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					Phonological Analyses


   Discovering How abstract phonemes
   are realized as phones
What is Phonological Analysis?
   Analyzing data and discovering the
    processes which made such
    phonetic substances produced
       All that is clear is surface phonetic
        forms
       We need to find everything else
        systematically


                     Reviving Sonus             2
Procedure of Phonological
Analysis
   Data examination
       Examine as many data tokens as possible
   Discovering Alternation
       Finding allophonic/allomorphic variations
   Finding UR and its justification
       Reasonable justification is necessary
   Describing phonological rules
       Using formal notation methods
   Verification
       Using more data to see if rules are right
   Correction

                         Reviving Sonus             3
Formal Notation of P. Rules
   Basic Format
       A  B / C __ D
           This means “A becomes B in the environment
            between C and D”
           Eg) /CAD/  /CBD/
           C & D are conditioning sounds
   Example (vowel nasalization)
       Vowels become nasalized before a nasal
        sound
       [+syllabic]  [+nasal] / _____ [+nasal]

                         Reviving Sonus                  4
Notation of P. Rules (cntd.)
   Distinctive features are normally used
   But other conventional diacritics are allowed
       Boundaries:
           # (word), + (morpheme), $ (syllable)
           ___# (word final), #___ (word initial), $___ (syllable initial)
       Segments:
           C(consonant), V(vowel), G(glide), N(nasal), L(lateral)
       Etc.
           (C) = optional C
           C2 = two or more C’s
           C03 = 0, 1, 2, or 3 C’s




                             Reviving Sonus                                   5
Types of Phonological Rules
   Assimilation
   Feature changing
   Dissimilation
   Feature addition
   Segment deletion
   Segment Insertion
   Metathesis
                Reviving Sonus   6
Rule Type:
Assimilation
   A rule that makes neighboring segments more similar by copying
    or spreading a phonetic property from one segment to the other
        Usually articulatory or physical process
   Degree of assimilation
        Total: AB  AA or BB
        Partial: AB  AA’ or B’B
   Direction of assimilation
        Regressive (anticipatory): AB  BB
        Progressive (perseverative): AB  AA
        Coalescent (reciprocal): AB  C
   Articulation types
        Place assimilation
        Manner assimilation
        Voicing assimilation




                                Reviving Sonus                       7
Rule Type:
Assimilation Examples
   English plurals
       /z/  [z], [s], [z]
       cats, dogs, buses
   English negative prefix
       /I/  [I], [Im], [IN]
       Idefiite, impossible,
        icoqqect
   /tE mays/  [tEm
    mays]
   /tE bayks/  [tEm
    bayks]
                      Reviving Sonus   8
Rule Type:
Dissimilation
   A rule in which a segment becomes less
    similar to another segment
   Example
       “diphthong”
       /fT/ /ft/ “fifth”
       “marbre” (French)  “marble” (Eng)
       “peregrinus” “pilgrim”
       [al] vs [ar]
           anecdotal, annual, mental, penal, spiritual
           angular, annular, columnar, similar, velar


                          Reviving Sonus                  9
Rule Type:
Feature addition
   A rule by which one or more
    distinctive feature(s) is/are added
   Example
       aspiration, glottalization




                     Reviving Sonus       10
Rule Type:
Segment Deletion
   A rule by which a segment is deleted
   Example
       mystery, general, memory, funeral,
        Barbara
       West side




                    Reviving Sonus           11
Rule Type:
Segment Insertion
   A rule by which a segment is
    inserted
   Example
       sompthing, empty
       Bus + es




                  Reviving Sonus   12
Rule Type:
Metathesis
   An alteration in the sequence of a
    sound string
   Example
       brid (OE)  bird (ModE)
       /Qsk/  [Qks]              (slip of
        tongue)
       Children’s pronunciation
         animal [Qml]  [Qml]
         spaghetti [spgEti] 
          [pHsgEti] Sonus
                     Reviving                 13
Rule Application Types
   Obligatory rules
       Eg) nasalization, aspiration
   Optional rules
       Eg) unreleasing




                    Reviving Sonus     14
Evidence for P. Rules
   Slips of the tongue
     [ga) t sid]       “gone to
      seed”
     [gad t si)] “god to
      seen”
     [spic pqdks)]
      “speech production”
     [pHqic sdks)]
      “preach seduction”
   Children’s Pronunciation
                 Reviving Sonus      15

				
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