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Enviromental Studies Class. worksheets and class work

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									Leonard Hagg

Chapter 12 worksheet

Terms to know:

Fossils fuels- organic (carbon based) compounds derived from decomposed plants, algae, and other
organisms buried in rock layers for hundreds of millions of years
IGCC- a system that pays for itself over time, and produce zero emissions electricity from coal, A power-
plant that can generate electricity while capturing and permanently storing carbon dioxide and other
Tar sands- composed of sans and shale particles coated with bitumen, a viscous, tar-like mixture of long-
chain hydrocarbons. Tar sands are excavated and mixed with hot water and steam to extract bitumen, then
fractionated to make useful products.
Oil shale’s- fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in solid organic material called kerogen. They can be
heated, liquefied, and pumped out like a liquid crude oil.
Nuclear fission- when radioactive uranium atoms are struck by a high-energy subatomic particle called,
neutron, they undergo nuclear fission (splitting), and releases energy and more neutrons.
Retrievable storage-this involves holding wastes in underground mines, or secure surface facilities
where they can be watched. These places may be susceptible to terrorist attack, or may leak.
Energy intensity-amount of energy needed to provide goods and services has declined.
Cogeneration-simultaneous production of both electricity and steam or hot water in the same plant. By
producing 2 kinds of useful energy in the same facility, the net energy yield from the primary fuel is
increased from 30-35 percent to 80-90 percent.
Net energy yield-the energy the product produces, compared to the energy consumed. Like switch-grass,
it produces 5.4 times as much energy as was used to grow it.
Fuel cells- devices that use ongoing electrochemical reactions to produce an electric current.

1.What are fossil fuels and how are they created? Fossil fuels are from the compression of organic
material from the remains of plants and animals from millions of years ago. Why are they not
considered renewable resources? Fossil fuels are organic based, created from millions of years of
compressed life forms (plants, animals). They are not considered renewable because we cannot create it,
and it takes a large amount of time to occur naturally.
2. What inhibits development of oil shales as a fuel source? The high costs of extraction as well as
environmental impacts.
3. What is the biggest challenge with production of energy from nuclear fission? disposal of the
highly radioactive wastes. What are some proposed solutions? Currently the proposal is of a large
underground permanent site. Although Obama has recently scrapped the project in Nevada under Yucca
Mountain. The other alternatives is storage in containers above ground.
4. Describe three different ways ‘green building’ can help us save energy. Heating and cooling of a
building is one of the highest costs. With proper insulation and alternative heating/cooling techniques,
energy can be saved. Lighting can also be addressed by providing more natural lighting. Another way to
save energy is by producing it through wind, solar, or solar thermal hot water systems. By generating
energy itself, the building would be “green”.
5. Do you think production of corn for ethanol, (biofuel) is a sustainable solution to the fuel
problem? Consider what you have learned this quarter about farming, food supplies and other
things that may factor in to ‘growing’ our energy source. I think it could it could work as an interim
solution for fuel, long enough for us to get off oil for our transportation. I do feel it would not be a viable
way forever, damage to crop lands and emissions as well are two things that would be a deal breaker.
6. How is passive solar absorption different from absorption in active solar systems? passive solar
refers to systems that absorb, store and distribute the sun’s energy without relying on mechanical devices
like pumps and fans, which require additional energy. Passive solar design reduces the energy
requirements of the building by meeting either part or all of its daily cooling, heating and lighting needs
through the use of solar energy. Active Solar systems involves the use of solar collectors and other
renewable energy systems like biomass to support the solar passive features as they allow a greater degree
of control over the internal climate and make the whole system more precise. Active solar systems use
solar panels for heat collection and electrically driven pumps or fans to transport the heat or cold to the
required spaces. Electronic devices are used to regulate the collection, storage and distribution of heat
within the system. Hybrid systems using a balanced combination of active and passive features provide
the best performance.

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