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					                                                                       Contents




               Executive Summary                                                  3
           1   Introduction                                                       5
           2   Policy Context                                                     7
                      National Guidance                                           7
                      The Regional Spatial Strategy                               9
                      The North Devon Local Plan                                 10
           3   Design Standards and Schemes                                      15
                     South West Sustainability Checklist                         15
                     Building for Life                                           16
                     Lifetime Homes                                              17
                     Secured by Design                                           18
                     Construction Skills Certification Scheme                    19
           4   The Application Requirements                                      20
                     Code for Sustainable Homes                                  21
                     BREEAM                                                      22
                     Renewable Energy                                            22
           5   Achieving a Rating                                                24
                      Code Categories and Scores                                 24
           6   Sustainable Design and the Developer                              27
                      Benefits to the Developer                                  27
                      Code for Sustainable Homes Cost Implications               28
           7   Master Planning                                                   31
                     Distributed Energy                                          31
                     Speculative Developments                                    33
               Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist                  34
               Appendix 2 - Building for Life                                    40
               Appendix 3 - Lifetime Homes                                       42
               Appendix 4 - Secured by Design                                    44
               Appendix 5 - Sustainable Design Assessment Process                47
               Appendix 6 - Energy                                               48
               Appendix 7 - Water and Surface Water Run-Off                      54
               Appendix 8 - Materials, Waste and Pollution                       58
               Appendix 9 - Health and Wellbeing                                 62
               Appendix 10 - Natural Features and Biodiversity                   67



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council
 Contents




     Appendix 11 - Illustrative Examples                               70
     Appendix 12 - References and Sources of Information               72




North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                  Executive Summary




          Executive Summary
          Under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act (2004) this draft planning guidance
          is intended for adoption as a Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) within the Local
          Development Framework (LDF) for North Devon in order to supplement policies in the
          adopted North Devon Local Plan 1995-2011.

          The following SPD contains information which will inform home-owners, developers
          and planning officers on methods with which to minimise the impact that development
          has on the environment. It focuses on the design of residential development, although
          it is equally applicable to non-residential sustainable design.

          Sections 2 and 3 set out the current national, regional and local planning context and
          introduces the current non-technical design standards to which development should
          aspire. Guidance covers the raising of standards through sustainable spatial planning;
          improving social well-being and quality of life through design excellence; accessibility
          and good space requirements. It also considers community safety and crime prevention.

          Sections 4, 5 and 6 provide specific guidance on the Code for Sustainable Homes and
          the Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)
          technical assessments. The requirements for submitting a planning application and
          technical assessment procedures are defined in order to enable developers to deliver
          designs which are capable of achieving the prerequisite scores. The benefits of
          sustainable design for developers and homeowners are presented, along with recent
          research on cost implications and viability. Section 7 deals with master planning and
          the integration of large scale distributed energy schemes within major development.

          The technical appendices each deal with a specific theme of sustainable design and
          set out the relationship between Local Plan Policy, Building Regulations and the Code
          for Sustainable Homes. Each appendix contains guidance on technical standards,
          specifications, and enabling actions with advice and sources of further information.

          In accordance with Government guidance (PPS12: Local Development Frameworks),
          the document has been prepared alongside a Sustainability Appraisal and Strategic
          Environmental Assessment. The SPD has been appraised in accordance with the
          indicators from the Sustainability Appraisal Framework for North Devon identified within
          the sustainability scoping report for this development document. A copy of this document
          has been published separately.

          Draft Guidance was subject to a six-week statutory formal consultation period from
          15th October 2009 to 26th November 2009 in order to take account of the views of a
          wide range of organisations, individuals and other stakeholders. All representations
          received can be viewed online or by request to the Council.




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 3
   Executive Summary




  All representations received on time and relevant to this document were considered
  by the Council and changes made where appropriate before it was finally adopted in
  January 2010, as a Supplementary Planning Document within the Local Development
  Framework for North Devon.

  If you have any questions regarding this document please contact:

  Mark Saunders, Planning Policy Team, North Devon Council, Civic Centre,
  BARNSTAPLE,

  Devon, EX31 1EA

  Email: Ldf@northdevon.gov.uk

  Tel: (01271) 388392 or 388413




4 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                                  Introduction            1




          1 Introduction
          The purpose of this document is to supplement policies DVS1 and DVS1A of the
          adopted North Devon Local Plan as set out in section 2.3. These policies deal with
          sustainable design and construction and aspects of form. This guide provides detailed
          advice on how the planning authority will expect and encourage developers to enhance
          their planning applications and to help applicants provide the information needed to
          satisfy the requirements of these policies.

          The guide seeks to provide greater clarity for all users of the planning system such that
          the desired ‘step change’ in sustainable design and construction can be achieved.
          This Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) clarifies the complementary roles of
          the planning system and Building Regulations. Specific benefits include:

              Decreased carbon emissions
              Increased security of energy supply
              Potential reduction of energy costs
              Improvement to local air quality by reducing the need to travel, especially by car,
              and health benefits associated with walking and cycling
              Improved resilience of communities to climate change
              Protection and creation of natural habitats

          There is an increasing drive to minimise the impact that development has on the
          environment. The sustainability agenda has gained increasing momentum and various
          changes to the legislative and policy framework are emerging at national and regional
          level. The document sets out performance-based minimum requirements and provides
          signposts to guidance and assistance in achieving best practice.

          Incorporating sustainable design and construction principles can make a significant
          contribution to the quality of design. Buildings constructed and operated in a sustainable
          way have a number of benefits in economic terms as well as social and environmental
          advantages. This SPD introduces a range of design standards and how they apply,
          but does not prescribe how particular standards should be achieved. These issues
          should be considered at the start of the design process and continue as an integral
          component of work on any development.

          The brief for designers should be to set out a clear description of how sustainability is
          to be addressed referring to the sustainability principles set out in this SPD. An integrated
          holistic approach is needed to develop a scheme for a planning application. Designing
          for sustainability can have significant implications for site layout, form and the aesthetics
          of a building and the spaces in between them.




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 5
1         Introduction




      This SPD should be read in conjunction with other adopted documents forming the
                                                   (1)
      North Devon Local Development Framework (LDF). The LDF is a collection of Local
      Development Documents (LDDs) outlining how planning will be managed and setting
      the framework for development in the area. The council has adopted a number of SPDs
      since the North Devon Local Plan was adopted in July 2006. Most significantly the
                                                                          (2)
      adopted Guidance on the Use of On-Site Renewable Technologies           SPD sets out
      the current thresholds and targets of the associated policies.




      1    www.northdevon.gov.uk/ldf
      2    www.northdevon.gov.uk/adopted_onsite_renewable_spd_19may2008.pdf



    6 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                                  Policy Context               2




          2 Policy Context
          National Guidance
          2.1 The Government has set out its policy approach to future energy requirements
                                    (3)
          in the Energy White Paper ‘Meeting the Energy Challenge’ (2007). The White Paper
          aims to put the UK on a path to cut its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by some 60%
          by 2050, with real progress by 2020, and to maintain reliable and competitive energy
          supplies.
                                                                   (4)
          2.2 The Planning & Compulsory Purchase Act               (2004) sets out for the first time
          the duty of planning authorities towards sustainability. Section 39 requires that regional
          planning bodies and local planning authorities (LPAs) “have a statutory duty when
          preparing the regional spatial strategy and local development documents to exercise
          their functions with the objective of contributing to the achievement of sustainable
          development.”
                                                                                                 (5)
          2.3 Planning Policy Statement (PPS)1: Delivering Sustainable Development (2005)
          translates the Act into practical guidance and makes it a specific requirement for LPAs
          to pursue the five aims of sustainable development set out in 'Securing the Future', the
          UK's Sustainable Development Strategy. The opening paragraphs of PPS1 state:


              “Sustainable development is the core principle underpinning planning. At the heart
              of sustainable development is the simple idea of ensuring a better quality of life
              for everyone, now and for future generations.” (para 3)

              “Planning policies should promote high-quality inclusive design in the layout of
              new developments and individual buildings in terms of function and impact, not
              just for the short term but over the lifetime of the development.” (para 13)

              “Key objectives should include ensuring that developments are sustainable, durable
              and adaptable (including taking account of natural hazards such as flooding) and
              make efficient and prudent use of resources”. (para 36)

                                                                                                 (6)
          2.4 The Government’s supplement to PPS1: Planning and Climate Change (2007)
          expects Development Plan Documents (DPDs) to set policies on the provision of low
          carbon development. Where there are demonstrable and locally specific opportunities
          for requiring higher levels of building performance these should be set out in a DPD,


          3     http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file39387.pdf
          4     http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts2004/ukpga_20040005_en_1
          5     http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/planningpolicystatement1.pdf
          6     http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/ppsclimatechange.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 7
2         Policy Context




      for example where there is a significant local opportunity for development to be delivered
      at higher levels of the Code for Sustainable Homes. "Any requirement must be fair and
      reasonable and, in particular, not restrict those with responsibility for providing energy
      to new development, or the occupiers, to any one energy provider in perpetuity".
                                               (7)
      2.5 PPS 22: Renewable Energy          (2004) sets out a broad scope for renewable
      energy policy. This document states that:


          “Local planning authorities and developers should consider the opportunity for
          incorporating renewable energy projects in all new developments. Small scale
          renewable energy schemes utilising technologies such as solar panels, Biomass
          heating, small scale wind turbines, photovoltaic cells and combined heat and power
          schemes can be incorporated both into new developments and some existing
          buildings. Local planning authorities should specifically encourage such schemes
          through positively expressed policies in local development documents.”

          (Paragraph 18 of PPS22)

                                                                  (8)
      2.6 The Government’s ‘Building a Greener Future' (2007) states “Our key goal is
      to achieve zero carbon new homes within a decade”. The paper indicates that the
      Government’s commitment to building more new homes represents a real opportunity
      to do things differently. A timetable for the progressive tightening of environmental
      standards over the next decade will also provide certainty for business, driving innovation
      in the market and reducing costs of technologies. By developing new homes to low
      and zero carbon standards on a large scale, renewable technologies and innovation
      can be promoted which will help drive down emissions from the existing stock too.
                                                                   (9)
      2.7 The Government's ‘Code for Sustainable Homes’ (2008) is a voluntary standard
      designed to improve the overall sustainability of new homes by setting a single
      framework within which the home building industry can design and construct homes
      to higher environmental standards. The Code measures the sustainability of a home
      against nine design categories, rating the ‘whole home’ as a complete package. From
      May 2008 a rating against the Code is mandatory and homes that are not assessed
      will have a nil-rated certificate produced by the seller of property and included in the
      Home Information Pack (HIP). The Code also encourages renewable energy generation
      and awards credits based on its integration in new development. The phasing for the
      integration of the energy component of the Code into Building Regulations is set out
      below:



      7     http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/147444.pdf
      8     http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/153125.pdf
      9     www.communities.gov.uk/thecode



    8 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                                  Policy Context               2




          Date                                           2010             2013              2016

          Carbon Improvement over Part L 25%                              44%               Carbon Zero
          2006

          Equivalent Energy Standard in the Code Level 3 Code Level 4 Code Level 6
          Code

          Table 1: Code for Sustainable Homes Implementation

          2.8 More focused policy context is available from a range of PPS, including those
          on sustainable development in rural areas (PPS7), biodiversity (PPS9), waste (PPS10),
          renewable energy (PPS22), pollution control including SUDS (PPS23) and flooding
          (PPS25).

          The Regional Spatial Strategy
                                                                                                        (10)
          2.9 Policy RE5 of the draft revised Regional Spatial Strategy for the South West
          (2008) incorporating proposed changes requires major developments to provide
          sufficient on site renewable energy production to reduce overall energy use in new
          development by 10%.


               ‘Local Planning Authorities should set targets in their DPDs for the energy to be
               used in new development to come from decentralised and renewable or low-carbon
               energy sources where its feasible and viable, and the development thresholds to
               which such targets would apply. In the interim, before targets are set in DPDs at
               least 10% of the energy to be used in new development of more than 10 dwellings
               or 1000m2 of non-residential floorspace should come from decentralised and
               renewable or low-carbon sources, unless, having regard to the type of development
               involved and its design this is not feasible or viable.’




          10     http://gosw.limehouse.co.uk/portal/regional_strategies/drss?pointId=109242#document-109242



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 9
2    Policy Context




    2.10      Policy G of the draft revised spatial strategy states that;


         ‘Local Planning Authorities should promote best practice in sustainable construction
         and help to achieve the national timetable for reducing carbon emissions from
         residential and non-residential buildings. This will include:

             consideration of how all aspects of development form can contribute to securing
             high standards of energy and water efficiency
             the use of sustainable drainage systems to minimise flood risk, manage surface
             water and encourage natural drainage and ground water recharge where
             appropriate
             designing for flexible use and adaptation to reflect changing lifestyles and
             needs and the principle of ‘whole life costing’.

         There will be situations where it could be appropriate for local planning authorities
         to anticipate higher levels of building sustainability in advance of those set out
         nationally, for identified development area or site-specific opportunities. When
         proposing any local requirements for sustainable buildings, local planning authorities
         must be able to demonstrate clearly the local circumstances that warrant and allow
         this and set them out in Development Plan Documents.’



    The North Devon Local Plan
                                               (11)
    2.11 The North Devon Local Plan         (2006) contains a series of policies relating to
    sustainable design and construction in new residential and commercial developments.

    2.12      POLICY DVS1A - Sustainable Development


         “Commercial and industrial developments of 500 square metres (gross) or more
         floorspace, and residential developments of at least 10 dwellings, will only be
         permitted where they incorporate the appropriate sustainable principles set out in
         table 2a.”




    11     http://www.northdevon.gov.uk/index/lgcl_environment/lgcl_planning/nonlgcl_planning_policy/
           nonlgcl_local_plan/nonlgcl_local_plan_contents.htm



10 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                        Policy Context             2




          TABLE 2A : PRINCIPLES TO BE ADDRESSED IN SUSTAINABILITY
          ASSESSMENT

          Sustainable    1.   Promoting energy efficiency in accordance with Policy DVS1
          Design              by:-

                              addressing orientation and layout to maximise solar gain;
                              adopting appropriate built forms;
                              minimising energy consumption through, for example, energy
                              efficient heating and lighting systems and insulation;
                              taking account of micro-climatic factors and providing wind
                              shelter belts.

                         2.   Promoting sustainable transport choices in the form of walking,
                              cycling and public transport in accordance with Policy TRA1A.
                         3.   Increasing safety and reducing the risk of crime through
                              appropriate design and layout in accordance with Policy DVS1.
                         4.   Minimising the consumption and discharge of water and sewage
                              by promoting the management and recycling of water and use
                              of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems in accordance with
                              Policy DVS7.
                         5.   Maximising the efficient use of land and buildings in accordance
                              with Policy HSG5.
                         6.   Reducing the use of fossil fuels by incorporating renewable
                              energy, heating or power systems in new major developments
                              in accordance with Policy ECN15.
                         7.   Minimising waste by providing appropriate facilities for the reuse
                              and recycling of materials including composting in accordance
                              with the Devon Waste Local Plan.
                         8.   Promoting health and wellbeing through the design and
                              operation of buildings and ensure they are capable of being
                              adapted to meet changing lifestyles.


          Sustainable    9.  Ensuring important natural features and the biodiversity of an
          Construction       area are protected during construction in accordance with
                             Policies ENV8 and ENV12.
                         10. Maximising the reuse of previously developed land and existing
                             buildings in accordance with Policy HSG1.




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 11
2    Policy Context




     TABLE 2A : PRINCIPLES TO BE ADDRESSED IN SUSTAINABILITY
     ASSESSMENT

                       11. Minimising the generation of waste through its reuse and
                           recycling during demolition and construction in accordance with
                           the Devon Waste Local Plan.
                       12. Using locally sourced and sustainable materials and low
                           embodied energy products wherever possible.


    Table 2: Local Plan Policy DVS1A - Table 2A

    The supporting text clarifies how the policy will be interpreted by stating:


      “Proposals must be accompanied by a Sustainability Assessment that should
      include sufficient detail to demonstrate which sustainable design and construction
      principles have been addressed and how they have been incorporated within the
      development in a manner appropriate to the scale and type of development
      proposed. Major development proposals involving 50 or more dwellings or with a
                                     2
      floorspace of at least 1000m should include a quantified assessment incorporating
      Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methods (BREEAM)
      and will be expected to achieve a rating of at least ‘Good’”.


    2.13   POLICY DVS1 – Design


      ‘A development proposal will be permitted where it applies the aspects of
      development form to achieve the identified design principles as set out in Table
      2B. A proposal which does not use appropriate development forms or would
      otherwise conflict with the design principles set out in Table 2B will not be permitted.’




12 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                            Policy Context       2




           POLICY DVS1 (DESIGN) : TABLE 2B

           Design Principles               Character
                                           Continuity and Enclosure
                                           Quality of the Public Realm
                                           Ease of Movement
                                           Legibility
                                           Adaptability
                                           Diversity
                                           Efficiency
                                           Crime Reduction
                                           Energy Efficiency

           Aspects of Development          Layout : Urban Structure and Grain
           Form                            Density and Mix
                                           Scale : Height and Massing
                                           Appearance : Details and Materials

          Table 3: Local Plan Policy DVS1 - Table 2B

          The supporting text clarifies how the policy will be interpreted by stating:


            ‘Full and reserved matters applications other than of a very minor nature should
            be accompanied by a Design Statement. Both the Design Statement and
            Sustainability Assessment required by DVS1A should complement each other.
            Innovative design will be supported where they meet the ‘Design Principles’ and
            ‘Aspects of Development Form’.


          2.14   POLICY ECN15 – Renewable Energy


            “Major employment and retail developments of 1000 square metres (gross) or
            more floorspace, and residential developments of 50 dwellings or more will be
            required to incorporate renewable energy generation to provide at least 15% of
            predicted energy requirements. Housing schemes below the threshold but of a
            significant size will be expected to incorporate renewable energy generation where
            feasible and viable”.




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 13
2    Policy Context




    The supporting text clarifies how the policy will be interpreted by stating:


         “A ‘significant’ size housing scheme will include proposals in the order of at least
         20 dwellings”.


    2.15 In view of changing Government policy and targets for sustainable design the
    adopted Guidance on the Use of Onsite Renewable Technologies Supplementary
                           (12)
    Planning Document           (June 2008) sets out revised targets and thresholds for Policy
    DVS1A and ECN15. Major development proposals, including conversions involving 10
                                                               2
    or more dwellings or with a floorspace of at least 500m will now be expected to meet
    a Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methods (BREEAM)
    rating of Good in line with the thresholds in Policy DVS1A. Major residential development
    will now be assessed against the Code for Sustainable Homes, and the target is
    reinterpreted as Code Level 3.

    2.16    There is now sufficient evidence to demonstrate that provision of on-site
    renewable energy from developments, including conversions of 10 or more dwellings
    is considered both feasible and viable, without representing an undue burden. The
    interpretation of ‘a significant size' scheme requiring 15% on-site renewable energy is
                                                                                    2
    lowered to all developments of at least 10 dwellings or floorspace of 1000m . This
    lower threshold is in line with that for Policy RE5 of the RSS.
                                                           (13)
    2.17 Appeal decision APP/X1118/A/08/2078991                 has upheld the requirement for
    sustainable design details to be submitted as an integral part of a planning application
    rather than to be dealt with by condition. The decision notice states that 'to grant
    consent for proposals with unknown consequences would be to pose additional,
    unnecessary, risks.............while to grant permission for a scheme with an insufficiently
    detailed assessment would not meet the sustainability requirements of Policy DVS1A'.




    12     www.northdevon.gov.uk/adopted_onsite_renewable_spd_19may2008.pdf
    13     http://www.pcs.planningportal.gov.uk/pcsportal/fscdav/
           READONLY?OBJ=COO.2036.300.12.606660&NAME=/Decision..pdf



14 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                Design Standards and Schemes                         3




          3 Design Standards and Schemes
          3.1 This guidance assumes that existing Local Plan policies cover the crucial first
          step of site allocation in a sustainable location. Issues relating to location, land-use
          and transport are crucial in determining the acceptability in principle of a development
          proposal. Development will be required to undergo the sequential test in order to
          promote the location of new development centrally and to reduce the need to travel
          by car. Sustainable patterns of development will also seek to maximise the use of
          previously developed land, attain suitably high densities and improve accessibility to
          services. A central theme to this form of development is enabling opportunities for
          walking, cycling and public transport while discouraging the use of the private car.

          3.2 Policy DVS1 sets out the design and development principles that are essential
          to create successful places. While it is accepted that minor development may not be
          able to incorporate every principle in Table 2B, developers are expected to show how
          their design exceeds standard practice. Development enhanced through the following
          national and regional schemes is also encouraged in all but minor developments.

          3.3 There are several standards and schemes which relate to the wider sustainability
          benefits of a site and the social and economic factors of the design. The most important
          of these are the South West Sustainability Checklist, Building for Life, Lifetime Homes,
          Secured by Design and the, Construction Skills Certification Scheme (CSCS). All
          development will be required to demonstrate how the appropriate standards have been
          integrated into the design at application submission.

          3.4 This SPD does not seek to reproduce the advice in these documents, but to
          provide the context for North Devon and identify where there are opportunities for
          requiring higher levels of building performance. This guide also seeks to provide the
          mechanism through which the objective expressed in the emerging RSS of ‘making
          sustainable design the norm’ can be achieved.

          South West Sustainability Checklist
          3.5 Developed by Future Foundations and Building Research Establishment (BRE)
          to guide the design of new developments, the South West Sustainability Checklist
          covers regionally specific sustainability and planning issues, emphasising those of
          higher priority. The Checklist complements the Code for Sustainable Homes by looking
          at issues relevant to the overall development scale. The tool identifies a range of
          sustainability issues covered in the Regional Spatial Strategy enabling users to assess
          to what extent a design proposal will deliver on each issue. The main headings are:

              Climate Change and Energy
              Community
              Place Making



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 15
3    Design Standards and Schemes




         Buildings
         Transport and Movement
         Ecology
         Resources
         Business

    3.6 The Checklist is intended for use at the design and planning application stages
    of a new development. It focuses on the sustainability issues pertinent to spatial
    planning, although it does address those construction and “in-use” issues that can be
    anticipated or influenced at the design phase. Prior to submitting an outline or full
    planning application, a developer can check whether the design meets their own and
    their client’s sustainability requirements. They can then reassess the design if required
    so that the issues can be considered as an integral part of the design process, rather
    than trying to add “bolt ons” at a later stage. Strengths and weaknesses relating to
    regional policy will also be apparent prior to the planning application.

    3.7 We encourage applicants to utilise the checklist and integrate the principles in
    all major development. The South West Sustainability Checklist can be found at
    www.checklistsouthwest.co.uk and is summarised in Appendix 1.

    Building for Life
    3.8    Building for Life is the national standard for well-designed homes and
    neighbourhoods. It is led by the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment
    (CABE) and Home Builders Federation (HBF) and backed by the Homes and
    Communities Agency (HCA), the Civic Trust and Design for Homes. Good quality
    housing design can improve social wellbeing and quality of life by reducing crime,
    improving public health, easing transport problems and increasing property values.
    Building for Life promotes design excellence and celebrates best practice in the house
    building industry.

    3.9 The Building for Life standard is made up of 20 criteria that embody the vision
    of what housing developments should be: functional, attractive and sustainable. These
                                              (14)                        (15)
    principles are based on PPS3 Housing           and CABE's By Design       . The criteria
    provide a valuable framework to help LPAs assess the quality of a proposed
    development. Recognising the usefulness of the Building for Life approach, the HCA
    requires proposals for development on their land to achieve 14 of the 20 criteria at the
    tender disposal stage. The HCA also requires “rural and street-fronted infill” schemes
    to meet a minimum of 10 of 20 criteria, and all other schemes to meet 12 out of the 20.




    14   www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/planningpolicystatement3.pdf
    15   www.cabe.org.uk/files/by-design-urban-design-in-the-planning-system.pdf



16 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                     Design Standards and Schemes                      3




          3.10 North Devon Council recommend that all new major housing schemes carry
          out a Building for Life assessment prior to submission of a planning application. An
          assessment should explain how your scheme addresses each of the 20 criteria. You
          can do an informal assessment or arrange an accredited assessment. North Devon
          Council will require all applicants to demonstrate how they meet a specific Building for
          Life standard as set out in the submitted application. All major development of 10 or
          more dwellings will be encouraged to achieve at least 14 of the 20 criteria and achieve
          a rating of at least “good”. The ratings achieved by all major developments will be
          reported on in North Devon Council's Annual Monitoring Report (AMR).

          3.11      The Building for Life criteria and guidance can be found at
          www.buildingforlife.org/criteria and is summarised in Appendix 2.

          Lifetime Homes
          3.12 Lifetime Homes is the national strategy for housing in an ageing society.
          Households where the main householder is aged over 65 years will make up about
          half of projected growth in households by 2026. We must therefore plan for homes and
          communities so that people can live out their lives, as long as possible, independently
          and safely with their families and friends among them. Housing is central to health and
          well-being, so services need to be planned and integrated to reflect this. Paragraph
                                                 (16)
          7.49 of the North Devon Local Plan          describes the requirement for a high level of
          housing designed to meet specific mobility needs including a proportion built to the
          Lifetime Homes Standard.

          3.13 The Lifetime Homes Standard is the result of careful study and research by the
                                             (17)
          Joseph Rowntree Foundation.             The design criteria forming the Standard relate to
          interior and exterior features of the home. There are a total of 16 design criteria, each
          valuable in itself, but to achieve the Lifetime Homes Standard a dwelling must
          incorporate all relevant criteria. Wheelchair accessibility was chosen as the benchmark
          for a good space requirement. Good space requirements also help many other people
          – for example, parents with pushchairs and small children, or people carrying bags of
          shopping. Good accessibility helps everyone, not just people who use wheelchairs.

          3.14 The Joseph Rowntree Foundation conducted a comparative study into the cost
          of meeting Building Regulations and Lifetime Home standards. The additional cost of
          building Lifetime Homes ranged from £165 to a maximum of only £545 per dwelling,
                                                                           (18)
          depending on the size, layout and specification of the property.      Lifetime Homes




          16   www.northdevon.gov.uk/index/lgcl_environment/lgcl_planning/
               nonlgcl_planning_policy/nonlgcl_local_plan/nonlgcl_local_plan_contents.htm
          17   www.jrf.org.uk
          18   http://www.lifetimehomes.org.uk/pages/cost.html



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 17
3    Design Standards and Schemes




    bring about many savings and cost benefits in adaptations and flexibility in use as well
    as increasing the marketability of the property. They enable people to remain in their
    own homes for longer helping to promote sustainable communities.

    3.15 Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) has proposed that
    Lifetime Home Standards be mandatory in the Code for Sustainable Homes at level 6
    from 2008, at level 4 from 2010 and level 3 from 2013. All public sector funded housing
    must be built to the standard from 2011. We will encourage all major development to
    deliver at least 10% of a site’s dwellings to Lifetime Homes Standard.

    3.16       The   Lifetime     Homes       Standard      can    be     found     at
    www.lifetimehomes.org.uk/pages/16_lth_standards.html and is summarised in Appendix
    3.

    Secured by Design
    3.17 One of the Government’s key objectives for the planning of new housing is to
    secure high quality sustainable places where people will choose to live. To achieve
    this, the Government recognises that much greater emphasis needs to be placed on
    the quality of design and planning. Designing for community safety is a central part of
    this, and the core principles apply not only to residential but also to other forms of
    development.

    3.18 Secured by Design is a police initiative to encourage the building industry to
    adopt crime prevention measures in the design of developments to assist in reducing
    the opportunity for crime and the fear of crime, creating a safer and more secure
                                          (19)
    environment. Design Against Crime          research shows that Secured by Design can
    result in at least 50% less burglary, 25% less vehicle crime and 25% less criminal
    damage in housing developments. It supports one of the Government's key planning
    objectives ‘the creation of secure, quality places where people wish to live and work’.

    3.19 Through the introduction of appropriate design features that facilitate natural
    surveillance and create a sense of ownership and responsibility for every part of the
    development, criminal and anti-social behaviour within the curtilage or grounds of an
    estate can be deterred. These design features include secure vehicle parking, adequate
    lighting of communal areas, fostering a sense of ownership of the local environment,
    control of access to individual and common curtilages, defensible space, and landscape
    design supporting natural surveillance and safety.

    3.20    ‘Circular 01/06: Guidance on the Changes to the Development Control
            (20)
    System’      states unequivocally that Design and Access Statements for outline and
    detailed planning applications should demonstrate how crime prevention measures


    19   www.designagainstcrime.com/index.php
    20   www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/144854.pdf



18 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                Design Standards and Schemes                        3




          have been considered in the design of the proposal. If adequate crime prevention
          information is not included in the explanation of the design principles applied to the
          amount, layout, scale, landscaping, appearance and context of the development, this
          may hinder the application as crime is a potential adverse economic, social and
          environmental impact of development Secured by Design can be found here
          www.securedbydesign.com and is summarised in Appendix 4.

          Construction Skills Certification Scheme
          3.21 The Construction Skills Certification Scheme (CSCS) is the industry's largest
          scheme and, at present, covers 220 occupations including trades, technical, supervisory
          and management. CSCS cards list the holder’s qualifications and are valid for either
          three or five years. It also shows they have health and safety awareness as all
          cardholders have to pass the appropriate CITB Construction Skills Health and Safety
          Test. Most contractors and clients now demand proof of competence, before allowing
          workers onto their sites, which is provided by a CSCS card.

          3.22 Having an appropriately carded CSCS workforce demonstrates to clients that
          the people who will be on their sites have received the training they need to complete
          their work to a high standard. If more than 75% of your workforce is registered under
          CSCS you may apply for a Gold CSCS Certificate of Commitment and use the
          "Committed to CSCS" logo on your marketing materials, letterheads, vehicles etc. The
          Construction Skills Certification Scheme can be found at www.cscs.uk.com.




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 19
4    The Application Requirements




    4 The Application Requirements
                                                                        (21)
    4.1 North Devon Council’s Validation Checklist           (2008) sets out the design detail
    which must be contained within an application for it to be considered a valid submission.
    Design and Access Statements are documents that explain the design thinking behind
    a planning application. They should show that the applicant has thought carefully about
    how everyone, including disabled people, older people and very young children, will
    be able to use the places they want to build. CABE guidance Design and Access
                (22)
    Statements       states that 'statements can explain the energy performance of buildings
    or whether they meet design standards such as Lifetime Homes or Building for Life
    Standards'. Commitment to the standards described in Chapter 3 will be assessed
    through the Design and Access Statement.

    4.2 Further key documents should set out the sustainability aspirations of the design,
    including stated targets, standards, specifications and techniques. These should
    address all the themes included in this SPD including the specifications to address
    energy hierarchy and carbon emissions associated with the development.

    4.3 Early consultation with the LPA and consultees can help to avoid unnecessary
    and costly delays. Draft statements should be provided as part of any pre-application
    discussions. If planning permission is granted planning conditions may be used to
    secure the provision of sustainable design measures. Such conditions may be imposed
    to allow the LPA to inspect the facility prior to the completion of the development or
    prior to the first use of the development. Non-compliance with such planning conditions
    may invalidate the planning permission and/or result in enforcement action.

    4.4 North Devon Council has produced several guides to assist applicants with
                                                                                          (23)
    preparing and submitting applications. The Guide to Pre-Application Discussions
    has been set out in line with PPS1 and guides applicants through the process to ensure
    that they are aware of the information required as part of their applications. This is
    particularly useful for larger and more complex schemes and can help applicants by
    identifying the information and details that should be submitted with their applications.
                                      (24)
    The Guide to Major Applications        aims to give applicants, their agents and Members
    a better understanding of the process. The guide sets out the six main steps in
    determining major planning applications based on a 'development management'
    approach.




    21   http://www.northdevon.gov.uk/local_list_validation_of_applications.pdf
    22   www.cabe.org.uk/files/design-and-access-statements.pdf
    23   www.northdevon.gov.uk/index/lgcl_council_government_and_democracy/
         lgcl_council_policies_and_plans/nonlgcl_customer_charters/nonlgcl_planning_guide_to_pre_application_discussions.htm
    24   www.northdevon.gov.uk/index/lgcl_council_government_and_democracy/
         lgcl_council_policies_and_plans/nonlgcl_customer_charters/nonlgcl_planning_guide_to_major_applications.htm



20 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                      The Application Requirements                         4




          Code for Sustainable Homes
                                                      (25)
          4.5 The Code for Sustainable Homes          provides detailed guidance for the design
          of residential properties. The Code will become the single national standard for
          sustainable homes, used by home designers and builders as a guide to development,
          and by home buyers to assist in their choice of home.

          4.6 Every residential development of at least 10 new dwellings will be required to
          submit a verified Code for Sustainable Homes Design Stage Assessment in accordance
          with Policy DVS1A. The assessment must demonstrate that the residential development
          will achieve a minimum rating of Code Level 3. This must demonstrate how the proposed
          development has incorporated the principles of sustainable design and construction
          set out by the Codes 9 key areas.

                 Energy and CO2                       Water                        Materials

               Surface Water Run-Off                  Waste                        Pollution

               Health and Wellbeing               Management                       Ecology

          Table 4: Code for Sustainable Home Categories

          4.7 A BRE formatted Pre-Assessment Estimator tool is available to assist developers
          and designers in implementing the Code at the early design stages. This tool requires
          no formal verification or evidence and provides an indication of the potential rating
          achievable under the current design. Areas for improvement will be identified producing
          positive feedback to the design team and enhancing the design iteratively. An accredited
          assessor will continue working with the design team recommending the design
          amendments necessary to achieve a specific score.

          4.8 The Pre-Assessment Estimator tool will be required as part of any major planning
          application (full or outline) to ascertain that high quality design is inherent in the scheme.
          The BRE verified Design Stage assessment will be conditioned for submission at Royal
          Institute of British Architects (RIBA) stage K/L, ‘Operations on Site’ and ‘Completion’
          at the very latest. Normally the assessment will be expected to be compiled during
          RIBA stages A-G.

          4.9 Alternatively, developers may choose to proceed directly to a Post-Construction
          Stage assessment without carrying out a Design Stage assessment. However this
          carries inherent risks that the development may not achieve the desired standard and
          shortfalls will not be identified until post completion. This assessment should be generally
          used to complete the process and establish that all measures contributing to the


          25   www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/code_for_sustainable_homes_techguide.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 21
4    The Application Requirements




    submitted Design Stage assessment score have been implemented. See Appendix 5
    for a process diagram explaining how the assessment process fits in with the various
    design and planning stages.

    BREEAM
    4.10      All commercial developments, including residential conversions and
    refurbishments of 500 square metres or more will be required to submit a verified
    BREEAM Pre-Assessment Estimator or equivalent with a Design Stage assessment
    conditioned for submission prior to occupation. It is widely regarded as a measure of
    best practice in environmental design and management. The BREEAM method covers
    developments of offices, retail units, schools, health care, prisons and industrial units.
    Cases when a development falls outside these building types can be assessed against
    tailored criteria using bespoke BREEAM assessments.

             Management                     Transport                     Waste

         Health and Wellbeing                 Water               Land Use and Ecology

                Energy                      Materials                    Pollution

    Table 5: BREEAM Categories

    4.11 The assessment must demonstrate that the development will achieve a minimum
    rating of BREEAM Good. This must show how the proposed development has
    incorporated the principles of sustainable design and construction set out under the 9
    themes of the assessment process. The application submission process and stages
    of the assessment outlined in paragraph 4.9 also apply to BREEAM assessments for
    commercial developments.

    Renewable Energy
    4.12 Planning applications for residential development of at least 10 dwellings or for
    commercial development of 500 square metres or more will also be required to submit
    an Energy Statement based on the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) or Simplified
    Building Environmental Model (SBEM). This must demonstrate the level of predicted
    energy requirements that have been met through decentralised and on-site generation
    from renewable or low-carbon sources of energy to meet Policy ECN15.

    4.13 The energy statement will need to first clearly explain how the proposed
    development has been designed to minimise its use of energy by taking into account
    siting, shelter planting, internal layout of rooms, insulation, shared heat through party
    walls etc, see Appendix 6.




22 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                    The Application Requirements                       4




          4.14 Once the energy requirements of the development have been established a full
          range of renewable technologies should be assessed in order to provide the required
          15%. Policy ECN15 does not promote particular renewable technologies, but developers
          will be required to explain why chosen technologies are appropriate both for the site
          and in relation to neighbouring land uses. This justification should include the following
          issues.

               Any impact that there may be on neighbouring occupants or upon the character
               of the local environment including visual amenity and noise
               Is the chosen technology viable and feasible within the development’s location?
               The appropriateness and ease of use of the chosen technology by the intended
               occupants
               Issues relating to on-going maintenance
               Financial information should include the likely capital costs to the developer and
               not typical retail values
               Grant provision should also be investigated

          4.15 The BREEAM/Code assessment process provides credits for conducting a
          feasibility assessment and for implementing the findings. The process sets out a clear
          format for the content of the feasibility study and should be carried out at the earliest
          stage of an outline or full application, and the findings should be submitted with a
          planning application.

          4.16 It is desirable to contact the Local Planning Authority (LPA) at an early stage
          in the design process to discuss which technologies are likely to be appropriate and
          which, if any, are not. Considering the technological choices after construction has
          begun may reduce the viability of some options due to the introduction of groundworks,
          etc. Further information and detailed examples are available in North Devon Council’s
                                                                           (26)
          Guidance on the Use of Onsite Renewable Technologies SPD.




          26   www.northdevon.gov.uk/adopted_onsite_renewable_spd_19may2008.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 23
5    Achieving a Rating




    5 Achieving a Rating
    5.1     The Code for Sustainable Homes provides the all-round measure of the
    sustainability of new homes, ensuring that sustainable homes deliver real improvements
    in key areas such as carbon dioxide emissions and water use. The Code uses a rating
    system of one to six stars and differs from BREEAM in several key regards;

        Assessed at individual dwelling level
        Sets minimum mandatory standards for energy, water, materials and waste
        Demands higher minimum standards for energy and water before higher levels of
        Code can be met
        Performed in two stages with final certification after a Post Construction Stage
        assessment.

    5.2 Formal assessments may only be carried out using BRE registered assessors
    using objective criteria and verification methods. All developments will need to be
    registered with BRE and will subsequently remain ‘live’ for 5 years.

    Code Categories and Scores
    5.3 The Code is made up of nine key areas which contribute towards an overall Code
    Level of 1 to 6. Code Level 3 requires a total of 57 points and a mandatory minimum
    standard in the first six categories. The total score achieved will be a made up of the
    mandatory standard credits and a combination of tradable credits accrued from
    appropriate categories.

     Categories    Credits                            Mandatory     Mandatory Level 3
                                                      Credits       Target

     Energy &      Emissions defined Part L 2006      5 of 15       25% improvement on
     CO2           Building Fabric                    0 of 2        Part L 2006 relating
                   Internal Lighting                  0 of 2        to regulated
                   Drying Space                       0 of 1        emissions
                   Energy Labelled White Goods        0 of 2
                   External Lighting                  0 of 2
                   Low / Zero Carbon Technology       0 of 2
                   Cycle Storage                      0 of 2
                   Home Office                        0 of 1

     Water         Internal Potable Water Use         3 of 5        Reduce to at least
                   External Potable Water Use         0 of 1        105 litres per day




24 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                       Achieving a Rating              5




           Categories     Credits                            Mandatory      Mandatory Level 3
                                                             Credits        Target

           Materials      Environmental Impacts              0 of 15        Minimum standard at
                          Responsible Sourcing Basic         0 of 6         Code entry level = 3
                          Responsible Sourcing Finishes      0 of 3         of 5 key elements =
                                                                            Green Guide A-D

           Surface        Reduction of Runoff                0 of 2         Minimum standard at
           Water          Flood Risk                         0 of 2         Code entry level =
                                                                            Ensure peak runoff
                                                                            rates do not increase

           Waste          Household Storage & Recycling 0 of 4              Minimum standard at
                          Construction Site Management 0 of 2               Code entry level =
                          Composting                    0 of 1              Sized to hold LA
                                                                            refuse containers
                                                                            AND Site Waste
                                                                            Management Plan

           Pollution      Global Warming Potential           0 of 1         No minimum
                          NOx Emissions                      0 of 3         standards

           Health &       Daylighting                        0 of 3         No minimum
           Well Being     Sound                              0 of 4         standards
                          Private Space                      0 of 1
                          Lifetime Homes                     0 of 4

           Management Home User Guide                        0 of 3         No minimum
                      Considerate Constructors               0 of 2         standards
                      Construction Site Impacts              0 of 2
                      Security                               0 of 2

           Ecology        Value                              0 of 2         No minimum
                          Enhancement                        0 of 1         standards
                          Protection                         0 of 1
                          Change in Value                    0 of 1
                          Footprint                          0 of 4

          Table 6: Code for Sustainable Homes Categories and Credits

          5.4 An assessment against the Code is not mandatory for every new home, but a
          rating will be required for all new dwellings. For some developments, including individual
          dwellings, developers may not wish to build above Building Regulations and would not
          necessarily want to pay for an assessment to advise that they had not exceeded Building



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 25
5    Achieving a Rating




    Regulations. In this case, the developer must download a “zero-star (or nil-rated)
                  (27)
    certificate”.      So either an assessment or a “zero-star certificate” will be required for
    all new dwellings and these must be included in the Home Information Pack (HIP).

    5.5 A detailed discussion of each Code category and its relation to local planning
    policies and building regulations is available in Appendices 6 to 10.
                                                       (28)
    5.6 The HCA has published Cracking the Code         to complement the Code Technical
    Guidance and provide recommendations, indicative costs and case studies. The
    document aims to assist developers in exceeding Code Level 3 and emphasises the
    importance of planning for the Code at the earliest possible stages of the design and
    specification process.

    5.7 Further illustrative examples setting out the design specifications necessary to
    meet Code Level 3 and 4 are available in Appendix 11.




    27   www.stroma.com/downloads/Nil%20rated%20certificate%20example.pdf
    28   www.housingcorp.gov.uk/upload/pdf/Cracking_the_Code_20080528102051.pdf



26 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                           Sustainable Design and the Developer                                   6




          6 Sustainable Design and the Developer
          6.1 In those exceptional cases where the requirements set out in adopted planning
          policy are not reached a clear justification as to why will need to be submitted with the
          planning application. The developer will be required to demonstrate why specified
          standards cannot be met, and should be prepared to show that another legitimate policy
          objective would be significantly prejudiced if the relaxation sought was not provided. If
          such conditions are found to exist the LPA may choose to seek:

               a lower sustainable building standard,
               the incorporation of technologies that are feasible as indicated in a feasibility report,
               measures to be incorporated, so as to facilitate future installation, or
               conversion to higher standards.

          6.2 If for example a developer can demonstrate that the provision of 15% on-site
          energy production would increase total build costs by more than 5% (for all potential
                                                                                           (29)
          renewable technologies) then this could be considered as an “undue burden”.           In
          such circumstances a full evaluation of all types of readily available technologies will
          be required together with justification as to why they are not appropriate. In addition,
          details of the cost of purchasing and installing the technologies would need to be
          submitted together with a detailed projection of the build costs of the development.
          However, the developer would then be required to spend exactly 5% of the build costs
          on on-site renewable energy, and demonstrate that they are delivering the maximum
          proportion of energy for that investment.

          Benefits to the Developer
          6.3 Sustainable design provides a unique marketing opportunity for developers and
          the construction industry. Sustainable design and construction techniques are regarded
          as progressive and can help improve the environmental performance of buildings and
          the public relations of the developer, owner, landlord or tenant. Recent research has
          shown that the integration of sustainability principles and design standards can increase
          the marketable value of both residential and commercial developments.
                                                                              (30)
          6.4 Research carried out by the Good Homes Alliance           on behalf of DCLG has
          shown that the sustainability performance of Code homes may generate a value
          premium in the region of 10% over and above equivalent new build properties.
          Furthermore, the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) American research
                                   (31)
          Doing Well by Doing Good      clearly established a link between a sustainability rating



          29   http://www.oursouthwest.com/revision2020/revision2020_main_report.pdf
          30   http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/1161997.pdf
          31   http://www.rics.org/NR/rdonlyres/44F67595-7989-45C7-B489-7E2B84F9DA76/0/DoingWellbyDoingGood.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 27
6    Sustainable Design and the Developer




    and increased market rents and the value of commercial space. This was particularly
    evident in relation to increased energy-efficiency ratings, which may subsequently lead
    to enhanced reputation and marketing gains.

    6.5 Awareness is continuing to grow on the value of Energy Performance Certificates
    (EPC) and the merits of living in a property with reduced running costs. The Hidden
                 (32)
    Value Guide       by the Energy Savings Trust (EST) states that 80% of people say that
    running costs of the home are becoming increasingly important, with 54% willing to
    pay more for an energy efficient home. Over half of respondents indicated that ‘green’
    issues in the home will become increasingly important in the future, subsequently
    increasing demand and helping to decrease selling periods.

    6.6 Renewable energy and energy and water efficient technologies and design will
    also lead to lower running costs for consumers. This approach represents the first steps
    towards zero carbon development by 2016.

    6.7    A consideration of the following questions may help to maximise these benefits:

          Have you considered including sustainable design features in sales literature and
          Home Information Packs e.g. lower fuel bills, accessibility?
          Have you considered how the implementation of the EU Energy Performance of
          Buildings Directive (April 2008) and EPCs might alter clients’ perception of energy
          use in buildings?
          Are there potential groups of house buyers for whom sustainable design could be
          the deciding factor between a new build home and an older property?

    6.8 Many planning authorities across the country are ensuring that they have the
    knowledge they need to implement local policies that are similar to the requirements
    of adopted policies DVS1, DVS1A and ECN15. Now is the time therefore to work with
    LPAs to make sure that future planning applications, which are covered by these new
    requirements, proceed as smoothly as possible.

    Code for Sustainable Homes Cost Implications
    6.9 Experience developing dwellings to a range of CSH levels is growing and research
    into the associated costs now available. DCLG have published findings of research
    into achieving different performance levels under the CSH. This work builds on an initial
                   (33)
    cost analysis        that was completed prior to the publication of the Code technical




    32    http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/corporate/Corporate-and-media-site/
          Media-centre/Hot-topics/Hidden-Value-Guide
    33    http://www.housingcorp.gov.uk/upload/pdf/Code_for_Sustainable_Homes_050407.pdf



28 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                          Sustainable Design and the Developer                           6




          guidance. The study was commissioned to refine the cost analysis of the Code in light
          of the publication of the finalised technical guidance together with other supporting
                                                             (34)
          information (e.g. the Green Guide to Specification     ).

          6.10 The following table shows the DCLG estimated 2008 costs of compliance for
                                                                                                (35)
          achieving Level 3 of CSH for a detached house, end terraced house and a flat.
          Each type of dwelling is tested under the best, medium and worst-case scenario. In all
          cases it is assumed that no electricity generation from micro wind turbines is possible
          at any scale. The results for the mid terrace house are very similar to those for the end
          terrace and are not presented separately. 'Mandatory' costs are those associated with
          achieving entry-level (Level 1) minimum requirements for categories other than energy
          and water. 'Flexible' costs are those associated with achieving the remaining necessary
          number of credits once the mandatory categories are satisfied. DCLG provide estimated
          costs of achieving all levels of the Code, with Level 4 costing approximately twice that
          of Level 3 for all dwelling types.

                        Mandatory Energy           Water     Flexible     Total      Cost /   Increase
                                                                                        2
                                                                          Cost        m        on 2006
                                                                                              Building
                                                                                                Regs

           Detached Best Case (Market town scenario with low ecological value and low flood
           House    risk)

                            £490        £3,916      £125       £220      £4,751       £41         5%

                        Medium Case (Market town scenario with medium ecological value and
                        low flood risk)

                            £490        £3,916      £125       £460      £4,991       £43         5%

                        Worst Case (Small scale scenario with high ecological value and
                        medium/high flood risk)

                            £490        £3,916      £125      £1,110     £5,641       £49         6%

           End          Best Case (Market Town scenario with low ecological value and low
           Terrace      flood risk)
           House
                            £490        £3,692      £125       £620      £4,927       £49         7%

                        Medium Case (Market town scenario with medium ecological value and
                        low flood risk)


          34   www.thegreenguide.org.uk
          35   http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/codecostanalysis.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 29
6    Sustainable Design and the Developer




                  Mandatory Energy           Water     Flexible     Total     Cost /   Increase
                                                                                 2
                                                                    Cost       m        on 2006
                                                                                       Building
                                                                                         Regs

                      £490        £3,692     £125        £720      £5,027      £50       7%

                  Worst Case (Small scale scenario with high ecological value and
                  medium/high flood risk)

                      £490        £3,916     £125      £1,270      £5,801      £57       8%

     Flat         Best Case (Urban regeneration scenario with low ecological value and
                  low flood risk)

                       £0         £2,622     £125        £145      £2,892      £49       4%

                  Medium Case (Market town scenario with medium ecological value and
                  low flood risk)

                       £0         £2,622     £125        £175      £2,922      £50       4%

                  Worst Case (City infill scenario with high ecological value and
                  medium/high flood risk)

                       £0         £2,622     £125        £420      £3,167      £54       4%

    Table 7: Cost Implications of Achieving Code Level 3

    6.11 A series of nationwide case studies comprising various build styles and volumes,
    all of which have achieved a CSH level, has been published by DCLG and the Good
                        (36)
    Homes Alliance.           The research suggests that average increases over standard
    build costs is slightly higher than those published by DCLG, although this is due largely
    to research and development costs within the overall budget. Further case studies are
                                      (37)
    available on the BRE website.

    6.12 The above research and case studies show that exceeding Building Regulations
    in residential development is both feasible and viable. Although achieving Code Level
    3 and above will initially introduce additional costs, it is anticipated that establishing
    good design and procurement strategies will be more viable in the mid to long term.




    36   http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/1161997.pdf
    37   http://www.bre.co.uk/codeconsultancy/casestudies.jsp



30 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                            Master Planning          7




          7 Master Planning
                                                                     (38)
          7.1 CABE have developed extensive guidance            on sustainable master planning.
          This integrates and embeds the core principles of climate change adaptation and
          mitigation into the earliest possible stages of the design process. The key principles
          are to:

               Work with local residents and other stakeholders to develop long-term plans for
               every neighbourhood which link a deep analysis of townscape and heritage value
               today with visions for the future
               Plan the location of homes, businesses, social infrastructure and open spaces to
               minimise the use of energy and need to travel
               Analyse the local context to produce appropriate passive design responses (building
               mass, orientation to the sun and prevailing winds, balance between the height and
               depth of buildings and their relationship to open spaces) to minimise the need for
               expensive technologies at the building scale
               Consider from the outset of the design process how places and the buildings and
               other assets that make them up will be managed and maintained in the long term
               Undertake thermal and energy master planning so that waste heat is minimised
               across cities, neighbourhoods and sites
               Undertake utilities master planning (electricity, gas, vehicle refuelling,
               telecommunications, water supply and sewerage) across cities, neighbourhoods
               and sites
               Loose fit – create buildings and places that are inherently flexible and can easily
               accommodate change over time
               Ensure that developments are planned and areas refurbished taking account of
               the future impacts of climate change - and adaptation measures that may need to
               be retrofitted
               Consider how new developments can improve the sustainability of existing places
               by sharing infrastructure and services
               Plan for refurbishment of neighbourhoods, sites, buildings and public spaces to
               minimise carbon emissions and to increase resilience to a changing climate.
               Ensure new development coexists with the natural environment, taking account
               of Green Infrastructure and producing a net gain in biodiversity.

          Distributed Energy
          7.2 The LPA is in the process of assessing the potential of the district to deliver
          large-scale sustainable developments on appropriate sites. Delivery of such
          developments offers the opportunity to establish decentralised community energy



          38   http://www.sustainablecities.org.uk/leadership/planning/



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 31
7    Master Planning




    schemes which improve the overall sustainability of a design. Technical feasibility and
    financial viability will be investigated through the compilation of an evidence base and
    development briefs in order to ensure opportunities can be maximised.

    7.3 Developers must address strategic considerations such as proximity to major
    energy generators and users. Developers will be encouraged to contribute to local area
    networks through investment in Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and through the
    ability of individual phases of development to connect to existing or planned local
    infrastructure. The London Energy Partnership has produced the document Making
                                                                                  (39)
    ESCOs Work: Guidance and Advice on Setting up and Delivering an ESCO.

    7.4 Major, and in particular mixed-use developments, should be particularly aware
    of their predicted energy requirements in terms of type, scale and frequency of use.
    Deriving energy use and heat maps of existing local infrastructure will assist developers
    in the phasing of development. A thermal master plan can create an appropriate strategy
    with a combination of technologies that matches the required demand. The local mix
    of building uses at a neighbourhood scale means that inter-seasonal heat storage
    systems could be used to store surplus heat during periods when buildings only require
    cooling.

    7.5 Area Action Plans will seek to undertake thermal master planning as a core part
    of options development. Appropriate energy generation facilities will be expected to
    deliver benefits to both existing and future development. Facilities should also be sited
    so as to enable provision to the areas most prolific energy users and to integrate with
    existing supply and demand. Guidance on community heating schemes and CHP
                                                                                    (40)
    infrastructure is available from the National House Building Council (NHBC).

    7.6 The green infrastructure network should be carefully considered alongside any
    thermal mapping undertaken. Green infrastructure is often surrounded by large numbers
    of potential customers and is an easy option for the installation of energy distribution
    infrastructure. As a general rule minimum housing density of 50 homes/ha average
    has been recommended to limit the cost of pipe work installation. For new development
    this figure will rise as we approach 2016, as there will be less space heating required.

    7.7 At all scales of development, it is important to address very early on in the design
    process the question of how a development will get its heating and power. It becomes
    increasingly difficult to incorporate alternative, more sustainable solutions to energy
    generation later on as these decisions influence the management infrastructure and
    services requirements of a development.




    39   http://www.lep.org.uk/uploads/lep_making_escos_work.pdf
    40   http://nhbcfoundation.org/LinkClick.aspx?
         fileticket=Ev%2f%2bSNIFrK4%3d&tabid=339&mid=774&language=en-GB



32 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                        Master Planning               7




          Speculative Developments
          7.8 For speculative ‘shell-only’ proposals where the end-user is not known, a BREEAM
          assessment and certification will still be required. A verified assessor will carry out a
          partial assessment. However developers will be encouraged to build in accordance
          with this SPD and the principles contained within. Developers will also be expected to
          provide end users with guidance documentation on how to fit out the units to enable a
          BREEAM Good rating to be achieved.




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 33
    Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist




   Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist

   Climate Change and Energy

   Flooding          What measures have been taken to manage surface water
                     beyond the minimum requirements in PPS25?
                     Is the development designed to reduce the impact that predicted
                     flood levels would have on the development?

   Cooling /         How are ventilation and cooling managed in the master planning
   Heat              of the development? E.g. green space, tree cover, green roofs,
   Absorption        open space, shaded spaces and footpaths.

   Waste             What percentage of household baths, showers, hand basins
                     and washing machines are connected to grey water recycling
                     systems to enable water re-use within the home or wider
                     development?
                     What percentage of the total roof area in the development is
                     designed to allow the harvesting of rainwater for re-use and/or
                     is covered by green roofs?

   Carbon            What steps has the developer taken to prepare an energy
   Emissions         strategy for the proposed development? E.g. orientation,
                     thermal efficiency, efficient equipment and controls, renewable
                     provision
                     What percentage of total site energy demand is produced from
                     an on-site renewable scheme? E.g. wind, solar, hydro PV, CHP
                     operating on biomass or waste in order to reduce dependence
                     on carbon emitting sources
                     What percentage of buildings in the development where building
                     integrated renewables (also known as micro generation
                     technologies) are not fitted initially are designed to allow later
                     installation of such technologies by building owners or
                     occupiers?

   Sustainable       To what extent does the development take into account the
   Heating           hierarchy for feasible heating systems? E.g. District or
                     community co- or tri-generation heating/cooling schemes or
                     ducting put in place to enable future connection.

   Weather           Have new developments been designed to survive the expected
   Resilience        impacts of forecast increased wind speeds and stronger rain
                     events during the expected lifetime of the building?




34 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                          Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist




          Climate Change and Energy

          Community

          Promoting            What steps has the developer taken to establish the needs and
          community            pressures on the surrounding community are addressed within
          networks and         the proposed development?
          interaction

          Involvement          What methods have been used to actively engage local
          in decision          stakeholders in the development proposal?. E.g. Public notices
          making               and adverts, leaflets, surveys, meetings, workshops

          Supporting           Will an information pack be provided to all building occupiers
          Public               containing information on? E.g. local transport, utilities, energy
          Services,            efficiency, amenities, refuse collection, recycling facilities,
          Social               community groups, environmental technologies, water
          economy and          conservation tips.
          community
          structure

          Community            Does the development have provision for occupiers to manage
          Management           shared and site facilities? E.g. open space, SUDS, grey water
          of the               schemes, meeting places, allotments, etc.
          development

          Place Making

          Efficient use        What percentage of the existing appropriate buildings on site
          of land              are being re-used/ refurbished?

          Design               Has a landscaping scheme been drawn up for the site to provide
          Process              an integrated and ecologically sensitive green infrastructure?
                               This should include POS, street scenes, public/private space
                               boundaries and site boundaries, with landscape and ecological
                               assets preserved and appropriately augmented.

          Form of              Are there physical and visual links between the development
          Development          and the surrounding area, and how do they integrate the
                               development with the surrounding area? E.g. existing access
                               points, direct lines of sight, connectivity of new main routes
                               Does the proposed street network provide a high quality public
                               realm with a pedestrian friendly environment? E.g. Good
                               pedestrian routes, safe crossing points, well-lit and safe routes,
                               traffic calming.



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 35
    Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist




   Climate Change and Energy

                     Has the development been designed to be easy for users to
                     understand and orientate themselves in, and does it promote
                     a neighbourhood identity? E.g. Gateways, landmarks, views,
                     surface treatments.
                     Have ‘Active Frontage Guidelines’ of the English Partnerships
                     Urban Design Compendium been met in order to promote
                     vitality? Note active frontages means encouraging pedestrian
                     entrances and exits onto streets, which are frequently used.

   Open space        What level of access do building occupiers and users have to
                     public green space?
                     Is there provision of accessible play space for the new
                     development?

   Mix of use        Has flexibility been designed into commercial units to provide
                     adaptability to changing market needs? E.g. Building depth and
                     width, vertical segregation, flexible use, residential conversion.
                     Is the affordable housing indistinguishable from the rest of the
                     development in terms of aesthetics and/or distribution?

   Crime             What percentage of buildings have been designed to ‘Secure
                     By Design’ or equivalent standards?

   Street lighting   What steps have been taken to ensure that the development
   / pollution       lighting scheme (street lighting, way marking and security
                     lighting – including those on buildings) has been designed to
                     minimise light pollution and be energy efficient)

   Tranquillity      Does the developer have a design strategy to reduce the impact
                     of external noise (traffic, rail, other) on the habitable rooms of
                     houses and in occupied parts of other buildings

   Transport and Movement

   Public            Is the development within an existing public transport corridor?
   Transport         What is the furthest distance that an occupier would have to
                     travel to a major fixed public transport node (train, bus etc)
                     using a regular (every 10-15 mins in urban areas and every 30
                     mins – 1hour in rural areas) public or community transport link?
                     What provision has been made for a comfortable/safe bus
                     shelter or waiting rooms?




36 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                         Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist




          Climate Change and Energy

          Managed             How has the developer managed car parking requirements?
          Parking             What percentage of communal car parks have been designed
          Provision           to be for flexible use? E.g. play space, market space, when not
                              being used for parking

          Pedestrians         Does the development have ‘Home zones’ or equivalent ?
          and cyclists        Is there a network of safe bike routes under good natural
                              surveillance?
                              What provision has been made for bicycle facilities (including
                              showers, lockers etc) at local facilities and at transport nodes.

          Reducing the        Which of the following will be available within the stated distance
          need to travel      of all dwellings, located on key pedestrian routes focused
                              around public transport nodes? E.g. Groceries, post box,
                              playground, postal facility, bank, pharmacy, primary school,
                              medical centre, leisure facilities, community centre, public
                              house, nursery.
                              Will the developer install infrastructure in homes and
                              commercial / industrial buildings which will allow the use of
                              virtual communications as an alternative to transport?

          Appropriate         Is there a traffic management plan in place which encourages
          transport           the safe passage of vehicles through the development, at an
          hierarchy           appropriate speed? Note this could include passive design
                              measures E.g. Road narrowing, surface treatments, etc

          Ecology

          Conservation        Has an ecological survey been carried out, by a qualified
                              ecologist, to examine habitats in and around the site and
                              migration routes across the site?

          Enhancement         Will there be an increase in important or valued habitats
          of ecology          identified in the LBAP or BAP, LHAP or HAP either by area or
                              increased ecological value of the habitat (as assessed by an
                              ecologist), or support for a species identified in the LBAP or
                              BAP?
                              Will any new wildlife corridors be created to link habitats within
                              the site or link to habitats outside the development?

          Planting            Has a mixture of appropriate locally occurring native trees and
                              shrubs been specified?




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 37
    Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist




   Climate Change and Energy

   Resources

   Appropriate       What will happen to heritage/archaeologically important features
   use of land       and their settings on the site?
   resources

   Environmental     What proportion by mass of total building materials for the public
   impact            realm and infrastructure have been specified as either: low
                     environmental impact (Green Guide “A” or “B”, or equivalent
                     standard), reclaimed or recycled or reused, locally sourced
                     materials?
                     What proportion of timber used in the construction of
                     infrastructure and the public realm will be from an accredited
                     FSC and PERC sustainable source?

   Protecting        What steps have been taken to protect the quality of
   water quality     groundwater and / or water courses from contaminated run-off?
                     E.g. Filters, storm drains, SUDS, contaminated water
                     management

   Recycling         What facilities are provided to enable on-site composting of
   and               appropriate kitchen and/or garden waste?
   Composting        Has appropriate space been made available for the storage of
                     recyclables, in locations accessible to collection vehicles, within
                     the site?

   Water             Will a site waste management plan be produced by the
   Resource          developer, prior to commencement of work on site, to limit the
   Planning          environmental impact of construction activities?

   Business

   Competitive       Does the new business space increase/ maintain the viability
   business          of existing businesses?
                     Is the development designed to suit the needs of prioritised
                     business sectors and SMES as identified in the Regional
                     Economic Strategy?

   Business          Does the development include a range of size of business
   types             premises to encourage both start up and expanding business
                     E.g. incubator units, flexible spaces and facilities for small
                     businesses?




38 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                         Appendix 1 - South West Sustainability Checklist




          Climate Change and Energy

          Buildings

          Specified to        What BREEAM/ EcoHomes/Code for Sustainable Homes rating
          BREEAM              sought for the proposed buildings?




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 39
    Appendix 2 - Building for Life




   Appendix 2 - Building for Life

   QUESTION                                        EVALUATION   EVIDENCE SCORE

   Environment and Community

   Does the development provide (or is it close
   to) community facilities, such as a school,
   parks, play areas, shops, pubs or cafés?

   Is there an accommodation mix that reflects
   the needs and aspirations of the local
   community?

   Is there a tenure mix that reflects the needs
   of the local community?

   Does the development have easy access
   to public transport?

   Does the development have any features
   that reduce its environmental impact?

   Character

   Is the design specific to the scheme?

   Does the scheme exploit existing buildings,
   landscape or topography?

   Does the scheme feel like a place with
   distinctive character?

   Do the buildings and layout make it easy to
   find your way around?

   Are streets defined by a well-structured
   building layout?

   Streets, Parking & Pedestrianisation

   Does the building layout take priority over
   the streets and car parking, so that the
   highways do not dominate?

   Is the car parking well integrated and
   situated so it supports the street scene?



40 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                      Appendix 2 - Building for Life




          QUESTION                                          EVALUATION   EVIDENCE SCORE

          Environment and Community

          Are the streets pedestrian, cycle and vehicle
          friendly?

          Does the scheme integrate with existing
          streets, paths and surrounding
          development?

          Are public spaces and pedestrian routes
          overlooked and do they feel safe?

          Design and Construction

          Is public space well designed and does it
          have suitable management arrangements
          in place?

          Do the buildings exhibit architectural quality?

          Do internal spaces and layout allow for
          adaptation, conversion or extension?

          Has the scheme made use of advances in
          construction or technology that enhance its
          performance, quality and attractiveness?

          Do buildings or spaces outperform statutory
          minima, such as building regulations?

          TOTAL




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 41
    Appendix 3 - Lifetime Homes




   Appendix 3 - Lifetime Homes

   Criteria        Specifications                                                  Score

   Car Parking     Where car parking is adjacent to the home, it should be
                   capable of enlargement to attain 3.3m width.

   Access from     The distance from the car parking space to the home should
   Car Parking     be kept to a minimum and should be level or gently sloping.

   Approach        The approach to all entrances should be level or gently
                   sloping.

   External        All entrances should be illuminated, have level access over
   Entrances       the threshold and have a covered main entrance.

   Communal        Communal stairs should provide easy access and, where
   Stairs          homes are reached by a lift, it should be fully accessible.

   Doorways &      The width of internal doorways and hallways should conform
   Hallways        to Part M, except that when the approach is not head on and
                   the hallway width is 900mm, the clear opening width should
                   be 900mm rather than 800mm. There should be 300mm nib
                   or wall space to the side of the leading edge of the doors on
                   entrance level.

   Wheelchair      There should be space for turning a wheelchair in dining
   Accessibility   areas and living rooms and adequate circulation space for
                   wheelchairs elsewhere.

   Living Room     The living room should be at entrance level.

   Two or more In houses of two or more storeys, there should be space on
   storey       the entrance level that could be used as a convenient bed
   requirements space.

   WC              In houses with three bedrooms or more there should be a
                   wheelchair accessible toilet at entrance level with drainage
                   provision enabling a shower to be fitted in the future. In
                   houses with two bedrooms the downstairs toilet should
                   conform at least to Part M.

   Bathroom &      Walls in the bathroom and WC should be capable of taking
   WC Walls        adaptations such as handrails.




42 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                      Appendix 3 - Lifetime Homes




          Criteria        Specifications                                                      Score

          Lift Capability The design should incorporate provision for a future stair lift
                          and a suitably identified space for a through the floor lift from
                          the ground floor to the first floor, for example to a bedroom
                          next to the bathroom.

          Main            The design and specification should provide a reasonable
          Bedroom         route for a potential hoist from a main bedroom to the
                          bathroom.

          Bathroom        The bathroom should be designed for ease of access to the
          Layout          bath, WC & wash basin.

          Window          Living room window glazing should begin no higher than
          Specification   800mm from the floor level and windows should be easy to
                          open/operate.

          Fixtures &      Switches, sockets, ventilation and service controls should
          Fittings        be at a height usable by all (i.e. between 450 and 1200mm
                          from the floor).




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 43
    Appendix 4 - Secured by Design




   Appendix 4 - Secured by Design

   Principles      Key Points

   Integrate          Investment in a well integrated and co-ordinated approach to
   Approach           design and project planning will pay dividends through
                      resolution of potentially conflicting interests;
                      The best available advice should be utilised, from the earliest
                      stages of a project.

   Environmental      Sensitive design that takes full account of the social and
   Quality &          environmental context and encourages positive community
   Sense of           interaction can help foster community spirit and a sense of
   Ownership          shared ownership and responsibility. Where possible, the local
                      community should be involved in the planning and design
                      process;
                      Provision of high quality landscape settings for new
                      development and refurbishment, where external spaces are
                      well-designed and well integrated with the buildings, can help
                      create a sense of place and strengthen community identity;
                      Well designed public spaces which are responsive to
                      community needs will tend to be well used and will offer fewer
                      opportunities for crime;
                      Long-term maintenance and management arrangements must
                      be considered at an early stage, with ownerships,
                      responsibilities and resources clearly identified.

   Natural            Public and semi-private areas should be readily visible from
   Surveillance       nearby buildings or from well used rights of way;
                      Natural surveillance is to be strongly encouraged, but care is
                      needed particularly in residential development to ensure that
                      privacy is not infringed;
                      For residential development, parking should be provided close
                      to and visible from the buildings where the owners live.

   Access &           Superfluous and unduly secluded access points and routes
   Footpaths          should be avoided;
                      Access points to the rear of buildings should be controlled, for
                      example by means of lockable gates (see also The Alleygater.s
                      Guide to Gating Alleys,. Link from SBD website);
                      Roads to groups of buildings should be designed to create a
                      sense of identity, privacy and shared ownership;




44 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                            Appendix 4 - Secured by Design




          Principles    Key Points

                            Footpaths and cycleways should only be provided if they are
                            likely to be well used;
                            Footpaths and cycleways should be of generous width and
                            have a suitable landscape setting to avoid creating narrow
                            corridors which could be perceived as threatening;
                            In terms of security, the design of the footpath is of equal
                            importance to the design of the building. Where possible, the
                            footpath should be at least 3 metres wide with a 2 metre wide
                            verge on either side. Any shrub planting should start at the
                            back of the verges.
                            The position of planting and choice of species should be such
                            that hiding places are not created. Thorny species of shrub
                            can help to deter intruders;
                            Good visibility should be maintained from either end, and along
                            the route of footpaths and cycleways. Sharp changes in
                            direction should be avoided;
                            Footpaths and cycleways should not generally be routed to
                            the rear of buildings, but if this is unavoidable a substantial
                            buffer should be planted between a secure boundary fence
                            and the footpath.s margins, with planting designed so as to
                            discourage intruders;
                            Where developments adjoin waterways or rivers with
                            towpath/footpath access, the buildings should ’face both ways’,
                            i.e. overlook the watercourse as well as the street;
                            Footpaths and cycleways should be lit in built-up areas, except
                            where the route is passing through woodland or an ecologically
                            sensitive area, in which case an alternative lit route should be
                            made available, such as a footway alongside a road;
                            Alternative routes to important destinations may be beneficial,
                            although a balance has to be struck between the advantages
                            of greater choice and perceived security against the
                            disadvantage of providing additional means of escape or of
                            encouraging inappropriate movement of people

          Open Space        In the urban setting, open space, footpaths and cycleways
          Provision &       should preferably be overlooked from buildings or traffic routes.
          Management        Buildings should preferably face onto these areas, provided
                            always that acceptable security for rear elevations can still be
                            ensured;
                            Property boundaries, particularly those at the side and rear,
                            which adjoin public land, need to be secure. Windows should



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 45
    Appendix 4 - Secured by Design




   Principles    Key Points

                     not provide easy access from public land. A substantial buffer
                     planted on the outside of the fence line may help to discourage
                     intruders;
                     Long term management responsibilities and resources must
                     be clearly identified at the planning stage to the satisfaction
                     of the ALO/CPDA.

   Lighting          Improved lighting can be effective in reducing fear of crime,
                     and in certain circumstances reducing the incidence of crime;
                     Different lighting sources need to be considered for different
                     environments – the character of the local environment must
                     always be respected.




46 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
              Appendix 5 - Sustainable Design Assessment Process




          Appendix 5 - Sustainable Design Assessment Process




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 47
    Appendix 6 - Energy




   Appendix 6 - Energy

        Plan policies

        Policy ECN15 Renewable Energy
        Policy DVS1a Point 1 and 6



        Building Regulations

        Ventilation (Part F)
        Heat producing appliances (Part J)
        Conservation of fuel and power (Part L)
        Glazing (Part N)



        Code for Sustainable Homes

        Category 1 Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

            29 credits available

   Policy and Standards
                                                                            (41)
   1 Major changes were made to the Building Regulations                 in 2006 to improve
   energy conservation in dwellings. Part L1a of the approved documents sets out standard
   practice for new dwellings and Part L1b for existing dwellings. These Regulations
   provide a checklist such that a builder can demonstrate compliance with various pieces
   of legislation which govern energy efficiency. Required measures include efficiency
   of the heating system, level of insulation and the calculation of a Standard Assessment
   Procedure (SAP) rating which is the standard method for establishing the energy
   efficiency performance of the building. Since October 2008 any building built, sold or
   rented requires an Energy Performance Certificate under the Energy Performance of
   Buildings Directive (EU Directive 2002/91/EC).

   2 The Code for Sustainable Homes complements Part L through the use of the same
   method of calculating emissions. Design Emission Rate (DER) and Target Emission
   Rate (TER) are common to both schemes and are used to define the percentage
   improvement of the design over a notional dwelling design achieving minimum Part L
   2006 standards. Code assessment is voluntary but the Government has made displaying


   41     http://www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/buildingregulations/



48 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                      Appendix 6 - Energy




          a rating a mandatory requirement for all new dwellings. Any dwelling not having had
          an assessment carried out and achieving the minimum Code Level 1 rating will be
                                    (42)
          attributed a zero rating.      This offers a tool for homebuilders to demonstrate the
          sustainability performance of their homes, and to differentiate themselves from their
          competitors.

          3 North Devon Council has set a requirement for all new major development of 10
                                    2
          or more dwellings or 1000m to provide at least 15% of the energy requirement to be
          met by means of renewable energy. North Devon Council’s adopted Guidance on the
          use      of      Onsite        Renewables             is     available          at
          www.northdevon.gov.uk/adopted_onsite_renewable_spd_19may2008.pdf.

          Exceeding the Standards

          4 Part L2a Regulation 17b of the Building Regulations expresses energy efficiency
          requirements through the Target Emission Rate (TER) for CO2. This comprises the
          mass of CO2 emitted per year per square metre of the total useful floor area of the
                          2
          building (kg/m /year). The achievement of a 25% improvement on the TER is
          recommended to achieve Level 3 of the Code for Sustainable Homes. Level 4
          commences at 44% and a ‘zero carbon home’ is required to achieve Level 6. A ‘zero
          carbon home’ would require no emissions for heating, lighting, hot water and all other
          energy uses in the home. The Government has recently carried out consultation entitled
                                                                         (43)
          Definition of Zero Carbon Homes and Non-Domestic Buildings.

          Benefits

          5 Demand for energy in our homes accounts for approximately one third of all energy
          use in the UK. Of this, almost 85% is used for space and water heating. The most
          effective ways of reducing demand is reducing energy which is lost through poor
          insulation and inefficient systems. Measures to improve energy efficiency range from
          using energy saving light bulbs and appliances to the installation of sophisticated
          renewable technologies. The resulting savings on running a property can be substantial.
          Cost effective solutions exist for new developments and for retrofitting older properties.
          Table A6.1 illustrates some of the more simple measures which can be taken and some
          indicative associated savings.




          42   http://www.stroma.com/downloads/Nil%20rated%20certificate%20example.pdf
          43   http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/1101177.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 49
    Appendix 6 - Energy




    Action                              Additional        Retrofit            Savings
                                          Cost             cost

    Use energy saving light bulbs               negligible                     £9 pa

    Insulate loft to 270mm               negligible          £250             £150 pa

    Install A Rated electrical                  negligible                     £20 pa
    appliances

    Efficient condensing boiler          negligible          £1500      £200 pa heating and
    with controls                                                            hot water

    Solar gain/glass conservatory        negligible          £2000        £100 pa heating

    Solar hot water                       £2000              £3500         50% hot water
                                                                              needs

    Photovoltaic cell                             £5500                    30% electricity

   Table A6.1: Indicative financial benefits of energy efficiency and renewables

   Site Layout and Built Form

   6 Development must be planned so that individual buildings take advantage of the
   natural form of the landscape. There are several considerations necessary when
   designing a building to utilise natural light. Gains can be made with respect to capturing
   the heating potential of the sun but care must be taken to avoid the potential for
   overheating during summer months. The provision of natural light can also reduce the
   need for artificial lighting. Accordingly, new properties should be designed with
   appropriate south and southwest facing windows with limited openings on the north of
   the property. Building heights should not prevent individual buildings or parts of buildings
   from receiving sunlight through over shadowing. Equally, design should seek to locate
   rooms which need more natural light or which could benefit from solar gain to the south
   side of the property.

   7 To complement design which maximises solar gain, it will be equally important to
   create a layout which minimises wind chill and wind tunnel effects as well as the creation
   of frost traps. Shelter can be provided by tree belts on the south and south west side
   of a building or development whilst northern and eastern walls should be particularly
   well insulated and have a fewer number of smaller windows. Water features and trees
   can be employed to create areas of shelter from summer heat where a property has
   sufficient outdoor space. In some circumstances specialised measures such as the
   use of green roofs may be appropriate to improve levels of roof insulation. Strategic
   planting to provide shading and wind shelter also has the secondary benefit of creating
   additional habitats and reducing surface water run off.


50 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                         Appendix 6 - Energy




          8 Table A6.2 summarises measures which can be used to minimise the need for
          energy and to ensure maximum efficiency of use.

          Action                                                                               Y
                                                                                (44)
          Use materials with maximum U-value to increase insulation

          Layout and orientation to maximise solar gain avoiding over heating

          Orientate main glazed elevation (+/- 30° South) and main living areas
          (+/- 45° South)

          Glazed areas on south elevation to equal approximately 15%

          Appropriate use         of   glazing,    dormer     windows,      sunpipes     and
          conservatories.

          Windows should have a good solar heat-gain coefficient, low-emissivity
          coatings, argon or krypton gas fill, with insulating glass spacers.

          Take account of micro-climatic factors when providing wind shelter

          Consider whether the overshadowing impact of trees, other buildings,
          walls and fences would be adverse or beneficial

          Locate taller buildings to avoid overshadowing neighbouring buildings

          Locate car parking areas and garages to the north of buildings

          Provide appropriate shaded green space, tree cover and space to grow
          food

          Use green roofs and vegetated walls

          Design to enable air-flow throughout the development

          Open water and fountains in public spaces

          Appropriate choice of external finishes to avoid heat absorption

          Effective zonal heating controls to reduce boiler burn and pump run times
          (thermostats, timer and usage display) in response to solar gain

          Efficient distribution (type and position of radiators, under floor heating)



          44   http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/corporate/Global-Data/Publications/
               Insulation-materials-chart-thermal-properties-and-environmental-ratings-CE71



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 51
    Appendix 6 - Energy




   Action                                                                         Y

   Install low energy A rated boilers and appliances and dimmer switches.

   At least 15% of total energy demand is supplied from local renewable or
   low carbon energy sources

   Install Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) where necessary
   to maintain healthy homes.
                 (45)
   Airtightness     should be maximised and balanced with natural methods
   of ventilation and cooling adopted in order to promote healthy homes.

   External lighting to use low wattage, high-pressure sodium units,
   movement detection control and daylight cut-off sensors. Down lighting
   should be used extensively to support the CPRE's Dark Skies campaign.

   Provide space and fixings for drying clothes in a secure environment

   Make provision for the safe, weather-proof and secure storage of cycles

   Make provision for space and services to set up a home office

   Maximise draft proofing

   Use materials with low embodied energy

   Balancing ventilation and energy efficiency

   Buy materials locally

   Direct sub-metering of substantive energy uses with separate
   sub-metering of self-contained apartments and units where necessary.

   Table A6.2: Minimising Energy Consumption

   Advice and further information
                                            (46)
        Renewable Energy for Devon            is a partnership providing free independent
        advice and support in assessing technologies and installers, accessing grants and
        loans and addressing planning issues.
                                                                                      (47)
        Grants are currently available through the Low Carbon Building Programme
        for the installation of renewable energy systems.


   45   http://www.bre.co.uk/housing/section.jsp?sid=377
   46   http://www.re4d.org/
   47   http://www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/home/



52 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                                      Appendix 6 - Energy



                             (48)
               Regen SW           has responsibility for driving forward the Regional Renewable
               Energy Strategy through promotion, research and advice.
                                                          (49)
               The Centre for Alternative Technology           is a centre of excellence for energy
               efficiency and renewable energy. Detailed guidance books are available and
               residential courses run all year.
                                            (50)
               The Energy Savings Trust          (EST) provides an up to date and comprehensive
               access point to information relating to energy efficiency and renewable technologies.
                                                                  (51)
               The Chartered Institute of Building Surveyors           (CIBSE) is also a good source
               of information on energy efficiency in buildings.




          48   www.regensw.co.uk
          49   www.cat.org.uk
          50   http://www.est.org.uk/housingbuildings/professionals
          51   www.cibse.org



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 53
    Appendix 7 - Water and Surface Water Run-Off




   Appendix 7 - Water and Surface Water Run-Off

        Plan policies

        Policy DVS6 Flooding and Water Quality
        Policy DVS7 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
        Policy DVS1A Point 4



        Building Regulations

        Drainage and Waste Disposal (Part H)



        Code for Sustainable Homes

        Category 2 Water (Internal / External)

            6 credits available

        Category 4 Surface Water Run-Off (flood risk)

            4 credits available

   Policy and Standards

   1 Policies DVS1a, DVS6 and DVS7 require consideration of how consumption of
   water can be minimised and how pollution of water can be avoided. Policy DVS6
   expressly prohibits development where there is an unacceptable flood risk or where
   development may increase the risk of flooding elsewhere. Good water management
   systems should, therefore, include measures to avoid flooding or minimise the harm
   when flooding does occur.

   2 Abstraction licensing, water resources notices and other water management regimes
                                                                         (52)
   were amended and introduced in April 2006 through the Water Act 2003.      Commercial
   properties using substantial amounts of water will be required to conform to these
   regulations.




   52     http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/legislation/default.htm



54 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                            Appendix 7 - Water and Surface Water Run-Off



                                                                                (53)
          3 Amendments to Building Regulations Approved Document G             Sanitation, Hot
          Water Safety and Water Efficiency (May 2009) sets out a water efficiency standard of
          125 litres per person per day. The document goes on to specify where rain water
          harvesting and grey water systems can be used.

          Exceeding the Standards

          4 Despite advances in the efficiency of water use, lifestyle changes (swimming pools,
          car ownership, gardening, etc) have led to an increase in consumption in the South
          West. Long-term management of water systems is required to reduce consumption
          and pollution as well as control flooding and mitigate drought. The added benefit of
          water management in larger development is that it can also provide the basis for
          landscape features and semi-natural habitats.

          5 The average person consumes about 155 litres per day. A reduction to 105 l/d
          would be necessary to achieve Level 3 of the Code for Sustainable Homes. This may
          be possible through simple measures such as reducing the volume of flush for a toilet,
          using low flow or spray taps, and fitting a low flow shower. Achieving Level 3 could
          cut a metered bill by about £125 per year, easily justifying the cost of improvements.

          6 For newly built properties Level 6 (80 l/d) targets maybe achievable by designing
          grey water recycling systems, rainwater harvesting and water efficient plumbing (10mm
          pipes under mains pressure). With respect to minimising the impact of flooding, the
          aim of surface water management should be to at least ensure that peak run-off rates
          and annual volumes of run-off will be no greater than the previous conditions for the
          development site.

          7 In rural areas, composting toilets may be a viable option. For larger developments,
          natural sewage filtration systems may be possible although should be discussed with
          the Environment Agency and South West Water.

          Benefits

          8 The environment of North Devon is one of the richest in the UK with a UNESCO
                                             (54)
          designated Biosphere Reserve,           a large proportion of Heritage Coast and designated
          bathing waters. Maintaining and improving the biological and chemical quality of rivers
          is integral to protecting this resource. Climate change predictions also require improved
          water management since it is considered that the incidence of flooding and drought
          may increase in the region. In managing water quality measures should be taken to
          ensure communities and individuals are not compromised or harmed by water shortages




          53   www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/br/BR_PDF_draftADG_2009.pdf
          54   www.northdevonbiosphere.org.uk/



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 55
    Appendix 7 - Water and Surface Water Run-Off



                                           (55)
   or floods. The Environment Agency's  flood awareness campaign estimates that a
   householder stands to lose on average more than £28,000 through a flood event
   compared to £900 if you are burgled.

   9 Water bills have been rising steadily. In April 2006, the average annual bill for both
   water and sewerage increased by an inflation beating 5.5% to £294. In some
   circumstances the free installation of a water meter can reduce bills without the
   householder reducing consumption. Whether this is the case or not, metered properties
   often consume less which ultimately leads to a lower bill. It is reported that householders
   could easily save an average £125 a year by switching to a meter, although large
   families with several bathrooms may be worse off unless a concerted effort is made to
   consume less. Table A7.1 summarises measures which can be used to reduce water
   demand and the risk of flooding.

    Action                                                                             Y

    Demonstrate that the development is located in an area of low annual
    probability of flooding or demonstrate that the development is located in an
    area where the ground level of buildings, car parks and access routes are
    above the flood level; and an appropriate assessment of how the building
    will react to flooding (including the use of resilient construction where
    necessary) to mitigate residual risk

    Avoid culverting and canalisation of watercourses

    Re-establish natural watercourses, channels, margins and wetlands

    Replace non-porous hard surfacing with permeable surfaces and use
    infiltration methods such as soakaways

    Protect downstream watercourses and combined sewers from excess surface
    water run-off and pollution

    Incorporate features such as swales and filter strips to reduce the volume
    of piped surface water run off

    Where surface water cannot be absorbed on site make provision for open
    balancing ponds

    In rural areas the use of compost toilets may be a realistic alternative to a
    septic tank

    Install grey water recycling of bath and washing water to use for flushing
    toilets or, after filtration, watering the garden


   55   www.environment-agency.gov.uk/homeandleisure/floods/31624.aspx



56 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                              Appendix 7 - Water and Surface Water Run-Off




          Action                                                                                          Y

          Install rainwater harvesting (collection, storage and filtration)

          Fit a water meter

          Toilet cistern water displacement device to reduce volume of flush

          Fit dual flush and/or ‘delayed action’ inlet valve to reduce volume used per
          flush

          Fit low flow or spray taps

          Water efficient plumbing: fit 10mm pipes where under mains pressure,
          position hot pipes above cold, insulate all pipes, minimise length of hot water
          pipes from source to use, and flit flow restrictors.

          Table A7.1: Water Management

          Advice and Further Information
                                      (56)
               South West Water          covers both water and sewerage in Devon and can give
               advice on efficiency in the home.
               SUDS are becoming more common, although long-term management continues
               to be an obstacle to some schemes. An example of a locally led regeneration
                                                                                                  (57)
               initiative where extensive use of SUDS is made is Sherwood Energy Village.
                                    (58)
               Alternatively, CIRIA       provides a ‘Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems’ Design
               Manual for England and Wales.
                                                          (59)
               The Centre for Alternative Technology           provides information on composting
               toilets and reed bed systems for the treatment of foul water in rural areas.
                                           (60)
               The Environment Agency           provides advice on techniques and planning guidance
               for the implementation of SUDS.
                                                                       (61)
               The Water Efficiency Calculator for New Dwellings            sets out the methodology
               for assessing compliance against water performance targets in Building Regulations
               Part G.




          56   www.swwater.co.uk
          57   www.sev.org.uk
          58   http://www.ciria.org.uk/suds/publications.htm
          59   http://www.cat.org.uk/information/info_content.tmpl?subdir=information&sku=info_is_watersanitation/
          60   http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/business/sectors/36998.aspx
          61   www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/br/water_efficiency_calculator.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 57
    Appendix 8 - Materials, Waste and Pollution




   Appendix 8 - Materials, Waste and Pollution

        Plan Policies

        Policy DVS1A Point 7 and 11.



        Devon Waste Local Plan Policies

        Policy WPC4 Waste Audit
        Policy WPC5 Provision of Waste Management Facilities



        Building Regulations

        Structure (Part A)
        Site preparation and resistance to contaminates and moisture (Part C)
        Toxic substances (Part D)
        Drainage and waste disposal (Part H)



        Code for Sustainable Homes

        Category 3 Materials

            24 credits available

        Category 5 Waste

            7 credits available

        Category 6 Pollution

            4 credits available

   Policy and Standards
                                                                          (62)
   1 Defra has introduced Site Waste Management Plans            (SWMP) as a legal
   requirement for all projects costing more than £300,000. SWMPs aim to address two
   key issues:


   62     http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/construction/pdf/swmp-guidance.pdf



58 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                  Appendix 8 - Materials, Waste and Pollution




               Improving materials resource efficiency, by promoting the economic use of
               construction materials and methods so that waste is minimised and any waste that
               is produced can be re-used, recycled or recovered in other ways before disposal
               options are explored; and
               Reducing fly-tipping, by restricting the opportunities available for the illegal disposal
               of waste by ensuring compliance with existing legal controls and providing a full
               audit trail of any waste that is removed from the construction site.

          2 The Devon Waste Local Plan Policy WPC5 requires contributions to be made
          towards waste management facilities where the infrastructure required to serve new
          development is inadequate or not in place. In the case of substantial development,
          these facilities may include Civic Amenity and Recycling Centres and Community
          Composting Schemes. Devon County Council has also published guidance on the
                                                (63)
          submission of Waste Audit Statements       in line with Policy WPC4.

          3 North Devon Council has adoopted a Design Guide on Refuse Storage for New
                             (64)
          Development SPD         in order to assist developers with the provision of appropriate
          refuse and recycling facilities.

          Exceeding the Standards

          4 If Level 1 of the Code for Sustainable homes is sought the basic requirement would
          be to ensure there is a SWMP in operation which requires the monitoring of waste on
          site and the setting of targets to promote resource efficiency. The SWMP would be
          based on a documented waste audit, including procedures and commitments which
                                                                                  (65)
          minimise waste generated on site in accordance with WRAP/Envirowise          guidance.
          A commitment and strategy would be required to operate site management procedures
          which reduces energy demand arising from site activities and from transport to and
          from site, reduce water consumption, use best practice air pollution controls and best
          practice water pollution controls.

          5 A target of ensuring 80% of assessed basic building and finishing materials are
          responsibly sourced is required to gain credits within the materials category. Key
          structural elements such as roof, wall, floor and window materials should achieve a
                                                      (66)
          rating of A+ to D in the BRE Green Guide.

          6 Whilst allowance is made for different waste collection regimes between local
          authority areas, maximum points would require adequate space must be available for
          the easily accessible containment of separated waste storage for each dwelling, along
          with home composting facilities.


          63   http://www.devon.gov.uk/wasteaudit.pdf
          64   http://www.northdevon.gov.uk/ldf
          65   http://www.wrap.org.uk/
          66   http://www.thegreenguide.org.uk/



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 59
    Appendix 8 - Materials, Waste and Pollution




   7 The Global Warming Potential (GWP) measuring the emissions associated with
   the blowing agent in insulation products should be minimised. Credit is awarded where
   all products on the checklist have a GWP of less than 5. Nitrogen oxide levels
   associated with the operation of space and hot water heating systems should be
   minimised to less than 40 mg/kWh to achieve maximum credits.

   Benefits

   8 Establishing a sustainable construction and waste management strategy for a
   project can contribute to a reduction in the cost of development and the cost of running
   the building once occupied. Reducing the amount of waste disposed of starts with
   good design and should encompass optimisation of materials purchased and the
   provision of appropriate storage space for separated waste during construction and
   occupation. Consideration should also be made as to whether materials can be easily
   reused at the end of the life of the building. Equally, materials which require less energy
   to prepare them for use, such as natural wood, combined with materials with high
   u-values, will reduce the amount of energy used in the whole life cycle of the building.
   A final element to sustainable construction is avoiding the use of potentially toxic
   materials to help ensure a healthy home.

   9 Table A8.1 sets out a checklist of issues to consider when devising a procurement
   management strategy whether it is a single dwelling or a large mixed use development.
   The process starts with the point at which materials are sourced through to waste
   disposal during the occupation of the property or development. This ‘cradle to grave’
   approach ensures that the impact on the environment is considered at each stage and
   for every aspect of a project.

    Action                                                                            Y

    Use of Green Guide products A+ to D

    Production of SWMP

    Use of materials with low GWP and NOx emissions

    Materials from sellers with good environmental management (for example
    BS7750)

    Local materials

    Preference for water or rail delivery if possible, otherwise seek to bulk into
    as few a deliveries as possible (possibly sourcing all from further if this is
    more efficient)

    Design to avoid waste during construction




60 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                               Appendix 8 - Materials, Waste and Pollution




          Action                                                                           Y

          Materials which are not toxic (for example untreated wood where possible)

          Materials with a long life expectancy or which can be recycled

          Reclaimed materials

          Supplement peat for green waste compost

          Wood from sustainably managed forests

          Consider alternatives to brick: compressed bricks, rammed earth, straw
          bales, hemp

          Materials with high u-values

          Consider alternatives to mineral insulation

          Supplement hydraulic lime for cement where possible

          Materials with a long life or which are highly recyclable

          Control dust, noise and light during construction

          Provision for separate storage of waste and home composting

          Table A8.1: Materials and Construction

          Advice and Further Information

              The BRE Green Guide www.thegreenguide.org.uk is an accredited environmental
              rating scheme for construction materials and components. The Green Guide
              contains more than 1200 specifications used in various types of building, information
              on the relative environmental performance of materials and components reflecting
              manufacturing practices.
              Use of waste trading sites such as www.nisp.org.uk,
              www.wrap.org.uk/construction/index.html and www.smartwaste.co.uk/about.jsp
              offer guidance and tools for minimising waste, reducing costs and maximising
              resources.




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 61
    Appendix 9 - Health and Wellbeing




   Appendix 9 - Health and Wellbeing

     Plan Policies

     Policy DVS1 Design
     Policy DVS3 Amenity Considerations
     Policy ENV1 Development in the Countryside
     Policy DVS1A Point 3 and 8



     Building Regulations

     Accessibility (Part M)
     Energy Efficiency (Part L)
     Soundproofing (Part E)



     Code for Sustainable Homes

     Category 7 Health and Wellbeing

         12 credits available

     Category 8 Management

         9 credits available

   Policy and Standards

   1 The adopted Local Plan seeks to support and strengthen the quality of design and
   sense of place through policies which promote healthy lifestyles. Policy DVS1 requires
   design and layout of a development to incorporate features to increase safety and
   reduce crime. Key measures are to increase the amount of natural surveillance, defining
   and enclosing private space and ensuring footpaths and cycleways should be wide,
   clear of hiding places and well lit. Policy DVS3 protects amenities, requiring
   consideration of how best to avoid intrusion by noise, light, vibration and emissions;
   and Policy ENV1 requires any development in the open countryside to protect or
   enhance its recreational value.




62 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                                  Appendix 9 - Health and Wellbeing




          2 Whilst larger developments will be required to make provision, smaller developments
          can make a positive contribution. Of particular importance for any development is to
          support the biodiversity networks which have been identified by Devon Wildlife
                 (67)
          Trust.

          3 Where infrastructure or other facilities area required, the developer will be required
          to enter into a legal agreement to secure a financial contribution or direct provision.
          The requirements for education, open space, sport, recreation and affordable housing
          are set out in a series of Codes of Practice (www.northdevon.gov.uk/ldf).

          Exceeding the Standards
                                 (68)
          4 Lifetime Homes          has been developed by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and
          adopted as a National Standard. With 16 standards ranging from the size of car parking
          spaces to controls, fixtures and fittings, it features built-in flexibility to the requirements
          of Part M, making homes easy to adapt as peoples' lives change.

          5 Building Regulations require buildings to be more air-tight than has been the case
          historically. Combined with the common use of synthetic surfaces and finishes, this
          can lead to an unhealthy indoor environment. Using sustainable design principals will
          also contribute to improved thermal, visual, acoustic comfort. A further issue is that
          the objective of increasing densities of housing and mixing uses means that careful
          consideration also needs to be given to noise and light pollution and the provision of
          sufficient open space.

          6 The Devon and Cornwall crime statistics do not suggest there are any particular
          problems in the North Devon area, although 40% of respondents to a Police Authority
          survey have expressed a fear of walking alone at night. The influence planning can
          have on crime is limited, but it is recognised that balancing accessibility and safety is
          an important design issue. The Association of Chief Police Officer’s ‘Secured by
                   (69)
          Design’       web site provides details of standards for door and window locks and
          general safety and the Devon and Cornwall Police Architectural Liaison Officer is
          available to discuss specific requirements.

          Benefits

          7 A Sustainable Community is a place where people want to live and work, now and
          in the future. It would meet the diverse needs of existing and future residents, be
          sensitive to their environment, and contribute to a high quality of life. They are safe




          67   http://www.devonwildlifetrust.org/index.php?section=services:biodiversitycentre:about
          68   http://www.lifetimehomes.org.uk/
          69   www.securedbydesign.com



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 63
    Appendix 9 - Health and Wellbeing




   and inclusive; well planned, built and run; and offer equality of opportunity and good
   services for all. Developments should also be designed to withstand the future impacts
   of climate change and associated extreme temperature and storms.

   8 Health and wellbeing is not only a matter of ensuring access to services, but also
   the creation of a healthy and adaptable living space. The Joseph Rowntree
                (70)
   Foundation        suggests that not only will the occupiers of homes built to Lifetime
   Homes standards benefit, but that £5.5 billion savings will result from reduced
   expenditure on adaptations and reduced need to move people to residential care. There
   would be further savings in health care and re-housing costs.

   9 A healthy building would be free of toxic substances, stress, danger or other health
   risks; and suitable for older people and for the vast majority of disabled people as well
   as the non-disabled person, they will have a wider market of potential buyers and
   residents, increasing their value and the ease with which they can be sold.

   10 Table A9.1 below provides a checklist of considerations which will help maximise
   the contribution to health and wellbeing of the community and individual householders.
   Seeking maximum points would entail a commitment to comply with best practice site
   management principles and a regular audit under a nationally or locally recognised
   independent certification scheme such as or comparable to the Considerate Contractors
             (71)
   Scheme.

    Action                                                                          Y

    Balance good ventilation with energy efficiency

    Use porous earth materials (clay, plaster) and organic materials (timber,
    wool & vegetable fibres) which absorb, store and release moisture in
    response to the prevailing weather conditions

    Provision of at least partially private outdoor space with wheelchair access

    Free of toxic substances

    Free of stress

    Free of hazards

    Control noise pollution

    Future proofing



   70   www.jrf.org.uk
   71   http://www.ccscheme.org.uk/



64 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                               Appendix 9 - Health and Wellbeing




          Action                                                                            Y

          Kitchen to achieve minimum average daylight factor of at least 2%

          Living rooms, dining rooms and studies to achieve a minimum average
          daylight factor of at least 1.5%

          Kitchens, living rooms, dining rooms and studies to be designed to have
          a view of the sky

          Achieve higher standards of sound insulation than required by Part E
          Technical Guidance of the Building Regulations, demonstrating it by either
          using post-completion testing (PCT) or Robust Details (RD)

          Compliance with the standards of Lifetime Homes.

          Provision of a Home User Guide that covers information relating to the
          dwelling and its surroundings

          Adopt and monitor Best Practice air and water pollution during construction

          Commitment to exceed Best Practice under the Considerate Constructors
          Scheme

          Compliance with ‘Secured by Design – New Homes’

          Table A9.1: Health and Wellbeing

          Advice and Further Information
                                                                                                (72)
               DCLG have published Safer Places: The Planning System and Crime Prevention
               which focuses on seven attributes of sustainability that are particularly relevant to
               crime prevention. The attributes are general and non prescriptive and should be
               considered as prompts to thinking about crime prevention and promoting community
               safety through the planning system.
                                         (73)
               CABEs Building for Life        provides a national standard for well-designed homes
               and neighbourhoods. Good quality housing design can improve social wellbeing
               and quality of life by reducing crime, improving public health, easing transport
               problems and increasing property values.




          72   www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/147627.pdf
          73   http://www.buildingforlife.org./



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 65
    Appendix 9 - Health and Wellbeing



                                                                                     (74)
        The DCLG have sponsored the production of a Manual for Streets             to assist
        in the creation of high quality residential streets.
                                  (75)
        Home Information Packs         are designed to bring information upfront to increase
        certainty and inform buyers about a property before they incur costs.




   74   http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/manualforstreets
   75   http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/layer?r.l1=1073858799&r
        .l3=1081563908&topicId=1081626981&r.lc=en&r.l2=1081626981&r.s=m



66 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                            Appendix 10 - Natural Features and Biodiversity




          Appendix 10 - Natural Features and Biodiversity

               Plan Policies

               Policy ENV8 Biodiversity
               Policy ENV9 International Nature Conservation Sites
               Policy ENV10 Sites of Special Scientific Interest
               Policy ENV11 Protected Species
               Policy ENV12 Locally Important Wildlife or Geological Sites
               Policy DVS1A Point 9



               Code for Sustainable Homes

               Category 9 Ecology

                   9 credits available

          Policy and Standards

          1 The general approach to biodiversity is established in PPS 9: Biodiversity and
                                   (76)
          Geological Conservation.      Developers should firstly avoid harm to protected habitats,
          mitigate harm where avoidance is not possible and enhance where there are
          opportunities. Where there are no alternatives other than to lose a habitat completely
          the developer must provide compensation in the form of new habitats of at least
          equivalent size and value elsewhere on or near the site.

          2 Where a development threatens the integrity of an International Nature Conservation
                                                             (77)
          Site such as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC)       is required in order to protect
          the ecology or species for which the site has been designated.

          Exceeding the Standards

          3 Biodiversity benefits can be combined with the delivery of other sustainability
          objectives. The provision of open space to enhance health, gardens and allotments
          to improve consumption of fresh food and the improved management of the water
          environment should all be designed to allow maximum biodiversity benefits.




          76     http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/147408.pdf
          77     http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/160442.pdf



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 67
    Appendix 10 - Natural Features and Biodiversity




   Benefits

   4 The environment of North Devon is one of the richest in the UK with a large
   proportion of UNESCO designated Biosphere Reserve and Heritage Coast, designated
   bathing waters and rich wildlife habitats. The environment is vital not just for its own
   sake, but because it makes a major contribution to the quality of life of residents and
   to the economy.

   5 Biodiversity enhancement can be achieved through measures such as well-designed
   gardens, green roofs and sustainable urban drainage. Conversely, conflict exists
   between the protection and enhancement of biodiversity and ensuring efficient use of
   land for housing and community safety.

   6 Table A10.1 provides a checklist of considerations to minimise impacts on habitats
   and deliver benefits to biodiversity whether the development is one building or a large
   mixed use development. If all actions were incorporated, it is likely that a maximum
   score would be achieved in the Code for Sustainable Homes.

    Action                                                                          Y

    Select land of low ecological value

    Efficient use of buildings footprint

    Achieve positive enhancements in overall Ecological Value of the site

    Seek advice from Suitably Qualified Ecologist and adopt recommendations

    Identify habitats and migration routes in and around the site

    Identify features to be retained and protect with temporary fencing during
    construction, including measures to avoid tree roots

    Avoid culverting and canalisation of watercourses and take opportunities
    to re-open watercourses

    Create new habitats and enhance existing habitats by supporting local
    semi-natural vegetation types in landscaping and greenspace and removing
    invasive species

    Create, enhance and improve links between habitats and Green
    Infrastructure

    Consider the implications of predicted climate change

    Make provision for long term management




68 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                          Appendix 10 - Natural Features and Biodiversity




          Action                                                                              Y

          Consider likely off-site impacts of services such as drainage

          Provide green roofs, using a good membrane for turf roof

          Substitute former parking spaces for wildlife habitats or add planting

          Table A10.1: Natural Features and Biodiversity

          7 Some of these principles have successfully been applied at Oak Meadow, South
          Molton where provision has been made for wildlife habitats, micro-climatic design,
          natural drainage, and minimum roads and hard surfaces. The landscape has been
          designed to high ecological standards with wildlife corridors and the creation of new
          habitat. Every home has private garden space, fruiting trees and Devon hedge banks.

          Advice and Further Information
                                                                                      (78)
               Information about designated sites is available from Natural England          and the
                                     (79)
               Devon Wildlife Trust.
                                                                            (80)
               Design guidance includes CABE’s ‘Design of Open Space’.




          78   www.naturalengland.org.uk
          79   www.wildlifetrusts.org
          80   www.cabe.org.uk/public-space



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 69
    Appendix 11 - Illustrative Examples




   Appendix 11 - Illustrative Examples
   Code Level 3 – An Illustrated Example

   DCLG have set out practical examples to assist in achieving Code Levels 1, 3 and 6.
   (81)
        A home meeting any level of the Code will have to meet minimum standards for
   certain items depending on what level is desired. For Level 3 this means:

   The home will have to be 25% more energy efficient than one built to the 2006 Building
   Regulations standards. This could be achieved by:

        Improving the thermal efficiency of the walls, windows, and roof as far as is
        practically possible (by using more insulation or better glass for example);
        Reducing air permeability to the minimum consistent with health requirements (a
        certain amount of air ventilation is needed in a home for health reasons);
        Installing a high efficiency condensing boiler;
        Carefully designing the fabric of the home to reduce thermal bridging (thermal
        bridging allows heat to easily escape between the inner walls and the outer walls
        of a home);
        Possibly using district heating systems or low and zero carbon technologies such
        as solar thermal panels or biomass boilers to help heat the hot water.

   The home will have to be designed to use no more than about 105 litres of water per
   person per day. This could be achieved by fitting a number of items such as:

        6/4 Dual Flush WC;
        Flow Reducing/Aerating taps throughout;
        6-9 litres per minute shower (note that an average electric shower is about 6/7
        litres per minute);
        a smaller, shaped bath – still long enough to lie down in, but less water required
        to fill it to a level consistent with personal comfort;
        18ltr maximum volume dishwasher;
        60ltr maximum volume washing machine.

   Other minimum requirements are required for:

        Surface water management – this may mean the provision of soakaways and
        areas of porous paving;




   81   http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/code_for_sust_homes.pdf



70 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                                           Appendix 11 - Illustrative Examples




              Materials – this means a minimum number of materials meeting at least a ‘D’ grade
              in the Building Research Establishment’s Green Guide (the scale goes from A+
              to E);
              Waste management – this means having a site waste management plan in place
              during the home’s construction, and adequate space for waste storage during its
              use.

          But to get to Level 3 you need a further 46.7 points. So the builder/developer must do
          other things to obtain the other points such as:

              Providing drying space (so that tumble dryers need not be used);
              Providing more energy efficient lighting (both internally and externally);
              Providing cycle storage;
              Providing a room that can be easily set up as a home office;
              Reducing the amount of water than runs off the site into the storm drains;
              Using much more environmentally friendly materials;
              Providing recycling capacity either inside or outside the home;
              Enhancing the security of the home;
              Enhancing the sound insulation used in the home.

          A further detailed specification for achieving Code Level 4 including U and Y values is
          available at www.greenspec.co.uk/html/lowcarbon/lowcarbonstandards4.html




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 71
    Appendix 12 - References and Sources of Information




   Appendix 12 - References and Sources of Information
   Action Energy & Energy Efficiency Best Practice in housing:

   Two programmes offering assistance on energy efficiency

   W: www.actionenergy.org.uk; T: 0800 58 57 94;
   E: help@actionenergy.org.uk;

   W: www.est.org.uk/bestpractice/index.cfm; T: 0845 120 7799;
   E: bestpractice@est.co.uk

   A Cost Review of the Code for Sustainable Homes.
   www.housingcorp.gov.uk/upload/pdf/Code_for_Sustainable_Homes_050407.pdf.
   English Partnerships and Cyril Sweet. February 2007

   Approved Document G: Sanitation, Hot Water Safety and Water Efficiency.
   www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/br/BR_PDF_draftADG_2009.pdf. DCLG. May
   2009.

   Biodiversity Records Centre.
   www.devonwildlifetrust.org/index.php?section=services:biodiversitycentre:about. Devon
   Wildlife Trust. 2009

   BRE Case Studies. www.bre.co.uk/codeconsultancy/casestudies.jsp. BRE. 2009

   Building a Greener Future: Towards Zero Carbon Development.
   http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/153125. Department
   of Communities and Local Government. 2006

   Building For Life. www.buildingforlife.org/criteria. CABE. 2008

   Building Regulations. www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/buildingregulations/.
   DCLG. 2005

   Changes to Permitted Development. Department of Communities and Local
   Government. www.communities.gov.uk/pub/367/ChangestoPermittedDevelopment
   ConsultationPaper1PermittedDevelopmentRightsforHout_id1509367.pdf. Department
   of Communities and Local Government. April 2007.

   CHP’s Contribution to Sustainable Energy. Cogen Europe. www.cogen
   org/Downloadables/Publications/Position_pzper_CHPs_Contribution
   _to_Sustainable_Energy.pdf. Department of Communities and Local Government.
   2005.

   CIBSE Guide F: Energy Efficiency in Buildings.


72 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                Appendix 12 - References and Sources of Information




          www.cibse.org/index.cfm?go=publications.view&item=6. CIBSE. 2004.

          Cracking the Code.
          www.housingcorp.gov.uk/upload/pdf/Cracking_the_Code_20080528102051.pdf.
          Housing Corporation. April 2008

          Code for Sustainable Homes Technical Guide.
          www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/code_for_sustainable_homes_techguide.pdf DCLG
          2009

          Code for Sustainable Homes - Case Studies.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/1161997.pdf. DCLG and
          Good Homes Alliance. March 2009

          Code for Sustainable Homes - Nil Rated Certificate.
          www.stroma.com/downloads/Nil%20rated%20certificate%20example.pdf Stroma. 2008

          Community Heating and Combined Heat and Power. http://nhbcfoundation.org
          /LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Ev%2f%2bSNIFrK4%3d&tabid=339&mid=774&
          language=en-GB. NHBC Foundation. February 2009

          Construction Skills Certification Scheme. www.cscs.uk.com. 2008

          Cost Analysis of the Code for Sustainable Homes: Final Report.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/codecostanalysis.pdf.
          DCLG. 2008

          Definition of   Zero    Carbon    Homes     and     Non-Domestic     Buildings.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/1101177.pdf. DCLG.
          December 2008

          Design Against Crime. www.designagainstcrime.com/index.php 2009.

          Design Guide on Refuse Storage for New Development. www.northdevon.gov.uk/ldf/
          North Devon Council. February 2008

          Design of Open Space. www.cabe.org.uk/public-space CABE. 2009

          Draft Regional Spatial Strategy for the South West.
          http://gosw.limehouse.co.uk/portal/regional_strategies/drss?pointId=109242#document-109242.
          2008

          Doing Well By Doing Good. www.rics.org/NR/rdonlyres/44F67595-7989-45C7-
          B489-7E2B84F9DA76/0/DoingWellbyDoingGood.pdf. RICS. March 2009

          Green Guide to Specification. www.thegreenguide.org.uk/. BRE. 2009



Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 73
    Appendix 12 - References and Sources of Information




   Guidance and Advice on Setting Up and Delivering an ESCO.
   www.lep.org.uk/uploads/lep_making_escos_work.pdf. London Energy Partnership.
   February 2007

   Guidance on the Use of Onsite Renewable Technologies. North Devon Council.
   www.northdevon.gov.uk/adopted_onsite_renewable_spd_19may2008.pdf. June 2008

   Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Systems. www.bre.co.uk/housing/section.jsp?sid=377.
   BRE 2009

   Integrating Renewable Energy into New Developments. The London Renewables
   Toolkit. www.london.gov.uk/mayor/environment/energy/docs/renewables_toolkit.pdf.
   Sept 2004.

   Joseph Rowntree Foundation. www.jrf.org.uk/. 2009

   Lifetime Homes Standard. www.lifetimehomes.org.uk/. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
   2008

   Manual for Streets.
   www.communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/manualforstreets . DCLG.
   2007

   Meeting the 10% Target for Renewable Energy in Housing. CE190.
   www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/uploads/documents
   /housingbuildings/CE190%20-%2010%20per%20cent%20guide.pdf. Energy Savings
   Trust. Sept 2006.

   Meeting   the     Energy      Challenge    -   A    White   Paper     on    Energy.
   www.berr.gov.uk/files/file39387.pdf. DTI. May 2007.

   Non-Statutory    Guidance    for    Site    Waste       Management     Plans.
   www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/construction/pdf/swmp-guidance.pdf.
   DEFRA. April 2008

   North Devon Local Plan.
   www.northdevon.gov.uk/index/lgcl_environment/lgcl_planning/nonlgcl_planning_policy/
   nonlgcl_local_plan/nonlgcl_local_plan_contents.htm. 2006.

   Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.
   http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts2004/ukpga_20040005_en_1.

   Planning for the Protection of European Sites: Appropriate Assessment.
   www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/160442.pdf DCLG 2006.




74 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010
                Appendix 12 - References and Sources of Information




          Planning Policies for Sustainable Building. Guidance for Local Development
          Frameworks. www.lga.gov.uk/lga/aio/179453. Local Government Association. Oct
          2006.

          Planning  Policy     Statement     1:   Delivering     Sustainable      Development.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/planningpolicystatement1.pdf.
          DCLG 2005

          Planning Policy Statement:1: Supplement: Planning and Climate Change.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/ppsclimatechange.pdf.
          DCLG. 2007

          Planning Policy Statement 3: Housing.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/planningpolicystatement3.pdf
          DCLG. March 2003

          Planning  Policy     Statement     6:    Planning     for    Town     Centres.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/147399.pdf DCLG. 2005

          Planning Policy Statement 9: Biodiversity and Geological Conservation.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/147408.pdf DCLG. 2005

          Planning Policy Statement 22: Renewable Energy.
          www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/147444. DCLG. 2004

          Previously Developed Land (x180).
          www.ciria.org/service/bookshop/core/orders/product.aspx?prodid=489 CIRIA. January
          2004

          Renewable Energy in South West England: Resources for Decision Makers.
          www.regensw.co.uk/. RegenSW. March 2007

          Renewable Energy Enquiries Bureau: The DBERR funds a renewable energy enquiries
          bureau and offers a range of detailed renewable energy publications on line.

          W:
          www.berr.gov.uk/energy/sources/renewables/policy/renewables-advisory-board/page16101.html

          Renewable Power Association: The Renewable Power Association is a trade association
          open to all companies involved in the UK renewable energy industry. Every type of
          Renewable energy technology and supply chain service is represented.

          W: www.r-p-a.org.uk.
          T: 020 7747 1830




Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010 North Devon Council 75
    Appendix 12 - References and Sources of Information




   ReVision 2020. South West Renewable Electricity, Heat and On-Site Generation Targets
   for 2020. www.oursouthwest.com/revision2020/. June 2005.

   Secured by Design :New Homes. www.securedbydesign.com/pdfs/newhomes2009.pdf.
   2009

   South West Sustainability Checklist. www.checklistsouthwest.co.uk/. Future Foundations

   Supporting and Delivering Zero Carbon Development in the South West: Final Policy
   Report. www.southwest-ra.gov.uk/media/SWRA/
   RSPTG/8th%20February%202007/PaperF_Appendix2.pdf. January 2007

   Sustainable Cities. www.sustainablecities.org.uk/leadership/planning/. CABE. 2009

   The Hidden Value Guide. www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/corporate/
   Corporate-and-media-site/Media-centre/Hot-topics/Hidden-Value-Guide. Energy Savings
   Trust. 2009

   Thermal Ratings and Environmental Properties (CE71).
   www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/corporate/Global-Data/Publications/
   Insulation-materials-chart-thermal-properties-and-environmental-ratings-CE71. Energy
   Savings Trust. March 2004

   Validation of Planning and Other Applications. North Devon Council.
   www.northdevon.gov.uk/local_list_validation_of_applications.pdf, June 2008

   Waste Audit Statements. www.devon.gov.uk/wasteaudit.pdf. Devon County Council.
   November 2006

   Water Act 2003. www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/legislation/default.htm. DEFRA.
   2006

   Waste and Resource Action Programme. www.wrap.org.uk/. 2009




76 North Devon Council Sustainable Design and Construction Guide - Adopted January 2010

				
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