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					Cold War
 1945-1991
      Cold War Beginnings
 Following WWII the US and USSR were
  the only two superpowers left
 Soon after WWII these two powers were in
  a Cold War (Icy Tensions)
 Why?- different economic systems,
  strategic interests, Stalin’s Speech, Iron
  Curtain Speech, Atomic Weapons
           Pre Cold War distrust
   US
    – Communism antithesis of
      Democracy/Freedom/Capitalism
    – Stalin’s Purges
    – Non-Aggression Pact
    – USSR emphasis on Worldwide communism
   USSR
    – US attempted to undo Revolution
    – Delayed attack on Western Front during WWII
    – Believes peace will come from worldwide
     communism
     Yalta Conference 1945
 Big 3 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
 Germany Split into 4 Occupied Zones
 Soviet vs. Western Allies (Tension for Four
  Decades)
 Agreement to create United Nations
           Potsdam- 1945
 Big 3 – Truman, Churchill, Stalin
 Meeting more tense (Truman’s style, plus
  knowledge of da bomb)
 Presses Stalin for free elections in Eastern
  Europe
 Stalin later gives speech saying Capitalism
  and Communism cannot exist in same
  world
        United States 1946
 Churchill Warns of an “Iron Curtain” in
  Europe
 Stalin calls speech an act of war, beginning
  of the Cold War
         Truman Doctrine- 1946
 Turkey and Greece faced Communist
  revolutions
 Truman asks for and recieves 400 million to aid
  fight against communism
 Beginning of Containment Policy (not allow
  communism to spread)
    – Becomes guiding US policy into 1970’s
       Western Europe 1947
 The Marshall Plan gives aid to European
  Nations
 Rebuilt Western Europe, threatened
  Communism
           Berlin, Germany
 Stalin cuts off access to Berlin, US sends
  airplanes with supplies
 Stalin backs off, Victory for West
     Western Europe/ North
        America 1949
 NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 USSR creates Warsaw Pact in 1955
       USSR/China- 1949
 USSR develops A-Bomb
 Arms race develops between US and USSR
 China falls to the Communists
               Eisenhower
   Eisenhower / Dulles policy of Massive
    Retaliation (Brinkmanship)
                 Containment Chart
Event            Year   Description   How was this a
                                      part of
                                      containment
                                      policy?
Truman
Doctrine
Marshall Plan

Berlin Airlift

NATO

Brinkmanship
                 Korea
 Communist North Korea Invades South
  Korea
 UN and West aid South Korea while Soviet
  Union and China aid North Korea
 1950-1953
38th Parallel
Inchon Landing
Yalu River
Truman Fires Macarthur
1953 Cease Fire and DMZ
            Vietnam 1954
 US actively aids against Ho Chi Minh and
  Communists
 French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
Paris Peace Accords
Eisenhower and the Domino
         Theory
JFK and Diem
           LBJ
1963- USS Maddox and Gulf
        of Tonkin
1964-1968 (Tet Offensive)
1968- Nixon and
 Vietnamization
1975- Fall of Saigon
Vietnam Effects
               Cuba 1959
   Fidel Castro and Communists take Cuba
                Cuba 1960
   Bay of Pigs invasion, attempted overthrow
    of Fidel Castro’s Communism
              Cuba 1962

 Soviet Missiles Discovered in Cuba
 Beginning of 13 Day Cuban Missile Crisis
       Cuban Missile Crisis
 Closest ever coming to Nuclear War
 Kennedy vs. Kruschev
 President Kennedy Blocks Cuba with Ships
  (“eye to eye and the other guy blinked”)
    Soviet Union 1953-1956
 Stalin Dies in 1953, Nikita Kruschev
  becomes new Soviet Leader
 1956 begins policy of De-Stalinization
           Hungary 1956
 Hungarian Leader Imre Nage takes Hungary
  out of Warsaw Pact
 Kruschev sends in Soviet Troops to regain
  order
            USSR-1957
 Soviets Launch Sputnik
 Beginning of Space Race between US and
  USSR
      Berlin, Germany 1961
 East Germany builds wall, cuts off access
  for East Germany to West Berlin Berlin
 Wall became a symbol of the Cold War
     USSR / Czecholslovakia-
           1964-1968
 1964 Leonid Brezhnez becomes leader of Soviet
  Union
 Czechovakian leader Alexander Dubcek lessoned
  censorship “Prague Spring”
 Free Expression clamped down with Brezhnez
  Doctrine (later used in Afghanistan)
     Richard Nixon and Detente
 Détente- Lessening Cold War Tensions
 Real Politik- dealing with nations in a practical
  and flexible manner (anti-containment)
 Nixon visits China (Sino-Soviet Split)
 SALT Treaties
 Policy continued with Gerald Ford and Jimmy
  Carter
           Ronald Reagan
 Fiercely Anti-Communist
 Moved Away from Détente
 Increased Military Spending
 SDI, Strategic Defense Initiative or Star
  Wars
             USSR 1985
 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Premier
 Begins a series of Reforms and Freedoms in
  Russia
                      Glasnost
   Openness- Churches opened, Press allowed to
    criticize government, Banned authors allowed to
    publish books
               Perestroika
   “Economic Restructuring”, Managers make
    more decisions, small private businesses
          Democratization
 Gradual opening of the political system
 Election of a new group of lawmakers
 Communist Party no longer chose all
  candidates
              USSR 1991
 Nationalities begin to call of Independence
 August Coup, by Communist Hardliners
 Boris Yeltsin Seen as Hero
 Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia
        Russia 1991-1999
 Boris Yeltsin President
 Forms Commonwealth of Independent
  States of CIS
 Shock Therapy for Economy
        Russia 1999-2008
 Vladimir Putin appointed President in 1999
  (won re-election twice)
 Forcefully dealt with Chechnya
 Tightened Grip of government on Economy
 Restricted Voting Rights and Liberties
    Central and Eastern Europe
              Poland
   Lech Walesa leads workers Union
    Solidarity against Communist Government

   Series of strikes and crackdowns. By 1989,
    Solidarity was legal in Poland, helped gain
    free elections
      Berlin, Germany 1989
 Berlin Wall falls after Hungary opens its
  borders (Symbol of End of Cold War)
 Start of the collapse of the Eastern Bloc
 Process of Reunification

				
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