organisation.”
benefits.” The cost of the new course will be
The entire MSc course is designed to take approximately £15,000 including
three years, and is aimed at people who accommodation – comparing favourably
have several years’ experience and are to MBAs offered by the country’s leading
settled within their company – typically business schools. In the manufacturing
aged between 25 and 40. As Simon Guy sector, Warwick’s course has become
says: “Traditionally most of these people known as the “Manufacturing MBA”, and
wouldn’t have had any management the organisers of the new Construction
training and no formal qualification or Business Management MSc believe it will
understanding of what they should be soon take off as the “Construction MBA”.
equipped with.” However, this must be set
in the context of Warwick University formal
entry requirements for a Masters course. Enquiries from both prospective students
and companies wishing to join the
Up to 20 students are on each module at steering committee are welcome –
any one time but, with many running more contact either Simon Guy at BRE phone
than once a year, there can be up to 80 01923 664800 or Bob Moore at WMG
students going through the more general phone 02476 524356.
modules in the course of a year.
The Construction Business Management
MSc has been designed with the entire
construction industry in mind, and the
organisers say the modular nature of
the course makes it just as applicable to
component manufacturers and suppliers
as main contractors or consulting engineers.
“It is clear that different companies and
different sectors within the construction
industry have very different needs,”
says Robin Davies. “If you look at project
management, for example, coming from
housebuilding I see that as a major
requirement. But for a mainstream civil
engineering, project-based company, that’s
their business, so they won’t have so much
A nation of sustainable shopkeepers?
A new version of the well known BREEAM scheme for reviewing and improving the environmental performance of buildings has been developed for retail buildings.
It was not for nothing that Napoleon described Britain as a nation
of shopkeepers. There are more than 322,000 retail outlets in the
UK and, at the end of last year, one in nine of the workforce (nearly How does BREEAM work?
3 million people) were working in the retail sector. We are certainly
a nation of shoppers, with the retail spend for 2002 totalling BREEAM’s success over the last decade stems from its ability to cover a wide range of environmental issues in one
£234 billion. assessment, and to present the results in a way that is transparent and easy to understand. BREEAM Retail can be
applied to any retail development at either the design, tenant fit-out or operation and management stage of a
In view of the size and importance of this sector, a new version
retail building’s life. It assesses a building’s performance in the aspects listed below:
of BREEAM (BRE’s Environmental Assessment Method), has been
developed to help improve the environmental performance of
retail developments. Issue category Description
BREEAM is the world's most widely used means of reviewing and Management Overall policy, commissioning and procedural issues
improving the environmental performance of new and existing
Health and well-being Indoor and external issues affecting health and well-being
buildings, and since its launch in 1990 it has become widely
accepted in UK construction and property sectors as offering Energy use Operational energy and CO2 issues
best practice in environmental design and management. The
Transport Transport-related CO2 and location-related factors
Government’s sustainability action plan, Achieving Sustainability in
Construction Procurement, specifies that all government-procured Water Consumption and water efficiency
projects must achieve a BREEAM, or equivalent rating, of
Materials Environmental implications of building materials
‘Excellent’ for new builds and ‘Very Good’ for refurbishments.
BREEAM for retail developments is the latest of this expanding Land use and ecology Greenfield and brownfield sites and ecological value of the site
family of environmental assessment schemes, which includes Pollution Air and water pollution
versions for offices, homes, industrial units and bespoke
Looking at a few of these in a little more detail in respect of BREEAM Retail:
Retail sector support Energy – credits are awarded, for example, for specifying and maintaining energy-efficient light fittings;
BREEAM Retail has been developed over two years by BRE’s Centre controlling internal lighting in balance with occupancy and daylight availability; efficient specification and
for Sustainable Construction in partnership with FaberMaunsell, performance of HVAC systems and controls; energy-efficient specification and operation of cold food cabinets,
WSP Environmental UK and Upstream. The scheme’s development stores and drink coolers, and specifying energy-efficient laundry and dry-cleaning equipment, lifts and escalators.
was sponsored by a number of key players in the retail industry – Health and well-being – credits are awarded, for example, for minimising microbial contamination of
Marks & Spencer, Tesco, Sainsbury’s Property Services and humidification and water systems; making good use of daylighting, avoiding glare and providing local office
many more* – who also made important contributions to its lighting controls, and providing secure and properly lit car parks, openable office windows and good air quality.
development through an advisory group that met frequently Pollution – credits are awarded, for example, for minimal use of ozone depleting substances in insulants and
throughout the process. refrigerants, and effective management of leaks; using low-NOx boilers; minimising dust, odour and noise
“We had recognised the need for an environmental auditing pollution, and separating oil and grease from waste water.
scheme some while ago,” says Barry Knight, head of engineering, Water – credits are awarded, for example, for the use and maintenance of low-water-use sanitary ware;
energy, maintenance management and cleaning at Marks & Spencer, rainwater and grey water collection; and the efficient water use and use of recycled water in car washes, etc.
“so when we heard that an already established assessment
method was being adapted to the retail sector, we were keen For details of all credit issues covered in BREEAM Retail, visit the BREEAM website at www.bre.co.uk/breeam.
to support the initiative”. ‘Credits’ are awarded for meeting or exceeding good practice. The credit scores achieved under each ‘Issue
“We hope to apply BREEAM Retail to the design and management Category’ are then weighted to take account of the importance of that issue to the total environmental impact
of new stores, to refurbishments and, when we have greater of the building. This allows an overall score for the building to be calculated and translated into a single BREEAM
experience with the scheme in practice, to the management of rating on a scale of: PASS, GOOD, VERY GOOD or EXCELLENT.
existing outlets,” says Mr Knight. Marks & Spencer piloted the new The rating is presented on a BREEAM Certificate (issued by BRE), which can be used to verify and promote the
scheme on their flagship store at Marble Arch in London. “It was environmental credentials of an organisation.
a very valuable exercise. I think both M&S and the assessors,
FaberMaunsell, learned a great deal. We now plan to apply the The assessments are carried out by trained building professionals operating under licence to BRE. BRE acts as
scheme to the refurbishment of one of our Head Office sites at 27 the auditing body for the scheme and provides a level of independence and consistency through its quality
Baker Street in London, and also in our new Marks & Spencer assurance procedures.
Lifestore opening in Gateshead in Spring 2004.”
This version of BREEAM has, with advice from retail sector
representatives, been tailored to meet the particular needs of Why bother with BREEAM?
the sector as demonstrated in the following examples.
More flexible criteria Why do so many organisations take the trouble to have their buildings – several hundred office buildings alone –
The assessment method has been adapted to cater for the very BREEAM assessed?
wide range of building types and functions in the retail sector. An independent market survey, conducted by Deloitte & Touche Consulting Group, was commissioned by BRE
With BREEAM offices, for example, there is a set list of criteria, all prior to the development of the BREEAM 98 for Offices version. The survey sought the views of current and
of which are applied in each case – different office developments potential customers of BREEAM and identified the following benefits of using the scheme:
generally having much in common. For BREEAM Retail the system
is more flexible and the content of the criteria more diverse. A large
supermarket will have its cold store refrigeration system included Benefit Application
as part of the assessment. But such a function would not be required Environmental improvement In support of a wider corporate strategy or as a stand-alone contribution
in a designer shoe shop, so criteria such as this are not applied.
Occupant benefits To create a better place for people to work and live
One of the features of retail premises is the relative frequency Marketing As a selling point to potential tenants or customers
with which they are fitted and refitted – the shop floor gutted,
Financial To achieve higher rental incomes and increased building efficiency
the layout changed, units replaced, etc. BREEAM Retail therefore
includes a version of the methodology for assessing the materials, Best practice To provide a thorough checklist or tool for comparing buildings
energy, waste, etc, during a tenant fit-out.
Client request Responding to the requirements of the users
The operation of retail businesses can involve particularly large
amounts of waste because of the quantities of packaging that
must be dealt with on a daily basis. The BREEAM Issue Category
for ‘Materials’ has been adapted for retail (and renamed ‘Waste
and Resources’) to reflect this.
* BREEAM Retail development sponsors: British Land Company Ltd, Chartwell Land
The BREEAM Retail Advisory Committee strongly suggested that Development Ltd, Chelsfield Plc, Grosvenor Ltd, Hammerson UK Property Plc, Land
a less formal version of the assessment be developed – along with Securities Plc, Lend Lease Global Investment Plc, Marks & Spencer Plc, Sainsbury’s
the full version – which could be undertaken by a retail firm before Property Services, Tesco, BAA. The British Retail Consortium also advised during the
committing to the full formal assessment. projects development.
In response to this, a new feature of BREEAM is being developed
specifically for the retail scheme. It is a building operation and
management self-assessment package that allows the internal
self-assessment of any retail site at the operation and management Merry Hill, Dudley, West Midlands
stage. As part of the package the user will be trained to apply the
methodology to their retail development, and to gain an accurate
benchmark of their performance which is comparable to the
BREEAM standard. This allows retailers to start a process of
assessment and improvement using the BREEAM Retail
assessment methodology without actually having to commit to
a formal independent audit. The BREEAM Retail self-assessment
package will be available from November 2003.
For further information about BREEAM Retail and the other
BREEAM schemes visit the website at www.bre.co.uk/breeam
or contact the BREEAM Office on 01923 664462,
Greenwich Millennium Village development exceeds waste reduction targets
Greenwich Millennium Village has demonstrated the commercial benefits of using a waste management system
to reduce construction waste, and to reuse and recycle unavoidable waste. These benefits included cutting the
number of skips used on site by over half, which saved the project partners over £150,000.
With the costs of waste disposal increasing yearly, attention to site Fig 1 Segregation of specific waste streams played a significant part
waste has become a business imperative. It plays an essential part 9 10 1 Packaging 23% in reducing waste volume, as did compaction and careful skip
not only in reducing costs but also in improving environmental 7 2 Plaster/cement 17% loading. Good housekeeping on the site not only helped the waste
performance and helping developers to stay competitive. 3 Miscellaneous 17% reduction process but improved safety.
The lessons learned from Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV)
6 4 Timber 15%
have been captured in two guides on reduction, reuse and 5 Concrete 12%
6 Insulation material 6% Other waste reduction measures
recycling of construction waste – one for site managers and one
for project managers. Copies of the guides can be downloaded
5 7 Metal 4% Other essential actions for significant waste reduction identified
from www.breweb.org.uk/projects.jsp 8 Plastic 3% in the guides include:
9 Inert materials 2%
GMV is one of the most exciting and innovative developments in 3
10 Ceramic materials 1% – Establish a project waste strategy – early!
Europe. Under construction since 1999, it will provide at least 1,400 – Contractually oblige sub-contractors to co-operate in waste
new homes on London’s Greenwich Peninsula. Designed to set Fig 2 1 Packaging 24% minimisation as part of their tender.
a national standard for future developments, key features include 9 10
11 2 Miscellaneous 21%
minimising environmental impacts and maximising the sustainability 8 3 Plaster/cement 15% – Engage all sub-contractors and site operatives in regular
of the overall project. GMV is a joint venture development by 7 4 Timber 15% communications.
Countryside Properties plc and Taylor Woodrow Developments Ltd 6 5 Insulation 8% – Partner with a waste management contractor to maximise
in association with English Partnerships. 6 Plastic 7% recycling and reduce disposal costs.
The GMV team was set a series of innovation targets including 5 7 Concrete 3% – Engage the whole supply chain – GMV partnered with British
the reduction of on-site construction waste by 50% over six years. 8 Metal 3% Gypsum who took back and recycled their own scrap
Using a benchmark figure of 50m3 per dwelling, calculated from 4 2 9 Inert materials 2% plasterboard.
skip returns from previous residential developments, the objective 3
10 Ceramics 1%
11 Furniture 1% – Design to reduce waste. This needs to be considered from
was therefore to decrease the volume of waste to 25m3 per dwelling. the outset – prefabrication can really have an impact where
Waste benchmarking system components are manufactured with no waste in the process.
Landfill tax credits from the Hanson Environment Fund, with Figures 1 and 2 summarise the compositions of Phases 1a and 2a, – Reuse and recycle waste where possible, in line with quality issues.
matching funding from GMV Ltd, sponsored the use of a BRE- which exceeded the waste reduction target (25m3) by generating
developed waste benchmarking system – SMARTWaste – to help 23.4m3 and 20.5m3 of waste per unit respectively (excluding – Provide suitable storage for all materials and accessible areas
meet this challenging target for Phase 1a and 2a of the project. segregated waste). for waste skips.
SMARTWaste measures the underlying causes of waste, which At the benchmark, 3,178 skips would have been needed. The – Plan for higher volumes of waste in the final construction stages.
enables subsequent actions to be monitored throughout the actual number of skips used was 1,469, a saving of 1,709 skips.
lifetime of the project. Further phases of the development are exploring other
This reduction in skips represents a cost saving of over £150,000 opportunities to reduce waste. These include requiring suppliers
for Phases 1a and 2a. When adding the savings for segregated to provide returnable packaging, waste minimisation induction
waste skips (charged at £60 per skip) there is a further saving courses and recycling used formwork into a landscaping mulch.
of around £4,000.
The continuing waste reduction, reuse and recycling at GMV is
There were also unquantified savings from the reduced volume now being measured by the main contractors, Taylor Woodrow
of construction products required, and the recycling or reuse of Construction and Countryside in Partnership – with the help of
materials, for example the reuse of redundant timber formwork as SMARTStart. This tool was developed from the SMARTWaste
mulch on site. Further benefits were derived from cleaner, tidier and system to enable contractors to monitor waste performance
safer site conditions. themselves. It is now available for anyone in the industry to use.
Photographs courtesy of GMV Ltd Copies of the guides to reducing construction waste can be
downloaded from www.breweb.org.uk/projects.jsp
For further information on SMARTStart or SMARTWaste, call
01923 664516, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or visit
Older properties prepare for the deluge 9/10
The impacts of climate change could have particularly serious implications for older buildings.
Expert advice may be needed to deal with these, as in the case study outlined here by Martin Cook.
The UK is bracing itself for the continued effects of climate change, amount of water seemed to be passing into the ground water – Tanking – a method of preventing ground water wetting internal
which means more storms, heavier rainfall and increased wind and then into the basement walls. This was likely to be a major surfaces and finishes.
speeds. This is bad news for the many owners of older properties contributing factor to the presence of dampness in the basements. – Rendering – on the existing internal surface or on a proprietary,
who may have to contend with antiquated, ineffective drainage Also, the water was likely to have included de-icing salts from ie factory made, system.
systems. By and large these are not up to the job of removing the road.
water from the structure and surrounding environment quickly. – Dry lining – dry lining systems consist of either a treated wooden
In addition, the provisions for dealing with the rainwater runoff or metal frame to which plaster board is attached. They can be
This results in problems with dampness and flooding that are from roofs to the rear of the buildings were found to be inappropriate
costly to set right. proprietary systems or be fabricated on site.
for the amount of water that had to be removed from the area.
Moisture in Georgian basements This led to ponding in the rear courtyard. – Building a separate inner leaf – either from masonry, which could
The basements of two adjacent university-owned Georgian houses be load bearing if there are concerns about the condition of built-
Solution options in floor timbers, etc, or using plastered timber frame.
in the listed St John Street, Oxford, were assessed by BRE recently. The BRE assessors recommended better drainage provision
The owners wanted to optimise the living space by refurbishing to the rear of the buildings, by placing a geotextile membrane While dampness has always existed in many older properties,
the unused basements in each building but could see some very against the wall draining to French drains, and then to a soakaway climate change will aggravate and increase the problem that
obvious problems with dampness and crumbling brickwork. or sump in the absence of main surface water drains – this is a tried these types of buildings are subject to. There are however a
Initial investigation confirmed the presence of a lot of moisture in and tested conservation solution to reduce the surface water range of solutions that can be applied to alleviate the situation, an
the brickwork of the external basement walls. The dampness was surrounding the building. evaluation of the drainage provision being a very good starting point.
seen to be rising up the walls. While a short-term solution would The property owners were advised to consult with the local Detailed guidance is available in the publication Foundations,
have been to administer a damp-proofing course and repoint the authority about the lack of street drainage, which would have basements and external works, available at www.brebookshop.com
brickwork, a sustainable, long-term refurbishment solution was to be rectified in some way if dampness was to be eradicated. or phone 020 7505 6622.
sought, which meant that the root causes of the problems had
to be dealt with first. On the issue of the crumbling brickwork, the assessment showed
that this was caused by dampness and the presence of salts. For further information –
Many of the problems associated with older properties have to Remediation work had to wait for the dampness problem to be
be seen in line with the surrounding environment. In the case of Martin Cook, 01923 664771,
addressed – stabilisation of the brickwork was then recommended E-mail email@example.com
these Georgian basements for example, a holistic approach to the by either replacing all the bricks, or just the disintegrating surface
investigation was adopted – looking at what was happening in layer, or stabilising the existing walls.
the property and outside on the surrounding roads.
Once this had been done BRE was able to recommend the most
This uncovered a serious lack of street drainage – there was an appropriate and effective options for making the basements usable:
absence of any drains dealing with surface water runoff in St John
Street. As a result, any water that fell off onto the road either
evaporated, passed into the fabric of the building through directly
splashing onto its surface, or passed into the ground water. A large
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
The EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive is going to have important strategic and business implications for building owners, operators and developers –
Professor David Strong (pictured right), Chairman of the Directive Implementation Advisory Group (DIAG), explains.
The Government’s Energy White Paper, published on 24 February, Energy performance certificates Independent Experts
sets out its goals and targets for reducing emissions of carbon Building on the success of the EU Market Transformation EU Member States must ensure that certification of buildings,
dioxide by 60% by 2050. In achieving this long-term target, and an Programme (which has resulted in the energy labelling of domestic the drafting of the accompanying recommendations and the
intermediate target of reductions of 15-25 million tonnes of carbon white-goods), the EPBD requires that whenever a building is inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems are carried out
(MtC) by 2020, energy efficiency is expected to deliver half of constructed, sold or rented out, a certificate (no older than 10 in an independent manner. This must be by qualified and/or
the necessary improvements. For the first time, increasing energy years) detailing its energy performance must be made available. accredited experts. These can operate as sole traders or be
efficiency is identified as the cheapest, cleanest and safest way This can either be to the owner or, by the owner, to the prospective employed by public or private bodies.
of achieving the Government’s policy objectives. buyer or tenant. There are major implications for a number of professional
The EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) was In order to facilitate comparisons between buildings, the energy institutions (particularly RICS, CIBSE and The Energy Institute)
published in the European Journal on 4 January 2003. The Directive performance certificate must include reference values such as associated with training (and possibly accreditation) of the
has far-reaching implications for energy managers and for the current legal standards and benchmarks. It also must include independent experts. One estimate suggests that 8000 full-time
owners, operators and developers of all buildings in the UK (both recommendations for the cost-effective investments that can assessors will be needed to deliver the EPBD’s domestic energy
domestic and non-domestic) and will play a vital role in delivering be undertaken in the building, and which will improve its energy rating and labelling requirements. In addition, qualified
the Energy White Paper’s energy efficiency objectives. The EPBD performance. independent experts will be required to deliver the more technically
provides a major opportunity to achieve the step-change in All buildings, either occupied by a public authority, or regularly complex requirements associated with certification and labelling
buildings-related energy efficiency called for in the PIU Energy visited by a large number of people, must display in a prominent of non-domestic buildings and plant inspection.
Review. However, practical implementation of the Directive will be place clearly visible to the public its current energy certificate.
very demanding and a pressing need exists to start the essential In addition, a range of recommended and current indoor
preparatory work as quickly as possible since legislation must be Implementation
temperatures and, when appropriate, other relevant climatic Member States are required to transpose the EPBD into law by
in place by 4 January 2006. factors, may also be clearly displayed. This applies only to buildings 4 January 2006 at the latest.
Key provisions of the Directive are: with a total useful floor area over 1000m2. Energy labelling of
buildings visited by the public could be of considerable benefit in If a Member State can demonstrate that there are an insufficient
– minimum requirements for the energy performance of all new number of qualified or accredited experts anywhere within the
buildings empowering energy managers, and in ensuring that major
organisations invest in cost-effective energy efficiency measures. European Union to implement fully the provisions associated
– minimum requirements for the energy performance of large with building certification (or plant inspection), they may delay
existing buildings subject to major renovation introduction for up to three further years. If they wish to cause this
– energy certification of all buildings (with frequently visited Plant inspection delay, governments must justify this to the Commission together
buildings providing public services being required to prominently The EPBD provides Member States with two options for reducing with a schedule detailing when they do plan to fully implement the
display the energy certificate) the energy consumption of boilers. The first option is to lay down directive. Given the reliance placed in the White Paper on energy
the necessary measures to establish a regular inspection of boilers efficiency and the willingness of the main professional institutions
– regular mandatory inspection of boilers and air conditioning fired by non-renewable liquid or solid fuel of an effective rated to work with government over the next three years, it is hoped
systems in buildings. output of 20 to 100 kW. Such inspections can also be extended that the UK will not need to delay the introduction of these
The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) is taking the lead to boilers using other fuels. Boilers over 100 kW must be inspected important provisions.
in responding to the Directive, since it has responsibility for most of every two years, although in the case of gas boilers, this can be The European Commission will be assisted by a Regulatory
the legislation that can be used to transpose it into law. However, delayed for up to four years. Committee, which will be used to resolve (by qualified majority
the DTI and Defra will also play a full part. For boilers larger than 20 kW and over 15 years old, there must vote) any issues raised by Member States associated with
To help the Government implement the Directive, a high-level be a one-off inspection of the entire heating installation. This must interpretation of the implementing measures and Articles. The
working group has been established by over 20 key professional include an assessment of the boiler efficiency and size compared to Commission has appointed a number of independent experts to
bodies and trade associations (including RIBA, RICS, CIBSE, The the heating requirements of the building. Advice must be provided provide advice including, from the UK, Andrew Warren (Association
Energy Institute, BPF, BCO, BRE, ESTA, etc) forming the Directive to the users on the replacement of the boilers, other modifications for the Conservation of Energy) and David Strong (BRE).
Implementation Advisory Group (DIAG). The Group has been to the heating system and on alternative solutions.
established to advise the UK Government on the Directive’s The second option – most likely to be pursued in the UK – is for
effective and timely implementation. A key aim is to avoid governments to ensure that there is adequate provision of advice
the problems previously encountered by the poorly planned to users on the replacement of the boilers, other modifications to
introduction of other EU regulations (eg the Ozone Depleting the heating system and on alternative solutions, which may include
Substance Regulation which resulted in the fridge mountain fiasco). assessment of the efficiency and appropriate size of the boiler.
No regular timescale is required for such advice. However, if
governments do choose this means of complying, they have to
Setting energy performance requirements produce a report every two years showing how this achieves as
The Energy White Paper not only commits government to much as implementing this Article under the first option given.
transpose the EPBD into law by the end of 2005 but also (within
the same timescale) to implement the next major revision of Part L In order to reduce energy consumption of air conditioning
of the Building Regulations. A key issue is the EPBD requirement systems, governments must establish regular inspections of all air
that whenever a building with a total useful floor area of over conditioning systems with an effective rated output of more than
1000m2 undergoes major renovation, its energy performance 12 kW. Such an inspection must include an assessment of the
is upgraded to incorporate all cost-effective energy efficiency efficiency and sizing of the air conditioning, compared to the
measures. cooling requirements of the building. Appropriate advice must be
provided to users on possible improvements or replacements, and
The Directive also requires that all new buildings should meet on alternative solutions.
minimum energy performance requirements. For those with a
useful floor area over 1000m2 governments must ensure that,
before construction starts, formal consideration is given to the
following alternative systems for heating:
– district or block heating or cooling
– heat pumps
– decentralised energy supply systems based upon renewable
The Directive provides a significant and realistic opportunity to
substantially reduce energy use in buildings. Major issues remain
to be resolved – including those associated with building labelling,
certification and plant inspection – with important implications in
terms of research, development, demonstration and training.
Early engagement by industry, professional institutions and trade
associations with the relevant government departments is vital to
ensure that the Directive is successfully transposed into law within
the three-year deadline set by the European Parliament and
Council. At a time of increasing corporate social responsibility the
Directive could deliver significant benefits for energy managers by
ensuring that major organisations invest in cost-effective energy
The full text of the EPBD may be downloaded from the
Also, a free CIBSE Briefing on the EPBD is available on-line from
For further information regarding DIAG –
Air quality in aircraft cabins
Recent years have seen rising interest in the impact of flying on health, with considerable media coverage of the issue. Results
from the latest research in this area will be announced in October.
The unveiling in the UK earlier this year of a full-scale aircraft cabin aircraft manufacturers to decide on the cabin environment of the CabinAir
test rig is a good indicator of the seriousness with which the air future, and if we leave it up to them, we don’t know what levels This monitoring programme mirrors work that is currently
travel industry is taking the issue of cabin air quality. A wide range they will choose. It is better for doctors and physiologists to decide being carried out in Europe under the project ‘CabinAir’. BRE is
of airlines, airframers, equipment suppliers and fitters have what is acceptable, not engineers, so from that respect I think it is coordinating this three-year, 8 million EU-funded programme
expressed interest in running tests on the rig, and it is already important to have such regulations.” to assess cabin air quality, working with a consortium that includes
the location for two major European Commission-funded cabin The DfT recommendations in the UK and the NAS review in the airframers, systems manufacturers, airlines and certification bodies.
comfort projects. USA both urge the collection of far more data to establish the The project is also drafting a pre-normative cabin air quality
The ‘ACE’ (Aircraft Cabin Environment) rig is owned by BRE and relationship between air quality and health, in order to begin standard.
consists of a 17m-long section of the forward fuselage of a wide setting those standards. CabinAir involves monitoring 50 flights in a range of generic
bodied passenger jet. It has been fitted out with equipment that The NAS recommendations to the FAA included the need for commercial passenger aircraft, including small and large wide
can measure a wide range of environmental conditions – including a surveillance programme to monitor the impact of air quality bodied planes and wide body and twin deck aircraft.
noise, vibration, humidity and temperature – under simulated flight incidents on passengers and flight crew, and the establishment of “Before we started this research there was no specification for
conditions. In addition to the monitoring equipment, the rig also a research programme to address a wide range of environmental cabin environments,” explains Dr Earle Perera, commercial director
has space for 40 passengers, flight and cabin crew. factors during flight. These include ozone levels and the existing of BRE Environment. “The intention is that there will be a
Currently, it is being used for the EU’s 48 million FACE (Friendly regulations to limit exposure; whether current cabin pressure and benchmark that the whole industry can work against. We have
Aircraft Cabin Environment) and 6 million HEACE (Health Effects altitude requirements are appropriate; ventilation requirements; been shooting in the dark until now with no-one knowing what a
in Aircraft Cabin Environment) projects, researching environmental relative humidity levels; and the impact of pesticide exposure. good cabin environment is for our crews and for the comfort and
conditions for passengers and crew respectively. The results will health of our passengers.”
be fed back into work being carried out in Europe and elsewhere American research Key to the research is the successful development of monitoring
to establish acceptable standards for cabin conditions, following Byron Jones, associate dean for research and graduate programs and measurement equipment that can be relied on to perform
increased concern about health and comfort of crew and passengers. at Kansas State University, was a member of the NAS technical accurately in a huge range of conditions, including temperature,
committee that made the recommendations. He explains: “Work is humidity and pressure. Dr Perera says: “We have developed
Public and media interest under way about what should be done from a regulation point of monitoring equipment that is unobtrusive – which is important
The last five years has seen a rise in interest about the impact of view based on the knowledge we have now and by filling in the when you are working on commercial flights as you do not wish to
flying on health, sparked by media coverage of the issue of deep gaps in the knowledge.” unsettle the passengers. This equipment is also capable of working
vein thrombosis (DVT). It was this issue that prompted the House of An American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning continuously over long periods, using batteries and without
Lords in the UK to launch an inquiry into the wider question of aviation Engineers (ASHRAE) standards committee, which he chairs, has interfering with the aircraft’s flight equipment.”
health in 2000, resulting in a series of recommendations to be been working on new air quality standards for a number of years Both permanently installed and portable equipment is also being
taken forward by the Government’s Department for Transport (DfT). and is due to complete a draft standard later this year. “First we developed in the USA to help build up a database of knowledge
During the inquiry, cabin air quality was seen as a key issue for have to write the standard, then it will be a process of continuous over as many flights as possible. “What we are going to get is real
future research, and BRE was given the task of identifying what maintenance, with the standards being updated as new research time data continuously from when the power’s turned on, through
information already exists and where the gaps are in knowledge comes in,” says Jones. Meanwhile the research committee directs boarding, taxiing, the flight and then de-boarding,” explains Space.
about this subject. the work needed to plug the knowledge gaps and identify “This will measure what are the particular contaminants day in
Similar work has also been initiated in the USA, where the National appropriate air quality values. day out.”
Academy of Science (NAS) also undertook a review of aircraft air “The idea is to come to a consensus on the appropriate values, He acknowledges the difficulty in reaching consensus among all
quality, and made a series of recommendations to the Federal and sometimes that’s easy because there is good science or good the interested parties in the US, but says: “Hopefully we are all
Aviation Administration (FAA) in order to find out more. agreement among the cogniscant authorities,” he says. “But in trying to reach the end goal of a standard that we can all work
While some requirements for air quality already exist – such as some areas there are gaps in knowledge or differences of opinions, with.”
acceptable levels of ozone and carbon dioxide – there are no and then it can be time-consuming getting broad consensus From Boeing’s point of view, he says: “Whatever we do we want
comprehensive standards on air quality in aircraft either in the USA among flight personnel, manufacturers, airlines, passengers it to be scientifically-based, so as we develop standards we want
or Europe. So, while many people may feel there is no problem, and general interest groups.” the science to be right. The measured data so far seem to show
others may disagree, and there is, as yet, no way of proving it one Much of the US research is being carried out through ASHRAE, that air quality is quite good from the point of view of gases and
way or another. which has just agreed a research programme to begin this autumn contaminants, but there are still some holes in the knowledge,
At its most recent general assembly in 2001, the International based on a work statement developed by its aviation research and we need to understand the multiple factors and how these are
Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) instigated a study of its 188 subcommittee. David Space, associate technical fellow at Boeing’s playing out. That’s where this exciting research is going – to better
Contracting States into their experience of possible health effects commercial airplane group, chairs ASHRAE’s transportation monitoring of the cabin environment day in day out and further
on air travel passengers. The results showed that the vast majority committee, which is co-ordinating the research. “The statement understanding of how these factors relate.”
felt there are no ill effects, with just a handful acknowledging there looks at all the multiple factors that can affect how a person feels
might be some effect on people who already have an underlying when they fly,” he explains. “It looks at relating symptoms and Announcing the results
pathology – such as asthma – that could be made worse by flying. causes, such as air quality, cabin pressure, thermal environment – The latest results from these studies will be announced at the
temperature and humidity, noise, vibration and the work Air quality in passenger aircraft conference on 16-17 October 2003
environment for flight crews. at the Royal Aeronautical Society, London. For further information
However, ICAO chief medical officer Dr Claus Curdt-Christiansen is “The way it’s set up right now is objective/perceptive research,” contact Kellie Percival, BRE Events 01923 664766 or
keen to see the development of international air quality standards. he continues. “We are measuring all the contaminants and air www.bre.co.uk/events.
“I think it would be a good thing to have standards – certain quality parameters as well as the perceived comfort and health- For more information – Earle Perera, 01923 664486, E-mail
requirements for the cabin air in order that people stay well on the related symptoms of individual people. Then we can look at how firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.bre.co.uk/aviation
flight,” he says. These should, says Dr Curdt-Christiansen, include they feel and what could be causing that. We will be looking for
limits for temperature, pressure, and humidity and filtration levels relationships.”
as well as pollutants and contaminants including CO, CO2, O3 other ASHRAE has already carried out two small pilot projects ahead of
gases, dust and recirculation ratio and filtration levels. this main research to establish protocols, and will now begin the
“I don’t think that any modern aircraft doesn’t meet these full-scale programme of monitoring a large number of flights on
requirements,” he adds, “but if there are no standards, it is up to the many different aircraft over the next three years.
Recent publications IP12/03 VOC emissions from flooring adhesives:
European test methods and labelling
supply chain management. The advantages of true partnering,
the early involvement of the supply chain at the design stage,
Provides data for criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring establishing a rolling programme of work, keeping teams together,
adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define ‘low- etc, will be examined.
Fibre reinforced polymers in construction – long-term emission’ products. Contact: Events, 01923 664775, email@example.com, or visit
performance in construction (BR 461) www.bre.co.uk/events
Gives the background to the application of fibre reinforced polymers Prices
in construction, along with key issues relating to durability and Digests and Good Building Guides are £10.50 each, or each part.
performance in service. Twenty-seven case studies highlight actual Information Papers are £7.50 each. Training courses
performance – both successes and failures. This book is the
culmination of a three-year research project funded by the DTI. £35. Where to get them 7, 8 and 9 October 2003 at BRE, Watford
These publications are available from: HQI training
Floors and flooring – new edition (BR 460) – www.brebookshop.com The third in a series of one-day Technical Training Workshops on
This new and revised edition describes the materials, construction – BRE Bookshop, 151 Rosebery Avenue, London EC1R 4GB calculating Housing Quality Indicators (HQIs) being held at BRE’s
methods and criteria used in the production of floors. It focuses on T 020 7505 6622, F 020 7505 6606 training facility. The workshops provide comprehensive hands-on
the features of floors and flooring that ensure good performance, training using laptop computers loaded with BRE's HQI software v2,
and the things that go wrong, so that they can be avoided. £45 and design drawings for a modern housing association scheme.
(BRE Connect price £27). Delegates build an HQI score under tuition and guidance from
Fire safety engineering – a reference guide (BR 459) Contact: Events, 01923 664775, firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit
Provides basic descriptions for key topics encountered in fire safety www.bre.co.uk/events
engineering and aspects that should be considered by designers, Diary of forthcoming events
enforcers and other responsible persons. See page 3 for details. 28-29 October 2003 at BRE, Watford
£27 (BRE Connect price £20). 16-17 October 2003 at the Royal Aeronautical Society, London EcoHomes assessor training course
Air quality in passenger aircraft – providing a safe and Two-day training course to become a EcoHomes assessor.
Specifying dynamic compaction (BR 458) comfortable cabin environment Contact: 01923 664462, email@example.com
Explains this method of improving brownfield land. See page 4 Two-day conference presenting important new information that
for details. £35 (BRE Connect price £22.50). has emerged from recent studies. It will also give delegates a clear 5 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
picture of work being done around the world by governments, Safe working
Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls aircraft manufacturers and airlines. Most importantly, it will set out Training course to raise awareness of health and safety issues
of multi-storey buildings – second edition (BR 135) solutions for improving technology and providing a safe and healthy and make people aware of their responsibilities.
See page 3 for details. £27.50 (BRE Connect price £18.50). cabin environment for passengers and crew. Closing presentations
will outline the proposed aviation standard for air quality. 6 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
Digests Contact: Events, 01923 664775, firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit Fire safety awareness for personnel
Concise reviews of building technology www.bre.co.uk/events Course aiming to provide personnel with a basic understanding
of fire safety in the work environment.
Digest 478 Building performance feedback – 28 October 2003 in London
getting started Sustainable PFI: contracts & incentives Delegates will gain an 6 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
Encourages the adoption of post-occupancy performance understanding of the possibilities for including sustainability in PFI Fire safety awareness for fire wardens or persons in
evaluation as part of a process of continuous improvement in contracts and an insight into ways to use payment mechanisms to charge
building performance. Introduces a strategic method of post- incentivise sustainability improvements. This course is a continuation of Module 1 Fire safety awareness
occupancy evaluation specifically tailored to the early stages of Visit: www.ciria.org/cief_event_281003.htm for personnel.
a building’s occupancy.
30 October 2003 at BRE, Watford 24 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
Good Building Guides Controlling pollution emissions from construction – ISO 9000 – an overview and the changes
Practical guidance on building design and construction new guidance All ISO 9000 – registered organisations have to update their Quality
Conference on the issues of air and noise pollution emissions from Systems to meet the new requirements and to retain their ISO 9000
GBG 57 Construction and demolition waste construction sites, which can cause nuisance and risks to the health registration beyond the year 2003.
Waste costs and somebody has to pay. With the increasing cost of site personnel and local residents. Construction projects will
of raw materials and the rising cost of waste disposal due to the increasingly need to demonstrate that their emissions of these 25 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
ramping up of landfill tax, better management of waste makes sense. pollutants are within acceptable and legal limits. Internal auditing
– Part 1 of this Good Building Guide puts demolition and Contact: Events, 01923 664775, email@example.com, or visit Internal audits are critical to compliance to ISO 9001:2001 and
construction waste into context and outlines the options for www.bre.co.uk/events ensure that the management system is attaining its full potential.
– Part 2 gives advice on how to deal with waste during demolition 4 November 2003 in London, 6 November 2003 in Edinburgh and 25-26 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
and construction processes. 11 November 2003 in Cardiff BREEAM for Offices assessor training course
Offshore renewable energy: innovation and commercial Two-day training course to become a BREEAM assessor.
GBG 58 Thin layer mortar masonry challenges Contact: 01923 664462, firstname.lastname@example.org
Thin layer mortar technology, which is rapidly gaining in popularity This event will allow delegates to address the key challenges faced
among UK builders, overcomes many of the actual and perceived by this growth sector and will provide the opportunity to ask 26-27 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
disadvantages of conventional masonry techniques. questions of speakers with experience in this field. Improving business performance with ISO 9000: 2000
Visit: www.ciria.org/cief_event_041103.htm Two-day course to help delegates develop a strategy of gaining
Information Papers real business benefits from the standard.
The latest BRE research information and how to apply it. 18 November 2003 at BRE, Watford
Supply chain management For information on the above training courses contact (unless
IP10/03 Fibre reinforced polymers in construction: Jointly organised by Contact Journal and BRE, this conference will otherwise stated) BRE Training, 01923 664800, E-mail
durability focus on taking cost and waste out of the supply chain. The aim is email@example.com, or visit www.bre.co.uk/training
Gives the background to the application of fibre reinforced polymers to equip delegates with practical ideas about how to achieve better
in construction, along with key issues relating to durability in service.
IP11/03 Fibre reinforced polymers in construction:
BRE Connect is a subscription scheme that gives
predicting weathering BREconnect unrivalled access to BRE’s expertise on buildings,
Summarises options for predicting weathering properties for construction, energy, environment, fire and risk.
FRP components used in construction.
For £120 a year BRE Connect subscribers receive:
– all BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information Papers such as those listed on this page – totalling at
least 50 publications each year – all building to form an invaluable reference tool
– a CD-ROM each year containing every BRE publication from that year in pdf format
– preferential pricing on a range of BRE books and other publications – such as those listed on this page – for which subscribers pay a
significantly reduced price
– discounts on a programme of BRE events. BRE Events are accredited to Continuous Professional Development (CPD).
For more information –
Alan Wakeford, 01923 664234 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Constructing the future is circulated in association with Contract Journal.