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					                          A sketch of the cognitive processes involved in the
                            comprehension and production of single words

               Speech                              Pictures,
                                                                           Print
                                                   seen objects


           Auditory analysis
                                                                 Visual feature
                                                                    analysis


         Acoustic-to-phonological                                                           Abstract Letter
               conversion                                                                    Identification




               Phonological
               Input Buffer
                                                    Visual Object
                                                  Recognition System


                           Phonological                                             Orthographic
                           Input Lexicon              Conceptual                    Input Lexicon
                                                      Semantics



                                                        Lexical
                                                       Semantics                                   Letter-sound rules




                                Phonological                                Orthographic
                               Output Lexicon                              Output Lexicon




                          Phonological                                              Graphemic
                                                    Sound-Letter Rules
                          Output Buffer                                            Output Buffer




                                Phonological
                                encoding




                                 Speech                                           Writing


Notes:
1) Many processes can be subdivided further, especially those at the periphery.
2) Dotted arrows are those where I am uncertain as to the need for these links or they are ones not often depicted (other authors
    would disagree).
3) I have used bidirectional connections, other authors would include more, less or different bi-directional links.
4) The labels are used as a shorthand and should be interpreted loosely – they are compatible with many different implementations
    of this basic architecture.
5) Theories are in a constant state of change – details of this model will too. But the sketch shown is sufficient to guide thinking
    regarding aphasic language.

  If you use or cite this model, please reference it as follows:
  Nickels, L.A. (2000) A sketch of the cognitive processes involved in the comprehension and production of
  single words. Retrieved on *insert date* from http://www.maccs.mq.edu.au/~lyndsey/model.doc

				
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