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An explanation of the Working
       memory model.
A diagram...what the hell is this???
               Psychologist                    needs Visual
                                              skills that only

               Central executive assigns the information
                to the relevant dept/person for the job.
         But it can only do this one piece of information at a time-
                  It has a limited capacity (like the STM!)

Politician                                                         Counsellor

    This                                                   This information
information                                                   needs a good
  requires                                                 listener someone
phonological                                                 with auditory
 attention.                                                      skills..
               All as one!
•  All of the centres work together to process
   the information.
• But the central executive has overall
   responsibility for control processes e.g.
1. Setting tasks
2. Planning & co-ordinating the activity that
   needs to e carried out.
3. Switching attention between tasks.
• Thus you could name the central executive
   the fat controller.
     Phonological Loop
Known by some as the inner voice-

 It has a limited capacity with only
 temporary storage for holding verbal
  information (spoken).
  Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad.
 Also known as the ‘inner eye’ again like the
phonological loop it has a limited capacity & a
temporary storage system for holding visual
(seen) and spatial                  information.
       Working memory model
• Therefore we have established the Phonological loop and Visuo
  spatial Sketchpad are ‘slave systems’ that support the central
• Their space can be used and freed up, thus supporting the
  demands of information –processing tasks.

• However it is important to remember the slave systems have
  separate responsibilities and work independently of one another.
Is there any evidence to support
     the different stores?
• In short...there have been a number of
  studies that have strived to support the
  model. What is needed is:
• An understanding of the research.
• Methodological Issues.
• Ethical Issues.
  Evidence- Visuo scratchpad.
• Conrad (1964)- When presenting Ps with visual
  letters they become muddled when asked to recall
  similar sounding letters immediately e.g. ‘s’ & ‘f’.

• Baddeley (2003)-Visualising American football game
  whilst driving. He found the car began to swerve.

• McClelland et al (2006)-Imagine fav foods whilst
  forehead tracking (tapping an imaginary line across
  the forehead & follow fingers with eyes.)

• Each of the above found the tasks difficult as two
  things at once on one store impairs performance!
 Evidence-Central Executive.
• Imbo et al (2007)- Changing difficulty
  of sums. He changed the carry over to
  make the sums more difficult e.g. 17 x
  17(easy) 17x 21(more difficult). Having
  more sums makes it difficult on the
  working memory and uses both the
  Phonological loop & central executive.
   Evidence- Phonological loop.
• Baddeley et al (1975)-Word length was
  investigated. Ps were asked to write down 5
  words in serial order immediately after
  presentation. Simultaneously they were
  prevented via interference from rehearsing
  the information.
• Articulatory suppression fills the phonological
  loop and removes the advantage of
  rehearsing. The central executive takes over recall as some
  words are recalled!!
                    In summary
• Within the WWM certain systems are
  crystallized (i.e. They remain unchanged/ the
  same) Whilst other systems are fluid i.e.
  They have the potential to be more flexible.


            Visuo-Spatial    Episodic       Phonological
             Scratchpad       Buffer           Loop

            Visuo-spatial    Episodic LTM      Language    fluid
    The good, The bad, The ugly!
 The existence of the phonological loop and visuo-spatial
  sketchpad is well documented.

 Practical Implications. (Reading skills)

 WWM influential and still being developed & expanded.

  Not much is known about the Central executive (the most
  integral store!) no one has been able to quantify it

  Furthermore what is the role of the central executive.
  Language is vague i.e. We find ourselves in a circular

  Contradicting evidence: VSSP & Phonological loop working
  together causes interference (Conrad 1964) measuring
  brain activity should show this….it does not.