Contents by dfsdf224s

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									                                                                                                         Contents
                                                           Part I
                                                         GENERAL
1. Evolution of Preventive and Social Medicine........................................................................... 1
    Historical background 1; Public health, preventive medicine, social medicine and community medicine 1; Public
    health 1; Preventive medicine 2; Social medicine 2; Preventive and social medicine 2; Community medicine 2
2. Basic Concepts in Community Medicine ................................................................................... 4
    Why to study community medicine 4; The concept of health 5; Determinants of health 6; Indicators of health 7;
    Concepts of disease 8; Concepts of prevention 9

                                               Part II
                                       EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD
General
3. Epidemiological Approach in Preventive and Social Medicine .......................................... 11
    The concept of epidemiology 11; Definition of epidemiology 11; The epidemiological triad 12; Web of causation 15;
    Epidemiological wheel 16; Natural history of disease 16; Epidemiological studies 21; Aim and objectives of
    epidemiology 22; Clinical vs epidemiological approach 22; Applications and uses of epidemiology 23;
    Methodology of epidemiological studies 24

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Physical Environment
4. Physical Environment: Air .......................................................................................................... 26
    Air 26; Factors affecting atmospheric environment 27; Physical agents in atmosphere 27; Acclimatisation to
    physical agents in the air 27; Chemical agents in atmosphere 28; Sources of pollution 29; Temperature inversion
    30; Effects of pollution on health 31; Biological agents in atmosphere 31; Ventilation 31
5. Physical Environment: Water ..................................................................................................... 34
    Sources of water 34; Water supply and quantitative standards 38; Water quality and qualitative standards 38;
    Purification of water 42; Swimming pool hygiene 47; Water problem in India 48
6. Physical Environment: Housing ................................................................................................ 50
    Types of soil 50; Soil and health 50; Housing 51; Harmful effects of improper housing 52; Recent trends in
    housing 53
7. Physical Environment: Wastes and their Disposal ................................................................ 54
    Wastes and health 54; Recycling of wastes 54; Refuse disposal 55; Excreta disposal 56; Sewerage system 60;
    Sewage disposal 62; Sullage disposal 64
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 8. Physical Environment: Place of Work or Occupation (Occupational Health) .................. 66
      Physical agents 66; Chemical agents 70; Biological agents 71; Social factors 71; Offensive trades and occupations
      72; Occupational diseases and hazards 72; Prevention of occupational diseases 75; Occupational health legislation
      76; Factories Act, 1948 76; Worker absenteeism 80
 9. Environmental Pollution ............................................................................................................. 81
      Air pollution 81; Water pollution 84; Soil and land pollution 85; Radioactive pollution 86; Thermal pollution
      87; Noise pollution 87

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
10. Biological Environment ............................................................................................................... 89
      Rodents 89; Arthropods 92; Mosquitoes 93; Flies 96; Fleas 98; Lice 99; Bugs 100; Scorpions 100; Ticks 101;
      Mites 101; Cyclops 102; Insect control 102; Insecticides 102; Biological control of insects 107; Genetic control 108

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
11. Social Environment .................................................................................................................... 109
      Social sciences 109; Cultural anthropology 113; Social psychology 113; Economics 113; Political science 114;
      Relationship amongst social sciences 114; Medical sociology and social medicine 114; Family 115; Household
      117; Socioeconomic status 117; Social causes of disease 118; Social aspects of treatment 118; Social environment
      and health 119
12. Health and Law ........................................................................................................................... 121
      Laws related to health 121; Law and the rural masses 121; Law as a tool to improve people’s health 123; Medical
      negligence and inefficacy of Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 123; Consumer Protection Act, 1986 123; MRTP
      Act, 1969 125; Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 125; Law of tort 125; Public interest litigation (PIL) 125

HOST FACTORS
13. Host Factors and Health ............................................................................................................ 127
      Age, sex, marital status and race 127; Physical state of the body 128; Psychological state and personality 128;
      Genetic constitution 128; Defence mechanisms 130; Nutritional status 132; Habits and lifestyle 132

AGENT FACTORS
Communicable Diseases
14. General Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases ............................................................ 137
      Transmission of infectious agents 138; Definitions in communicable disease epidemiology 139; Epidemiological
      description of communicable diseases 146; Disinfection and disinfectants 148; Classification of communicable
      diseases 151; Epidemiological approach to communicable diseases after natural disasters 153
15. Respiratory Infections ............................................................................................................... 155
      Nonspecific viral infections (Common cold, Influenza) 155; Specific viral infections 157 (Smallpox 157, Chickenpox
      159, Measles 160, Mumps 161, German measles 162); Nonspecific bacterial infections 163 (Pneumonias 163,
      Streptococcal sore throat 163); Specific bacterial infections 163 (Diphtheria 163); Whooping cough 166;
      Meningococcal meningitis 167; Tuberculosis 168; National tuberculosis control program 176; Acute respiratory
      infections 180; ARI component of RCH programme 182
16. Water and Food-borne (Alimentary) Infections ................................................................... 186
      Cholera and diarrhoea 186; Diarrhoea 193; Control of diarrhoeal diseases 193; Food poisoning 200; Enteric
      fevers 202 (Typhoid 202, Paratyphoid fevers 204); Brucellosis 205; Bacillary dysentery or shigellosis 206;
      Amoebiasis 207; Giardiasis 209; Balantidiasis 209; Viral hepatitis 210; Poliomyelitis 215; Worm infections 218;
      Snail transmitted helminths 218; Food animal transmitted helminths 220 (Tapeworms 220, Trichinella spiralis
      223); Contagious or fecal-borne helminths 223; Soil-transmitted helminths 224 (Trichuris trichiura 225, Hookworm
      225, Strongyloides stercoralis 226); Arthropod transmitted helminths 226
                                                                                                                                      Contents       xv

17. Contact Diseases ......................................................................................................................... 228
      Leprosy 228; National leprosy eradication programme 239; Sexually transmitted diseases or venereal diseases
      241; Syphilis 241; Gonorrhea 244; Trichomonal vaginitis and urethritis 245; Chancroid 245; Lymphogranuloma
      venereum (LGV) 245; Granuloma inguinale 246; STD control on a large scale 246; National STD control
      programme 247; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 248; National AIDS control programme 253;
      Syndromic approach to STD 254; Trachoma 256; Fungus infections 257; Ringworm 257; Yaws 258; Scabies 259
18. Arthropod-borne Diseases ........................................................................................................ 260
      Malaria 260; National malaria eradication programme 267; Filariasis 274; National filaria control programme
      (NFCP) 280; Arboviruses 280; Yellow fever 281; Dengue 283; Chikungunya fever 285; Japanese encephalitis 285;
      Sandfly fever 286; Leishmaniasis 287; Plague 289; Kyasanur forest disease 292; Epidemic typhus (Louse-borne
      typhus) 293; Trench fever 293; Endemic typhus 294; Scrub typhus 294; Tick typhus 295; Relapsing fever 295
19. Miscellaneous Zoonoses, Other Infections and Emerging Infections ............................. 297
      Rabies 297; Rat bite fever 301; Leptospirosis (Weil’s disease) 302; Anthrax 302; Glanders 303; Tetanus 303
NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES
20. Epidemiology of Noncommunicable Diseases ..................................................................... 306
      Cancer 307; Cardiovascular diseases 315; Diabetes 319; Accidents 320; Blindness 322
AGENT, HOST, ENVIRONMENT CONTINUUM: FOOD AND NUTRITION
21. Food and Nutrition ..................................................................................................................... 329
      Epidemiological aspects 329; Nutrients and proximate food principles 330; Fat soluble vitamins 334; Water
      soluble vitamins 335; Foods and food groups 337; Milk and milk products 337; Eggs and meat 339; Cereals and
      millets 339; Pulses, oilseeds and nuts 340; Vegetables 340; Fruits 341; Fats and oils 342; Sugar, jaggery and
      honey 343; Condiments and spices 343; Beverages 343; Preservation of foods and conservation of nutrients 344;
      Diet standards and diet planning 345; Malnutrition 347; Assessment of nutritional status 349; Nutritional
      deficiency states 351; Epidemiological aspects 351; Protein energy malnutrition 352; Iron deficiency 354; Vitamin
      A deficiency 354; Iodine deficiency 355; National nutrition programs 355; Obesity 359; Food hygiene 360; Food
      borne or food related diseases 360; National nutrition policy 361

                                 Part III
             HEALTH STATISTICS, RESEARCH AND DEMOGRAPHY
22. Biostatistics .................................................................................................................................. 371
      Presentation of statistics 371; Variability and error 375; Analysis and interpretation of data 376; Sampling 378;
      Sampling variations 379; Tests of significance 380
23. Research Methodology .............................................................................................................. 387
      Purpose of research and broad areas of research 387; Research approaches in public health 388; Case studies
      389; Surveys 389; Designing research protocol 392; Ethical considerations in research 396
24. Demography and Vital Statistics ............................................................................................. 398
      Demography 398; Uses and applications of vital statistics 401; Collection of vital statistics 401; Compilation,
      tabulation and presentation of statistics 407; Analysis of vital data 407; Interpretation, conclusions, and
      recommendations 411; Vital statistics as indicators of health 414

                                                  Part IV
                                         HEALTH CARE AND SERVICES
25. Health Planning, Administration and Management ........................................................... 416
      Health planning 416; Health planning in India 418; Planning commission 418; National health planning 418;
      Ninth plan: Health and family welfare 419; Operational strategy for ISM and H in the ninth plan 427; Primary
      health care 427; Secondary health care 427; Tertiary health care 427; Draft approach paper to the tenth five-year
      plan (2002-2007) 437; National health committees 437; Health manpower planning 440; Health administration
xvi    Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine

      and management 443; Government health organisation in India 450; National health policy 454; Comments
      about national health policy 459; Draft National Health Policy-2001 460; Health and development 473
26. Health Economics ....................................................................................................................... 479
      Basic concepts 479; Some practical considerations 484
27. Health Care of the Community ................................................................................................ 486
      Imbalance in health care and its causes 486; Health problems in India 487; Health care 487; Rural primary health
      care 489; Urban primary health care 495; National health programs 496
28. Information, Education, Communication and Training in Health ................................... 503
      Definitions and concepts 503; Role and need of health education and promotion 506; Objectives of health education
      and promotion 507; The process of change in behavior 507; Principles of health education 509; Communication in
      health education and training 511; Education and training methodology 512; Planning of health education 515;
      Levels of health education 516; Experience and examples of health education 518; Child to child program 519;
      Education and training system in health and FW institution 519; IEC training scheme 520; Social marketing 521
29. Maternal and Child Health ....................................................................................................... 524
      Maternal morbidity and mortality 525; Pediatric morbidity and mortality 528; Maternal and child health services
      530; National programs for maternal and child health 534; Reproductive and child health and safe program 534;
      National immunization program 537; Integrated child development services 540
30. Family Planning and Population Policy................................................................................. 544
      Scope of family planning services 544; Demographic considerations in family planning 544; Qualities of a good
      contraceptive 546; Methods of family planning 546; National family welfare program 559; National population
      policy 566; Social dimensions of family planning and population control 570
31. School Health Services .............................................................................................................. 574
      School health program 575
32. Geriatrics—Care and Welfare of the Aged ............................................................................ 578
      The problems of the old 579; Administrative aspects 581
33. Mental Health .............................................................................................................................. 583
      Prevalence of mental illness 583; Etiology 584; Types of mental disorders 584; Drug addiction 586; Mental
      health care 587; Prevention and control of mental illness 588; National mental health program 589
34. Health Services through General Practitioners .................................................................... 591
      What is general practice? 591; Components of family medicine or general practice 592; Community skills
      needed in a general practitioner/family physician 594
35. International Health ................................................................................................................... 595
      Pre-WHO efforts 595; World Health Organization 596; Other UN agencies 598; Bilateral agencies 601; Non-
      government agencies 602
36. Epidemiology Study Design .................................................................................................... 604
      General 604; Epidemiological study designs 605
37. Biomedical Waste Management .............................................................................................. 613
      Concept and definition 613; Importance and nature of biomedical waste 613; Health hazards associated with
      poor hospital waste management 614; Disposal of biomedical waste 614; Treatment 616; Biomedical wastes 618
38. Anthrax and Bioterrorism ......................................................................................................... 620
39. Nosocomial Infections ............................................................................................................... 623
40. Oral Diseases ............................................................................................................................... 624
      Major statements 624; Oral cancer 624; Oral precancer 625; Oral mucosal diseases 625; Periodontal disease 626
41. Disaster Management ................................................................................................................ 629
      Natural disasters 631; Biological disasters 633; Chemical disasters 635, Natural disasters in India 637
      Index ............................................................................................................................................... 641

								
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