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					Leonard Hagg

Worksheet 3

ENVS 100


Cloud Forest - Moist tropical forest with ample rainfall and uniform warm temperatures. Cloud forest
happen when fog and mist keep vegetation wet all the time.

Tropical forest - occur where rainfall is abundant-more than 200 cm a year- and temperatures are warm
or hot all year round.

Tropical seasonal forest - drought-tolerant forest that look brown and dormant in the dry season but
burst into vivid green during the rainy months.

Grassland/Savannah - where the rainfall is not abundant to support forests. These areas often have a
rainy season but during the dry season fires can occur clearing the areas of most of the trees.

Desert - Areas that receive little to no rainfall and temperatures that can be extreme hot or cold and
seasonal as well.

Temperate grassland - usually receive enough rain for abundant grasslands but not enough for forests.
These areas contain many herbaceous plants call forbs. These areas usually contain very rich soil.

Temperate shrubland/chaparrel - Drought resistant generally spring plant s bloom and summers are
dryer than winters. Small shrubs and evergreen. Hot-spot for Biodiversity as well.

Temperate forest - wide range of precipitation, generally between 35 and 50 degrees latitude and can
be deciduous or coniferous.

Temperate rainforests - extreme wet coastal forests along PNW cool, rainy, and often enshrouded in
fog. Condensation in the canopy is a major form of precipitation in the understory. Mild year round
temperatures and an abundance of life. Redwoods and large cedars live in this area.

Boreal forests - very cold and short frost free growing season. Very slow growth and higher latitudes or
altitudes. mostly coniferous plants and trees.

Tundra - Where temperatures are below freezing most of the year and only small hardy vegetation can
survive. treeless landscape at high latitudes or on mountaintops

Tidal Shores - regions of high biodiversity with the marine world. There are several different types of
habitat regions.
Coral reef - warm, clear, shallow ocean habitats that are rich in life. The reef's massive structure is
formed from coral polyps, tiny animals that live in colonies; when coral polyps die, they leave behind a
hard, stony, branching structure made of limestone.

Sea-grass beds - Occupy shallow, warm sandy coastlines, like reefs they support rich communities of
grazers, from snails to turtles to Florida manatees

Mangroves - trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly
between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The saline conditions tolerated by various species range from
brackish water, through pure seawater, to water of over twice the salinity of ocean seawater, where the
salt becomes concentrated by evaporation.

Estuaries - partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and
with a free connection to the open sea.

Tide pools - rocky pools by oceans that are filled with seawater. Many of these pools exist as separate
entities only at low tide.

Freshwater lakes - have distinct vertical zones just like saltwater environments. Generally there is a
warmer upper layer heated by the sun. The salt level is low and the local conditions affect the
characteristics of the aquatic community.

Wetlands - area of land whose soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally. Such
areas may also be covered partially or completely by shallow pools of water.[2] Wetlands include
swamps, marshes, and bogs, among others. The water found in wetlands can be saltwater, freshwater,
or brackish.

Rivers - natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river.
A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation
through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice
and snowpack.

2. What is Biodiversity - Variety of living things.

           a. genetic diversity - a measure if the variety of versions of the same genes within individual

     b. species diversity - describes the number of different kinds of organisms within individual
communities or ecosystems.

        c. ecological diversity - means the richness and complexity of a biological community, including
the number of niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes that capture energy, sustain food webs,
and recycle materials within the system.
3. What are the benefits of biodiversity in terms of:

        a: food - many wild plant species could make important contributions to food supplies either as
they are or as a source of genetic material to improve domestic crops.

        b: drugs and medication - living organism provide us with many useful drugs and medication.

        c: ecosystem benefits - soil formation, waste disposal, air purification, nutrient cycling, solar
energy absorption, and food production.

       d: aesthetics - nature based activities, psychologically and emotionally restorative, spiritual
connotations and personal identity.

4. HIPPO - Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, Population (human), and Overharvesting. E.O.
Wilson summarize human threats to biodiversity.

5. Habitat fragmentation is the conversion of forests and grasslands into farmland. they areas generate
favor weedy species adapted to coexist with us. This depletes areas of biodiversity because many cats
and larger animals require larger areas not fragmented patches of wilderness.

6. The endangered Species Act protects declining species even if they are not directly useful to humans.
it does do a good job of protecting the species once they are on this list, the difficult part is the lengthy
job of getting them on the list.

7. Define a: Keystone species - species with major effect on ecological functions and whose elimination
would affect many other members of the biological community. example: prairie dogs.

        b: Indicator species - are those tied to specific biotic communities or succession stages or
environmental conditions. They are reliably found under certain conditions but not others. example:
book trout.

        c: Umbrella species - require large blocks of relatively undisturbed habitat to maintain viable
populations. Saving this habitat also benefits many other species. example: Spotted owl, tiger, gray wolf.

       d: Flagship species - are especially interesting or attractive organisms to which people react
emotionally. These species can help to motivate the public to preserve biodiversity and contribute to
conservation. example: Panda

8. Wood is the most heavily used commodity in industrial economies. More than steel and plastic
combined. More than have of the world's population relies on wood or charcoal is its main source of
heating and cooking fuel.

9. Land use in Africa responsible for most forest losses is small scale permanent agriculture. In Latin
America it is large scale permanent agriculture. In Asia it is the same with "other" a close second.
10. Problems with monoculture forestry practices is that it supports little biodiversity and does poorly in
providing the ecological services, such as soil erosion control and clean water production that maybe the
most valuable of native forests.

11. Prescribed burns lessens the chance for large scale very destructive burns where as forest thinning
introduces invasive species, compacts the soil and actually creates more of a fire prone area than what
was there before by removing the larger pieces and leaving behind kindling to start fires.

12. Rotational grazing mimics the effects of wild grazing forcing the livestock to eat everything evenly,
trample everything, and to fertilize heavily with manure helps keeps weeds in check and encourage the
growth of more desirable forage species. These are all reason that may prevent desertification. Because
all the ecological process are still happening prevent things like Soil erosion.

13. There are many places where ecotourism can be more economically beneficial, especially for
conservation, then if the area were to log or mine in other areas. There are costs though and that is
there are tourist there and people that will have contact with the ecosystem so there is always some
type of disruption.