; phonological_features
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

phonological_features

VIEWS: 30 PAGES: 12

  • pg 1
									Phonological features
“phonologically active” phonetic properties

   • phonetic properties that must be grammatically specified

   • thus, necessary in distinguishing words

   • or, in describing sound alternations that accompany word formation

   • note: citation speech, not connected speech
What phonetic properties are phonologically active?

• First answer refers to distinguishing words: lexical contrast

• The pair “bill” vs. “pill” is evidence that aspiration or voicing is
phonologically active in English

• broad phonetic transcription, attending only to contrastive
properties is a type of phonological analysis of language.
Focus only on lexical contrast is too shallow, cursory to permit an
insightful analysis of language sound systems.

• nasal place assimilation in
    intolerant       [ɪn-t]
    illogical        [ɪl-l]
    impossible       [ɪm-p]
    inconsiderate    [ɪŋ-k]

Alternation of the form of the prefix [ɪn] suggests that there is a
phonologically active property called “place of articulation” that
should be referenced in a statement of the linguistic generalization.
Instead of /n/ becomes bilabial before bilabials
    and /n/ becomes lateral before laterals
    and /n/ becomes velar before velars

• we say /n/ takes the same place of articulation as the following consonant.

• this is evidence that the grammar of English should include the concept
“place of articulation”.

• Note, it could have been different.
So far we have been focussed on sound patterns and features of sounds
looking only at lexical contrast.

Implicitly we have assumed that phonetic properties should be
organized in groups like “place of articulation” without giving any
evidence that this type of organization is actually needed in descriptions
of language sound patterns.

We haven’t justified the “natural classes” of speech sounds that the IPA
chart assumes, except to note that phonetically certain sounds share certain
properties.

e.g. rounded vowels
Lip rounding is a phonetic property of some vowels.

    [u] [o] [y] [ø], etc.

• Is this a phonological property?

• How to find out – look for alternations that refer to vowel
rounding.

• Consider an example from Turkish
 gloss            Nom.sg.      Gen.sg.         Nom.pl.          Gen. pl.
 “rope”           ip           ipin            ipler            iplerin
 “hand”           el           elin            eller            ellerin
 “girl”           kɨz          kɨzɨn           kɨzlar           kɨzlarɨn
 “face”           jyz          jyzyn           jyzler           jyzlerin
 “stamp”          pul          pulun           pullar           pullarɨn
 “stalk”          sap          sapɨn           saplar           saplarɨn
 “village”        køj          køjyn           køjler           køjlerin
 “end”            son          sonun           sonlar           sonlarɨn

Clements, George N. and Engin Sezer. (1982). Vowel and consonant disharmony
in Turkish. In Harry van der Hulst and Norval Smith, eds., The Structure of
Phonological Representations, Part II. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
                                   Gen.sg. suffix has a round
                                   vowel (-yn or -un)
 gloss            Nom.sg.      Gen.sg.         Nom.pl.          Gen. pl.
 “rope”           ip           ipin            ipler            iplerin
 “hand”           el           elin            eller            ellerin
 “girl”           kɨz          kɨzɨn           kɨzlar           kɨzlarɨn
 “face”           jyz          jyzyn           jyzler           jyzlerin
 “stamp”          pul          pulun           pullar           pullarɨn
 “stalk”          sap          sapɨn           saplar           saplarɨn
 “village”        køj          køjyn           køjler           køjlerin
 “end”            son          sonun           sonlar           sonlarɨn

Clements, George N. and Engin Sezer. (1982). Vowel and consonant disharmony
in Turkish. In Harry van der Hulst and Norval Smith, eds., The Structure of
Phonological Representations, Part II. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
                When the noun stem has a round vowel

 gloss            Nom.sg.      Gen.sg.         Nom.pl.          Gen. pl.
 “rope”           ip           ipin            ipler            iplerin
 “hand”           el           elin            eller            ellerin
 “girl”           kɨz          kɨzɨn           kɨzlar           kɨzlarɨn
 “face”           jyz          jyzyn           jyzler           jyzlerin
 “stamp”          pul          pulun           pullar           pullarɨn
 “stalk”          sap          sapɨn           saplar           saplarɨn
 “village”        køj          køjyn           køjler           køjlerin
 “end”            son          sonun           sonlar           sonlarɨn

Clements, George N. and Engin Sezer. (1982). Vowel and consonant disharmony
in Turkish. In Harry van der Hulst and Norval Smith, eds., The Structure of
Phonological Representations, Part II. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Here we discovered a phonologically active feature
by observing a grammatically significant phonetic alternation.

• the Genitive Singular suffix could be either produced with an
unrounded vowel [-in] or [-ɨn],

• or it could be produced with a rounded vowel [-un] or [-yn].

The set of vowels that is associated with the rounded versions of the
suffix are: [y], [u], [ø], and [o].

These vowels constitute a natural class in Turkish – the round vowels.
Phonologically active properties of vowels in
Turkish - aka the vowel feature specifications
for Turkish



          i   i   y   u e    a   ø   o
high      +   +   +   +
back          +       +      +       +
round             +   +          +   +
        ⒈ When is the Gen.sg. suffix [-in] and when is it [-ɨn]?
        ⒉ When is the Gen.sg. suffix [-yn] and when is it [-un]?
        ⒊ What feature is suggested by this pattern?

gloss           Nom.sg.      Gen.sg.         Nom.pl.          Gen. pl.
“rope”          ip           ipin            ipler            iplerin
“hand”          el           elin            eller            ellerin
“girl”          kɨz          kɨzɨn           kɨzlar           kɨzlarɨn
“face”          jyz          jyzyn           jyzler           jyzlerin
“stamp”         pul          pulun           pullar           pullarɨn
“stalk”         sap          sapɨn           saplar           saplarɨn
“village”       køj          køjyn           køjler           køjlerin
“end”           son          sonun           sonlar           sonlarɨn

Clements, George N. and Engin Sezer. (1982). Vowel and consonant disharmony
in Turkish. In Harry van der Hulst and Norval Smith, eds., The Structure of
Phonological Representations, Part II. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

								
To top