THE VERB

					            МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ
      ХЕРСОНСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ТЕХНІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
                     Кафедра іноземних мов



Рег. № 66/310 – 10.04.09




                      МЕТОДИЧНІ РЕКОМЕНДАЦІЇ
                         до практичних занять


  з дисципліни              іноземна мова (англійська)_________

  для студентів____II курсу III-IV семестрy_____________________

  для напряму підготовки   6030508 Фінанси і кредит
                           6030504 Економіка підприємства
                           6030509 Облік і аудит
                           6030601 Менеджмент
  галузі знань             0305 Економіка та підприємництво
                            0306 Менеджмент і адміністрування
  факультету               ЕКОНОМІКИ




                             Херсон – 2009р.
     Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять з дисципліни іноземна
мова (англійська) для студентів 2 курсу III-IV семестрy напрямів підготовки
6030508 Фінанси і кредит, 6030504 Економіка підприємства, 6030509 Облік і
аудит, 6030601 Менеджмент галузей знань 0305 Економіка та підприємництво,
0306 Менеджмент і адміністрування факультету економіки.

      Укладач (і): Н.С.Фоменко, Н.Г. Сіденко, Л.М. Краснонос, Т.М. Ревва,
О.К. Статкевич, І.О. Якушенко.
      Кількість сторінок 64 .


Рецензент: канд. філол. наук., доц. Возненко Н.В.




                                      Затверджено
                                      на засіданні кафедри іноземних мов
                                      протокол № 7 від 2.03.09
                                      Зав. кафедри ______________



Відповідальний за випуск канд. філол. наук., доц. Фоменко Н.С.




                                       2
                                     ВСТУП

      Методичні рекомендації з граматики розроблено для студентів 2 курсу
економічних спеціальностей технічного вузу, ціллю яких є навчити студентів
читанню текстів з фаху.
      Методичні рекомендації містять граматичні вправи по основним темам
граматики англійської мови: Видо-часова система англійського дієслова в
активному та пасивному стані. Модальні дієслова та їх еквіваленти. Функції
дієслова «to be», «to have» в реченні. Неособові форми дієслова та їх звороти.
Складне речення. Іменник з лівим означенням.
      Граматичні вправи призначені для формування навичків розпізнавання та
перекладу граматичних явищ, які зустрічаються у економічній літературі. Для
повторення правил та запобігання помилок до вправ додані інструкції на
українській мові, щоб увага студентів була зосереджена на граматичному
явиші. Лексичний матеріал до граматичних вправ взято із сучасних джерел, які
вказано в списку рекомендованої літератури.
      Після кожного граматичного розділу методичних рекомендації
пропонується лексичний словник, до якого входять економічні терміни,
переклад яких може викликати трудність у студентів.
      До складу методичних рекомендацій також входять додаткові вправи для
перекладу речень з англійської мови на українську та з української мови на
англійську, які містять найбільш типові граматичні конструкції у економічних
текстах.
      Також до методичних рекомендацій входять спеціально розроблені тести
з ключами, метою яких є контроль вивченого граматичного матеріалу, а також
вони можуть бути використані студентами для самоконтролю.
      Методичні рекомендації містять таблиці: список неправильних дієслів,
словотворення.




                                      3
                                          ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)
 V - Дієслово означає дію або стан у вигляді дії.
 Особисті форми дієслова (Finite Forms of the Verb) виражають особу, число,спосіб,час, стан.

She lives in Kherson. - Вона живе в Херсоні.
They were invited to the concert. - Вони були запрошені на концерт.
We are working here. - Ми працюємо тут.
He has been teaching English all his live. - Він викладає англійську мову все своє життя.

 У англійській мові є три способи: дійсний, наказовий і умовний.

They wanted to improve their knowledge by reading much. - Вони хотіли поліпшити свої знання, багато
читаючи.
Speak a little slower, please. - Говоріть трохи повільніше, будь ласка.
I wish I were there at that moment. - Я б хотіла бути там у той момент.

        Стандартні (правильні) і нестандартні (неправильні) дієслова (Regular and Irregular
Verbs).
Правильні дієслова утворюють Past Indefinite і          Past Participle шляхом додавання до форми
Інфінітива закінчення -ed:
 Infinitive        Past Indefinite      Past Participle
 to open             opened              opened
 to work             worked              worked
 to expect           expected            expected
 Закінчення –ed вимовляється:
        [d]                        [t]                            [id]
після дзвінких приголосних після глухих приголосних після t, d і голосних
     lived                          helped                       wanted
     answered                      finished                     intended
    До неправильних дієслів належать дієслова, що утворяююь Past Indefinite і Past Participle
різними способами:

          Infinitive      Past Indefinite      Past Participle
           to begin           began                begun
           to meet             met                   met
          to speak            spoke                 spoken
          to give             gave                  given
          to send             sent                   sent
          to build            built                 built
    У деяких неправильних дієслів усі три форми однакові:
         to cut               cut                  cut
          to put              put                  put

                         Основні форми дієслова
      V1            V2                  V3                                 V4
Інфінітив     Минулий Неозначений Дієприкметник Минулого                 Дієприкметник
                     Час                    Часу                         Теперішнього Часу
   to sell          sold               sold                                selling
   to buy           bought            bought                               buying
  to invest        invested           invested                             investing




                                                    4
                                            Часи групи Іndefinite (Active Voice)

                          Present                             Past                                   Future
                   I/we        invest savings in      I/he/she invested savings in a           I/we   shall invest savings in a
  Стверджувальна

                   You/they a business enterprise     We/you      business enterprise                 business enterprise
                   He/she    invests savings in a     They                                     She/he      will invest savings
                             business enterprise                                               You/they in a business
                   Я вкладаю …...                     Я вклав …...
  форма




                                                                                                          enterprise
                                                                                               Я буду вкладати (вкладу)…

                   Do    I/we    invest savings in               I/he/she    invest savings    Shall I/we invest savings in a
                       You/they a business            Did        we/you     in a business                  business enterprise
                                  enterprise?                      they       enterprise       Will     she/he invest savings
  Питальна




                   Does he/she invest savings in a                                                     you/they in a business
  форма




                   business enterprise?                                                                           enterprise

                   I/we      do not invest savings    I/he/she     did not invest savings      I/we   shall not invest savings
                   You/they in a business             We/you        in a business enterprise          in a business enterprise
                             enterprise               They                                     He/she     will not invest
  Заперечна




                   He/she does not invest savings                                              You/they savings in a
  форма




                           in a business enterprise                                                        business enterprise



  Часи групи Indefinite вживаються: 1) для констатації факту здійснення дії, або 2) для вираження
звичайної дії, що відбувається в теперішньому, минулому і майбутньому часі. До цієї групи
відносяться : Present, Past, Future Indefinite.
   Обставини, характерні для цього часу: often, always, seldom, last month,some years ago, long ago,
many weeks ago, next year, in some days,in the nearest future, ets.

                                EXERCISES (ВПРАВИ)
          Ex.1. Визначите час і стан                    дієслова-присудка. Перекладіть речення на
українську/російську мову.
                                           I.
         1. The Merta Manufacturing Corporation employs approximately 3,000 people. 2. About 75% of the
work force consists of semiskilled workers. 3. William Hinds the production manager of a medium-sized
manufacturing company often remarked that fear is the only way to make people work. Periodically he meets
with workers in the shop and criticizes the individual's performance. He even threatens the workers with loss
of their jobs. 4. Henry Jarrett holds a similar position in another company. But unlike Hinds, Jarrett believes
that you need reward people. He knows that money isn't enough and that people need some form of
recognition. He placed a board at the workers' entrance with the names of all production workers on it. At the
end of the year, the top gold star winner in each department will have a special recognition prize. 5. The
problem of motivation will be always complex and important. It will face organizational goals as well. This
problem is also a matter of management's approach. 6. Charles Dow worked toward creating an index
comprised completely of industrial stocks.7. Ergonomics comes from the word ―ergon‖ which means work.
Now the field of ergonomics covers a rather broad area.8. Usually economic growth proceeds slowly. 9. A
steady growth rate of 2 per cent each year will result in a significantly larger and healthier economy in only
ten years. 10. Even the most prosperous economies only grow 2-3 per cent a year. Economists usually study
economic growth over long periods of time.11. The consumption of some goods actually decreases as
income increases and increases as income decreases.
                                             II.
         1.A non-profit organization also provides goods and services to the economic system, but does not
have profit as an objective. 2. A limited partner invests money in the business but does not have any
management responsibility or any liability for business losses. 3. First the corporation pays tax on income
before it can distribute any to stockholders. 4. An insurance agent will explain all the risks associated with
the small business and how to cover them most efficiently with insurance and other means. 5. Often a local
university has business professor who will advise small business people for a small fee. 6. SBA (small
business administration) also made direct loans to select small business and guaranteed loans for small
business with special problems with the bank.

                                                                      5
        Ex.2. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову. Зверніть увагу на те, що
сполучення used to вживається для вираження повторюваної дії в минулому і перекладається:
звичайно, маючи звичку.
                                             I.
         1.The company used to operate an express delivery service throughout the U.K. 2. One large
exporter used to sell goods to over 50 companies around the world on an ex work basis. 3. Damage can occur
in transmit and may happen, for example, when an exporter used to dispatching heavy machinery, sends his
customers some delicate artifacts as Christmas presents. 4. While on business trip, he used to call me every
day. 5. Financists used to measure the collective performance of specific groups of stocks. 6. Ukrainian
Parliament passed the law to reduce the clerks in government units which used not to come true. 7. On the
contrary the number of these clerks used to enlarge to             thousands of people. 8. The IBM board of
directors used to hire only high-skilled programmers, system operators and other software specialists.
                                                II.
         1.Employees need to feel that their manager is constant in what they are trying to achieve and that
his decision making leads to mutual profit and progress.2. Whenever a country imports or exports goods and
services, money returns to the exporting nation, and money flows out of the importing nation. 3. A
government allows its citizens to produce and export those things they are best at and to import the rest. 4.
Some trade barriers will always exist as long as any two countries have different sets of laws. 5. However,
when a country decides to protect its economy by erecting artificial trade barriers, the result is often
damaging to everyone, including those people whose barriers were meant to protect. 6. The total contract
sum includes the equipment, engineering FOB, documentation. 7. The prices are constant for the duration of
the contract. 8. The Seller sold and the Buyer bought the machinery, materials and services last week. 9.
What organization will consider trade barriers between Ukraine and Russia? 10. The Great Depression of the
1930s spread around the world when the USA decided to erect trade barriers to protect local producers.11.
As other countries retaliated, trade stopped, workers lost their jobs, and the world entered into a long period
of economic decline.

        Ex.3. Перекладіть речення на українську /російську мову.

         1. The Ukrainian Parliament passed the law determining the banking system in 1991. 2. The
National Bank of Ukraine conducts a uniform monetary, credit, currency policy. 3. There exist nearly 230
commercial banks in Ukraine. Their main functions include monetary deals with public organizations and
private citizens. 4. In volume of business the London Stock Exchange offers the largest range of services. It
ranks third after New York and Tokyo. 5. The revolution of 1688 in England created political stability and a
wave of financial experimentation. 6. Paterson proposed a loan of $1,200,000 to the government, in return
Paterson demanded 8%. 7. The Bank of England continued to occupy Grocer’s Hall for nearly 40 years. 8.
The Bank of England started its monetary policies in 1694. 9. The main commercial banks Barclay Bank,
Midland Bank, and National Westminster Bank perform trading operations with millions of securities daily.
10. In the 18th century the Bank developed as a government bank. Four-fifth of its business and profits came
from the government connection. 11. As in most other developed countries, monetary policy operates in the
UK mainly through the price of money – in other words, the rate of interest. 12. Many people think that
rich people do not pay any taxes; they use tax shelters to avoid them.

        Ex.4. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на переклад
підрядих речень часу і умови, які вводяться такими сполучниками: if - якщо, unless - якщо
тільки ... не, provided that - за умови якщо, when - коли, untill,till - доти поки ... не, as soon as - як
тільки, as long as - поки, before - перед тим , як. Пам’ятайте, що всі речення,як головні так і
підрядні перекладаються в майбутньому часі.

        1.If the price of this comodity becomes more expensive than today's price, I'll subsidize the
difference for you. 2. If the price of your commodity drops below today's price, I'll pay you the difference
to cover your loss. 3. I'll inform you about the Dow Jones and Industrial Average as soon as I know the
formula of stock prices of 30 major industrial companies. 4. If I am free on weekend we'll be able to discuss
the agenda of the conference. 5. As soon as you prove the impossibility of carrying out this obligation you
will not bear responsibility for it. 6. If the poor spend a larger fraction of their income on alcohol, as figure
suggests, they will bear a disproportionately large share of the tax. 7.If the price of CDs rises from $15 to
$20, income will face a new budget constraint. 8. If the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is 5, then this

                                                       6
price increase will lead to a fall in quantity demanded of 10 per cent.

                                      Часи Групи Indefinite (Passive Voice)
                            Present                      Past                        Future
                     I am promoted in business I/he/she         was promoted in I/we shall be promoted
   Стверджува-льна


                     You/they/we are promoted business                                  in business
                                     in business  We/you were promoted in       She/he will be promoted
                     He/she/it is promoted in     They             business     You/they in business
                                  business        Мені допогли (сприяли) в Мені допоможуть
                     Мені           допомогають бізнесі.                        (посприяють) в бізнесі
   форма




                     (сприяють) в бізнесі.

                      Am I promoted in business     Was I/he/she/it  promoted in   Shall I/we be promoted in
                      Are you/they promoted in      business?                                  business?
                     business?                      Were you/ they promoted in     Will she/he/it be promoted
   Питальна форма




                      Are we promoted          in   business?                           you/they in business
                     business?                      Чи допомогли (сприяли) мені    Чи             допоможуть
                      Is he/she/it       promoted   в бізнесі?                     (посприяють)      мені    в
                     in business?                                                  бізнесі?
                      Чи допомогають
                     (сприяють) мені в бізнесі?
                     I am not promoted in           I/he/she/it was not promoted   I/we shall not be
   Заперечна форма




                     business                       in business                    promoted    in business
                     You/they/w are not promoted    They/we/you were not           He/she    will not be
                     in business                    promoted in business           You/they promoted in
                     He/she/it    is not promoted     Мені не допомогли (не                  business
                     in business                    посприяли) в бізнесі           Мені не допоможуть (не
                     Мені не допомогають (не                                       посприяють) в бізнесі
                     сприяють) в бізнесі

         Пасивний стан (Passive Voice) - показує, що підмет пасивний, тобто він піддається дії з боку
іншої особи або предмета.
      Способи перекладу речень з присудком в пасивному стані.
1.) сполученням дієслова ―бути‖ з дієприкметником пасивного стану минулого часу:
          The goods were examined yesterday.
          Товари були оглянуті вчора.
   2.) дієсловом з часткою -ся, сь: Товари оглядалися вчора.
   3.) дієсловом в активному стані в 3-тій особі множини з неозначено-особовим значенням на -ли, -
ють, -уть. -
          Товари оглянули (оглядали) вчора.
   4) сполученням дієслова ―бути‖ з дієслівними формами на –но, -то в безособових реченнях:
         That house was built last year.
         Той будинок було збудовано торік.

         Ex.5. Перекладіть речення на рідну мову. Визначте час і стан дієслова-присудка.
         1. All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money. 2. Our goods and services are
sold for money. 3. And money in turn is exchanged for other goods. 4. Commodity prices were always based
on supply and demand. 5. Most of the world's future exchanges are located in the United States. 6. Coins are
sent back to the Mint for melting and recasting. 7. The Commodities Exchange (COMEX) was formed from
the merger of the Rubber Exchange, Hide Exchange, Raw Silk Exchange and Metals Exchange. 8. How will
commission be paid ? 9. Today, new coins are struck at the Bureau of the Mint's Philadelphia, Denver and
San Francisco branches. 10. Worn out and dirty money is shipped back to the Federal Reserve Banks. 11.
The future market was created to help business minimize risks. 12. The number "one", as a numeral or word
is found 16 times on a dollar bill (front and back side). 13. In today's global economy currencies are valued
by measuring them against each other. 14. Lincoln's employees are paid by piecework system. 15. Almost
every discussion about a nation's economy is based on a concept GNP (gross national product). 16.Such
high price will not be accepted by the buyers and the firm will meet troubles. 17. This consignment of coffee

                                                             7
will be imported from Brasil at adequate prices as soon as we fax our address. 18. The guarantee period will
be prolonged to 10 months from the date of the start-up of the equipment. 19. The firm is assured that the
equipment will be delivered within two months from the date of opening the Letter of Credit.

            Особливості перекладу пасивних зворотів на українську мову
  1. Пам'ятаєте, що якщо в реченні говориться про особу або предмет, що впливає на підмет,який
виражений іменником (або займенником) із прийменником by, то можливий переклад :
    1) дієсловом у пасивному стані;
    2) дієсловом в активному стані. У цьому випадку особа або предмет стає підметом українського
речення.
   e.g.
 Financial documents were signed by the manager and the accountant.
    1) Фінансові документи були підписані керівником і бухгалтером (пасивний стан).
    2) Керівник і бухгалтер підписали фінансові документи (дійсний стан).

         Ex.6. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.
          1. This contract is accepted by the partners without delay. 2. The draft contract was prepared by the
new team of the staff. 3. All the points under dispute will be settled by us. 4. Costs are reduced by the
suppliers though it is not easy at this period. 5. No doubt financial control will be tightened by the new
authorities.6.Valuable metal is replaced by paper notes.7. Small business are affected by the problem of
organizing an affective distribution strategy. 8. Europe is still regarded by many small business an another
planet – referring to the Continent. 9. In many cases the speed of transport is determined by the type of
cargo. 10. The importance of transport is now more widely accepted by larger firms but the massage has to
spread to business of all sizes. 11. The automobile industry was helped by the government restrictions on
Japanese imports.

         2. Якщо за присудком у пасивному стані слідує прийменник , що відноситься до дієслова, то
підмет англійського речення перекладається іменником (або займенником) із прийменником, який
ставиться перед ним. Всі речення перекладаються на українську мову неозначено-особовими
реченнями.
     1) These terms will be insisted on. - На цих умовах будуть наполягати.
     2) This man can be depended on. - На цю людину можна покластися.
 Такі пасивні звороти можливі тільки з деякими дієсловами:
 to act on/upon - впливати,впливати на
 to deal with- мати справу з
 to look at - дивитись на
 to refer to- посилатися на
 to rely on/upon- покладатися на
 to send for- посилати за
 to speak of(about)- говорити про
 to work at- працювати над
 to experiment on/upon- експериментувати над
 to pay attention to- звертати увагу на
 to agree upon- домовитися про
 to depend on- покладатися на
 to insist on/upon- наполягати на
 to object to- заперечувати проти

        Ex.7. Перекладіть речення на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на дієслова, що
потребують після себе певних прийменників.
         1.The terms were agreed upon. 2. These terms were insisted upon. 3.This proposal was objected to.
4.I think that this information can be relied upon. 5. I am sure that this business plan won't be objected to. 6.
We cannot change the terms of payment which were agreed upon during the negotiations. 7. The terms
agreed upon were advantageous for both the parties. 8.The article of the agreement objected to during the
negotiations must be reconsidered .9. The alterations and amendments to the contract are insisted on.10.
They hoped that the commercial part of the contract would be paid much attention to. 11. The Acceptance
Report (акт прийомки)signed in the presence of your experts must be referred to.12. Mr.Smith assured that

                                                       8
decisions of the members' meeting were paid special attention to by the consorthium leader.13.He confirmed
that the draft of the consorthium agreement was being worked at. 14. Licence materials were sent for. 15.
The latest rise in metal price in London is much spoken of in business circles. 16. Frederick W.Taylor is
referred to as ―the father of scientific management.‖

        Ex.8. Перекладіть речення на українську мову, звертаючи увагу на дієслова, що
потребують після себе певних прийменників.
        1.The best-known predecessor of Taylor was Charles Babbage, who is remembered today mostly for
the development of the ―Difference Engine‖. 2. An illustration of Babbage’s scientific attitude is found in the
preface to on the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. 3. And after some critics and negative
evaluation the faith in the new philosophy of management was strengthened. 4. In this philosophy the
emphasis is made on human relations in industry. 5. The research carried on at the Hauthrone Works, under
the direction of Elton Mayo, is considered as the classic work in the area. 6. New approaches, based
primarily on the quantitative techniques of maths and statistics were applied to the management of industrial
enterprise. 7. Operations management is connected with the directing of the activities required to produce the
product or service of an enterprise. 8. The liability or compensation payments of these conventions cannot be
relied upon. 9. Hanging garment services are insisted upon by exporters and importers of clothes. 10.
Supplies delivered as hanging garments are insisted on by many retailers.

                                    Особливості перекладу підмета
         Ex.9. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на переклад
підмета..Памятайте, що підмет англійського речення при присудку в пасивному стані може
перекладатися на українську мову іменником (займенником) у називному відмінку у всіх
непрямих відмінках.
E.g.
  The currency will be exchanged after the rate of the day. (Що?..) -
  Валюта буде обмінюватися за курсом дня.
  He was appointed manager of the department.(Кого?) - Його призначили керівником відділення.
  I shall be paid the difference to cover my loss.(Кому?) - Мені оплатять різницю, щоб покрити мої
витрати.

         1. They were offered the goods at a low price .2.We are paid twice a month. 3. I was offered
interesting work. 4. The buyers were granted a credit of six months. 5. They will be given detailed
instructions. 6. The goods will be examined tomorrow. 7. He was seen in the office.8. The agent was sent to
inform the buyers of the arrival of the steamer.9. The goods were disposed of in a short time. 10. Regular
exporters are better advised to arrange insurance through a registered insurance broker. 11. Whisky and other
spirits are considered hazardous if they are packed in containers with a capacity of more than five litres.12.
Workers are given little responsibility, authority or flexibility. 13. John Maynard began his studies at
Cambridge (maths and philosophy) and was encouraged to go into economics.


                                   ЧАСИ ГРУПИ CONTINUOUS (Active,PassiveVoice)

                                                  To be + V4 (ing)

                         Present                         Past                      Future
                  I am reducing prices -         I was reducing prices         I shall be reducing prices
                  Я знижую ціни                  Я знижав ціни                 Я буду знижувати ціни
   Active voice




                  he
                  she     is reducing prices     was reducing prices           will be reducing prices
                  it
                  Він знижує ціни                Він знижував ціни             Він буде знижувати ціни
                  we                                                           shall
                  you      are reducing prices   were reducing prices          will     be reducing
                  they                                                         will       prices
                  Ми знижуємо ціни               Ми знижували ціни             Ми будемо знижувати
                                                                               ціни

                                                              9
                                                To be + being + V3
                 I am being asked questions       was being asked                          -
                 Мені ставлять запитання          Мені ставили запитання
                 he
                 she is being asked questions     was being asked questions                -
                 it
                 Йому ставлять запитання          Йому ставили запитання
Passive voice




                 We
                 You      are being asked         were being asked
                 They      questions
                 Нам ставлять запитання           Нам ставили запитання

                                 Утворення питальної і заперечної форми
                    Present Continuous                 Past Continuous          Future Continuous
                 I am working                    I was working                I shall be working
                Am I working?                    Was I working?               Shall I be working?
                I am not working                 I wasn’t working             I shall not be working
Часи групи Continuous виражають дію, яка триває або незакінчену дію, що відбувається в якийсь
момент у теперішньому , минулому і майбутньому часі, а також намір вчинити заздалегідь намічену
дію.
  Перекладаються на українську мову дієсловами недоконаного виду. Відповідають на запитання -
що робить? , що робив? , що буде робити?
   Обставини часу, характерні для цієї групи часів: now, at present, from ... till, all day long, all the
time, the whole evening, all day yesterday, at 5 o'clock, at noon, at midnight, at that moment.

        Ex.10. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, визначте час і стан дієслова-
присудка.
        1.I am looking forward to meet you as soon as possible. 2. They will be working out a new business
plan next month 3. Are you operating the computer? 4. John is a sales agent. He is working overtime now to
save up for a car.5. Jane is typing the new copy of a business plan.6. Richard is spending a lot of money
now because he is repairing his car. 7. They will be waiting for him at 8.30. 8. They were willing to
establish with your firm long-term relations. 9. Namely these circumstances are releasing you from
obligation to deliver the equipment under the contract.10. This term will be discussing claims for penalty.11.
The college student in the early 1900s was just beginning to enjoy the benefits of an education for
business.12. He was phoning about the office shelving system.13. Many foreign companies are opening
offices in Brasil.14.A new business plan was being written by him all last week.15. This question is being
discussed at the meeting. 16. This question was being discussed when I entered the room.17. Wait a minute,
your documents are being signed by the director and the accountant.18. Look, Jane is watching TV instead
of doing her work. 19. These goods are being produced in Ukraine. 20. Underdeveloped countries were
being rendered urgent substantial assistance to survive in crop failures. 21. Now more high-tech goods, such
as semiconductors, are being imported by the U. S. 22. The experience at Chrysler is being repeated in
corporate affects throughout the United States. 23. Top executives are looking at how their firms are
organized and are changing their organizations to make them more efficient. 24. Managers are being
educated to guide and coach employees rather than to boss them around. 25. It doesn’t mean, though, that
managers are working more closely with employees in joint effort to accomplish common goals.

        Ex.11. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.
        1. The domestic consumer’s market is becoming competitive to foreign goods, especially to Poland
and Russian market. 2. Lookoil is getting substantial profit from takeover of some other Russian firms. 3.
The members of our delegation will be discussing the chances of opening up a new market in Holland.4. The
workers at Lincoln Electric are improving their level of education and culture now. 5. In many industries,
computer-based information systems are becoming a powerful competitive weapon. In the nearest future
they are planning to modify the equipment. 6. Unfortunately he is failing to use a variety of leadership styles,
and to cope wih such a difficult situation. 7. Marketing researchers will be investigating consumer behaviour
at each stage to determing the best way to facilitate marketing exchanges. 8. A new collection of memorial
coins was being issued to that date.


                                                                 10
                                           ЧАСИ ГРУПИ PERFECT (Active, Passive)
                                       To have + V3

                         Present                           Past                             Future
                  I                                   I                                I  shall have signed the
                  You      have already signed        you                              We contract by next week
   Active Voice



                  We       the contract               he     had signed the contract
                  They                                she     by November              You
                  Я вже підписав контракт             we                               He    will have signed the
                  He    has already signed            they                             She   contract by next week
                  She   the contract                  Я підписала контракт …           They
                  Він вже підписав                                                     Я підпишу контракт …


                                         To have + been + V3

                   The contract has been signed by    The contract had been signed        The contract will have been
                   us                                 by November                         signed by next week.
   Passive




                   Контракт був підписаний …          Контракт був підписаний …           Контракт буде підписаний .
   Voice




                                 Утворення питальної і заперечної форми

      Present Perfect                                  Past Perfect                      Future Perfect
   I have worked                                 I had worked                          I shall have worked
  Have I worked?                                 Had I worked?                         Shall I have worked?
  I haven’t worked                               I hadn’t worked                       I shall not have worked

 ЧАСИ групи Perfect виражають дію, що відбувалася до певного моменту в теперішньому, минулому
і майбутньому часі.
    Перекладаються ці часи на українську мову дієсловами доконаного виду і відповідають на
запитання - що зробив? , що буде зроблено?
  Present Perfect часто вживається з обставинами:
    lately , recently, for two years, for a long time, ever, never, just,
    already, yet і перекладається на українську мову дієсловом доконаного виду в минулому часі.
   Past Perfect і Future Perfect вживається з прийменником by для вказівки моменту часу в
минулому або майбутньому.
    E.g.
      We have(we've) already finished our work. - Ми вже закінчили свою роботу.
     All the data have been collected. - Всі дані були зібрані.
     After she had finished to type the letter, she sent it by fax.- Після того, як вона закінчила друкувати
лист, вона відправила його по факсу.
     We have recently received the letter of credit. - Ми нещодавно одержали акредитив.
     The carrier will be delivered the package by tomorrow morning.-              Кур'єр доставить пакет до
завтрашнього ранку.
      By Tuesday I had already drawn up the contract . – До вівторка я вже склала контракт.
      The schedule will have been received by you by 5 o'clock. - Графік буде одержаний вами до 5
години.

       Пам’ятайте, що з обставинами часу, які вводяться прийменниками since і for Present
Perfect означає дію, яка почалася в минулому і ще не закінчилася. В цьому випадку дієслово
перекладається на українську мову дієсловом в теперішньому часі.
 E.g. He has known me since 1991.- Він знає мене з 1991року.
      They have been engaged in this profitable business for some years. - Вони займаються цим
прибутковим бізнесом декілька років.

      Ex.12. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на те, що
присудок у Present Perfect Tense перекладається на українську мову дієсловом доконаного виду
в минулому часі.

                                                                  11
                                                I
         1.The use of new technology has created or changed the nature of hundreds of thousands of jobs. 2.
We have prepared a breakdown of the contract price. 3. Integrated Programme for Commodities has acted
since 1976. 4. I shall have completed the statement by tomorrow afternoon. 5. I'm an employee of
Yoodwell Computer Company. This is a typical Friday afternoon at our office. All the employees are
working overtime. We haven't gone home because we haven't finished our work yet. Friday is always a
very busy day. The secretary hasn't typed two important letters yet. The bookkeeper still hasn't written all
the paychecks. The office clerks haven't delivered all the mail yet. And the boss hasn't spoken to three
important people who are waiting to see him. I haven't finished my work yet either. I am the custodian, and I
still haven't cleaned all the offices. I haven't cleaned them because my co-workers haven't gone home yet!
I'm not surprised. As I've said, Friday is always a very busy day at our office.6. The employment buarea has
got a lot of information as to what specialists are needed at enterprises in the district.7. We shall have done
the greater part of work by the time you get into contract with our office. 8. Marketing middlemen have
always been seen by the public with some suspicion.
                                           II
         1.By 1986 many economy problems had receded. 2. U.S. corporations have invested a lot in
developing countries to get access to raw materials (such as oil). 3. Goods produced in the U.S. have
become more competitive. 4. The adjustment process has been very slow to help many companies and many
workers who have already lost their jobs. 5. The EBRD has already become the leading investor in the
private sector in Eastern Europe, and in the countries of CIS. 6. The Bank has been keen to assist Ukraine in
its initial steps toward independence and market system. 7. He has just called his agent on delivering the
goods as fast as possible.8. The manager has signed the letter without any delay. 9. Haven’t you been left
the massage? 10. We have received the money order at the general Post Office this morning. 11. Since the
dawn of human history, governments have passed laws regulating the prices at which some commodities
have been sold. 12. Many organizations have specialized in management which has been described in the
previous chapter. 13. Good planning has been done by all managers at every level of the organization. 14.
As soon as objectives had been developed, the next step is to begin to move the organization toward the
objectives. 15. We have presented the four functions of management, the main of them was controlling.
                                            III
         1. Many doctors, lawyers and individuals and partners in a variety of businesses incorporated. 2.
Once a person, partnership or group of individuals have incorporated, they often receive significant tax
advantages. 3. SBA (Small business administration) has produced many publications to assist small business
people in all areas of management. 4. How is it, that most Third World countries have adopted socialism as
their economic model? 5. Have you ever thought about starting your own business? 6. Exports have grown
almost proportionally. 7. Imports have grown in recent decades, not only in dollars, but as a percentage of
overall production. 8. Branches have been established by the United States in Europe, Japan, Latin America.
9. The United States has become a major borrower, from abroad, but the country also invests heavily
oversees.

                       ЧАСИ ГРУПИ PERFECT CONTINUOUS
  Часи групи Perfect Continuous вживаються для вираження                 тривалої дії, що почалась до
визначеного моменту в дійсному, минулому або майбутньому часі , і тривала               відомий період
часу, включаючи цей момент.
Present Perfect Continuous вживається з такими позначеннями часу: for an hour - протягом часу; for
a month - протягом місяця; lately - останній час;       since 5 o'clock.
    I haven't been reading a lot lately. - Останнім часом я трохи читаю.
    She has been teaching English since 1950. - Вона викладає англійську мову з 1950.
    We have been working at the fax for an hour. - Ми працюємо                              над факсом
на протязі години.




                                                     12
                     Present                              Past                             Future
  Стверджувальна   I/you/we have been calling      I/you                               I/we shall have been calling
                   They      up for an hour        They/we had been calling up              up for an hour
                                                   He/she/it for an hour               You/they will have been
                   He/she/it has been calling up                                       he/she/it calling up for an
                   for an hour                                                                     hour
  форма




                   Я телефоную …                 Я телефонувала…                       Я буду телефонувати…

                   Have I/you/we been calling up       I/we/you/it                     Shall I/we been calling up for
                    for an hour ?                  Had they/he/she been calling        an hour?
  Питальна




                   Has he/she/it been calling up   up for an hour?                           you/they
                   for                                                                 Will he/she/it been calling up
  форма




                             an hour?              Я телефонувала?                     for an hour?
                   Я телефоную ?                                                       Я буду телефонувати?
                   I/you/         have not been    I/you                               I/we shall not have been
                   calling                         They/we      had not been calling   calling up for an hour
                   They/we up for an hour          He/she/it    up for an hour
                                                                                       You/they will not have been
  Заперечна




                   He/she/it has not been calling                                      he/she/it calling up for an
                   up for an hour                 Я не телефонувала…                              hour
  форма




                   Я не телефоную…                                                     Я не буду телефонувати…


        Ex.13. Перекладіть речення з Present Perfect Continuous на українську/російську мову,
звертаючи увагу на те, що присудок перекладається теперішнім часом.
        1. Mr. and Mrs. Banks have been having a lot of problems in their apartment recently. 2. For several
weeks the bedroom ceiling has been leaking, the refrigerator hasn't been working and the paint in the hallway
has been peeling. 3. In addition, they have been taking cold showers since last week because the hot water
heater hasn't been working, and they haven't been sleeping at night because the radiators have been making
strange noises. 4. Mr. and Mrs. Banks are furious. They have been calling their landlord every day and
complaining about their problems.5. He has been promising to help them, but they have been waiting for
more than a week and he still hasn't fixed anything at all. 6.You have been following the principles of
organization all of you life. 7. The EBRD has been participating in Ukraine’s development since December
1991. 8. Naturally, lobbyists have been providing politicians with information needed to make judgement. 9.
Some economists, including Nobel Prize winners have been looking at the problems of the public sector as
the inevitable consequence of the political process.

 СЛОВНИК ДО ТЕМИ «ВИДО-ЧАСОВА СИСТЕМА АНГЛІЙСЬКОГО ДІЄСЛОВА»
    approximately - приблизно
    approach - підхід, наближатися
    agenda - порядок денний
    bear - нести
    benefit - благо, прибуток, давати прибуток
    breakdown - розлад, розруха
    create - створити, творити
    commission – комісія
    competitive - конкурентний
    claim - претензія
    custodian – охорона, охоронець
    commodity - ( тут) сировина
    complain - скарга, скаржитися
    cover - покривати, обкладинка
    deletion - викреслювання, знищення
    discount - знижка
    discourage - розладнати
    employ - наймати на роботу

                                                               13
 entrance - вхід
 expensive - дорогий
 exchange - обмін, біржа
 employee - службовець
 fear - боятися, страх
 fairness - справедливість
 furious - лютий, скажений
 goal - ціль
 grant - нагороджувати, (тут) надати
 intervene - втручатися
 insurance - страховка
 L/C - аккредитив
 level - рівень
 leak - протікати
 lay off - звільняти, звільнення
 merger - злиття ( підприємства )
 Mint - монетне подвір'я
 melt - плавити
 namely - саме
 proceed - приступати до чого-небудь
 prosperous – квітучий, перспективний
 piecework - відрядна робота
 penalty - штраф
 paycheck - платіжний чек
 peel - чистити, лущитися
 remark - помічати, зауваження
 reward – винагороджувати, нагорода
 recognition - визнання
 responsibility - відповідальність
 receipt [ risi:t ] - розписка, квитанція
 release - звільняти
 stock - акція
 semiskilled - не високого рівня підготовки, не кваліфікований
 steady - постійний
 subsidize - субсидіювати
 strike - ( тут) чеканити
 ship - перевозити
shelving system - стелажі
 sign - підписувати, знак
 statement - звіт
 suspicion - підозра
 survey - опитування
 threaten - загрожувати
 toward - по напрямку
 in terms of - у перекладі на, відносно чогось
 term -         термін
 whereby - за допомогою




                                            14
                                      МОДАЛЬНІ ДІЄСЛОВА

 Модальне            Еквіваленти            Present                 Past                     Future
 дієслово            модальних дієслів
 Can- могти          To be able (to)-         Can                   Could
  (фізична           могти                  am                      Was able (to)            shall be able (to)
 можливість,                                is able    (to)         Were                     will be able (to)
 розумова                                   are                     I could read             I shall be able to
 спроможність)                              I can read. I am able   I was able to read.      read.
                                            to read.

 May-       могти    to be allowed (to)-     May                     Might
 (допустимість       мати дозвіл            am                      was allowed      were    shall be allowed
 вчинення дії :                             is   allowed to         (to)                     (to)
 дозвіл        або                          are                                               will be allowed (to)
 відмова)                                   He may take it. He is   He might take it. He     He will be allowed
                                            allowed to take it .    was allowed to take it   to take it .
                                                                    .
 Must - повинен                             Must
                      to have (to) - бути   have (to)               had (to)                 shall    have(to)
                     змушеним в силу        has(to)                                           will
                     обставин
                     to be (to) – бути      am                      was                      He will (have) to
                     зобов'язаним у силу    is       (to)           were (to)                meet him.
                     плану            або   are
                     домовленості           He must meet him .      He had (was) to meet
                                            He has to meet him.     him .
                                            He is to meet him.

Should
Must
To have (to)          зобов’язання
To be (to)
Ought (to )
To be obliged (to)
Can
To be able (to)         фізична ,розумова спроможність
To be unable (to)

May
To be allowed (to)       дозвіл
To be permitted (to)
Need             необхідність

                            EXERCISES (ВПРАВИ).
        Ex.1. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на модальні
дієслова.
        1. You must settle our accounts with our creditors. 2. You needn't send a telex. I'll call them. 3. You
should consult a lawyer. 4. You ought to introduce the changes gradually. 5. The goods are to be packed in
strong cases. 6. You should be very careful with this equipment. 7. We must export more.8. It might be a
good market for our products. 9. We can't let that one failure stop us from trying to break into a new market.
10. In business letters compliments must not be exaggerated, as they may produce the opposite effect and the
reader may feel that the writer is being insincere. 11. He was taken from school and for some time he had to
help his father in the trade.12. All the preparations should be completed in a week. 13. The scientist was
obliged to leave his fatherland as he got no support from the authorities.14. A consumer must allocate (that
is , divide) his available income increases among alternative goods. 15. When an individual’s income
increases, he has more to spend on consumption. 16. If the government is to obtain more resources
individuals have to consume less. 17. Chrysler (firm) was able to obtain loans from private investors and
                                                        15
banks, and at a relatively low rate of interest. 18. You might also know that management is much more
complex than doing a few tasks. 19. How often have you heard the comment ―One of these days we’ll have
to get organized‖.

         Ex.2. Скажіть і напишіть такі речення в Past і Future Indefinite.
    Зразок:
         The secretary must know how to write business letters.
         The secretary had to know how to write business letters.
         The secretary will have to know how to write business letters.
    1. We must thank the custom officer for his help. 2. This manager must go on business abroad. 3. They
must tell him all about this transaction. 4. Accountants must widely use computers as well. 5. They must
help the management to make wise decisions.
       Зразок:
         I can see the sea from my window.
         I could see the sea from my window.
         I'll be able to see the sea from my window.
1. They can't see the accident. 2. You can leave the resume with the secretary. 3. Computers can do
calculations very fast. 4. They can cancel their orders. 5. She can earn her living herself.
    Зразок:
         He may refer to these figures.
         He might refer to these figures.
         He will be allowed to refer to these figures.
    1. You may come on Sunday. 2. We may fix the date of the appointment. 3. The workers may discuss
these problems with the management. 4. He may call on me tonight and take the catalogues. 5. You may
change the prices for these goods yourselves.

        Ex.3. Перекладіть на англійську мову.
        1. Я не можу закінчити роботу сьогодні. 2. Чи можете ви перекласти цей договір на
англійську мову? 3. Їй cлід погодитися з їхніми умовами. 4. Вони змогли виконати всі умови
договору. 5. Він запитав мене, чи може він взяти мій словник. 6. Ви можете скористатися моїм
телефоном. 7. Вам не варто заповнювати цю форму червоними чорнилaми. 8. Стаття була дуже
важкою і йому довелося скористатися словником. 9. Він повинен був зробити доповідь на нашому
семінарі.

         Ex.4. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на форми еквівалентів
модальних дієслів.
         1. Some goods and services had to be given up in order to obtain the goods and services you need.
2. This means that consumers are more willing and able to buy larger quantities of goods and services at
relatively lower prices. 3. You will not be able to sell all 40 gallons without reducing the price. 4. The
management discovered that productivity increased when their employees had the latest information and
when they were able to participate in production decisions. 5. All would agree, however, that the
productivity of American workers will have to impove if the nation is to maintain its position as the world's
leading industrial power. 6. These newer plants were able to draw away some of Intrepid's business by
offering up-to-date products at a cost slightly lower than Intrepid's. 7. Intrepid was unable to regain the
business it had lost and it was clear that the plant would never return to its former level of production. 8. Not
only will workers lose their jobs but town government will probably have to cut back its services to almost
nothing. 9. Some rich individuals and some huge corporations were able to avoid paying the income
fax altogether.

                Поєднання модального дієслова з пасивним інфінітивом
   Must    +     Infinitive Passive       потрібно,               The volume of sale should be increased
   Should       (be + V3)                 необхідно               Об’єм продажу необхідно збільшити
   Can    + Infinitive Passive            можна                   Can the terms of this contract be changed?
   May                                                            Чи можна змінити умови цього контракту?
   Cannot   + Infinitive Passive          не можна                The terms of this contract cannot be changed.
   Can’t                                                          It is too late.
                                                                  Умови цього контракту змінити не можна.
                                                                  Дуже пізно.

                                                       16
          Ex.5. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на сполучення
модального дієслова з Passive Infinitive.
                                                         I
         1. All the preparations should be completed in a week. 2. The problem must be settled as soon as
possible. 3. Some managers consider that changes ought to be introduced gradually. 4. He insists that the
plan should be discussed next week.5. Our catalogues can be sent to you by mail. 6. The accounts must be
checked. 7. This information may be got only at our firm. 8. This letter must be sent off at once. 9. The
aсcounts had to be checked once more. 10. According to the contract the goods are to be delivered not later
than the 15-th of March.
                                                         II
         1. Other economists say that the government should leave business alone and let the market
determine what goods and services should be produced. 2.If more resources are used to increase the
production of computers, then the production of something else that requires those same resources must be
cut back. 3. Averages can be computerized in a number of different ways. 4. These may be needed to prove
when and where you bought the item and the price you paid for it. 5. While there is nothing that anyone can
do to eliminate all risks, there are things that can be done to reduce their costs. 6. Investment can be aimed at
increasing productive capacity or at research and development (R&D). 7. R&D can be used to develop new
processes, to cut the cost of production and improve productivity. 8. What can't be cured must be endured.9.
Love and cough cannot be hid. 10. What is done cannot be undone. 11. Friendship is not to be bought at a
fair.

          Сполучення модального дієслова з перфектним інфінітивом
  Must          Infinitive Perfect     повинно бути                     He may have read this article.
  May         + (have + V3)            можливо                          Він напевно прочитав цю статтю.
  May                                  напевно
  Can     + not + Infinitive           не може бути, не можливо         He cannot have done it.
  Could            Perfect                                              Не може бути, щоб він зробив це
  Could                                можливо                          They      might   have    overlooked
  Might        + Infinitive Perfect    міг би                           something very important.
                                                                        Вони можливо прогледіли щось
                                                                        важливе
   Ought to           + Infinitive     слід було б                      You should have changed the terms of
   Should                Perfect                                        the contract
                                                                        Вам слід було б змінити умови
                                                                        контракту

        Ex. 6. Перекладіть на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на сполучення
дієслова з Perfect Infinitive.
                                                       I
        1. Some mistakes must have been made in writing this report.2. The expert pointed out that the
goods must already have been in a bad condition at the time of dispatch. 3. The expert admits that the goods
may have been damaged in transit. 4. You knew that he was ill. You should have called him. 5. You look ill.
You oughtn't to have come to the Institute today. 6. He may have come back,but I have not seen him yet.
7.This tax return must have been done by a quallified auditor. 8. We could have made this translation more
carefully, if we had had more time. 9. The goods must have been packed very carelessly.
                                                      II
        1. He cannot have entrusted this scientific work to a man he has known for such a short period of
time. 2. You could not have seen him there because he left the place two months ago. 3. He cannot have
occupied this position, he has no experience at all. 4. She knew everything about our plans, she must have
listened to our conversation. 5. When tax rates are so high that they discourage investment, the wealth and
jobs that might have been created are lost. 6. You shouldn't have invested money into that business, it was
too risky. 7. He couldn't have sold his shares, the enterprise was so profitable. 8. The plant could have
produced this equipment, they possessed the know-how, but they had problems with material supplies.




                                                       17
                                 ФУНКЦІЇ ДІЄСЛОВА TO BE
                                                            to be + прийменник + іменник
                   Cмислове                                     ―знаходитись, бути‖
                   дієслово                1. Ukraine is in geographical center of Europe.
                                           Україна знаходиться в географічному центрі Європи.
                                           2. There are many ways of solving this problem.
                                           Існує багато способів вирішення цієї проблеми.



                                                        а) to be + Ving (Continuous Tenses)
                                              While the manager was speaking on the phone the secretary
                  Допоміжне                was getting the documents ready. – В той час коли менеджер
     To be




                  дієслово                  розмовляв по телефону, секретар готував документи.
                                                       b) to be + V3 (Passive Voice)
                                              Goods and services are produced by people. –
                                           Товари і послуги створюються людьми.


                                                       To be + Іменник /прикметник/числівник
                                                       бути, являтися, заключатися, полягати
                                             1) Economics is a science. - Економіка – це наука .
                  Дієслово
                                             2) Its methods are objective and scientific. – Її методи
                  зв’язка
                                           являються науковими і об’єктивними.
                  іменникового
                                             3) Our task is to make contracts with English partners -
                  присудка
                                            Наше завдання полягає в тому, щоб укладати контракти з
                                           англійськими партнерами.



                                                      to be + інфінітив з to (зобов’язання)
                  Модальне дієслово         The president is to make statement tomorrow.-
                                            Президент повинен зробити заяву завтра.




       Ex.7. Прочитайте текст. Визначите функції дієслова” to be”.
      There is a congress in Prague. The theme of the Congress is "Science for Peace and Progress". Scientists
from every continent are coming to the Congress. We are economists. There are 14 people on the list. We
are from different countries. There are four ladies and 10 gentlemen in our group. One man is not coming, he
is ill. The others are coming in a day or two. All members of our group are pleased to be in Prague. The city
is wonderful. It is famous for its monuments and museums. The schedule is very busy. We are to take part
in sessions, round-table talks, sittings, conferences, discussions. We are to make reports at conferences. We
are going to work hard at the Congress. I'm lucky I have been sent to the Congress.

             Ex.8. Bизначите функції дієслова “to be” . Перекладіть речення на українську/російську
мову.
                                                       I
         1. The meeting was attended by thousands of people. 2. The law was soon followed by another one.
3. World trade was affected by the war. 4. They were at home last night. 5. Money is anything that is
generally acceptable in payment for goods and services. 6. Clearly, your bank book is not money, since you
could not buy a ticket to the movies with it. 7. Travelers' checks are checks sold in a variety of
denominations by banks and travel agencies. 8. The native Americans were unwilling to exchange food for
small pieces of paper and metal. 9. Not only workers are being given a limited voice in managing some
companies, but they are also becoming part-owners. 10. Barter is the exchange of one good or service for
another.11. Managers are to decide what to do, how to do it, and whether the results match the original
plans.12.The salesman main purpose is to sale. 13. Nationalized industries are firms owned wholly by the
Government. 14. Some private firms are to be nationalized to rescue them from bankrapcy.15. The objective
is to establish a leadership position in the market. 16. The consumer is really king. He is to decide what to

                                                      18
buy. 17. Products that fail to satisfy are replaced by more attractive products.

          Ex.9. Прочитайте прислів'я, визначите функції дієслова to be, спробуйте знайти
еквіваленти в рідній мові.
1. A good beginning is half a battle. 2. Laughter is the best medicine.3. The golden age was never the present
age. 4. The road to hell is paved with good intentions. 5. A man is known by the company he keeps. 6.
Friendship is not to be bought at a fair. 7. Rome was not built in a day. 8. Men are not to be measured by
inches.9. To know everything is to know nothing. 10. There is no rule without exсeption. 11. Where there is
a will, there is a way.

                    ФУНКЦІЇ ДІЄСЛОВА TO HAVE

                                                     To have + іменник
                                                     They have similar ideas on the firm’s expansion.
             Смислове дієслово                        Вони мають таке саме уявлення про те, як розшити
                                                     справу.
  To have




               Допоміжне                          To have + V3 (Perfect Tense)
               дієслово                           They have concluded a long-term contract.
                                                      Вони уклали довготривалий контракт.


                                                  To have + Інфінітив з to (зобов’язання)
             Модальне дієслово                     The proprietor has to bear all the risks of the business.
                                                    Власник повинен взяти на себе весь ризик щодо
                                                    ведення справи.

         Ex.10. Визначте різноманітні функції дієслова "to have" і перекладіть речення на
українську/російську мову.
       1. For five years I have been studying international law at the University. 2. Britain has an economic
system based on private enterprise and private supplies of capital. 3. The National Bank has a solid
reputation. 4. Britain today has a mixed economy. 5. We had many difficulties in solving this problem. 6.
Certain commodities have a wider market than others. 7. He has spent time in searching the place and
finding out people's needs and then developed a product accordingly.8. Once a standard of quality has been
established by a company, it should not be lowered, and it is the responsibility of workers and managers in
that company to see that it is not.9. The material chosen has to have a reasonable life expectancy. 10.
Nationalized industries don't have to make profit.11. When a West Germany firm imports American wheat, it
has to pay for the purchase in dollars. 12. Modern marketing has to do with the building. 13. As the number
of privately owned businesses has increased, economists have begun to refer to those nations as having
mixed economies.

       Ex.11. Перекладіть речення на англійську мову, використовуючи різноманітні функції
дієслова “to have” .
       1. Вони будуть змушені продати цей товар якнайшвидше, тому що він швидко псується. 2.
Цей товар рекламують ось уже декілька місяців. 3. Вам слід було повернути цей товар , він був
ушкоджений під час транспортування. 4. Вони провели дослідження ринку і мають задовільні
результати. 5. Давайте пообідаємо разом і обговоримо питання, які нас цікавлять. 6. Більшість країн
мають змішану економіку. 7. За останні декілька років ціни підвищувалися двічі. 8. Так як компанія
розширилася, їй доведеться найняти нових службовців.




                                                       19
                                            THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES
                                             ПОСЛІДОВНІСТЬ ЧАСІВ
  Головні речення                                                                             Час дії
                                    Підрядні речення                                          в підрядному
                                                                                              реченні
  присудок у                Присудок у Past Indefinite, Past Contiuous,
  Past Indefinite           Past Perfect, Future - in-the-Past

                                              they prepared a contract (готують)             Співпадає з
                                             they were preparing a contract                  дієсловом
    I knew                  that              they had prepared a contract                   передує
                                              (підготували)                                  дієслову
                                              they would prepare a contract                  Відноситься до
                                                    (підготують)                             майбутнього

                                  EXERCISES
         Ex 1. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, дотримуючись правил
узгодження часів.
                                                             I
         1. We considered that he could act as leader of our consorthium. 2. He said that they had discussed
the insurance problem. 3. We asked who would pay expenses. 4. He answered that the expenses were
included in the cost of the projects. 5. I thought that we should sign the contract at 10 o'clock in the morning.
6. I knew that they considered the offer in detail. 7. He said that the credit could be granted for 10 years.
                                                         II
         1. The chief executive said that the 1998 promotional budget would not necessarily be reduced to the
same extent as income.2. Siam City Cement, Thailand's second largest cement producer, said yesterday that
it lost $ 148 m in the third quarter of this year.3. Industry analysts said that the company was affected by
foreign exchange losses on $ 590 m of foreign debt. 4. National Bank chief executive confirmed that
investment management activities were no longer part of the company's core direction.5. The financial
director stressed that the capital expenditure had been financed from cash flow.6. The company said that the
CPE would contribute about $ 70m to turnover. 7. He knew that the bank had strongly increased revenues
from its deposits. 8. The chairman said he was considering selling some small operations and would seek
partners in other areas.

                       COMPLEX SENTENCES (СКЛАДНІ РЕЧЕННЯ)
              Типи підрядних речень і сполучники, якими вони вводяться

 Підрядні           Сполучиики:                            How the system will work depends on many factors.
 речення            That, if , whether
                    Сполучні займенники:                   The question is who has to pay for goods.
 підрядні           Who, what, which
 присудки           Сполучні прислівники:                  Our chief knows that he has a good staff.
                    When, where, how, why

 підрядні           Відносні займенники:                   Price is the only element in the marketing mix that
                    Whom, which                            produces revenue.
                    Відносні прислівники:
                    When, where, how, why
 Підрядні           Сполучиики:                            When the GNP increases there are more available things
 обставини          When, as soon as, while, as,after,     for the American people
  часу              before, till, untill

 місця              Where, wherever                        Prices help to determine where factories will be built
 причини            Because, by reason, so, as, since      Since everybody is here we can start our meeting
 мети               In order to,( that), for, (so) that,   I tell you all this in order you understand me perfectly
                    lest
 умови              If, unless, provided                   If wages get too low, workers can’t afford to buy what is
                                                           produced


                                                             20
 допусто       Even , though, although, despite    GNP may increase even though the production of goods is
 вості         that                                unchanged
 Способу дії   How, the way, as                    Scientists are interested in the way the system works
 порівняння    Than, as…as                         He did this work faster, than they had expected
 наслідку      So that                             Japanese firms pour money into production improvements
                                                   so that they can offer more and better products than the
                                                   competition

                                          EXERCISES (ВПРАВИ)
        Ex.1.Проаналізуйте складні речення і визначите типи підрядних речень, що входять до
їхнього складу. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову.
                                           I
         1.The secret behind Lincoln's success is that he pays his employee well for job.2.The question is
who has to make decisions.3. Though you don't know all in detail you have to write a report. 4. When banks
in London begin trading at 8 a.m. they can deal with banks in Tokyo, Hong Kong, whose trading day is just
ending. 5. Mr. Martin has a much bigger emergency to cope with it as soon as he arrives. 6.The right to
property means that people can buy, sell and use land, buildings, inventions. 7. Decisions are made by
business executives and politicians who may not seek economic advice. 8. There was an economist who
understood the American dream and helped to shape it, even though he was not an American. 9. Our
economy looks as if it was weak. 10. A central policy for any company is how to invest its capital. 11. Even
if there is no exchange, marketing activities have occurred. 12. An accountant who is employed by a
business is said to be in management accounting.13. Management knows what it wants to accomplish, but
more often than not successful accomplishment of those goals is outside the control of the firm. 14. When
creativity is more important than brute force, cash is necessary but not sufficient.

                                             II
          1.Human beings finally figured out how wealth may be produced in a sustained systematic way. 2.
Microeconomics can also be challenging to study because it teaches principles that can be used in everyday
buying and selling. 3. One reason is that saving depends on income as well as interest rates. 4. Countries with
large debts can run into big trouble if interest rates go up and economic growth slows. 5. Although there has
been a steady increase in the use of credit and debit cards, the level of notes and coins in circulation
continues to rise. 6. Despite his background in financial management and his training as an accountant the
author has carefully focused on all functional areas, not just on finance and accounting. 7. Every financial
statistic can be made to look bad, although the converse is not always true. 8. Even if we can forecast foreign
exchange rates, we cannot control them.
                                         III
          1.Macroeconomics can be a fascinating subject to study because it looks at such important issues as
whether or not taxes should be raised; the problem of inflation and depression and much more. 2.A
documentary letter of credit is an agreement with banks, made by a buyer to pay a seller, provided certain
conditions are fulfilled. 3.People are free to choose where they want to work, whether or not they will join
union and what career they want to follow.4. With a stable general level individual price signal may be read
more clearly and more rational decisions taken about whether to save or to borrow, whether to invest or to
consume, and what and when to produce. 5. A person is economically free if he can do what he wishes with
his property, time and effort. 6.Whatever decision is taken, RMP (Royal Mail Parcel) is considered as a
potential carrier of small parcel traffic. 7. Some goods require special handling, perhaps, because they are
delicate or because they have a potential danger. 8. Engineers should organize the loading into the lorry or
aircraft and arrange to monitor the shipment until it is delivered. 9. The range of goods classified as
dangerous is extremely wide, although the largest single category consists of chemicals. 10. There are certain
commodities which can be shipped in cargo-only aircraft but cannot be carried on passengers flights. 11. A
short study of the conditions will show why independent insurance is required. 12. The insured company
must continue to behave as if the goods were uninsured at all times.




                                                      21
         Ex.2. Виділіть підрядне речення-підмет і визначте його позицію в наступних реченнях.
Дайте правильний переклад цих речень. Пам’ятайте, що підрядні речення-підмети виконують
функцію підмета і вводяться сполучниками that (що), whether (чи), whose(чий),what ( що,
який),which (коли),where (де, куди), why(чому), how( як). Підрядні речення-підмети передують
присудку головного речення.
   What I need is a piece of advice. - Що мені потрібно – це порада.
Якщо речення вводиться сполучником that (що), тоді переклад слід розпочинати зі слів: те, що
…:
  That the study of every day life has led Marshall to the definition of economics is very essential. – Те,
що вивчення повсякденного життя привело Маршалла до визначення економіки, дуже важливо.
         1.Whether he works or not makes little difference for the firm's income. 2. How the system will
work depends on many factors. 3. That a person must obey the law is so evident and essential for functioning
of any economical system. 4. It is no matter how else the organization runs itself cost -effectively and
sensibly, if the product is not selling well. 5. Whether we are satisfied with our experiences, however,
depends greatly on the individuals who manage the organization. 6. Whether morale correlates all that
closely with productivity is an open question. 7. Employees should be able to see that what they are doing as
individuals is contributing to meeting the goals of the organization. 8. In the long run whether an item is
capitalized as an asset or expensed, immediately makes no difference in cumulative income. 9. But because it
is difficult does not stop us from trying. 10. We know that we hope will happen, and past experience can
provide some overall parameters.
         Ex.3. Виділіть підрядні речення-присудки в слідуючих реченнях. Перекладіть їх на
українську мову. Пам’ятайте, що підрядне-присудок як правило стоїть після дієслова- зв’язки
to be
         1.The trouble was whether we could manage it ourselves or not. 2. The fact was that he hadn't paid
the taxes.3. The question is who has to pay for goods.4. The argument is that the requirements establishing
the Euro would force countries to make reforms that would revitalize their economies. 5. The majority
European's view is that the Euro is going to be a weak currency. 6. The advantage of FCP (Freight Carriage
Paid) terms is that the exporter is providing a partial delivery service to the customer. 7. The advantage is
that a succession of uncovered small claims can be expensive 8. The important thing to remember is that no
one is born with management knowledge. 9. The major reason that HR (Human Resources Department)
manager should be familiar with the contents of this book is that almost every cash decision affects more
than one department. 10. The first thought anyone has, when dealing with cash, is that it is responsibility of
the ―numbers guys‖. 11. The most common perception of Controllers is that they are ones who go out on the
battlefield after the fighting has stopped. 12. The second lesson is that even professionals, in this case an
appraisal company dealing with its own assets, do not do everything. 13. The belief is that in striving to meet
a tight budget, employees will perform better than otherwise. 14. One of the basic principles of budgeting is
that a business plan should be internally consistent. 15. On the contrary, the thesis of this book is that each
department should determine its proposed budget most carefully. 16. The important thing about this
discussion is that almost everything affecting sales is external to our organization. 17. But in terms of the
impact of business decision on cash flow the key point is that inflows inherently are both hard to forecast and
somewhat uncertain in amount and timing.

         Ex.4. Визначте тип підрядного речення і перекладіть слідуючі речення на
українську/російську мову, приймаючи до уваги те, що один і той же сполучник може вводити
речення різних типів підпорядкування
         1. It is essential that the original bill of lading is passed on to the freight forwarder so that the
customs formalities can be completed. 2. In between are systems that are based on private exchange and
some governmental ownership. 3. The bad news is that as wages increase so does the price of everything
else. 4 .Every trader must decide whether to accept the excess on offer. 5. Economists don't worry much
about whether their subject should be considered a science. 6. The question whether it was he or his enemy
was hotly discussed. 7. The trouble was whether we could sign the documents by ourselves or not. 8.
Whether existing confidence in the income statement is well founded is a matter of conjecture. 9 .What we
need is the completing of our plan. 10. The question is what must be done to regulate unstable position in the
world's market. 11. I want to be paid for what I do. 12. When people discuss what share of the «economic
pie» should go to government, they mean what percent of GNP(Gross National Product) should be spent on
defense, welfare,education. 13. Managers must decide what to do ,how to do, and whether the results match
original plans.

                                                      22
         Ex.5. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу, що ознакою
безсполучникового додаткового підрядного речення є сполучення дієслова та іменника
(займенника) або прикметника – іменної частини складеного присудка та іменника, за яким
йде дієслово в особовій формі. На українську мову такі речення перекладаються додатковими
підрядними реченнями зі сполучником “що”.
   Наприклад:
  The bank must ensure the currency maintains as stable as possible. - Банк повинен підтвердити, що
  валюта залишається настільки стабільною наскільки можливо.
         1.How to check a banknote is genuine. 2.One can say the value of money goes in the opposite
direction of the general price level. 3.If unemployment rises or food prices explode , people say economists
don't know what they are doing. 4. He knows wages increase and so does the price of everything else. 5. I
believe I am just the kind of person you are looking for. 6. We didn't know he hadn't spoken to the chief. 7.A
lecturer reminds a retailer is a marketing middleman who sells to consumers. 8. He underlines whole salers
are more efficient at performing the distribution functions. 9. It is obvious people can produce both services
and goods. 10. This means the trader chooses the methods of transport and the carrier, and selects the service
which meets the requirements of all parties.11. The chief is sure a company is successful if its revenues
exceed its expenses. 12. He was awfully right thinking expenses were the opposite of revenues in that they
resulted in a decrease in owner's equity. 13. We inform you we have decided to accept your proposal. 14. In
the same way, when the total Quality Movement was getting started, most managers really thought it was the
responsibility of the Inspection Department or Quality Departmen, if that function had recently been given a
new name. 15. The author confesses he does not have the answer. 16. Some people think the budget for next
year should be easy to accomplish, so that employees will feel good about their performance. 17. In other
words we know we will never be absolutely right in our sales projections but experience suggests all the
errors won’t go in one direction.

         Ex.6. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Пам’ятайте, що ознакою
безсполучникового означального підрядного речення є сполучення двох іменників або
іменника та займенника, за яким йде дієслово в особовій формі, і перекладається таке речення
означальним підрядним реченням зі сполучником “який”.
         Наприклад:
         The work people undertake is called economic activity. – Робота, яку виконують люди,
називається економічною діяльністю.
         1.The work people undertake either provides what they need or provides the money with which they
can buy essential commodities.2. The State provides all the services the citizens require.3. The information
accounting provides is the basis for such decisions.4. It is becoming increasingly difficult for American
employers to find workers qualified to perform the tasks their business demands.5.The amount they earn is
known as the rate of return.6. It may influence how much you earn the type of home you live in, the clothes
you wear , the interests and hobbies you pursue, even the political beliefs you hold.7.Another influence on
packing requirements is the type of handling the goods will receive during their journey. 8. These decisions
depend on the personal values and interests you already have.9. The cost to my customer is not necessarily
the price I change. 10. If you receive a note you believe to be counterfeit, you should take it to the nearest
police station as quickly as possible.11. Shippers send all their cargo for the USA mainly because this is the
one place everyone has heard of. 12. Stockholders pay tax on the income (dividends) they receive from the
corporation. 13. One reason people go to college is that college prepares them to become managers. 14. One
factor distinguishes organizations that adopted Total Cash Management from the way most companies are
run. 15. You might argue that this is the way things should be.




                                                     23
                                            УМОВНІ РЕЧЕННЯ

      ТИП               ГОЛОВНЕ РЕЧЕННЯ                                   ПІДРЯДНЕ РЕЧЕННЯ
   1-реальна   умова    shall [will] + Indefinite Infinitive              Форма дієслова в Present Indefinite Tense
                        We shall sign contracts-                         if they give us a good discount - якщо вони будуть
                        Ми будемо підписувати контракт                   давати нам вигідні знижки.

  2 тип - малоймовірна Should ( would+ could might              Indef. Форма дієслова в Past Indefinite
  умова                Infinitive                                      if they gave us a good discount - якби нам давали
                       We should sign contracts -              Ми б вигідні знижки.
   3 тип - нереальна підписували контракти
  умова                Should,would(could,might    )+          Perfect Форма дієслова в Past Perfect
                       Infinitive                                     if they had given us a good discount - якби вони
                       We should have signed the conracts      - Ми б дали вигідну знижку.
                       підписали контракт
       Дієслівні форми головного та підрядного речення 2 і 3 типу перекладаються дієсловами
минулого часу з часткою “б” (умовний спосіб).
       Наприклад:
       1) If the situation permitted, we should test this new method. - Якби дозволила ситуація, ми
випробували б цей новий метод.
       2) Unless the situation had been favourable, they couldn’t have applied the new method last year. -
Якби обстановка не була сприятливою, вони не змогли б використати новий метод в минулому році.

      Ex.7. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову звертаючи увагу на типи
умовних речень.

         1.It would have been impossible to cope with these difficulties if it had not been for the preliminary
work carried out by our scientists,designers. 2. People reason that if we could only get rid of middlemen we
could greatly reduce the cost of every thing we buy. 3. Owner's equity is also known as a residual equity
because it is what would be left over if all the liabilities were paid. 4. Unless they do not accept our terms we
shall not sign the contract. 5. Our lives might be more enjoyable if we had such things as radio, books and
toys. 6. The money supply is given by the deposit liability of the banking system and it is temping to suppose
that if there were a stable relationship between some or all of these liabilities and the‖base
money‖requirements of the banking system, then the authorities might be able to control the money supply
by controlling the amount of base money. 7. If the overall movements of funds is in the other
direction(perhaps because the government is paying its bills),then the banking system will be in suplus. 8. It
would be more cost effective and environmentally friendly if notes were shredded rather then burnt. 9. If a
currency were to weaken excessively, it would put upward pressure on domestic inflation. 10. If bank wanted
to slow the growth of money and credit, it would present the notes for collection in gold. 11. If all Europe's
countries had met these requirements, it's questionable whether their economies would have surged.12.If we
reported sales revenue in the financial statements based on cash receipts from customers we would not
recognize that we have shipped goods, or provided services, for which our customers owe us money. 13. If
the original estimate were off, the optimistic view turned out in error, additional charges to expense would be
required.

                                 ІНВЕРСІЯ
        В умовних підрядних реченнях 2 і 3 типу сполучник if (і інші сполучники , що вводять
умовні підрядні речення) перед дієсловами (be, have, should, would, could) може бути
опущений.У цих випадках у підрядних реченнях вживають зворотний порядок слів(інверсія).
Ці речення є безсполучниковими умовними реченнями.
  Наприклад:       Could they have set up a system of internal control,they wouldn't have had any troubles
around their company. - Якби вони змогли створити систему внутрішнього контролю,у них не було б
проблем із фірмою.
        Ex.8.Перекладіть складні речення до складу яких входить безсполучникове умовне
речення на українську/ російську мову.
        1. Had you written you letter earlier we should have answered it at once. 2. Had you more time at
your disposal ,we should certainly ask you to take part in the work. 3. Were she invited to that conference
,she would make a report. 4. Were I very rich person, I would buy a plane. 5. Were he in complete charge of
the company, he would make decisions. 6. Should I've thought of a good way of saving money, I could have

                                                               24
been a rich man. 7. Could they have the chance to work abroad, they would learn English. 8. Had it not
changed its production methods, it might have had to go out of the bussiness. 9. Should I have a serious
disagreement with my boss, I wouldn't be invited to the party.10. Had small high technology companies
established themselves around Heathrow Airport , London the receipt of cargo could have be more easily and
quickly arranged.

        Ex.9. Використайте інверсію, де можливо і перекладіть речення на українську/російську
мову.
         1. If you are a business major, it’s almost certain you will be required to take a course in managerial
accounting. 2. If the economy remains stable, Latin America’s largest and most diverse corporate sector will
begin to invest heavily. 3. Countries with large debts can run into big trouble if interest rates go up and
economic growth slows. 4. If the interest charges exceeded the freight costs it might be a good idea to send
the consignment by air. 5. Fresh fruit, vegetables and flowers would have arrived in stable condition, if they
had been sent by air freight. 6. If the service were totally reliable, this would not matter, but unfortunately,
no one can be quite certain how long it will take for a parcel to be delivered. 7. If sterling is strong the Bank
can sell sterling for foreign currencies. 8. If you were a bookkeeper, the first task you would perform would
be to divide all of the firm’s paperwork into meaningful categories. 9. If there were no audits accounting
statements would be less reliable. 10. If a firm is unable to secure a long-term loan from a lender or issue
bonds to investors, it often turns to the last alternative , for long-term financing: equity capital.

                                   Словник до розділу « Складне речення»
to cope with – впоратися з будь-чим
invention- винахід
to accomplish - виконувати, закінчувати
brute - грубий
to figure out –уявляти (тут)
equlibrium- рівновага
sustained- безперервний
debt- борг
interest rates-процентні ставки
coin – монета
parcel - посилка
handling – поводження з будь-чим
loading - відвантаження
shipment – перевезення, доставка вантажу
cargo-only aircraft - вантажний літак
insurance – страхування
to run – вести справу
 cumulative income - загальний прибуток
freight – фрахт, вантаж
bill of loading – рахунок завантаження
excess – зайва вага
to revitalize - оживляти,повертати до життя
to fulfill - виконувати
evidence - вірогідність
to attain – домагатися
confidence - впевненість
conjecture – припущення
genuine – справжній, достовірний
to confess – визнати провину
an error – помилка
retailer – продавець в роздріб
liabilities – пасиви
assets – активи
cash – готівка
middleman – посередник
whole saler – оптовик

                                                       25
stockholder – акціонер
rate of returns – рівень виручки
to pursue – дотримуватись чого-небудь
political beliefs – політичні переконання
counterfeit – підробний
to argue - аргументувати
preliminary work - підготовча робота
owner's equity - приватна власність
residual equity - залишкова власність
a reward - нагорода
to shred - рвати на шматки
to burn(burnt,burnt) - спалювати
to tempt – приваблювати
surplus – прибуток
to surge – підійматися
to owe – бути в боргу
to be in charge of – нести відповідальність
to survive – виживати
consignment – партія товарів
to secure – забезпечувати

                                     NON-FINITE FORMS
                                 НЕОСОБОВІ ФОРМИ ДІЄСЛОВА

                                              ІНФІНІТИВ

                                        ФОРМИ ІНФІНІТИВА

              Infinitive                       Active Voice                     Passive Voice

     Indefinite                     to study                           to be studied
     Perfect                        to have studied                    to have been studied
      Continuous                    to be studying                                   -
      Perfect Continuous            to have been studying                            –


                                ФУНКЦІЇ ІНФІНІТИВА У РЕЧЕННІ
1. Підмет
   To read much is to know much.                  Багато читати значить багато знати.

2. Підмет після звороту із займенником it
   It is necessary to read this article.          Необхідно прочитати цю статтю.

3. Частина простого присудка
   I'll read much in summer.                     Влітку я буду багато читати.

4. Частина дієслівного складеного присудка
    We must read much.                       Нам треба багато читати.
    I began to read much when I was ten.   Я почав багато читати, коли мені було десять років.
5. Іменна частина складеного присудка
   My wish is to read much.                  Моє бажання - багато читати.
                                            (Моє бажання (складається) полягає в тому, щоб
                                                  багато читати. )
6. Додаток
    I decided to read much.                  Я вирішила багато читати.

7.   Означення

                                                    26
    This is an article to be read very attentively.   Ось стаття, яку треба читати дуже уважно.
 In my grade I was the first to read this article.    У моєму класі я перша прочитала цю статтю.

8. Обставина
   I went to the reading-hall to read this article.   Я ходила в читальний зал, щоб прочитати цю статтю.

                                           EXERCISES (Вправи)
    Ex.1. Визначте форми інфінітива:
    to manage, to be represented, to have determined, to be improving, to have been distributed, to have
expended, to be ensured, to pay, to be solved.

     Ex.2. Перекладіть наступні речення, звертаючи увагу на форму інфінітива.
         I am happy to help you.
         I am glad to have helped him.
         He was glad to have been helped.
         He is happy to have been helping them.
         I am glad to be helping them.
         I am glad to be helped.

        Ex.3. Знайдіть еквіваленти таких англійських речень.
                I was glad                                Я був радий
      1. to read your new article              1. що прочитав вашу нову статтю
      2. to have read your new article         2. читать вашу нову статтю
      3. to be read your new article            3. що мені прочитали вашу нову статтю
      4. to have been read your new article     4. що мені читали вашу нову статтю

              We are happy                                         Ми щасливі
      1. to take part in the conference                1. що взяли участь у конференції
      2. to be taking part in the conference           2. взяти участь у конференції
      3. to have taken part in the conference          3. що беремо участь у конференції
      4.to have been taking part in the conference     4. що брали і беремо участь у
                                                        конференції
               She is pleased                                        Їй приємно
      1.   to meet him                                 1. зустріти його
      2.   to be met by him                            2. що вона його зараз зустрічає
      3.   to have met him                              3. що він її зустрів
      4.   to have been met by him                     4. що він її зустрічає
      5.   to be meeting him now                        5. що вона його зустрічала
      6.   to have been meeting him                    6. що вона його зустріла

      Ex.4. Перекладіть речення з інфінітивом на початку речення. Пам'ятайте, що інфінітив у
функції обставини цілі перекладається на українську мову зі словами: щоб; для того, щоб, а
інфінітив у функції підмета перекладається іменником або неозначеною формою дієслова.
      1. To master English it is necessary to work hard. 2 To prove our statement we give you this
information. 3 To meet the needs of export-oriented small and medium enterprises is important for the
development of a private sector. 4. To secure the bank's stability the National Bank of Ukraine resolved to
increase the amount of operating banks. 5. To manage - means to foresee. 6. To have a strong dollar doesn't
necessary mean to have a strong economy. 7. To earn a living he became a salesman. 8. To satisfy the needs
of consumers means to achieve the objectives of the firm and of society as a whole. 9. To arrange shipment
the manufacturer must give full details of the products to the freight forwarder. 10. To get a better
understanding of marketing means to look at things from the point of view of the marketing manager. 11. To
achieve the objectives of the firm these managers had to make many decisions. 12. To form a North
American Free Trade Area the United States has free-trade agreements with Canada, Mexico and Israel.

      Ex.5. Перекладіть такі словосполучення і речення. Зверніть увагу на те,що пасивний
інфінітив у функції означення перекладається, як правило, підрядним означальним реченням з
відтінком майбутності або модальності .

                                                       27
    Зразок:        The experimental data to be discussed …
           Експериментальні дані, що будуть обговорюватися (які повинні бути обговорені) …
1... The data to be obtained... 2. The systems to be tested... 3. The money to be paid... 4. The salaries to be
delayed... 5. The problem to be settled... 6. The results to be received may vary considerably... 7. Goods to
be transported to Poland are stored at the railway station. 8. The items to be discussed at the next session
were already agreed upon. 9. This was not a matter to be easily agreed upon. 10. The Secretary general was
the first to raise this question. 11. This question will be discussed at the conference shortly to open in Paris.
12. A few years ago New-York became the first state to provide day care. 13. The need to choose is imposed
on us all by our income, wealth and ability to borrow. 14. Safety, rate of return and liquidity are factors to
consider. 15. One of the first things to think about when you save money is safety. 16.Eсonomic linkages,
currency control and price liberalization are all issues to be determined. 17. Goods to be exported are kept in
a warehouse. 18. Importers may wait for up five days for goods to be delivered once they have arrived in the
UK.
         Ex.6. Перекладіть наступні речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу на
переклад інфінітива як іменної частини складеного присудка.
  Зразок:      Our aim is to give them economic support.
                 Наша мета полягає в тому, щоб дати їм економічну підтримку.
                              (складається в тому, щоб)
       1.The task of management accountants is to give management information it needs to make wise
decisions. 2. The task of marketing research is to provide management with accurate, reliable, valid and
current information. 3. The most important function of the Federal Reserve System is to manage the
country's supply of money. 4. The goal was to research new customers of all economic levels. 5. The
objective is to establish a leadership position in the market. 6. The first step in any marketing research
project is to define the problem. 7. Management creates a team of workers whose specific task is to
eliminate the bottleneck. 8. The basic purpose of a business is to produce goods or to provide services and to
trade profitably. 9. The main lesson for traders is to avoid dealings with high-risk companies. 10. Britain’s
intention is to increase its market share significantly. 11.The aim of this company is to capture a 30 per cent
market share. 12. The main purpose of markets and middlemen is to make exchange easier and allow greater
time for production, consumption and other activities – including recreation. 13. The objective of a
marketing exchange is to receive something that is desired. 14. One purpose of accounting is to help
managers evaluate the financial condition and the operating performance of the firm so that they may make
better decisions. 15. Another purpose is to report financial information to people outside the firm such as
owners, creditors, suppliers, employees. 16. The trend today is to use computers since the process is often
repetitive and complex and computers greatly simplify the task.

   Ex. 7. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу на переклад
інфінітива як частини дієслівного складеного присудка.
           Зразок:            We are to give them economic support.
                                Ми повинні дати їм економічну підтримку.
1.They are to provide management with reliable information. 2. A system of internal control is to prevent
fraud in the company.3. Something had to be done to increase the productivity.4.I'm sure that nobody is to
object to this plan. 5.They are to comment on these proposals. 6.He is to promise that the matter will be
looked into.7.The time of shipment was to be agreed upon.8.The terms of payment are to be agreed upon
during negotiations.9.The article of the agreement objected to during the negotiations is to be
reconsidered.10.It is also important to have a time period established when goods are to be met.11. Managers
must constantly decide what to do, how to do it, and whether the results match the original plans. 12. Many
goods began to be produced overseas. 13. They tried to foresee all of the things that may happen in the
forthcoming year. 14. Exporters and importers have to be certain of receiving documents in good order as
quickly as possible. 15. They had to improve quality and expand distribution, all at once. 16. Firms have to
restructure and change their management styles to become equally responsive and equally able to produce
new products quickly. 17. Periodically you are to evaluate and control your progress to decide whether or not
you are meeting your objectives.

       Ex.8. Перекладіть речення на українську/ російську мову. Зверніть увагу на функції
інфінітива.
                                        I
       1. To achieve these goals means to work much and successfully. 2. To help keep track of income and

                                                       28
expenditures, many people use personal budgets. 3. Further education, a car, a business of your own cost far
more than you could hope to pay out of current income. 4. For that reason you will want to have a saving
plan to help you achieve such goals in the not-too distant future. 5. The next step in preparing a personal
budget is to draw up a list of all your sources of income. 6. The next right to which the consumer is entitled is
the right to choose. 7. In the 1960s Americans began to express concern about the impact of industrial
growth on their nation and on the world. 8. The federal government justified intervention into the economy to
protect the environment. 9. Since the mid-20th century, U. S. Policy-makers have attempted to use a mixture
of monetary policies and fiscal policies to promote the twin goals of full employment and price stability.10.
The idea is to speed up customs clearance so that to reduce it to minimum.11. To achieve the valuable BS
(British Standards) 5750 approval, the applicant has to examine all its procedures and then open its doors to
BSI (British Standards Institute) inspectors who will assess every aspects of the operation in relation to the
standard. 12. They will have to increase their freight rates to compensate for the loss of revenue. 13. This
book is valuable because it can help enterpreneurs to avoid expensive mistakes. 14. Marketing is done to
satisfy the needs of consumers and achieve the objectives of the firm and of society as a whole.
                                            II
         1. It is difficult to save enough money to start a business and keep it going. 2. The basic concepts are
rather easy to understand because you have some experience in organizing. 3. It is essential to ensure that the
product or service you wish to promote in each of your selected markets is suited to local requirements. 4. It
is much easier to own and manage a business with one or more partners. 5. The papers to be filled to start a
cooperation are just the beginning. 6. These describe how the firm is to be operated from both a legal and
managerial point of view. 7. Indicate the amount of capital needed to commence or continue operations and
describe how these funds are to be used. 8. It also is wise to seek this counsel of other small business people.
9. The problem with some large organization is that communication among units and among managers is
simply too slow and complex to compete with smaller companies. 10. The formal system is often too slow
and bureaucratic to enable the organization to adapt quickly. 11. It is safe to say that such developments will
be as significant as the industrial revolution.

                   ОБ'ЄКТНИЙ ІНФІНІТИВНИЙ ЗВОРОТ (Complex Object)
                                          N / Pron + V
   Іменник у загальному відмінку/ займенник в об'єктному відмінку (me, you, him, her, it, us, them) +
інфінітив.
   Підмет        + Присудок     + Додаток          + Інфінітив
      I          know           him                to study        finance.
     Я           знаю,          що він             вивчає          фінанси
  They           expect         our group          to solve        this problem
  Вони           очікують,      що наша група      вирішить        цю проблему.
  We             heard          him                 speak at       the conference.
  Ми             чули,          як він             виступав        на конференції

   Після дієслів, що виражають сприймання за допомогою органів чуття (to see, to hear, to feel, to
watch, to observe, to notice та дієслова to make у значенні ―примушувати‖ інфінітив у об’єктному
інфінітивному звороті вживається без частки to.
   We     heard      him       speak at     the conference.
  Ми      чули,      як він виступав        на конференції

    make - змушувати
  want-хотіти
    wish- бажати
   like- подобатися            дієслова бажання, вимоги, прохання
   request- просити
   require- вимагати
  demand- вимагати




                                                       29
  assume- припускати, допускати
 believe- думати, вважати
  think- думати, вважати
  consider - вважати
  expect – очікувати, думати                   дієслова думки, судження, припущення
  find - визнавати, знаходити
  know - знати
  suppose - думати
  prove - доказувати

        Ex.9.Визначите об'єктний інфінітивннй зворот в наступних реченнях і перекладіть їх на
українську/російську мову. Пам'ятаєте, що цей зворот вживається після дієслів, що виражають
розумову діяльність, почуття, бажання, припущення, спонукання.
          1.He wanted us to visit this exhibition. 2. I expect you to tell me everything. 3. The teacher does not
consider him to be a good student. 4. The engineer expected the work to be done in time. 5. The manager
caused a cable to be sent at once.6. Everybody knows him to have graduated from the institute two years
ago. 7.We watched them carry out the experiment. 8. You can't make me believe that this information is true.
9.The economists of the 19-th century believed the population to increase faster than the ability to provide
goods. 10. They expect growth in Europe to remain slow. 11. The IMF expects British unemployment to
continue falling next year. 12. They consider Germany, Europe's largest economy, to grow at only 2,1 per
cent and France at 1,8 per cent. 13. The IMF reports the deficit to grow to about 2,5 billion next year. 14.
The IMF expects world growth to rise to 3.1 per cent next year, thanks to better prospects in both the U.S.
and Japan. 15. A flexiplace policy supposes employee to work at home instead of at the office. 16. The
employees hope the flexiplace to reduce pressure since they will be able to work at with computer at their
own speed. 17. Sales director thinks these payments to be absolutely necessary if the company is going to
operate in these countries.18. Many commentators believe the financial situation to become so grave that the
government will have to lend money to finish this project. 19. We expect many small companies to begin an
export and import once many of the barriers have been removed. 20. They suppose the project to be financed
privately though bank loans and an issue of shares. 21. They feel that international business is too important
to be mixed in with other courses, and they want courses to be entirely international.22. Many countries want
their goods to be exhibited at international fairs. 23. The buyers want the equipment they buy to be in
conformity with the latest technical achievements. 24. The sellers made the buyers pay storage expenses. 25.
They wanted their goods to be advertised in this magazine. 26. They wanted the defective parts to be
replaced free of charge. 27. The manager expected the freight to have come in time without any delay.

         Ex.10. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову, звертаючи увагу на переклад
конструкції for + іменник / займенник + інфінітив. Пам'ятаєте, що ця конструкція звичайно
перекладається підрядним реченням із сполучником «щоб» або « для того, щоб»
         1. It's necessary for them to reduce these expenditures. 2. Now is the time for group members to
discuss each of the proposed solutions in detail, one by one. 3. It's a good policy for large companies to
regularly transfer young executives from place to place to give them more experience. 4. The best way to get
others to listen carefully to your ideas is for you to listen to theirs. 5. Here is the information for you to think
it over. 6. In this area there are great opportunities for shippers to save considerable amounts of money. 7.
There are also the easiest kind of business for you to explore in your quest for an interesting career. 8. For
firms to produce the same amount as before, they must receive 10 cents more per peck which they pass on to
the government. 9. Make it easy for them to communicate. 10 . The tendency is for such managers to become
deeply involved in showing others how to do thing, helping them, supervising them, and generally being
very active in the operating task. 11. For business to grow and prosper and create abundance, many people
would have to be willing to invest their money in business. 12. One of the latest trends in business is for two
or more corporations (often from two different countries) to join together to accomplish some objects, such
as creating an international car.




                                                        30
                               СУБ'ЄКТНИЙ ІНФІНІТИВНИЙ ЗВОРОТ
                       ( The Subject Infinitive Complex or Complex Subject)

Підмет + присудок у в активному або пасивному стані + інфінітив

     Підмет           + Присудок            + Додаток              + Інфінітив
The delegation        is reported                                  to come               on Monday.
                      Повідомляють,         що делегація           приїде                в понеділок.
They                  seem                                         to know               the subject well
                      Здається,             вони добре             знають                цей предмет.


Присудок в реченнях із суб'єктним зворотом може бути виражений дієсловами:
а) в пасивному стані:
         is said - кажуть
         is expected - очікують (сподіваються)
         is known - відомо (як відомо)
         is reported - повідомляють (повідомляється)
         is considered - вважають (вважається)
         is believed - думають
         is supposed - припускають
        is proved - доведено
        is found - встановлено
б) в активному стані:
         seem
         happen
         prove          здається
         appear
         is likely - мабуть
         is unlikely - малоймовірно (навряд чи)
         is sure - неодмінно

         Ex.11. Визначите суб'єктний інфінітивний зворот в слідуючих реченнях і перекладіть їх
на українську/російську мову.
         1. The lecture was said to be very interesting. 2. The members of the committee are reported to come
to an agreement. 3. The delegation is believed to come at the end of the month. 4. Most of the income you
are likely to earn will come from work. 5. This joint-venture company proved to be enormously profitable. 6.
Changes are expected to occur in the service market.7. These discoveries are considered to change the
marketing management of tomorrow. 8. If losses prove to be greater than the investment, the individual is
responsible for paying them. 9. This important problem is sure to be settled very soon. 10. The supervisor is
known to be under pressure from above and from below and has to keep contact with other supervisors in
other departments and has also a ―sideways‖ pressure.11. The budget is said to have a deficit when proposed
expenses are greater than expected income. 12.Much of our income is likely to be used for day-to-day needs.
13. Women who perform household labor aren't considered to be the part of the labor force. 14. Low-value
goods are more likely to go by sea than by air. 15. The terms of payment agreed between the buyer and seller
are known to be an important factor in the management of cash flow. 16. The award of the BS(British
Standards) 5750 registration is considered to be an assurance to customers that quality of a company’s
services is of a proven standard. 17. Without proper planning management and evaluation exhibitions are
believed to be a complete waste of time.18. Consumers are more likely to place emphasis on style, quality
and even ―image‖ than on price.19. Companies which can best satisfy customer needs are believed to survive
and make the largest profits.

         Ex.12.Перекладіть речення з інфінітивними конструкціями. Памятайте, що Perfect
Infinitive перекладається минулим часом.
         1. I know them to have fulfilled their programme ahead of schedule. 2. We thought him to have
taken part in that experiment. 3. They seem to have finished their work. 4. Their article appears to have been
published in the latest issue of the magazine. 5. I knew them to have been through with that experiment. 6.

                                                     31
He appears to have read a large number of books on this subject. 7. Judging by what he said he seems to
have been working as accountant since last year. 8. This economists were said to have coped with the
problem facing the enterprise. 9. He seems to have analysed this report. 10. This experiment is said to have
been completed successfully. 11. This process seems to have been introduced long ago. 12.Many
psychologists, sociologists considered management to have been very important social phenomenon. 13. She
was said to have been promoted to the position of financial director, because of her success. 14. The
manager expected the freight to have come in time without delay. 15. A budget was said to have been
balanced when expenses were equal to income.

                                               THE PARTICIPLE

                   Вид                             Стан
                                    Active voice               Passive voice
   Participle I    Indefinite    V-ing                    Being+Ved/V3           Виражає дію, одночасну з дією,
                                using                     being used/sold       вираженою дієсловом- присудком
                                selling
                   Perfect       Having        +V3/Ved    Having         been    Виражає дію,яка передує дії,
                                having used               +V3/Ved               вираженій дієсловом-присудком
                                 having sold               having been used
                                                          having been sold
   Participle II   Indefinite                             Ved/V3 used/sold       Виражає дію, одночасну з дією,
                                                                                вираженою дієсловом-присудком
                                                                                або дію, що передує йому

                                                   Participle I,II
                               Утворення
Participle I - V-ing : increasing,showing
Participle II - V-ed/V3 : offered, bought
                                                   Функції
 Participle I V-ing
1. Означення. Перекладається на українську мову 1) дієприкметником із суфіксом на –уч, -
     юч,-яч,- ач.
      The working economist - Працюючий економіст.
2. ) Підрядним означальним реченням
     All modern people selling and buying things use money. - Всі сучасні люди, які купують і продають
речі ,використовують гроші.
   Being produced - дієприкметником з суфіксом -ен
  The goods being produced in France are of high quality. -Товари, вироблені у Франції,високої якості.
    Participle II (Ved, V3)
 Перекладається дієприкметником на –ний, - тий
 The signed contract -підписаний контракт.
 The contract signed by our chief executive officer. -Контракт ,підписаний нашим виконавчим
директором.
2. Обставина.
 V-ing перекладається дієприслівником за допомогою суфіксів –вши, -учи(ючи), -ачи(ячи).
 Entering the hall, I heard a talk about goods and services. -Увійшовши, я почув розмову про товари і
послуги.
When/while + Ving           перекладається дієприслівником на –ючи, підрядним реченням зі
сполучниками коли,у той час як.
When/while setting prices, they understood each other. - Встановлюючи ціни, вони зрозуміли один
одного./ Коли вони встановлювали ціни,вони зрозуміли один одного.
 Having + Ved          - перекладається дієприслівником на –вши, дієсловом в особовій формі в
обставинному підрядному реченні.
 Having discussed the terms of delivery,he left. -
 Обговоривши умови постачання,він поїхав./ Після того як він обговорив умови постачання,він
поїхав.
 Having been + V3(Ved)- перекладається дієсловом в особовій формі в обставинному підрядному
реченні зі сполучниками тому що, після того як, коли.

                                                          32
 Having been damaged during transportation,the goods will be sent back. –Тому що товар був
ушкоджений під час транспортування, його відправлять назад.
  When,if , unless, as+Ved/V3 - перекладається дієсловом в особовій формі в обставинному
підрядному реченні.
 If given the opportunity, this industry will rapidly develop. -Якщо з'явиться можливість, ця
промисловість буде швидко розвиватися.
 3. Частина присудка.
 To be + Ving утворює Continuous Tenses(active,passive).
  Price is always being formed from cost and profit. - Ціна завжди утворюється з витрат виробництва і
прибутку.
 To be +Ved утворює Passive Voice.
 Coffee is usually imported from Brazil. -Кофе звичайно імпортується з Бразилії.
  To have + Participle II (Ved)/V3 утворює Perfect Tenses (active,passive).
 The carrier had delivered the package before I come. - Кур'єр доставив пакет до того,як я прийшов.

                                        EXERCISES (Вправи) .
       Ex. 1. Визначте форми дієприкметника.
 Having been sold, being sold, having bought, buying, established, being invited, having been invited, held,
showing, having required, shown, being ordered .

       Ex. 2. Утворіть усі форми дієприкметника від таких дієслів (дивіться таблицю).
To repeat, to enclose, to quote, to produce, to purchase, to sell, to buy, to give, to find, to offer.

         Ex. 3. Перекладіть речення з дієприкметником I у функції означення на
українську/російську мову. Пам'ятаєте ,що дієприкметник I перекладається на українську
мову дієприкметником за допомогою суфіксів -уч,-юч,-ач,-яч; дієприкметниковим зворотом
або підрядним означальним реченням.
         1.Money existing in the modern world has various uses.2.The man making a report about money and
economic relations is our dean.3.Economics is the study of the allo-cation of scarce resources among
competing individuals. 4.This plant will produce the new type of machine tools now being imported from
abroad. 5. Nowadays an increa-sing number of companies operate their own pension schemes to give their
employees more money to retire on. 6. The accounting process consists of two major functions: recording
data from transactions and preparing financial statements. 7. The concept of customer benefits shows the
importance of an organization being oriented towards the customer. 8. There are two institutions performing
the distribution function: whole-salers and retailers. 9. Management or control is a part of money process and
phenomena determining the outlook of the contemporary world. 10. Hartons Group said that discussions
being held between two of its main shareholders and a third party may result in a full offer being launched
for the distributor of semifinished plastics.

         Ex. 4. Перекладіть речення з               дієприкметником I у функції обставини на
українську/російську мову. Пам'ятаєте, що дієприкметник I перекладається дієприслівником
на –учи, -ючи, -ачи, -ячи; дієприкмет-никовим зворотом або підрядним обставинним реченням.
         1.Having arrived in Manchester, they made repeat order. 2.When writing a cable we try to use as few
words as possible.3.While preparing report ―Money and Economics Relation‖ we use a dictionary.4.Fearing
the worst, the Japanese government offered to limit exports of automobiles to 1.68 per year. 5. Less then two
years later the Bank ceased to be a private institution, having been nationalized by the post-war Labor
government. 6. While clarifying some details, she put down all the necessary data. 7. Having received your
letter we decided to send you some samples of our fabrics and a price list. 8. Having been given all the
instructions, the secretary typed the letters. 9. While examining these accounts, notice the gaps in the
sequence of numbers. 10. Having received the information required the sellers sent the buyers their offer.

        Ex. 5. Визначите функції дієприкметника I . Перекладіть речення на
українську/російську мову.
        1. Having looked through the catalogue, one can choose what one wants. 2. There are laws setting
maximum permissible prices, which are often called ―price ceiling‖. 3. Consumer credit provides cash, goods
or services now, while spending repayment into the future. 4. Not having bought tickets in advance, we had
to change the date of our departure. 5. People often use the terms ―global‖ and the ―globalization‖ of industry

                                                      33
when referring to trade between nations today. 6. Price controls to contain the costs of medical services were
being considered by the Clinton administration in 1993 as part of the president's proposal on national health
care. 7. While remaining an art, management now has reliable helpers in electronic computers. 8. The
contract being checked by the legal adviser must be sent off at once. 9. This system results in many firms
setting up in business and closing down a short time later. 10. Having fulfilled the terms of the contract we
refused to admit the claim of the firm.
         Ex. 6. Перекладіть речення з дієприкметником II у ролі означення на
українську/російську мову.
         1.The required samples will be sent tomorrow.2. The price of compressors quoted by the firm is very
high. 3. The defects found by the inspectors are to be eliminated as soon as possible. 4. We bought a
consignment of your product made by your plant. 5. In Britain there is a compulsory scheme in which the
employee pays a fixed amount every week. 6. Selective distribution is the use of only a preferred group of
the available retailers. 7. Companies reducing the cost of capital should improve the expected rate of return
on new investment. 8. Money becomes treasure only if it is gold, or money converted into articles of gold,
silver and other precious metals. 9. Goods can be considered to have an elastic or inelastic demand upon the
consumers reaction to price changes.

         Ex.7.Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову з дієприкметником II у ролі
а)частини присудка, б)обставини.
         1.Many students are simply not prepared to enter the current labour market.2. We have never sold
this firm our goods on f.o.b.(free on board) terms.3.The representa- tive of Brown and Co. says they have
accepted our offer.4.It is important that your goods are produced with the smallest possible waste.5. The
American economy is normally referred to as a market or capitalist economy.6.Decisions are made by
business executives and politicians, who may not seek economic advice.7.The value of a commodity in terms
of money is called its price.8.Sales and purchase are often made on credit. 9.Economists are often held
responsible for economic events. 10.In 1982 almost twelve million Americans were unemployed, the highest
level since the depression.
                                II.
         1. If telegraphed, a bank transfer is known as a telegraphic transfer. 2. Used in certain ways, wealth
can earn income. 3. Founded in 1694 the Bank of England is one of the oldest central banks. 4. Supported by
subsidy program farmers could sell their products for less. 5. When tested and examined by the CPA
accounting records could be fully relied on. 6. Invested into new activities, capital can gain much profit. 7. If
stored for a long time, some foodstuffs can deteriorate easily. 8. They argue that the deficits, while related,
do not harmfull. 9. Though forbidden from commercial banking in their home markets, American and
Japanese banks happily run such banking affiliates abroad.

        Ex.     8.    Визначите          функції     дієприкметника          II.Перекладіть      речення      на
українську/російську мову.
        1. The anticipated changes are based on records from new records derived from research and
experimentation. 2. The term ―wage‖ typically refers to the earnings of workers paid by hour or unit of
productoin. 3. We are satisfied with the transaction concluded between our firms. 4. Almost every discussion
about nation's economy is based on a concept called gross national product. 5. We know that money used to
buy thing reduces our ability to buy something else. 6. Given the continued scarcity of goods there are
unlimited possibilities for artificially maintaining shortages. 7. If dismissed unfairly, an employee can bring a
complaint before an industrial tribunal. 8. Proposed by the Cabinet of Ministers, the new regulation is likely
to become crucial to the development of a new social and economic system in the country.

         Ex. 9. Визначите функції слів, що закінчуються на -ed . Перекладіть речення.
                                      I.
1.The goods ordered under contract No.12 arrived with a two weeks' delay.2.An economic model is any
simplified statement, diagram or formula used to understand economic event.3.The price paid for the use of
land is called rent.4.One of the central problems of economics is to solve the problems of scarcity created by
society's unlimited and limited resources.5.The goods and services produced are distributed among the
residents of this district.6.Around 1800 factory systems developed changed working conditions markedly.
                                     II.
         1. The demand increased raised interests for loans in the US. 2. Another company developed a
formula to determine the amount required to gain a customer. 3. Business owners recognized the need to be

                                                       34
more responsive to consumers, and a new orientation emerged called the marketing concept. 4. Today, nearly
all the items produced by this company are made of pressed steel. 5. Well-selected and properly trained
salesmen must be continuously motivated toward accomplishing the goals established by the sales objective.
6. Nationalized industries are firms owned wholy or mainly by the Government. 7. Most business firms
recognize that satisfied consumers are the key to financial success.


                                 ДІЄПРИКМЕТНИКОВІ ЗВОРОТИ

            іменник у загальному відмінку
            або займенник в об'єктному відмінку + дієприкметник I,II
            (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them)
            I saw them buying things. -Я бачив ,як вони купують речі.




                        Об'єктний дієприкметниковий зворот.
         Дієслово
 Чуття і сприйняття:
to hear, to feel, to see, to watch
 бажання: to want, to wish                      особовий займенник
 вимоги, прохання:                             в об'єктному відмінку
 to request, to require, to demand,            або іменник у загальному відмінку
to command                                    + дієприкметник I,II
  думки, судження, припущення:
to believe, to think, to expect, to know,
 to find, to prove, to suppose

  Об'єктний дієприкметниковий зворот звичайно перекладається додатковим підрядним
реченням за допомогою сполучників що, щоб, як . У реченні займає 3 місце (місце додатка).
When we called on our friend we found him gone.
Коли ми відвідали нашого друга, ми виявили, що він пішов.

        Ex. 10. Перекладіть речення з об'єктним дієприкметниковим зворотом на
українську/російську мову.
        1.They observed her making a repeat order. 2.We know him dealing with a bank.3.She watched
them selling goods. 4.He saw her buying food products. 5. I want this letter typed and sent as soon as
possible.6. Have you ever heard them discussing this problem?

         Ex.11. Перекладіть речення. Пам'ятаєте, що після дієслів to have, to get зворот із
дієприкметником II вказує: а) що дія виконується не особою позначеною підметом, а
виконується для неї будь-ким іншим, б) дії зазнає особа, позначена підметом.
 Зразок : They had their room equipped.
             Їхню кімнату обладнували.
         1.We had a consignment of your products bought. 2. He has his decision taken. 3. They had their
information sent by telex.4. We had our terms agreed. 5.I want to have my translation corrected. 6.By whom
will I have my telex return prepared? 7.The company wants to have a system of internal control set up in
order to prevent fraud in it.8.Some tax payers prefer to have their tax returns prepared by CPA (Certified
Public Accountants).9.Many small business look to their CPА when they want to get their accountant system
revised.




                                                   35
                       Незалежний дієприкметниковий зворот
                           (The Absolute Participle Complex)
   Participle I і Participle II у реченні утворюють складну конструкцію - незалежний
дієприкметниковий зворот . Цей зворот складається з іменника в загальному відмінку або
особового займенника в називному відмінку і дієприкметника. У реченні незалежний
дієприкметниковий зворот виконує функцію обставини .
         Якщо зворот займає 0 місце в реченні, тобто стоїть на початку речення, то він
перекладається підрядним обставинним реченням за допомогою сполучників : коли, якщо ,
тому що, після того як.
 Laws having been adopted by the Government ,citizens must obey them. -
 Після того, як закони були прийняті урядом, громадяни повинні підкорятися їм.
     Якщо зворот стоїть на 4 місці, тобто наприкінці речення, то він перекладається простим
реченням в складі складнопідрядного речення за допомогою сполучників: а, але, і, або
безсполучниковим реченням.
The cargo was badly damaged by the fire, the owners suffering great losses. -
 Вантаж був сильно ушкоджений вогнем, і власники понесли величезні збитки.
 Незалежний дієприкметниковий зворот із прийменником with перекладається точно так, як і
незалежний дієприкметниковий зворот без сполучників або за допомогою слів «тепер, коли».
 With millions of Indians living in poverty,the political realities are that India must create new jobs, new
infrastructure and new opportunities. -
 Тепер, коли мільйони індусів живуть у бідності, політичні реалії складаються в тому, що Індія
повинна створити нові робочі місця, нову інфраструктуру і нові можливості.
          Ex. 12. Визначите незалежні дієприкметникові звороти. Перекладіть речення.
         1. The notes being written in German ,we could not understand them. 2. Weather permitting, we
shall start tomorrow. 3. The letter having been delayed, the news reached us too late.4. Our chief accountant
being highly qualified and experienced, a half-year report made by him has usually no defects. 5. That being
the case, the complete cost of production would have to include both production costs and the opportunity
cost of the capital of the firm.6. Prices greatly reduced, customers want to buy more. 7. There being no
suppliers of capital, the Board decided to issue additional bounds. 9. Everything being clear, she took the
papers and instructions and went away.10. The negotiations between the American and Brazil representatives
were conducted behind closed doors, measures having taken that no correspondent should receive any
information.

          Ex. 13. Перекладіть незалежний дієприкметниковий зворот із сполучником with.
         1. With the ownership changed, partnership must be dissolved.2. With stockholder's liability limited,
their risk of loss is limited to the amount paid for their shares.3. The London market for Manila hemp was
quite, with demand from Western Europe restricted by the shortage of dollars for purchase.4. With President
Reagan and many influential members of Congress fighting for tax reform, a new law was passed in 1986.5.
With the supply of automobiles reduced , the Japanese automobile companies raised their prices.6. With the
plant operating at only 70 per cent of capacity, the cost per unit of its products is now higher than before. 7.
With the prices going higher and higher and the wages frozen , it is becoming increasingly difficult for
housewives to make both ends meet.8. By the mid-1980s the industry was static, with vast stocks hanging
over the market and the value of sales going nowhere.9. In the early 1960s, many industrialized countries
grew as fast as 5% per year, with Japan leading the way at 10 %.

Словник до теми « Дієприкметник »
1. to affiliate - приєднувати в якості філії, виявляти
2. to anticipate - передбачати, розраховувати
3. borrowing -позика, кредит
4. bond(s) - облігація, зв'язки
5. to challenge -ставити задачу, сумніватися
6. to cater to - пристосовуватися
7. census- перепис населення
8. complaint - скарга, претензія
9. consignment - вантаж, партія товарів
10. customer - покупець, клієнт
11. delay - затримка, відстрочка

                                                      36
12.to deteriorate - погіршуватися, зношуватися
13.earnings - заробіток, прибуток, виторг
14.employee -службовець, робітник; employer - роботодавець
15.foodstuff - харчові продукти
16.fraud – обман, шахрайство
17.fare- плата за проїзд, тариф
18.income - прибуток,
19.liability - борги, заборгованість, відповідальність
20.loan - позика, кредит
21.to quote - призначати ціну, реєструвати курс
22.rate - розмір, курс, коефіцієнт
23.to retire - викуповувати, погасити, виходити на пенсію
24.scarce - недостатній, рідкісний; scarcity - недостача, дефіцит
25.transaction - справа, угода, операція
26.venture- спекуляція, комерційне, ризиковане підприємство
27.welfare - добробут
28.waste- збиток, втрати
29. wholesaler - оптовик, оптове підприємство
30.to eliminate - усувати, скорочувати
                    Скорочення
F. O.B. - free on board - Франко-борт,ФОБ
CPAs - Certified Public Accountants - дипломовані бухгалтера високої категорії
                                         ГЕРУНДІЙ (Gerund)
                                                 Форми

      Вид                                         Стан
                                 Active                   Passive
      Indefinite                V-ing                    being + Ved/V3
                               visiting                  being visited
      Perfect                   having + Ved/V3           having been + Ved/V3
                               having visited             having been visited

                                    Функції
1. Підмет
Gaining and maintaining public con-     Завоювання і зберігання громадської
fidence in the currency is a key role   довіри до валюти - це головна роль
of the Bank of England.                  англійського банку.

2. Частина присудка
  Privatization is transferring the      Приватизація полягає в передачі
 production of goods and services        виробництва товарів і послуг із
from the public to the private sector    приватного в суспільний сектор.

3. Додаток
I remember attending his lecture         Я пам'ятаю відвідування його лекцій з
on economics                             економіки.
  З прийменником for, in
 There is no harm in doing it            Немає ніякої шкоди в тому, щоб
                                         зробити це.
4. Означення
 а) праве з прийменником of, for
 Money is ideal unit for expressing          Гроші - це прекрасна одиниця для
the value of all the commodities             вираження цінності всіх товарів.
б) ліве означення
 перекладається іменником і прикметником, показує призначення предмета.
 Advertising agencies work overtime         Рекламні агентства працюють понаднор-
and spend millions of dollars to           мово і витрачають мільйони долларів щоб

                                                   37
create advertisements that will                   створити рекламу, яка приверне вашу
attract your attention.                           увагу.
5. Обставина (завжди з прийменниками in, upon, on, before, after, by, without )
 перекладається дієприслівником або прийменник+ іменник.
     after (on) + working         працюючи (після роботи) на заводі
     by + improving efficiency поліпшуючи ефективність
                                  із поліпшенням ефективності
 in + creating the shortage of money      створюючи (при створенні) грошовий
                                          дефіцит
   on + reaching a certain age         досягаючи (при досягненні) певного віку
   without + reducing prices           без зниження (не знижуючи) цін

                             EXERCISES (Вправи)
       Ex. 1. Визначите форми герундія.
        Improving, being improved, having produced, being produced, reducing, having been reduced,
making, being described, having been provided.

       Ex. 2. Утворіть форми герундія від таких дієслів.
       Зразок: to spend - spending, being spent, having been spent.
 To reach, to use, to retail, to add, to send, to sell, to write.


         Ex. 3. Перекладіть речення з герундієм на українську/російську мову в функції:
  а) підмета
         1.Seeing is believing. 2. Introducing new products requires a heavy outlay advertising.3. In many
instances estimating future sales volumes is the responsibility of the marketing manager.4. Repeating English
grammar is necessary for the students.5. Sending goods to Paris should be as easy as sending them to
Birmingham.6. Paying a cheap price for the transport of antique items will almost inevitably lead to
damage.7.Ariving at the correct terms of sale is an important part of marketing strategy and can help to
establish goodwill with customs overseas.
   b) частини присудка
         1. My favourite form of rest is reading. 2. The task of marketing research is providing management
with relevant ,accurate, reliable information.3. The company's objective is establishing a leadership position
in the market.4. Management is doing, not just reading.
  в) додатка
         1.There are many careers available in retailing in all kinds of firms.2. I remember having received
the letter from the suppliers.3. As the price of an item rises, sellers are encouraged to increase production,
and consumers are discouraged from purchasing them.4. She thanked him for having helped her.5. Many
firms insist on asking for collections and deliveries to take place at a precise time.
  г) oзначення
         1. Each stage of manufacturing involves costs.2. Money also serves as a means of accumulation or a
way of hoarding treasures.3. All the costs of buying and keeping merchandise for sale, including packing are
included in the cost of goods sold.4. The carriage of dangerous goods is one of the advantages of using cargo
aircraft.5. This is a perfectly logical method of charging, as delivering consignments is more expensive when
the timetable is tight.
  д) обставина
         1.Instead of sending a cable we decided to phone the firm. 2. By improving efficiency this
innovation made possible savings in labour costs. 3. You will not be able to sell all your ice-cream without
reducing the price. 4. Carefully analyze the situation before making that decision. 5. On having rung the bell
he announced himself as Mr. Smith.6. Few companies operating in this sector of the market have established
reputations and care must be taken before entrusting a valuable documents or contract to them.7. Mastery of
the American market depends on looking at a map before organizing the transport.8. Some foreign customers
react to ex works shipments by sending routing orders to their UK supplies.9. Instead of losing control of
traffic the shipper can promice a forwarder a certain volume of business and therefore perhaps obtain a
keener freight rate.



                                                     38
       Ex. 4. Перекладіть            речення      з   герундієм       у   різноманітних      функціях      на
українську/російську мову.
                                     I.
         1.Instead of being thrown out of work, all the employees were to get a raise. 2. Setting monetary
policy - deciding how far to lighten or relax monetary conditions - is a matter for the Bank and the
Treasury.3. He likes being invited to take part in negotiations.4. Every year the most important political
debates concern questions about spending tax payer's money.5. Determining profitability is an objective of
financial accounting. 6.The process of identifying and minimizing risk is called risk management.7. He
entered the room without being noticed.8. In short, the same dollar become for several people before
someone decided to save it instead of spending.9. In 1984 the American economy was showing signs of
recovering from a period of recession. 10. A-L (Allusive -Longa) has a vast arsenal of technology resources
that can be leveraged by being shared.
                                     II.
         1.The negotiations are still far from being end.2.Adding the value of all your possessions, bank
accounts, savings, and the luck will give the total amount of your wealth.3.Actually economic
interconnection is raising the standard of living.4.Price is also a very important factor in determining how
much profit you will make. 5.Increasing productivity will enable industry to undersell foreign competition
and restore the US to leadership in the industrial world. 6. When the time comes to make a major purchase,
they compare products and prices before making their decision. 7. Hardly a day passes without hearing a
commercial or reading an advertisement describing the advantages of one kind of savings program over
another. 8.In explaining business cycle fluctuation today's economists often distinguish between external and
internal.9.The company increasing the cost of its equity by loading up with debt makes the remaining equity
more risky.
                      ГЕРУНДІАЛЬНИЙ ЗВОРОТ

          Іменник у присвійному відмінку
          (student's) або в загальному відмінку,                  +         герундій
          присвійний займенник(my, your,
          her, him, its, our, their)


Перекладається на українську мову підрядним реченням, що вводиться сполучниками що; те,
що; про те, щоб; у тому, що. Герундіальный зворот може займати місце будь-якого члена
речення і виконувати відповідну функцію (підмет, обставина,додаток).
1. We know of his having been sent to work to the North of the country. - Ми знаємо, що його послали
працювати на Північ країни. (додаток)
2. Comrade Ivanov's taking part in establishing trade contacts was of great help to us.- Те, що Іванов взяв
    участь у встановленні торгових контактів, дуже допомогло нам.(підмет)

        Ex. 5. Перекладіть речення, виділивши герундіальный зворот.
        1. I know of his having been appointed to a new job in Odessa.2. The teacher knows of student's
writing the report «Money and Economic Relations».3. We objected to the buyer paying only part of the
amount of the invoice. 4. Lincoln's paying his employee well for job is the secret of his success. 5. Mercosur
trade organization insist on foreign car manufactures pledging investments in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay. 6.
Brazil being an emerging market is a world known fact. 7. Adam Smith's having devoted his life to
economics is known to everybody. 8. We insisted on their delivering the goods immediately. 9. He was told
of an agreement having been signed by the trust. 10. Everybody objects to the arrangement being cancelled
without proper consideration 11. Before his signing the contract he wanted to get the approbal of the
chairman. 12. The sellers were informed of the goods having been prepared for shipment immediately. 13.
The buyers had not the right to transfer their rights and obligations under the contract without the seller's
consent being previously obtained. 14. The loss resulted from the vessel being prevented from loading a full
cargo.

        Ex. 6. Перекладіть речення з герундієм і дієприкметником I на початку речення на
українську/російську мову. Пам'ятаєте, що герундій виступає в ролі підмета, а дієприкметник
у ролі обставини.
 Герундий стоїть перед присудком        Дієприкметник I перед підметом

                                                      39
Buying and selling these goods is …            Buying and selling these goods the
                                               firms must remember…
Покупка і продаж цих товаров- це...         Купуючи і продаючи ці товари, фірми
                                            повинні пам'ятати ...
         1. Estimating income is the next step in preparing a personal budget. 2. Estimating income it is
necessary to draw up a list of all your sources of income.3. Preparing tax returns is one of the functions of
CPA –s. 4.Preparing tax returns an accountant must know tax laws. 5.Setting up a new business requires a lot
of efforts and capital.6.Setting up a new business an owner must raise some capital.7. Buying and using these
goods and services is called consumptions. 8. Buying and using these goods the firm was not satisfied with
the quality of production.

         Ex. 7. Перекладіть речення на українську/російську мову. Визначите дієприкметник I і
герундій. Пам'ятаєте, що вони перекладаються у функції обставини дієприслівником на “вши”
або на –учи, -ючи, -ачи, -ячи.
          Герундій                                       Дієприкметник I
 On receiving- отримавши                          having received - отримавши
         1. On receiving the surplus the company decided to build a new garage and a storehouse.2.Having
received the information required, the sellers sent the buyers their offer.3. Having looked through the
catalogue, one can choose what one wants. 4.On looking through the catalogue, I found a new information
about price of ordered goods.5. After knowing from newspaper about the availability of job, call to make an
appointment for an interview.6.Having found rich deposits of iron and ore in the same regions Britain was
able to create a powerful heavy industry earlier than any other country in the world.7. Stockholders can enter
or leave a corporation at will simply by buying or selling shares of stock in that corporation. 8. Selling and
buying things all modern people use money. 9. Some of the things that consumers need to know using and
maintaining a checking account are reviewed in this book. 10. In planning and using new products a
businessman must determine what kind of products potential customers may want.
         Ex. 8. Визначите функції слів, що закінчуються на -ing. Перекладіть речення на
українську/російську мову.
                                                           I.
         1. Brazil being the leading member of Mercosur, the South American Trade grouping whose
influence and confidence is growing rapidly, makes it a strong candidate for a seat on an enlarged United
Nations Security Counsil. 2.The process of planting and gathering food and raw materials has always been
regarded as productive. 3. Sand was fixed in supply whereas the population was growing rapidly. 4.
Generally speaking, raw materials cheaper to transport than finished goods. 5. The manufacturing sector has
many greater choise. 6. Assuming the hearty cooperation of all the members, it is reasonable to expect that
the celebration will be successful.7. In developing nations numerous resources are both very limited in
supply and also very scarce.
                                                       II.
         1. There are advantages in being located in London, such as the speed of comunication or the large
market of office employees. 2. The agent informed the firm of the buyer's having insured the good. 3. The
goods were ready for shipment, having been inspected and tested by the buyer's inspectors. 4. The
importance of capital spending can be illustrated by comparing productivity increases in Germany and Japan
to that of the US. 5. Over the 20-year period in 1998, West Germany business invested approximately of the
nation's GNP in new plant and equipment. 6. Wally's Wooden Wagon Company has been manufacturing its
famous Wallywagon for over 75 years. 7. As business grew, Ford began manufacturing many of the
component parts formely puchased from suppliers. 8. The key to achieving this goal in Ford's view, was
through the improvement of labour productivity. 9. Ameri- cans considered themselves hardworking and
industrious, the envy of the world.

Словник до теми «Герундій»
1. abundant – той, що у достатку
2. advertising - реклама, рекламування
3. accumulation - накопичення
4. arrangement - угода, організація
5. to assume - приймати, припускати
6. to cancel - відміняти, погашати
7. consumption - споживання, витрата

                                                     40
8.    debt - борг, заборгованість
9.    to draw up – складати
10.   to encourage – заохочувати, сприяти
11.   estimate - оцінка, кошторис; оцінювати
12.   fixed - нерухомий, постійний, твердий
13.   fluctuation - коливання, зміна
14.   hoarding - накопичення
15.   to insist on - наполягати на
16.   to object to - заперечувати
17.   outlay - витрата, витрати, капіталовкладення
18.   packaging - упаковування
19.   sampling - вибір, вибірка
20.   storehouse - склад, сховище
21.   to be responsible – бути відповідальним
22.   surplus - надлишок, залишок
23.   per capita - на душу населення
24.   a keener freght rate – більш вигідний вантажний тариф

                              ІМЕННИК З ЛІВИМИ ОЗНАЧЕННЯМИ
 Пам'ятаєте, що спочатку варто перекласти основний (останній) іменник групи, а потім перекладати
справа наліво всі інші слова, встановлюючи за допомогою питань смислові відношення між ними.
   I. N + N (іменник + іменник)
      а) market research
       чого?      дослідження

     ринку
  дослідження ринку
  в) plant accountant
       який?    бухгалтер

       заводський
       заводський бухгалтер
  II. Adj + N (прикметник + іменник)
      financial statements
        які?     відомості

       фінансові
       фінансові відомості
  III. Participle I, II + N (дієприкметник I, II + cуществительное)
      а) existing volumes
        які?       об’єми

      існуючі
      існуючі об’єми
      в) added value
        яка?     вартість

    додана
    додана вартість
  IV. Adv. + Participle I (Part. II) + N (прислівник + дієприкметник I,II+ іменник)

        well-paid job
        яка?        робота

як?     оплачувана

добре

                                                    41
      добре оплачувана робота
   V. N + Participle I,II + N (іменник + дієприкметник I,II+ іменник)
      computer assisted schedule
             який?          графік

 чим?        заданий

 комп'ютером
       графік заданий комп'ютером
   VI. Gerund + N (герундій + іменник)
     Пам'ятаєте, що герундій у функції лівого означення показує призначення предмета і
перекладається на українську мову іменником у родовому відмінку або прикметником.

а) accounting system
       чого?         система

       бухгалтерського обліку
       система бухгалтерського обліку
      в) trading revolution
       яка?       революція

        торгова
       торгова революція
     Пам'ятаєте, що при перекладі групи іменника не кожне         слово є означенням до сусіднього
слова (або групи слів), що стоїть від нього праворуч. Воно може бути означенням до основного слова
групи.
     North American Free Trade Agreement - угода північно-американських країн про безмитну
торгівлю.

                                         EXERCISES (ВПРАВИ) .
        Ex.1. Визначте тип лівого означення до іменника і перекладіть сполучення на
українську/російську мову
 1) Tax services, 2) operating results, 3) cost control, 4) enormous growth, 5) computer system,6) company
accounts,7) accounting function, 8) well-known company, 9) most recent survey, 10) management
accounting, 11) public accounting,12) interested people, 13) private property, 14) working population, 15)
purchasing power, 16) leading supplier .

         Ex.2. Перекладіть такі групи слів, звертаючи увагу на ланцюжки                         визначень.
Пам'ятаєте, що якщо на початку групи слів стоїть іменник у присвійному відмінку, то воно
перекладається іменником у родовому відмінку останнім із усієї групи.
                                                      I
  High-priced items, country's total export, familiar oversea customers, trade union movement, consumer
protection, the "Sale of Goods Act", high school students, proper financial reports, certified public
accountants, auditor's professional opinion, accepted accounting practices, small business services, credible
financial report, considerable economic freedom,product development, advertising campaign, manufactured
goods.
                                                      II
  Authorized banks, anti-trust laws, exchange system, modernized production plans, a one-year maintanance
agreement, interested reader, Research and Development Expenditures, short-term and long-term planning,
cash flow, company goals, marketing information system, pre-paid rent account, job application
form,management decision making, professional competence, company's financial reports, high-speed
computers, right-to-work law, "blue-collar" workers.
                                                     III
  The American work week, free enterprise system, periodic stock dividents, computer software company,
the 20-th century two world wars, isolationist foreign policy, North American Free Trade Agreement,
government regulations, the National-Economic Development Council, R and D program, management and
economic stimulation expenses, money and financial institutions, organized labour's most cherished

                                                     42
programs, the Consumer Protection Act, the Fair Trade Act, worker's compensation programs, some
country's accounting principles, foreign annual reports users, mixed economy, under-developed nations, a
one-year maintenance agreement, rigidly controlled economy, company's financial statement.

         Ex.3.Встановіть відповідності.
                         I
      1) chief accounting officer         a) освіта в сфері бухгалтерського обліку
      2) cost control                     b) незалежний бухгалтерський облік
      3) assistant controller             c) посадова особа – бухгалтер
      4) accounting education             d) контроль за цінами
      5) plant accountant                  e) помічник контролера
      6) management accounting             f) вищий керівний робітник
      7) top-level business executive     g) консультаційні послуги в області керування
       8) accepted accounting practices h) результати діяльності
      9 ) operating results                i) дипломований бухгалтер вищої кваліфікації
     10) management advisory services j) загальноприйнята бухгалтерська практика
      11) public accounting                k) бухгалтерський облік в сфері управління
     12) certified public accountant      l) заводський бухгалтер
                         II
      1) змішана економіка                  a) free enterprise system
      2) слаборозвинені країни               b) exchange rate
      3) профспілковий рух                  с) mixed economy
      4)захист споживача                     d) price movement
      5) купівельна спроможність             e) under-developed countries
      6) рекламна кампанія                  f) union movement
      7) споживчі товари                     g) accounting system
      8) рух цін                             h) consumer protection
      9) дипломований бухгалтер             i) purchasing power
          вищої кваліфікації
     10) система бухгалтерського обліку j) certified public accountant
     11) курс обміну                          k) advertising campaign
     12) система вільного підприємництва l) consumer goods
         Ex.4. Перекладіть речення, беручи до уваги ліві означення.
         1. At the beginning of the month, the Joan Miller advertising agency paid two month's rent in
advance. 2. Modern marketing management is creative, dynamic and exciting. 3. Today we are on the
threshold of new discoveries in the understanding of buyer behavior.4. Ecological considerations are
introducing a new social consciousness and challenging existing conсepts.5. Per capita consumption of
tomatoes expanded by 50 percent.6. The Hever Brothers Company's introduction of hydrogenated shortening
into India required a substantial marketing effort.7. An undeniably significant bit of advice in new product
production is that price must be a consideration from the beginning of the new product process.8. Old
products have a price history and a price experience.9. Old products have an existing market demand and
existing volumes that permit the calculation of unit costs 10. Favorable payment terms can encourage sales
by functioning as a substitute for a lowered price. 11. The marketing objectives of most ball-point pen
manufacturers is to lower prices.12. When the marketing mix includes larger proportions of promotion
expenditures added values may be attributed to the product in the minds of the buyers. 13. In recent years the
10-cent candy bar has become smaller than the one that once sold for 5 cents. 14. Black-and-white television
receivers were successfully promoted in the early days of television.15. Branded products enjoy a better
reputation than unbranded products. 16. The company's name appears in dark blue letters beneath a three-
toned red triangle on a square white background.




                                                     43
                                              ДОДАТКОВІ ВПРАВИ
           Translate from English into Ukrainian/Russian.
It is (was) ... that (which)
      1. It was in this country that a large scale production of synthetic rubber was first organized.
      2. It is countries with relatively high wage rates which make the most use of labour-saving machinery.
      3. It is the act of spending which influences the prices.
      4. It is for this reason that the balance of payments figures are subject to revision in the months
following their original publication.
      5. It is because the fixed exchange rate puts the official reserves at risk that most governments favour
some more flexible system.

The. ..the...
     1. The bigger the firm, the greater the opportunity for each worker to specialize in those tasks for which
he is best fitted.
     2. The greater the degree of complementary, the higher the (negative) value of the cross-elasticity of
demand.
     3. The greater the output in previous periods, the greater the firm's experience, and hence the greater the
fall in cost.
     4. In principle the smaller the number of suppliers, the more control they can exercise over prices.
     5. The larger the share of output bought by a few firms, the less control will suppliers have over prices.
     6. The lower the price, the less likely it is that new firms will attempt to enter the market.
     7. The larger the establishment, the greater the opportunities for the specialisation of men and machines.
     8. The more independent firms there are in an industry, the greater the competition.
     9. The greater the risk associated with any financial decision, the greater the return expected from it.
      10. The longer the period for which the money is borrowed, the greater the risk of default by the
borrower.
      11. The higher the bid price, the lower the rate of interest which the government has to pay for its
borrowed funds.

One
    1. In a small country like the UK where there are strong trade unions, one would not expect to find any
very great differences in regional wage rates.
    2. One cannot draw any conclusions about the effect of a price change unless one knows the cause of the
price change.
    3. One can see that a fall in price may be associated with an increase or decrease in quantity demanded
— it all depends upon what caused the price change.
    4. Normally, this period will be a very short one.
    5. An increase in the demand for wool by one industry will raise the price and affect the prices of all the
other commodities made from wool.
    6. Lead and zinc are found in the same ore so that the extraction of one leads to the extraction of the
other.
    7. One very important example of this relationship is to be found in the transport industry.
    8. Where commodities are in joint supply an increase in the demand for one of them will cause a fall in
the price of the other.
    9. In a perfect market, there will be one and only one market price which is beyond the control of any
one buyer or any one seller.
    10. At one time most of world's nickel was obtained from a certain area in the Rockies.
    11. One often hears complaints from workers in different industries that they 'have lost out in recent
wage settlements'.
    12. As one would expect, total output is much greater when the countries specialise.
     13. According to many employers older workers are more reliable and loyal than younger ones.

As well as
    1. These schemes provide subsidies, grants and other assistance to employers as well as employees.
    2. We expects healthy medium — term as well as short — term results.
    3. We call this value of total output produced by the public sector as well as those produced by the
private sector, our gross national product.

                                                      44
     4. The total national product includes services as well as goods.
     5. The motives for nationalisation are political as well as economic.
Since
     1. Since the total cost of these inputs is fixed, the average cost, the cost per unit produced, falls as output
increases.
     2. She has been here since Monday.
     3. Since considerable trouble and expense may be involved in changing prices, firms prefer to set and
maintain a price for a given period.
     4. Profitability is normally the primary objective of private sector producers, since unless the firm earns
adequate profits it will not survive.
     5. Since the prices of shares and government securities change from day to day, a seller might receive
more or less than he or she paid for them.
     6. Since the First World War several of these basic industries have experienced a serious decline in their
home and overseas markets.
     7. Since the 1960s there has been an increasing tendency for population to move from densely populated
city centres to the outer suburbs and the country.
     8. The years since the Second World War have seen a very substantial reduction in the barriers to trade.
     9. Since it came into being, the EEC has made substantial progress.
10.1 have been waiting for you since 2 o'clock.

But
      1. There is nobody in the office but the secretary.
      2. K. Marx saw the setting of capitalism as anything but permanent.
      3. But for the atmosphere no life would be possible on the Earth.
      4. The nucleus of hydrogen contains but one proton.
      5. f saw her but a moment.
      6. I cannot but agree with you.
      7. We wouldn't have done this work but for him.
      8. He is anything but a fool.

 Both, Either, Neither
    1. Both of these managers are good.
    2. Neither of the restaurants we went to was expensive.
    3. Both my parents are from Glasgow.
    4. I haven't been to either of those shops.
    5. Neither Tom nor Ann came to the party.
    6. I'm not sure where he's from. He's either Italian or Spanish.
    7. Can either of you speak French?
    8. Both of us were very tired.
    9. Either he goes or I go.
    10. Neither of these possibilities is very realistic.
    11. Both of the candidates certainly have impressive track records.
    12. We'll have either to withdraw from the market totally or to concentrate our efforts on a small sector.
    13. Neither of your proposals is of interest to us. 13. We have implemented both your suggestions.
    15. We interviewed both of the candidates on Monday.
    16. Thanks for the call. Either time suits me fine.
    17. I'm afraid that neither of the times suits me.
    18. We can accept either alternative.
    19. We haven't sold a single product in the Far East. — No, we haven't either.
    20. Neither of the candidates is really acceptable.
    21. Unfortunately, neither the sales forecast nor last year's sales figures are ready yet.
    22. Neither have I received any information, nor have I revealed any.
    23. You should be either at your desk or on the shopfloor.
    24. Both firms have the same scale of organisation.
    25. The numerical predominance of small plants might, at first sight, indicate that economies of scale are
either not important or are not being exploited.
    26. Changes in price are due to either changes in demand or changes in supply.

                                                        45
Both... and
     1. Average cost is affected both by the prices of inputs and by their productivity.
     2. In order to finance long-term projects, both limited companies and the government need to borrow
money for long periods of time.
     3. Some of the firms have registered as market-dealers;
that is, they undertake to both buy and sell shares continuously.
     4. The typical economic system in the non-communist world is the mixed economy, so called because it
contains elements of both private and public enterprise.
     5. Financial support for innovation is available for all firms, both large and small.
     6. In the UK, in recent years, there has been a very marked increase in both the size, and influence of the
so-called 'white collar' unions.
     7. Both the demand and the supply of many primary products are price-inelastic.
     8. To a certain extent both the total and pattern of public expenditures will depend upon the political
philosophy of the government.
     9. Both the marketing plan and the marketing manager will certainly improve our position.
     10. We intend both to replace the board and design a new aggressive policy.

    Translate from Russian into English.
    1. Экономика Великобритании известна как смешанная экономика.
    2. Определенный сектор национального хозяйства принадлежит и управляется частными
гражданами либо индивидуально, либо коллективно.
    3. Естественно, что каждый индивидуальный предприниматель стремится к получению
максимальной прибыли, увеличивая свой личный доход.
    4. Являясь единоличным владельцем собственного предприятия, можно самостоятельно
принимать любые решения.
    5. Данная проблема может быть решена путем привлечения опытных специалистов,
    6. Согласно закону о партнерстве, прибыли я потери распределяются поровну
    7. Главным недостатком как индивидуального Предпринимательства, так и партнерства является
неограниченная личная ответственность.
    8. В дополнение к сертификату инкорпорирования публичная (открытая) компания должна
получить сертификат на начало ведения бизнеса (trading certificate).
    9. Для того, чтобы получить торговый сертификат, в регистр компаний надо представить ряд
обязательных сведений.
    10. Менеджер компании должен тщательно анализировать экономическую обстановку.
    11. Инфляция сокращает покупательную способность потребителей и, следовательно, спрос.
    12. Стратегия относится к крупномасштабному долгосрочному планированию.
    13. Хотя прибыль не является единственной целью, она, тем не менее, занимает главенствующее
место среди стоящих перед предприятием задач.
    14. Акционеры более заинтересованы в увеличении размеров дивидендов, чем самой прибыли..
    15. Маловероятно, чтобы сегодня компании существовали с одной единственной целью —
получить как можно больше прибыли.
    16. Задачи, стоящие перед менеджером, в высшей степени сложны и взаимосвязаны.
    17. Выживание — без сомнения, доминирующая задача любой организации.
    18. "Организовать" — значит спланировать и определить, те функции и действия, которые
необходимы для выполнения той или иной работы.
    19. Организация состоит из лиц, имеющих перед собой некую цель.
    20. Существуют три главных этапа в построении любой организации.
    21. Этот метод применяется для достижения каких-либо специфических целей.
    22. Чем ниже уровень централизации, тем больше решений принимается на рабочих местах.
    23. Совет директоров — это группа лиц, играющая основную роль в деятельности организации.
    24. Продукция, производимая различными отраслями экономики, может классифицироваться по
нескольким признакам.
    25. Для того, чтобы определить соответствующую категорию данного товара или рынка,
необходимо учитывать ряд факторов.
    26. Как потребительский, так и отраслевой рынки могут подразделяться на регионы.
    27. Сырьевые материалы, такие как кофе, сахар, медь и т. д., покупаются и продаются на
товарных биржах.

                                                      46
    28. Если урожай низок, покупатели предлагают более высокие цены, чтобы обеспечить себя
необходимой продукцией.
    29. То, что между рынками и отраслями национального хозяйства существует тесная
взаимосвязь, — очевидно.
    30. Рыночная цена определяется сбалансированным влиянием спроса и предложения всех
покупателей и продавцов на рынке.
    31. Если цена рынка будет ниже предельных издержек производства, то менее эффективные
фирмы будут вынуждены покинуть отрасль.
    32. Компания, контролирующая 25 % рынка, в Великобритании, считается сегодня монополией.
    33. Рынок может быть сегментирован по регионам, городам, торговым объединениям и т. д.
    34. В современном маркетинге значение марки товара настолько возросло, что этому вопросу
следует уделить особое внимание.
    35. Все решения по маркетингу должны приниматься в соответствии с финансовой дисциплиной.
    36. Во время кризиса предприятие вынуждено было сократить производство.
    37. Упаковка должна обеспечивать полную сохранность товара и защищать его от повреждения
во время транспортировки.
    38. Если качество товара не соответствует обусловленному в контракте, рекламации могут быть
заявлены в гарантийный срок.
    39. Информация, полученная в результате маркетингового исследования, имеет для руководства
компании большое значение.
    40. Исследователь должен полностью понимать характер проблем, стоящих перед исполнителем.
    41. Данные, необходимые для исследования, можно подразделить на вторичные и первичные.
    42. Определив отношение потенциального покупателя к товару, можно соответствующим
образом изменить продвижение товара на рынок.
    43. Опубликованные исследования показали прочную связь между прибылью и долей рынка.
    44. Доля рынка может быть увеличена за счет использования каналов распределения.
    45. Долгосрочный прогноз в основном касается стратегических решений.
    46. Изменения в уровне рождаемости влияют на общую численность покупателей на
потенциальном рынке.
    47. Чем сложнее используемые методы, тем выше затраты.
    48. Анализируя прошлые продажи, можно установить соотношения между продажами и
определенными переменными.
    49. Цена, как правило, оказывает заметное влияние на потребительский спрос.
    50. Структура распределения обычно зависит от типа товара.
    51. Производители и дистрибьютеры обычно независимы друг от друга.
    52. У промышленного предприятия имеются несколько вариантов реализации своей продукции.
    53. Розничные торговцы ближе к покупателю, и поэтому они располагают более полной
информацией о его потребностях и вкусах.
    54. В Великобритании значительная часть рынка принадлежит независимым розничным
торговцам.
    55. Торговый агент обычно нанимается небольшой. группой, финансы которой не позволяют
организовать собственный сбыт товаров.
    56. Наиболее часто организация торговой сети осуществляется на основе географического
разделения.
    57. Установив цели рекламы, следует определить вероятных потребителей, учитывая их
отношение к альтернативным средствам информации.
    58. Любой вид продвижения направлен либо на долгосрочный рост доли данной марки товара на
рынке, либо на краткосрочную прибыль от этой доли.
    59. Корпоративные и финансовые связи с общественностью создают имидж организации и
усиливают ее позицию на рынке.
    60. Тип производственной системы зависит от рынка, который она обслуживает.
    61. Контроль качества должен осуществляться на всех стадиях производства.
    62. Обычно вознаграждение, выплачиваемое работникам физического труда, называется
зарплатой (wage), а "белым воротничкам" — жалованьем (salary).
    63. Около 100 лет назад стандартная рабочая неделя составляла более 60 часов.
    64. Национальные соглашения о зарплате не всегда решают проблемы отдельных фирм.
    65. Рабочая сила является одним из четырех традиционных факторов производства.

                                              47
    66. На работу человека большое влияние оказывает отношение к его работе коллег, руководства
и подчиненных.
    67. Каждый человек играет определенную роль как на работе, так и в частной жизни.
    68. Более 2000 лет назад Аристотель назвал человека "социальным животным".
    69. Социальные группы обычно определяются тремя характеристиками.
    70. Отдельные сферы бизнеса более открыты для изменений, чем другие.
    71. Чтобы достичь цели в соответствии с потенциалом человека, работа должна быть
распределена на множество различных задач, пригодных к выполнению одним человеком или
группой.
    72. Неформальные группы часто выступают как агенты общественного контроля.
    73. Специализация и разделение труда ограничивают масштаб решений, принимаемых при
участии подчиненных.
    74. Руководители не должны принимать решения, которые подчиненные не будут выполнять.
    75. Длительная эффективность рабочей бригады предполагает наличие менеджера,
обеспечивающего интересы, лояльность и участие всех членов бригады.
    76. В любых организациях создается напряженность, которая может привести к конфликту.
    77. Компромисс — это наиболее чтимая и часто употребляемая форма решения.
    78. Хотя конфликты разрушительны, они могут служить прояснению отношений между
человеком и руководством.
    79. Теории Тейлора долго использовались на практике.
    80. Планирование потока наличных средств должно осуществляться так, чтобы компания была в
состоянии удовлетворить планируемые требования.
    81. Если периоды финансовых трудностей ожидаются в будущем, финансист должен уведомить
высшее руководство об альтернативных вариантах действий.
    82. Чем выше пост менеджера, тем более общая информация ему требуется.
    83. Знание того, насколько прибылен тот или иной вид продукции компании и какова
прибыльность работы различных отделов, редко бывает удовлетворительным.
    84. В управлении производством все большее значение придается разработке информационных
систем.
    85. Исследования показали, что в типовой компании имеются три главные системы: финансовая,
кадровая, материально-технического обеспечения.
    86. Наиболее важным моментом развития последних лет была разработка информационной
технологии.
    87. Понимание работником своих обязанностей существенно зависит от качества общения в
организации.
    88. Все работники желают знать, как выполнить работу, почему они делают эту работу,
насколько хорошо они трудятся, почему ожидаются изменения в работе, какой будет эффект от этих
изменений.
    89. Эффективность деятельности менеджеров прямо зависит от эффективности общения внутри
организации, включая их собственную эффективность общения.
    90. Осуществляя контроль за состоянием и развитием экономики, правительство применяет
следующие методы: фискальные, монетарные, прямое вмешательство.
    91. В периоды высокой безработицы бюджетный дефицит увеличивает покупательную силу, что
ведет к росту спроса на товары, а следовательно, и на труд.
    92. В целом лейбористская партия главным приоритетом считает сокращение безработицы, тогда
как партия консерваторов во главу угла ставит сокращение инфляции.
    93. Проблема для бизнеса заключается в трудностях долгосрочного планирования, поскольку
спрос на продукцию компании может значительно измениться.
    94. Инфляция делает экспорт дорогим, а импорт — дешевым.
    95. Если рост зарплаты ограничен ростом стоимости жизни, то не будет никакого реального
роста.
    96. Если с увеличением производства товаров будет увеличиваться заработная плата, любое
реальное увеличение доходов будет "съедаться" инфляцией, пока не стабилизируется экономическая
обстановка.
    97. Валовый национальный продукт рос вследствие повышения производительности труда как
рабочих, так и управленческого персонала, что позволяло внести важный вклад в достижение
большего социального равенства.

                                              48
    98. Чтобы защитить низкооплачиваемых рабочих, политика норм расходов обычно предлагает
более быстрый рост зарплаты для этой категории, чем для средне- и высокооплачиваемых
работников.
    99. Большинство существующих законов продолжает действовать, пока не будет принят более
прогрессивный закон.
    100. Наниматели отвечают за то, чтобы любая их деятельность не нанесла ущерба широкой
публике.
    101. Улучшения условий труда часто предпринимаются, чтобы избежать или уменьшить
конфликты между руководством и рабочими.
    102. Производственные арбитражи существуют в Англии с 1964 года, и в их компетенцию входят
все вопросы, связанные с законодательством о занятости.
    103. В последние годы резко усилилась тенденция к образованию профсоюзов среди "белых
воротничков".
    104. Работник должен иметь гарантию оплаты труда от нанимателя, если первый не занят полный
рабочий день.




                                              49
                                         TESTS (ТЕСТИ )
                           TENSES IN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES.
Test 1.
Завдання I. Зазначте речення , в яких вживається Passive Voice при перекладі з української мови
на англійську.
 А) Вся економічна система разом складає економічну систему міста, країни або світу.
 В) Економіка базується на фактах нашого повсякденного життя.
 С) Їх називають новими економічними відносинами.
 D) У процесі своєї діяльності менеджер приймає багато різних рішень.
 Е) Про нову систему планування багато говорили.
 F) Робітники збільшили продуктивність праці.
 G) Бюджет приймуть під кінець року.

 Завдання II. Зазначте індекс    присудків правої колонки, що відповідають їхнім англійським
еквівалентам у лівій колонці.
      1. will be exported         а) експортуються
         were exported            в) будуть експортуватися
         are being exported       с) експортували

     2. will be discussed         а) обговоримо
        has been discussed        в) будуть обговорюватися
         was discussed            с) обговорювали

     3. were being created        а) буде створений
        had been created          в) був створений
        would be created           с) створювалися

     4. were exchanged             а) обміняли
        is being exchanged         в) були обмінені
        has been exchanged          с) обмінюються

 Завдання III. Визначите час і вид підкресленого присудка. Виберіть правильний переклад
присудка.
  1. Our people have carried out great economic transformations.
            а) виконують
            в) виконали
            с) виконували
  2. Wages are going up and incomes are considerably increasing.
            а) зростають, збільшуються
            в) зростали, збільшувалися
             с) зросли, збільшилися
  3. We have just been asked about the production of material wealth.
            а) запитували
            в) запитують
             с) запитали
  4. The methods and techniques applied in accounting facilitated the development of
statistics.
            а) сприяють
            в) сприяли
            с) будуть сприяти

5. The report is being listened to with great attention.
               а) слухають
               в) слухали
                с) прослухали
 6. The department was solving economic problem of great importance.
               а) вирішував

                                                 50
            в) вирішив
             с) вирішує
7. The methods of training students are perfected by higher schools.
              а) удосконалювалися
              в) удосконалюються
               с) повинні вдосконалюватися
8. The subsidiary will report to the export sales department.
             а) звітує
             в) звітував
             с) надасть звіт
9. They had discussed the plan by the time you came.
              а) обговорили
              в) обговорювали
               с) обговорять

Завдання IV. Виберіть англійський еквівалент для слідуючих українських речень..
1. Про нову систему планування багато говорять.
    a) They speak about the new system of planning.
    b) The new system of planning was much spoken about.
    c) The new system of planning is much spoken about.
2. Вони вже уклаи довгострокове співробітництво.
    a) They conclude a long-term contract.
    b) They have concluded a long-term contract.
    c) They concluded a long-term contract.
3. Доповідь слухається з великою увагою.
    a) The report was listened to with great attention.
    b) The report is being listened to with great attention.
    c) They listen to the report with great attention.
4. Вони вивчать розділ про засоби виробництва на наступному занятті.
    a) They will have to study the chapter about the mode of production at the next lesson.
    b) They will be studying the chapter about the mode of production at this time the next lesson.
    c) They will study the chapter about the mode of production at the next lesson.
5. При новій системі управління значно збільшиться рівень концентрації виробництва.
    a) Under a new system of management the level of production concentration will be greatly raised.
    b) Under a new system of management the level of production concentration was greatly raised.
    c) Under a new system of management they will greatly raise the level of production concentration .

6. Імпортери застосовували традиційні методи обмеження.
   a) Importers have employed the traditional methods of restriction.
   b) Importers employed the traditional methods of restriction.
   c) Importers employed the traditional methods of restriction.
7. Тісні взаємні контакти були встановлені між двома країнами під кінець року.
   a) Close mutual contacts had been established between two countries by the end of the year.
   b) Close mutual contacts had to be established between two countries by the end of the year.
   c) Close mutual contacts have already been established this year.
8. В доповіді посилалися на ці дані
     а) These data were referred to in the report.
     в) These data are referred to in the report.
     с)These data will be referred to in the report.
9. Їм послали статистичні звіти.
   a) They have sent statistical reports.
   b) They have been sent statistical reports.
   c) They sent statistical reports.




                                                   51
                 MODAL VERBS
    Test 2.
    Завдання І. Який із варіантів (а, в або с) точніше передає зміст поданого речення.
    1. You have to read the text about economic achievements.
          a) You have read the text.
          b) You should read the text.
          c) You should have read the text.
    2. He was allowed to attend this lecture.
          a) He was permitted to attend this lecture.
          b) He has attended this lecture.
          c) He attended this lecture yesterday.
    3. She may do it tomorrow.
          a) She will do it tomorrow.
          b) She is certain to do it tomorrow.
          c) She will probably do it tomorrow.
    4. The economic data should be systematized.
          a) The economic data will be systematized.
          b) The economic data must be systematized.
          c) The economic data can be systematized.
    5. He is to make his report at the next seminar.
          a) He can make his report.
          b) He must make his report.
          c) He is able to make his report.
    6. In order to live people must have all material means of life.
       a) People are allowed to have all material means of life.
       b) Certainly people will have all material means of life.
       c) For future people should have all material means of life.

    7. They can understand the new business plan.
       a) They could understand the new business plan.
       b) They are to understand the new business plan.
       c) They are able to understand the new business plan.
    8. May we take this opportunity to congratulate you on this appointment?
       a) Are we allowed to take this opportunity to congratulate you on this appointment?
       b) Must we take this opportunity to congratulate you on this appointment?
       c) Can we take this opportunity to congratulate you on your appointment?
    9. These students needn't go to the institute on Sunday.
       a) These students shouldn't go to the institute on Sunday.
       b) These students can't go to the institute on Sunday.
       c) These students are not allowed to go to the institute on Sunday.

Завдання II. Виберіть правильне модальне дієслово або його еквівалент.
 1. I (повинний був ) work hard last month as I was to take my examinations.
              a) had to
              b) must
              c) could
 2. We (повинні,треба) inspect this project.
              a) are to
              b) have to
              c) are able to
 3. He (не дозволяється) take only two cartons of cigarettes through the Customs.
              a) can
              b) must
              c) may
 4. I think the government (належить, слід) do more to help homeless people.
              a) should
              b) could

                                                 52
              c) might
  5. We (змогли) keep our prices down last year.
              a) had to
              b) could to
              c) were allowed to
  6. The latest reports indicate that oil (можливо ) still be found in this region.
              a) can
              b) may
              c) must

                                  PARTICIPLE I , PARTICIPLE II
                               CONSTRUCTIONS WITH PARTICIPLE.
Test 3.
Завдання І. Визначити, якими членами речення є підкреслені слова:
  а) означення; в) обставина; с) частина присудка ( Perfect); д) частина присудка (Passive ); е)
частина присудка (Continuous ).
 1. Having reduced the price we managed to sell our goods.
 2. We are looking for an accountant.
 3. The currencies of almost all countries were devaluated after World War II.
 4. When asked to explain the terms ―supply‖ and ―demand‖ he gave a necessary information at once.
 5. The methods applied improved the quality of the product.
 6. All economic activity taken together make up the economic system of a city, a country or the world.
 7. We listened to the lecturer speaking about economic problems of our country.
 8. While planning the distribution of the national income the state uses the accumulation and consumption
      funds.
 9. Covering a period of 5 years the plan provided for the construction of new market places.
 10. The British industry has faced stiff competition from other countries.
 11. Being a high industrial country without rich natural recourses Great Britain has to import raw materials
      for its industry.
 Завдання II. Виберіть правильний переклад підкресленого дієприкметника.
   1. Management is a set of activities including planning and decision making.
                       а) включаючи
                       b) що включає
                       с) включених
  2. He pictured farmers working long hours growing food to sell locally and to other countries.
                       а) працюючи .... вирощуючи
                        b) працюючих ... . вирощуючи
                       с) працюючі…... вирощуючих
   3. While signing the contract we stressed the importance of using this particular material.
                        а) підписуючий
                         b) підписуючи ( при підписанні)
                         с) підписаний
   4. Being a means of exchange money is also a means of measuring the value of man's labour.
                           a) буваючи
                           b) бути
                           c) являючись
   5. Having worked as an accountant for many years, he knew his speciality very well.
                        а) пропрацювавши
                        b) працюючи
                        с) маючи роботу
     6. Having been read all the instructions they started their tests.
                         a) після того, як були прочитані
                         b) читаючи
                         c) маючи всі інструкції
    7. Carefully packed the consignment will arrive in good condition.
                      a) запакувавши
                      b) запакований

                                                      53
                   с) при упаковці.
     8. Given the time and all calculation it is easy to make a report.
                   а) поданий
                    b) даючи
                    с) якщо дати
     9. When completed the new building will accommodate 500 students.
                      а) завершили (закінчили)
                      b) завершуючи
                      с) при завершенні
      10. Any object used as money can be called commodity money.
                     a) Використаний (який використовують)
                     b) при використанні
                     c) використовуючи
  Завдання III. Запишіть літеру тієї відповіді, яку ви вважаєте правильною.
 1. Яке речення містить незалежний дієприкметниковий зворот?
  a) The students listened to the professor speaking on gross national product of the country.
  b) Speaking on gross national product of the country the professor has illustrated his lecture with
      diagrams.
  c) The professor spoke on gross national products of the country, the lecture being illustrated with
      diagrams.

 2.   В якому реченні немає незалежного дієприкметникового звороту?
 a)   Because the terms are acceptable we are prepared to place an order.
 b)   The terms being acceptable, we are prepared to place an order.
 c)   The article being ready, I shall show it to you.

 3. У якому реченні незалежний дієприкметниковий зворот варто перекладати самостійним
    реченням зі сполучником „причому”?
  a) Almost all economic indicators are bright, with production in many areas rising to record peaks.
  b) The achievements of modern science and technology are being rationally utilized, we see a great
     technological progress.
  c) More and more countries coming to recognize tourism as one of the principal resources in their
     economic development.

   4. У якому реченні дієприкметниковий зворот варто перекладати використовуючи сполучник
   “коли”?
    a) We saw the students discussing the lecture.
    b) The professor having finished his lecture, we began to discuss it.
    c) The lecture was not difficult, many definitions having been explained before.

   5. Яке англійське речення відповідає українському?
   Після того як контракт був підписаний, наші керівники пішли додому.
    a) They had signed the contract by the time our managers came home.
    b) The contract having been signed, our managers went home.
    c) The contract had been signed before our managers went home.

     6. Яке українське речення відповідає англійському?
The industrial North of England was one of the areas most severely affected by depression of the 1930s,
unemployment being high and income low.
     a) Промисловий район півночі Англії був одним із районів найбільш тяжко потерпілих від
         депресії 1930х років, причому рівень безробіття був високим, а прибуток низьким.
     b) Оскільки промислова північ Англії була одним із районів найбільш тяжко потерпілих від
         депресії 1930х років, рівень безробіття був високим, а прибуток низьким.
     c) Тому що рівень безробіття був високим, а прибуток низьким, то промислова північ Англії
         була одним із районів найбільш тяжко потерпілих від депресії 1930х років.



                                                  54
                     GERUND AND PARTICIPLE I
    Test 4.
   Завдання І. Визначите, яким членом речення є слово “perfecting”:
   a) пвдмет, в) присудок, с) додаток, д) означення, е) обставина.
   1. Perfecting the management system was one of the tasks of the new economic reform.
   2. One of the new objectives of the new reform was perfecting the production management.
   3. We started perfecting our knowledge of the language by reading a lot.
   4. We spoke of perfecting the management system.
   5. The members of the conference discussed some methods of perfecting the plans for material
       supply.
   6. Before perfecting the operation of the enterprise we decided to analyze all the process separately.

    Завдання II Які речення містять герундіальний зворот, ,який перекладається підрядним
    реченням зі сполучниками те, що; про те,що.
    a) The terms being acceptable, we are prepared to place an order.
    b) His reading English economic literature helps him in his research work.
    c) Almost all other economic indicators are similarly bright, with production in many areas rising to
       record peaks.
    d) They learned of their manager's having introduced the new principle of distribution profits.
    e) Our having solved the essential problem of choosing the proper place for building a large economic
       complex is of great significance.

    Завдання III. Виберіть правильний переклад підкреслених слів :
     a) застосовуючи, в) застосування, с) починаючи, d) обираючи, е) що застосовують, f)
        початок, g) обравши, h) застосовуємо.
     1. Starting any kind of business involves risk.
     2. Starting any kind of business one should know laws of business.
     3. While selecting career in management a person has several decisions to make.
     4. On selecting career in management he began to do a lot to attain his goal.
     5. The scientists applying the new methods of investigating gathered at the conference to discuss it.
     6. They got better results by applying a computer in planning.
     7. The principle of applying statistical methods to economic laws is offered by econometrics.
     8. We are applying economic and mathematical methods in solving the problems of production
        development.

                                                  INFINITIVE
 Test 5.
 Задание I. Виберіть український еквівалент англійського речення.
1.The procedure to be followed will influence the collection of the statistical data.
   а) Метод наслідку вплине на збір статистичних даних.
   в) Збір статистичних даних вплине на методику проведення.
   с) Методика якої слід притримуватися вплине на збір статистичних даних.
   2. To understand the economic situation in the USA you must understand the government's and the
 Federal Reserve Bank's roles.
    a) Зрозуміти економічну ситуацію в США - це зрозуміти уряд і роль Федерального Резервного
         банку.
     в) Щоб зрозуміти економічну ситуацію в США ви повинні зрозуміти роль уряду і роль ФБР.
     с) Розуміння економічної ситуації в США залежить від розуміння ролі уряду і ролі ФБР.
 3.To interpret the results of data handling is not an easy problem.
    a) Інтепретувати результати обробки даних – нелегка задача.
    в) Результати інтепретації обробки даних було зовсім нелегко.
    с) Щоб інтепретувати результати обробки даних необхідно використати проблему.
 4. They can reinvest profits into the corporation to postpone paying taxes.
      a)Щоб відкласти сплату податків необхідно реінвестувати прибутки в корпорацію.
      в) Вони можуть реінвестувати прибутки в корпорацію якщо тільки відкладуть сплату податків.
      с) Вони можуть реінвестувати прибутки в корпорацію для того, щоб відкласти сплату податків.
 5. Bank's purpose is to regulate the money supply.

                                                   55
      a) Мета банку – регулювати поставки грошей.
      в) Мета, яку поставив банк - це регулювання поставки грошей.
      с) Регуляція поставки грошей була метою банку.
 Завдання II. Який варіант (а, у, с) точніше передає зміст пред'явленого речення.
  1. The contract to be discussed is of great importance.
      a) Very important contract was discussed yesterday.
      b) Very important contract has already been discussed.
      c) Very important contract must be discussed.
  2. Mr.Brown is sure to be appointed finance director.
      a) Mr.Brown will of course be appointed finance director.
      b) Mr.Brown believes that he will be appointed finance director.
      c) Mr.Brown is to be appointed finance director.
 3.We expected the commission to begin work next month.
   a) We expected the commission to end work next month.
   b) We thought the commission would start work next month.
   c) The commission is likely to start work next month.
  4.This article was believed to be replaced by another one.
   a) As it was assumed this article would be replaced by another one.
   b) We believed this article to be replaced by two others.
   c) This article is believed to be replaced by another one.
  5.The book to be published will help you in your work.
   a) The book to be published is of no use for your work.
   b) The book to be published might have helped you in your work.
   c) The book which will be published will be of use in your work.
Завдання III. Які з пред'явлених речень варто перекладати починаючи зі сполучника“щоб”.
 1. a) To slow inflation the government took money out of the economy.
    b) To slow inflation at present means to take money out of the economy.
 2. a) To tabulate results takes much time.
    b) To tabulate results one should spend much time.
 Завдання IV. В слідуючих реченнях визначите об'єктні і суб'єктні інфінітивні звороти і
перекладіть ці звороти на українську мову..
         а) об'єктний інфінітивний зворот
         в) суб'єктний інфінітивний зворот
1. A free market system seems to be the best for improving economic situation.
2. If GNP is rising rapidly the economy is said to be relatively strong .
3. I assume the problem to be rather difficult but we must solve it.
4. Such strategy is known to be Keynesian economics (Кейнсіанська).
5. The management of the firm wants them to report about the results of negotiations.
6. We consider the regular and exhausted information to be necessary for managing the economic activity
     at the enterprise.

                                       CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
  Test 6.
Задание I. Зазначте черення, які б перекладалися на українську мову з часткою “би”.
 a) If a person can do what he wishes with his property, time and effort he is economically free.
 b) If citizens were completely free, some landowners might built in unsuitable places.
 c) The professor's data published last year could change our results.
 d) If you like to take part in the conference send your report as soon as possible.
 e) If she were not afraid to ask questions, she would find out everything about a new system of
     management.
 f) If the new device had been introduced, the production plan would had been carried out ahead of time.
 g) Unless he is busy, he will come to the meeting.
 h) If we had applied this method of work we should have had the results desired.

 Завдання II. Зазначте речення, що точніше передає зміст пред'явленого речення.
 1.Had we know about this meeting we should have attended it.
   a) If we know about this meeting we shall attend it.

                                                  56
  b) We knew about this meeting and therefore we attended it.
  c) We had no idea about the meeting, that's why we couldn't attend it.
2.Mankind would be better off (багачі) if the waste of raw material were stopped.
 a) Probably mankind will be richer if it stops the waste of raw materials.
 b) The waste of raw materials has been stopped and mankind is richer now.
 c) Mankind has stopped the waste of raw materials.
3. If there were no system of control, factory owners might make their employees work too long each day.
  a) Factory owners make their employees work harder because there is no system of control.
  b) Factory owners can't make their employees work too long each day because there is a system of
      control.
  c) Factory owners want to make their employees work too long in spite of a system of control.
4. Unless the situation were favourable they couldn't apply the new theories.
  a) The situation was favourable and could apply the new theories.
  b) The situation was unfavourable that's why they couldn't apply the new theories.
  c) The situation was unfavourable but they could apply the new theories.
5. They could have reorganized economy long ago.
  a) They have already reorganized economy.
  b) They didn't reorganized economy before that.
  c) They haven't reorganized economy yet.




                                                  57
                          СПИСОК НЕПРАВИЛЬНИХ ДІЄСЛІВ

    Infinitive   Past Indefinite   Participle 11 (V3f)      Перевод

    to be        was, were         been                     быть/ бути
    to bear      bore              born                     рождать/народжувати
    to beat      beat              beaten                   бить/ бити
    to become    became            become                   становится/ ставати
    to begin     began             begun                    начинать(ся)/починати
    to blow      blew              blown                    дуть/дути
    to break     broke             broken                   ломать/ломати
    to bring     brought           brought                  приносить/приносити
    to           broadcast; ~ed    broadcast; ~ed           передавать по радио/
broadcast                                                   передавати по радіо

    to build     built             built                    строить/будувати
    to burn      burnt             burnt                    гореть, жечь/горіти
    to buy       bought            bought                   покупать/купувати
    to catch     caught            caught                   ловить, хватать/ловити
    to choose    chose             chosen                   выбирать/вибирати
    to come      came              come                     приходить, приезжать/
                                                            приходити, приїздити
    to cost      cost              cost                     стоить/коштувати
    to cut       cut               cut                      резать/різати
    to deal      dealt (with)      dealt (with)             иметь дело с/мати
(with)                                                   справу з

    to do        did               done                     делать/робити
    to draw      drew              drawn                    рисовать,чертить/мал
                                                         ювати

    to dream     dreamt; ~ed       dream; ~ed               мечтать/мріяти
    to drink     drank             drunk                    пить/пити
    to drive     drove             driven                   везти, управлять/везти
    to eat       eat               eaten                    есть /їсти
    to fall      fell              fallen                   падать/ падати
    to feed      fed               fed                      кормить,
                                                         питать/кормити

    to feel      felt              felt                    чувствовать/відчувати
    to fight     fought            fought                  бороться/боротися
    to find      found             found                   находить/знаходити
    to fly       flew              flown                   летать/літати
    to foresee   foresaw           foreseen              предвидеть/передбачати

    to forget    forgot            forgotten                забывать/забувати
    to freeze    froze             frozen                   замерзать/замерзати

                                            58
                                                            раживать
   to get     got           got              получать, стано-
                                          виться/ставати

   to give    gave          given            давать/давати
   to go      went          gone             идти, ехать/іти, їхати
   to grow    grew          grown            расти,
   to hang    hung          hung             висеть, вешать/висіти
                                          становиться/рости
   to have    had           had              иметь/мати
   to hear    heard         heard            слышать/чути
   to hold    held          held             держать,
                                          владеть/тримати

   to keep    kept          kept             держать,
   to know    knew           known        хранить/тримати
   to lay     laid          laid              знать/
                                             класть/класти
   to lead    led           led              вести/направляти
   to learn   learnt; ~ed   learnt; ~ed      учиться,
   o leave    left          left          узнавать/вчитися
   to let     let           let               оставлять,
                                             позволять, уезжать/
                                                            пускать
   to lie     lay           lain          /дозволяти
   to light   lit           lit               зажигать,
                                              лежать/
              lighted        lighted      освещать/освітлювати
   to lose    lost          lost             терять/губити
   to make    made          made             делать/робити
   to mean    meant         meant            значить, предполагать/
                                             означати
   to meet    met           met              встречать/зустрічати
   to         overcame      overcome         преодолевать/перебор
overcome                                  ювати

   to pay     paid          paid             платить/ платити
   to put     put           put              класть/класти
   to read    read          read             читать/читати
   to ring    rang          rung              звонить,
                                          звенеть/звонити

   to rise    rose          risen            вставать/вставати
   to run     ran           run              бежать/бігти
   to say     said          said              говорить,
                                          сказать/говорити

   to see     saw           seen             видеть/бачити
   to sell    sold          sold             продавать/продавати
   to sent    sent          sent             посылать/посилати


                                    59
   to set        set          set              ставить/ставити
   to shine      shone        shone            /ливать/
                                               сиять,
                                            блестеть/світити
   to show       showed       shown            показывать/показувати
   to sit        sat          sat              сидеть/сидіти
   to sleep      slept        slept            спать/спати
   to speak      spoke        spoken           говорить/говорити
   to spend      spent        spent            тратить,
                                            проводить/тратити,
                                            проводити
    to split     split        split            расщеплять
                                            распространять(ся)/розпов
   to spread     spread       spread
                                            сюджувати
                                                стоять/стояти
    to stand     stood        stood

   to strike     struck       struck           ударять/ударяти
   to swim       swam         swum             плавать/плавати
   to take       took         taken            брать/брати
   to teach      taught       taught            учить, обучать
                                            /навчати
   to tell       told         told              рассказывать/розповід
                                            ати

   to think      thought      thought           думать/думати
   to throw      threw        thrown            бросать/кидати
    to undergo   underwent     undergone        подвергаться
   to            understood   understood    /піддавати
understand
   to wake       woke; ~ed    waken; ~ed        понимать/
                                                будить, просы-
                                            паться/прокидатися

   to wear       wore         worn             носить/носити
    to win       won          won               выигрывать
    to                                      /перемагати
withstand        withstood    withstood         противостоять
                                            /протистояти
   to write      wrote        written           писать/писати




                                       60
                                        Словотворення
1. Основні суфікси іменників
 - er     to work – работать/працювати            worker - рабочий /працівник
          to convert –                            converter – преобразователь /перетворювач
          преобразовать/перетворювати
 - or     to insulate –                           insulator - изолятор /ізолятор
          изолировать/ізолювати
          to translate –                          translator - переводчик /перекладач
          переводить/перекладати
 - ing    to begin – начинать /починати          beginning – начало /початок

-       ment    to develop – развивать            development - развитие /розвиток
-               /розвивати
-       th      strong – сильный /сильний        strength – сила/ сила
-       ion     to express – выражать             expression – выражение /вираження
-               /виражати
-       ation   to inform – сообщать             information – сообщение /повідомлення
-       sion    /повідомляти                      decision – решение /рішення
-       ssion   to decide – решать/ вирішити      permission – разрешение/дозвіл
                to permit – разрешать
                /дозволяти
-       ance    to assist – помогать             assistance – помощь/допомога
-               /допомогати
-       ity     equal – равный /рівний           equality – равенство /рівність
-       ness    happy – счастливый               happiness – счастье /щастя
-               /щасливий
-       ancy    constant – постоянный            constancy – постоянство /постійність
-               /постійний
-       ence    to differ – отличаться           difference – отличие/відмінність
-               /відрізнятися
-       ency    to depend – зависеть /залежати    dependency – зависимость/залежність
-       age     to break – ломать /ламатися       breakage – поломка/поломка

           2. Основні суфікси дієслів
    -    ate     active – активный/активний      to activate – активизировать /активізувати
    -    ify     electric –                      to electrify – элекрифицировать
                 электрический/електричний       /електрифікувати
    -    ize     character – характер            to characterize –
                 /характер                       (о)характеризовать/характеризувати
    -    en      deep – глубокий/глубокий        deepen – углублять/поглибити

          3. Основні суфікси прикметників
    -    able   comfort – удобство,              comfortable – удобный /зручний
    -    ible   комфорт/зручність
    -    ic(al) to convert – превращать          convertible – изменяемый/ змінюваний
                /перетворювати
    -    al     history - история /історія       historic(al) – исторический /історичний
                ideology – идеология             ideological – идеологический/ ідеологічний
                /ідеологія
                form – форма /форма              formal – формальный /формальний
    -    ant
    -           import – важность                important – важный /важливий

                                                   61
-     ent       /важливість
                 to differ – различаться       different – различный /різний
-     ful       /відрізнятися
-     less       peace – мир/мир               peaceful – мирный /мирний
                home – дом (очаг)/дім          homeless – бездомный /бездомний
-     ish       red – красный /червоний        reddish – красноватый /червонуватий
-     ive       effect – влияние,              effective – эффективный /ефективний
-     ous       эффект/вплив
                danger –                       dangerous – опасный /небезпечний
-     y         опасность/небезпека
                wind- ветер/вітер              windy- ветренный /вітряний

     4. Суфікс прислівника
- ly       useful – полезный/                  usefully – полезно /корисно
           корисний

         5. Основні префікси:
         а) префікси з заперечним значенням

            не-        important –                      unimportant-
    un      без-       важный/важливий                  неважный/неважливий
            раз-/не    limited –                        unlimited-
                       ограниченный/обмежений           безграничный/необмежений
    in -
    im- не- без- accuracy – точность/точність           inaccuracy –
    il-     / не possible –                             неточность/неточність
                 возможный/можливий                     impossible –
                                                        невозможный/неможливий
                       legal – легальный/законний       illegal – нелегальный/незаконний
    ir-                responsible –
    non- не-/не        ответственный/відповідальни irresponsible – безответственный/
         без/без       й                           безвідповідальний

                       conductor –                      non-conductor – непроводник
dis-        раз-       проводник/провідник              /(изолятор)ізолятор
            без-
            не-/ роз   to close- закрыть/закрити        to disclose – раскрыть/розкрити
                       to соnnect –
                       соединить/з’єднати               to disconnect –
                                                        разъединить/роз’єднати
 mis- неверно          to understand –                  to misunderstand - неверно
/ невірно              понимать/розуміти                понять/незрозуміти



         б) префікси з різними значеннями

     re – снова          write- писать/писати               rewrite- переписать /переписати
          еще раз /знову use     -    использовать/         reuse – снова использовать/
                         використовувати                    використати ще раз
                         conductive– проводимый/
     super – сверх-      проводжуваний                      superconductive              –
             над-/над    way – путь, дорога/шлях            сверхпроводимый/ надпровідний
                                                   62
     sub – ниже-                                    subway        –       подземная
       под-/нижче, під                              дрога/підземний шлях
                          system – система /система subsystem      –     подсистема
                                                    /підсистема
     over – сверх-пере-   to load – нагрузить/ to        overload    –  перегрузить
        над-/пере-, над   завантажити               /перевантажити
     semi – полу-/напів    conductor – проводник/ semiconductor – полупроводник/
                          провідник                 напівпровідник
     inter –между-
            среди-       action – действие/дія         interaction     –   взаимодействие
            взаимо-                                    /взаємодія
     /взаємо
     en            –(для large- большой/великий        to    enlarge       –      увеличить
     образования                                       /збільшувати
     глагола)

     pre – до-           to heat – нагреть /нагріти    to preheat – предварительно
       заранее/                                        нагреть/попередньо нагріти
     попередньо
     post – после-/після war – война/війна             post-war    –           послевоенный
                                                       /післявоєнний

                            Список рекомендованої літератури

1. К.Ю.Качалова.,Е.Е.Израилевич. Практическая грамматика английского языка. – ЮНВЕСТ,
Москва, 2002.
2. Т.Ю.Дроздова., А.И.Берестова., В.Г.Маилова. English Grammar. Reference and practice.
Антология. – Санкт-Петербург, 2004.
3. Л.М.Черноватый., В.І.Карабан., І.О. Пенькова., І.П.Ярощук. Переклад англомовної
економічної літератури. Економіка США. Навчальний посібник для студентів вищих
закладів освіти. – Вінниця, НОВА КНИГА, 2007.
4. О. Біленька та інш. Business English Essentials./ Частина 2: Посібник з англійської мови.-
Тернопіль: Видавництво Карпюка, 2003.
5. З. В. Данилова. Business English/ Fundamentals of accounting and finance./ Ділова англійська
мова. Основи бухгалтерського обліку. Фінанси. Навчальний посібник англійською мовою.-
Тернопіль: СМП « Астон »
6. З.В. Данилова. Business English/ Fundamentals of economics and business organization./
Ділова англійська мова. Основи економіки та бізнесу. Навчальний посібник англійською
мовою.- Тернопіль: СМП « Астон ».
7. З.В. Данилова. Business English. Fundamentals of management. / Ділова англійська мова.
Основи менеджменту. Навчальний посібник англійською мовою.-Тернопіль: СМП « Астон ».
8. З.В. Данилова. Business English . Fundamentals of management and leadership. / Ділова
англійська мова. Основи управління та керівництва. / Навчальний посібник англійською
мовою.-Тернопіль:СМП « Астон».
9. З.В. Данилова. Business English. Fundamentals of marketing. / Ділова англійська мова.
Основи маркетингу. Навчальний посібник англійською мовою.-Тернопіль:СМП «Астон ».
10. V. K. Shpak English for economists and businessmen. – К., «Вища школа», 2004.




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