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					                                                                  Tree Trail
                         British Woodland Trees
How many different trees can you recognise?
      • Trees that are grown in the UK for thousands of years are known as being ‘native’.
      • Trees which have been brought into Britain more recently are called ‘exotics’. Some exotic trees
        were introduced into Britain for decoration, or for their wood or fruit. Others have spread out
        from parks and gardens.

These pages will introduce you to the ‘Fabulous 12’ native trees that you might find in a wood near you.

Come to Kew and visit the Xstrata Treetop Walkway and Rhizotron. On the way use this trail to meet
7 of the 12 trees. Mark the names of the trees you have discovered on the map and answer sheet when
you have worked out what they are.

1. Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)
Distinguishing    • It is a sturdy deciduous tree with a maximum height of 30 metres.
features:         • The trunk has smooth, pale grey bark in-between vertical ridges.
                  • The trunk divides into a large number of limbs that sweep upwards to produce a
                    densely branched symmetrical crown.
                  • Male and female catkins grow near the tips of delicate twigs.
                  • Flowering takes place in late March before the leaves appear. The flowers are
                    wind-pollinated.
                  • The fruits consist of a pair of ‘nutlets’ in shallow cups attached to a papery, three-
                    pointed ‘wing’. During late summer, the wing acts as a sail to carry the seeds away
                    from the parent plant.
                  • In autumn, leaves undergo a vivid colour-change before falling.

Habitat:          • Hornbeam grows on fertile clay soils in lowland areas.
                  • It is shade tolerant, so it is often found in woodland with oak and beech.
                  • Its natural distribution is confined to southern England and the Thames Valley,
                    and occasionally in South Wales and Somerset. Outside these areas, it has been
                    introduced.

Fascinating       • The name of the tree probably derives from the nature of the wood, which is hard
facts:              like horn. An alternative suggestion is that its name refers to the wooden yokes
                    that were used to link together a team of ploughing oxen by their horns.
                  • It is the hardest timber of any tree in Europe and will blunt all but the best-quality
                    tools.
                  • It is used for the hammers of piano keys and also for cogs and pulleys.
                  • Although hard, it burns well and before coal, hornbeams in woods such as Epping
                    Forest, near London, were coppiced and pollarded to provide firewood and
                    charcoal for furnaces.
                                                                 Tree Trail
                       British Woodland Trees

2. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)

Distinguishing   • It is a large deciduous tree up to 45 metres tall.
features:        • It has a tall, slender trunk and a loosely branched crown giving it a rather
                   shapeless silhouette in winter.
                 • Smooth, pale grey winter twigs have opposite pairs of fat black buds.
                 • The leaves are compound pinnate with three to six pairs of leaflets along a leaf
                   stalk. They give the tree a light, airy appearance when in full-leaf.
                 • It has separate male and female flowers, which appear in April, well before the
                   leaves.
                 • The male flowers are yellow with purple tips.
                 • The female flowers grow in pale green clusters and are wind-pollinated.
                 • Winged fruits develop in clusters and are known as ‘keys’. Each key consists of a
                   twisted wing attached to a seed. The twist helps to give the fruit a spinning
                   motion during dispersal, keeping it airborne as long as possible.

Habitat:         • Ash trees are widespread in oak woods, copses, hedgerows and along river banks.
                 • Woods dominated by ash are only found in calcareous soils on limestone. Pure ash
                   woods are often associated with outcrops of carboniferous limestone, for example
                   in the Mendips and Pennines, where trees seem to grow directly out of the rock
                   face.

Fascinating      • Ash is one of the last trees to come into leaf and is not usually in full leaf until
facts:             May. An old country rhyme, uses the emergence of the leaves of oak and ash to
                   forecast weather:
                       Oak before ash, we’re in for a splash
                       Ash before oak, we’re in for a soak
                 • Leaves are sensitive to the cold and are shed early in autumn after the first frost,
                   leaving the ash keys hanging on bare branches throughout winter, and providing
                   valuable food for birds.
                 • In the wind, ash keys may fly over 500m away from the parent tree.
                 • The timber is tough and elastic and can withstand stress and sharp knocks; so it is
                   used for the long handles of tools such as axes, picks, mallets and garden
                   implements. It is also used to make sports equipment such as oars, hockey sticks
                   and parallel bars.
                 • Ash burns well and produces little smoke whether it is freshly cut (green) or
                   seasoned.
                                                                  Tree Trail
                       British Woodland Trees
3. Hazel (Corylus avellana)
Distinguishing   • It is a small tree or tall broad bush, which grows in the shade of open woods or in
features:          hedgerows.
                 • It has round heart-shaped leaves.
                 • Long male flowers called catkins appear from late January. Female flowers are
                   small and bud-like with a crimson stigma and style and appear later.
                 • The fruits are hard-shelled nuts, changing from pale green in the summer to warm
                   brown in the autumn.
                 • Birds, especially pigeons, and mammals such as squirrels and mice take the nuts
                   and bury them for their winter store.

Habitat:         • Hazel is native to all parts of Britain except the Shetland Isles.
                 • It is abundant on light well-drained soils, on chalk and sandstone.

Fascinating      • Pollen records show that hazel was one of the first trees to return to Britain as
facts:             temperatures increased following the last Ice Age.
                 • The male catkins are popularly known as ‘lambs’ tails’.
                 • In Celtic folklore, hazel was known as the ‘tree of knowledge’ and was supposed
                   to have magical properties. Elfin tricks can be avoided by keeping a hazelnut in
                   your pocket. A double hazel nut was said to cure toothache in Devon, and defend
                   against witches in Scotland.
                 • Hazelnuts have been an important food since the Stone Age.
                 • Hazel has been coppiced since ancient times to produce small straight poles used
                   in fencing. In the past, poles were split to make the frames [wattles] for wattle-
                   and-daub buildings. The fine branches and twigs were bundled and sold as
                   ‘faggots’ for burning.
Coppicing:       A wood management method for producing large quantities of small poles. Trees are
                 cut to ground level. Shoots (rods) sprout up around the edge of the stump and after
                 four to ten years produce long straight thin branches [poles]. The coppice is re-cut
                 when the rods have grown to the height or thickness needed. All over Britain you
                 will find hazel coppices, although many are now overgrown. At Kew and Wakehurst
                 Place, you can see coppiced woodland in various stages of growth. The fine twigs are
                 used as pea sticks to provide support for many plants. Larger, older rods are used to
                 make charcoal.
                                                                  Tree Trail
                        British Woodland Trees
4. Beech (Fagus sylvatica)
Distinguishing   • It is a large deciduous tree growing up to 40 metres tall.
features:        • It has a tall straight trunk with a distinctive silvery-grey, smooth bark.
                 • Its large branches spread out to form a gigantic crown.
                 • Small flowers emerge in April/May, hidden among the new leaves.
                 • The male flowers hang in bunches like tassels to catch the wind.
                 • The small female flowers are in pairs within a little ‘cup’ of prickly scales.
                 • After pollination, the ‘cup’ develops into a woody husk enclosing a pair of beech
                   nuts (called mast).
                 • Beech displays a fine range of autumn colours from orange, russet and gold
                   through to copper.
                 • Beech woods have a thick layer of fallen leaves on the ground throughout winter.

Habitat:         • Beech is a native tree only in southern England and south Wales.
                 • It grows best on light, well-drained soils on chalk or sandstone.
                 • Ancient beech forests still survive on the Chilterns, Cotswolds and chalk downs of
                   south east England.
                 • Beech has been planted throughout Britain – in parks, as avenues, as hedges, on
                   hilltops and as shelter belts.

Fascinating      • Beech woods cast so much shade that few smaller trees or ground vegetation can
facts:             grow beneath them.
                 • A heavy crop of beech nuts is produced about every four to five years, especially
                   following a hot summer. These are known as ‘mast years’. A good mast year helps
                   wildlife, such as badgers, squirrels and birds to survive through winter. In the past,
                   pigs were allowed into the forests to feast on the abundant beech nuts.
                 • Beech trees are easily toppled by strong winds because they have shallow wide-
                   spreading roots. This was seen in south east England in the Great Storm of 1987.
                 • The timber is a pale-coloured, rather soft and springy, wood used mainly for
                   furniture making.
                 • The beech avenue at Bradbury Rings, Dorset forms an arching tunnel over the
                   road at the side of the Iron Age fort. There are 365 trees on either side of the
                   road – one for every day of the year.
                 • At Meikleour, near Perth in Scotland, there is a massive beech hedge 53 metres
                   long and 28 metres high.
Pollarding:      This is a method of woodland management for the production of small timber and
                 wood poles. In the past when beech forests were used for cattle grazing, trees were
                 lopped at a height of two to three metres so that the young shoots were out of the
                 reach of grazing animals. This made the tree have a ‘head’ of thin branches suitable
                 for making poles.
                                                                 Tree Trail
                       British Woodland Trees
5. Yew (Taxus baccata)
Distinguishing   • It is an evergreen conifer, small in height (12 – 15 metres) when growing in a
features:          wood but individuals may grow to 20 metres tall.
                 • Yew trees are conical or rounded in outline and spread out to a great width.
                 • The bark is reddish-brown or grey with peeling red strips.
                 • In old trees the trunk can be over ten metres in circumference.
                 • The leaves are small flattened dark-green needles arranged spirally around the
                   twig.
                 • Male cones are small yellow spheres on the underside of leaf sprays. They produce
                   masses of pollen in February.
                 • Female cones are very small and green. They are wind-pollinated.
                 • The seed develops within a bright red cup (called the aril) that resembles a berry.
                 • The seeds are dispersed by birds, especially blackbirds and thrushes, which are
                   attracted to the fleshy red arils.

Habitat:         • Yew is native to chalk downs in southern England, limestone areas elsewhere and
                   in oak woods on other soils.
                 • It is very common in parks and ornamental gardens and is widely planted for
                   hedging and topiary.

Fascinating      • The dense mass of leaves means that nothing grows below the tree.
facts:
                 • All parts of the plant, except the red aril, are poisonous.
                 • Yew is very long-living. Many ancient trees are over a thousand years old.
                 • It has the capacity to regenerate. As a yew ages, the heartwood rots and it
                   becomes hollow. At the same time branches begin to grow down towards the
                   ground eventually taking root. In this way a circle of new trees grows up around
                   the old dying tree. Because of this the yew became a symbol of everlasting life.
                 • Yews as important symbolic trees pre-date the Christian era. Pre-Christian burial
                   sites were often topped with yews to ward off evil spirits. Early Christian churches
                   were built on pagan sites often including a yew tree. The wood is fine-grained,
                   hard yet springy, and very long-lasting. Because of its strength and springy nature,
                   it was used to make longbows – the weapon of choice before guns. Planting yews
                   in churchyards became a necessity during the long wars with France. The wood
                   was needed for bows and planting them in churchyards meant that grazing
                   animals were safe from the poisonous trees.
                 • Kingley Vale on the South Downs, West Sussex has one of the few remaining yew
                   woods with over 20,000 trees, many of them gnarled and twisted with age.
                 • The Ankerwycke Yew at Runnymeade, Berkshire witnessed the signing of the
                   Magna Carta in 1215 and is thought to be over 1,000 years old. Its trunk has a
                   diameter of nine metres and it grows in the grounds of the ruined Priory of
                   Ankerwycke.
                                                                   Tree Trail
                       British Woodland Trees
6. Silver Birch (Betula pendula)
Distinguishing   • It is a small deciduous tree that can grow to a height of 30 metres.
features:        • It has a narrow straight trunk and slender branches with hanging or ‘weeping’
                   fine twigs.
                 • The bark is very distinctive. It is a shiny red-brown when young maturing to a
                   silvery-white, and sheds in papery strips. It stands out in the gloomiest of forests.
                 • It produces a mass of triangular-shaped leaves in April. The long leaf stalks allow
                   them to twist and flutter in the wind.
                 • Male flowers develop during autumn and by March have developed into long
                   dangling catkins releasing pollen into the wind.
                    Female flowers are small and appear in April with the emerging leaves. They are
                    wind pollinated.
                 • The seeds are produced in a cone-like structure. This false cone gradually
                   disintegrates during the autumn to release tiny winged seeds.

Habitat:         • It is native to all parts of Britain especially on light soils and shallow peat.
                 • It is abundant on heaths, boggy moorland, hillsides, gravelly soils and where
                   woodland has been cleared of mature trees.
                 • Birch is often the first tree to colonise an area of poor soil or stony ground.
                 • It often grows as an understorey tree in oak or beech woodlands.
                 • It is often planted in parks, gardens and along roads.

Fascinating      • Pollen records show that birch was one of the first trees to become established in
facts:             Britain after the last Ice Age.
                 • Many birch trees appear to have large nests in their branches. These untidy,
                   tangles of twigs are a growth deformity caused either by a fungus or a tiny mite
                   and are known as ‘witches’ brooms’.
                 • Birch twigs are cut and bundled to make ‘besoms’ – natural brooms of the sort
                   that witches are supposed to fly around on.
                 • The wood is traditionally used for making carts, packing cases, and in the textile
                   trade for cotton reels, spools and bobbins.
                 • Birch bark is used for tanning certain types of leather.
                                                                  Tree Trail
                        British Woodland Trees
7. Holly (Ilex aquifolium)
Distinguishing   • It is a small evergreen tree growing to fifteen metres tall. It usually grows as a
features:          conical-shaped shrub, three to five metres tall in the shade of larger trees,
                   especially in oak woods.
                 • It is identified by its leaves, which are glossy and dark green with wavy margins
                   extending into long prickles.
                 • Trees are either male or female.
                 • Male and female flowers are similar, both are small with four white petals and
                   scented to attract insects for pollination.
Habitat:         • Female flowers develop into clusters of bright red berries by late November.
                 • Each berry contains four seeds, which are dispersed in the droppings of birds.

                 • It is native to all areas of Britain except northern Scotland, and the Orkney and
                   Shetland islands.
                 • It is an understorey tree in oak and beech woods.
                 • It has been planted extensively in parks, gardens and hedges, particularly for its
                   winter berries.

Fascinating      • The prickles discourage most animals from grazing. On higher branches, the
facts:             leaves have virtually no spines.
                 • It is a popular Christmas decoration with its bright red berries on dark leaves.
                 • 'Holm' is an old name for holly and is seen in place names such as Holmwood and
                   Holmsdale.
                 • Freshly cut holly is an excellent firewood as it burns fiercely. Oils found in the thick
                   skin of the leaves produce an inflammable vapour when heated which causes
                   them to ignite easily. Unfortunately, this means that holly can be destroyed easily
                   in forest fires.
                 • Its white fine-grained hard wood is used for decorative carved pieces. It has even
                   been dyed black and used as a substitute for ebony for black piano keys.
                 • Its most important use is as winter feed for sheep.
                                                                   Tree Trail
                        British Woodland Trees
8. Hawthorn (Quickthorn, May) (Crataegus monogyna)
Distinguishing   • It is a small deciduous tree, growing up to 15 metres tall in the open, but less as
features:          an understorey tree in oak woods.
                 • It can be identified by its thorny branches, though there are fewer thorns higher
                   up as the braches are out of the reach of browsing animals.
                 • It has distinctive white blossom with a strong musty scent that traditionally
                   appears in May.
                 • Red berries (haws) develop from July and last well into winter when they are a
                   vital source of food for birds.

Habitat:         • It is native to all lowland areas of Britain.
                 • It thrives on moist soils and in open habitats such as hillsides, neglected pastures
                   and wasteland.
                 • It is a typical understorey tree in oak woods.
                 • It is the most widely planted tree as a hedge plant.

Fascinating      • It has been used for over 2,000 years as a naturally barbed fencing.
facts:           • The blossom is known as 'May'; it was made into garlands for the top of maypoles
                   on May Day.
                 • It is unlucky to bring the blossom indoors; doing so indicates a death in the family.
                   The origins of this lies in the scent. One of the chemicals that makes the scent is
                   the same as that produced from rotting corpses, giving May 'the smell of death'.
                   This superstition probably dates from the time of the Great Plague.
                 • Hawthorn trees in the open are thought to give protection in thunderstorms:
                       Beware the oak-
                       It courts the stroke,
                       Beware the ash-
                       It courts the flash,
                       Creep under the thorn-
                       It will save you from harm.
                 • Despite the wood being hard it has few uses except for burning and occasionally
                   being made into tool handles and walking sticks.
                                                                      Tree Trail
                         British Woodland Trees
9. Lime (Linden) (Tilia)
The lime tree you are most likely to see is the common lime (Tilia vulgaris or europea), which was
bred by crossing our native lime with the small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata] and the large-leaved lime
(Tilia platyphyllos], a non-native species. Although this seems confusing, both the common lime and
small-leaved lime have similar characteristics.

Distinguishing    • It is a tall, majestic tree, at least 40 metres tall.
features:         • It has a straight trunk, with fairly smooth grey bark, topped by a billowing crown
                    of arching branches.
                  • The leaves are heart-shaped and bright green
                  • It has distinctive flowers that appear by July. The flowers are small, pale and
                    yellow, and grow in clusters of about six or seven attached to a leaf-like stem.
                    They are rich in nectar and have a sweet smell to attract insects, especially bees.
                  • The fruits are small and round. They dry out and fly in the wind, using the
                    leaf-like stems as sails.

Habitat:          • The small-leaved lime is native to mixed woodland throughout England and Wales
                    and as far north as Cumbria. It is not as common as other woodland trees.
                  • The common lime does not occur naturally and is associated with parks, deer
                    parks, avenues and road sides.

Fascinating       • The pollen record shows that the small-leaved lime was once, with oak, our most
facts:              common woodland tree, forming great forests across the south and east of England.
                    It was part of the original wild wood. Its decline as a dominant forest tree remains
                    a scientific mystery. One theory is that because of its many uses Neolithic people
                    were responsible for its decline. A second theory concerns climate change. As the
                    climate became cooler and wetter, lime was unable to make viable seed. The tree
                    only survived because it is spread by suckers (underground rooting stems). It is
                    interesting to note that at the present time of climate warming, some germinating
                    seeds have been found.

                  • As the flowers are so rich in nectar, lime is a favourite of beekeepers for the
                    production of lime honey.

                  • Lime trees were traditionally grown around lunatic asylums.

                  • In the past lime had many uses. Its fibrous bark was used to make rope, the leaves
                    were an important fodder crop and it was coppiced to make poles for fencing,
                    firewood and hurdles for animal pens. It is still a valuable timber as it does not
                    warp. It is used to make furniture and musical instruments.
                                                                 Tree Trail
                        British Woodland Trees
10. Sweet Chestnut (Spanish chestnut) (Castanea sativa)
Distinguishing   • It is a massive, deciduous tree, growing up to 30 metres tall.
features:        • Its huge, thick trunk extends right up into the crown, sending out twisted
                   branches to form a broad leafy dome.
                 • Older trees have distinctive bark - its surface cracks into long fissures which
                   develop a spiral twist giving the impression that the tree has been slowly twisting
                   as it has grown.
                 • The leaves are long, glossy and spear-shaped with serrated edges and appear in
                   April.
                 • Male flowers are on catkins up to 15 centimetres long, which shed their pollen in
                   late June and July.
                 • Small green female flowers are found in the centre of a cluster of catkins.
                 • Pollination is mostly by the wind, but the sweet, musty smell of the catkins also
                   attracts insects.
                 • Sweet chestnut has distinctive fruits. Seeds (chestnuts) develop inside a green spiny
                   case. When they are ripe (in October), the coat splits and peels back.
                 • Seed dispersal relies on animals such as squirrels and jays that collect the seeds and
                   bury them as insurance against winter shortages and then forget them.

Habitat:         • It grows best on deep well-drained soils.
                 • It is most abundant in south east England, in woods mixed with oak, or coppiced
                   with oaks as standards.
                 • It is also widely distributed in parks and landscaped estates.

Fascinating      • Sweet chestnut is not strictly a native tree. It was probably introduced by the
facts:             Romans because the nuts were a good source of food. However it has become
                   naturalised and now occurs in woodland throughout Britain.
                 • Roast chestnuts are still a popular food associated with Bonfire Night and
                   Christmas.
                 • Trees produce a large volume of timber but the wood tends to crack and split as it
                   dries. It does not rot easily so its main outdoor use is for garden furniture and
                   fencing and it is also used for coffins.
                 • It is long-living (500 years or more). With age the tree becomes grotesquely
                   misshapen with a gigantic thick trunk, often partly hollow, and huge twisted
                   branches which may touch the ground.
                 • Ancient chestnuts are a feature of a number of parks such as Greenwich Park in
                   south London where chestnuts date from the reign of Charles II. Kew Gardens also
                   has numerous old chestnuts.
                 • The Spanish chestnuts at Croft Castle, Herefordshire, form an avenue stretching
                   one kilometre to the castle. Stories suggest that the nuts that grew into the trees
                   came from the wrecks of the Spanish Armada in 1592.
                                                                   Tree Trail
                        British Woodland Trees
11. Wild Cherry (Gean) (Prunus avium)
Distinguishing   • It is a small deciduous tree, 15 to 20 metres tall, though old trees may be taller.
features:        • Young trees have a straight trunk and symmetrical conical crown. Older trees are
                   more irregular in silhouette.
                 • It has a distinctive red-brown almost shiny bark with horizontal lines of lenticels
                   (air holes). The bark peels in ribbons as the tree ages.
                 • Flower clusters appear in April.
                 • Each flower has five heart-shaped petals. The flowers produce a fragrant scent to
                   attract bees and other pollinating insects.
                 • Bitter-tasting cherry fruits are glossy yellow, turning bright red in July. Each fruit
                   contains one seed inside a hard stone surrounded by the fleshy fruit. The seeds
                   are dispersed in bird droppings.

Habitat:         • It is native to all parts of Britain, especially on clay and over or near chalk.
                 • It grows as an understorey tree in open woods, around the edges of woods and
                   in hedgerows.
                 • It is a common tree in parks and gardens.

Fascinating      • Cherry stones found in Bronze Age settlements suggest that the fruit has been
facts:             food for humans for thousands of years.
                 • Wild cherry is the ancestor (together with the sour cherry - Prunus cerasus) of the
                   cultivated sweet cherry.
                 • The tree exudes a gum if the bark is damaged, this seals the wound protecting the
                   tree from insects and fungal diseases.
                 • Cherry wood is hard, fine-grained and red-brown in colour. It can be carved and
                   takes on a high polish. It is used for decorative panelling, cabinets and musical
                   instruments.
                 • It makes good firewood, burning with the fragrance of the blossom.
                                                                  Tree Trail
                        British Woodland Trees
12. Alder (Alnus glutinosa)
Distinguishing   • It is a small deciduous tree, growing to a height of 20 metres or more in ideal
features:          conditions where the soil is very damp. On drier soils it grows as a bush.
                 • It has a tall, straight trunk with a rough, blackish bark, slightly droopy fine
                   branches and a narrow, conical shape.
                 • The leaves are round with an indent at the tip. They remain green long after the
                   leaves of other trees have fallen.
                 • Male flowers occur in long catkins (five centimetres) appearing early in the year
                   (from February). These produce masses of pollen when shaken by the wind.
                 • The female flowers are small (five millimetres) and insignificant. After pollination,
                   they develop into green rounded cone-like structures.
                 • By autumn, the seed-bearing false cones have become barrel-shaped and woody
                   and are dark brown or black in colour. They gradually disintegrate to release small
                   winged seeds that are dispersed by wind or float on rivers.

Habitat:         • Alder is most abundant in low-lying, poorly drained areas.
                 • It grows best in moist soil, by rivers, on bogs and swampy areas.
                 • It often grows with silver birch and in wetter oak woods.
                 • Natural dense alder woods are now confined to the fens of East Anglia and
                   around the lakes that make up the Norfolk Broads.
                 • Alder may be planted along river banks, ornamental lakes and also along
                   roadsides.

Fascinating      • In winter, alder is often mistaken for a deciduous conifer. This is partly because of
facts:             its shape and partly because the empty black seed cones remain on the tree.
                 • The masses of seeds produced attract flocks of birds, especially migratory birds
                   such as siskin and redpoll. Where seeds fall into water they provide valuable food
                   for ducks.
                 • The timber is a hard wood that is durable in water. It was used for submerged
                   piles and supports. It is said that Venice was built on alder wood piles.
                 • Before the use of coal, alder was coppiced to produce small timber for making
                   charcoal, especially for metal working and for making gunpowder.
                 • Traditionally alder wood was used for the soles of clogs as worn in Lancashire.
                                                           Tree Trail
                              Fascinating Facts
Now that you have identified all the trees on the trail, see if you can match the
following ‘fascinating facts’ to the right tree. There are two facts for each tree. Some
you will know or have learnt from your observations, others you will have to guess
or look up later.

1.    The wood is tough and elastic and used to make sports equipment such as oars
      and hockey sticks.

2.    The wood of this tree is one of the strongest and most durable in the world.
      Historically it has been used to build warships.

3.    This tree has red fruits known as ‘haws’.

4.    This tree can have spiky and/or variegated leaves.

5.    This tree has the hardest wood of any tree in Europe. It is used to make the
      moving parts of pianos and butchers’ chopping blocks.

6.    The fruits of this tree are edible and are often roasted or made into purees.

7.    This tree has upward sweeping branches.

8.    Tea made from the flowers of this tree is supposed to make you sleep.

9.    This tree has adapted well to city life; it sheds its bark to remove dirt and grime.

10.   The fruits of this tree are known as ‘keys’.

11.   This tree has been used for at least 2000 years as natural barbed fencing.

12.   In old trees, the furrowed bark twists from the vertical into a spiral.

13.   This tall tree has heart-shaped leaves.

14.   This tree is associated with Christmas.

15.   The fruit is a knobbly green globe which stays on the tree throughout winter.
                 Tree Trail answer sheet
Name                                                  Date



 Tree   Common name   Deciduous or   Seed dispersal          Fascinating facts
        Latin name    Evergreen      Wind or animal




 A




 B




 c




 D




 E




 F




 G
         Tree Trail
Tree A




Tree B




Tree C




Tree D
         Tree Trail
Tree E




Tree F




Tree G
                                         Tree Trail


                                                  Palm
                                                  House

                    ALK
                RY W
            CHER
Temperate
  House
                              TA
                        DA VIS
                   PAGO




                                             Victoria Gate
                                                & Plaza

                                  ROAD
                            KEW                  metres
                                         0                   300

				
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