Commonly Used Measures by dfsdf224s

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 13

									                            Commonly Used Measures


The following tables identify some of the measures that are commonly used in British
Columbia, and suggest how they can be effectively used in school planning. These tables
include only more formal standard measures that can be helpful when combined with
ongoing teacher observations and assessments.

Provincial
 Type of measure               Purpose                         Use in School Plans

Foundation Skills      Provide provincial, district,   Results should be considered in
Assessment (FSA)       and school monitoring of        developing rationale for goals and
                       reading comprehension over      objectives
                       time
                                                       Results can provide evidence of
                       Accountability                  growth and achievement where
                                                       there is a sufficiently large
                                                       number of students

                                                       In most elementary schools, sta
                                                       tistical constraints make it difficult
                                                       to use these scores to demon
                                                       strate gains/changes

 Portfolios            Provide comprehensive evi-      Results may be considered in de
 Can be considered     dence of student                veloping rationale for goals
 ‘standard’ when       achievement                     and objectives for the next year
 specific require
 ments are agreed      Offer evidence for reporting    Results may provide a focus for
 on or a provincial    to parents                      strategies or interventions in the
 standard is set.                                      next year
                       Facilitate self-assessment
                                                       Can provide evidence of achieve
                       May provide evidence of         ment over a variety of situations
                       growth over time                and forms that may include a
                                                       standard assessment; this can
                                                       be the basis of evidence of
                                                       change/improvement for
                                                       school, grade, or sub-groups


 Provincial            Assess individual student       Results should be considered in
 Examinations          achievement (summative)         developing rationale for goals and
                                                       objectives
                       For grade 12 courses, these     Results can provide evidence of
                       are final examinations that      growth and achievement for over
                       count 40% of a students’        all achievement, where there are
                       final grade                      a sufficiently large number
                                                       of students.
                       Participation rates should be
                       considered                      The overall examination results
                                                       may not be helpful in tracking
                       The total score is not direct   incremental changes in perfor
                       ly related to reading;          mance; however schools may
                       however some of the sub         choose to analyze some of
                       scores that are available to    the sub-scores (caution: the
                       schools do relate to            reliability of these will be
                       particular aspects of           somewhat lower than that of
                       reading.                        the total examination)

 Provincial Satis      Monitor provincial, district,   Results should be considered in
 faction Surveys       and school perceptions of       developing rationale for goals
                       school safety                   and objectives

                       Accountability                  Results can provide evidence of
                                                       change where there is a
                                                       sufficiently large number of stu
                                                       dents and the participation rate
                                                       is high

                                                       In most elementary schools,
                                                       statistical constraints make it
                                                       extremely difficult to use these
                                                       scores to demonstrate gains/
                                                       changes.

Commercial Standardized Assessment
 Type of measure               Purpose                        Use in School Plans

 Diagnostic test/      Identify which students re      Results may help to provide ratio
 battery or screen     quire/will benefit from          nale for goals or objectives
 ing assessment        intervention in order to be
 e.g.                  successful                      Administration and tracking may
 Kindergarten                                          be important part of strategies
 screening Informal    Identify particular patterns
 Reading Inventories   of needs in order to plan       Typically not useful as evidence
 (e.g., Alberta        intervention                    of achievement
 Diagnostic)
 Standardized           Identified in manual             Results may contribute to ratio
 achievement test                                       nale for goals and objectives
 (commercial)           Generally to measure read
 e.g.                   ing comprehension accord        Can provide evidence of achieve
 CTBS subtestsCAT       ing to a particular definition   ment and growth
 subtestsGates-Mc       that is clearly described in
 Ginitie                the manual                      May be used as baseline and
                                                        repeated at regular (e.g.. yearly)
                                                        intervals

                                                        Must ensure that the definition
                                                        and specifications match the
                                                        BC curriculum


                                                        Highly desirable to validate by
                                                        comparing results to classroom
                                                        or other assessments

                                                        Need a large sample in order to
                                                        be confident that changes are
                                                        ‘real’ –results are more trustwor
                                                        thy for large groups than for
                                                        small groups; generally not
                                                        appropriate for decisions about
                                                        individuals.


Literacy: Reading & Writing                                            Other Measures
 Type of measure                Purpose                        Use in School Plans

 BC Performance         Support ongoing instruction     May be considered in developing
 Standards              and assessment                  rationale for goals and
 E.g., used to con                                      objectives
 struct and scores      Monitor, evaluate and report
 specific assessments    on individuals                  Can help to focus strategies on
 OR to summarize                                        key aspects of reading
 results of a variety   Develop profiles of class or
 of evidence            group of students               Can form the basis for specific
                                                        reading tasks and assessments
                        Facilitate discussion with      that become part of evidence of
                        parents, students, other        growth
                        teachers
                     Set goals for individuals,     Can be used to summarize or
                     classes, or schools            create a composite from several
                                                    sources including teacher
                     Develop evidence for school    judgment and standard
                     plans                          measures; this can be the basis
                                                    of evidence of change/
                                                    improvement for school,
                                                    grade, or sub-groups




Report Cards         Provide information related    Results may contribute to ratio
                     to achievement and prog        nale for goals and objectives
                     ress made by individual
                     students                       Results can help to provide di
                                                    rection for strategies that will
                                                    be implemented

                                                    When used to compare across
                                                    grades or used at the district
                                                    level standards should be
                                                    criterion referenced



Reading School or    Various; typically focuses     Results may be used as part of
district-developed   on assessment of student       rationale for goals
reading assess       achievement in terms of        and objectives
ments                reading fluency, accuracy,
                     and/or comprehension           Results can help to provide di
                                                    rection for strategies that will
                     School or district should de   be implemented
                     velop a clear statement
                     of purpose and definition       Results can form part of the evi
                     at the outset; this should     dence teachers use to make
                     guide all development and      overall judgments about student
                     interpretation activities      achievement

                                                    Results can provide evidence of
                                                    growth and achievement where
                                                    there is a sufficiently large
                                                    number of students

                                                    In most elementary schools, sta
                                                    tistical constraints make it
                                                    extremely difficult to use these
                                                    scores by themselves to demon
                                                    strate gains/changes.
Reading assess         Various; typically focuses      As part of the evidence teachers
ment package or        on assessment of student        use in making overall judgments
instrument             achievement in terms of         about student achievement and
                       reading fluency, accuracy,       progress, they can contribute to
                       and/or comprehension            the rationale for goals and
E.g.,                                                  objectives, and provide some
DRAPM                  Clear statement of purpose      of the evidence teachers
Benchmarks             should be included in           consider when summarizing and
                       package or supporting mate      creating a profile or composite
                       rial
                                                       Results can provide evidence of
                                                       growth and achievement
                                                       where there is a sufficiently large
                                                       number of students

                                                       In most elementary schools, sta
                                                       tistical constraints make it
                                                       extremely difficult to use these
                                                       scores by themselves to demon
                                                       strate gains/changes.



Reading assess         Identify particular students    The quality of these is extremely
ment tasks includ      who need support or inter       varied; they need to be carefully
ed in remedial or      vention                         evaluated in terms of the criteria
corrective reading                                     above. The quality of the texts
kits or packages       Determine the ‘level’ of text   and tasks students are given is
                       or task that is appropriate     often a serious concern.
                       as a starting place for a stu
E.g., SRA Reading      dentl                           Using these instruments to
Lab                                                    identify needs and track student
                       Provide diagnostic informa      progress may be important
                       tion about particular skills    part of strategies
                       or strategies
                                                       Typically not useful as evidence of
                       Determine whether a stu         achievement unless it can be
                       dent will be able to work       demonstrated that texts and
                       with the next ‘level’.          tasks are comparable to those
                                                       normally encountered in school


Reading assess         Various; primary purpose is     The quality of these is extremely
ment tasks includ      typically to monitor fluency,    varied; they need to be
ed with antholo        accuracy and/or comprehen       carefully evaluated in terms of the
gies or collections    sion of the outcomes            criteria above
of ‘little books’ or   that the resource is
other resources        designed to achieve
E.g.,               In some cases, these tasks     When used over time, these may
                    or assessments are very        play a significant role in teachers’
-Nelson Languag     narrowly focused on a par      ongoing assessment and the
e Arts              ticular skill that has been    judgments teachers’ make
-Collections        the focus of instruction; in
                    others, they are intended to   As part of the evidence
                    generalize over a broad        teachers use in making overall
                    range of outcomes or           judgments about students
                    competencies                   achievement and progress, they
                                                   can contribute to the rationale
                                                   for goals and objectives, and
                                                   provide some of the evidence
                                                   teachers consider when
                                                   summarizing and creating a
                                                   profile or composite

                                                   Often more useful as part of the
                                                   strategies teachers use, as
                                                   these may provide insights into
                                                   where students are improving
                                                   and what aspects they need
                                                   help with.


Writing             Identify particular students    The quality of these is extremely
assessment tasks    who need support or interv      varied; they need to be carefully
included in com     ention                          evaluated in terms of the
mercial programs,                                   criteria above and to ensure that
or remedial or      Provide diagnostic informa      they match BC curriculum
corrective          tion about particular skills or outcomes. There must be clear
resources           strategies a student has/has evidence that the interpretations
                    not achieved.                   offered are supported by
                                                    research and evidence
                    Identify instructional strate
                    gies that may be appropriate May be useful to identify needs
                    for a particular student        and track student progress as
                                                    part of strategies
                    Track student growth over
                    time.                           Typically not useful as evidence
                                                    of achievement unless it can
                                                    be demonstrated that the
                                                    tasks and interpretations are
                                                    comparable to those normally
                                                    encountered in school and
                                                    convergent with the BC
                                                    curriculum
Writing Samples        Determine the extent to        Results may be used as part of
Information or         which students have            rationale for school goals
literary writing       met expectations for key       and objectives
samples (result        forms/purposes of writing
ing from regular       appropriate for their grade    Results can help to provide direc
classroom instruct     level                          tion for strategies that will
ion)                                                  be implemented
                       Provide formative informa
Note: these differ     tion teachers can use in       Results can form part of the
from Impromptu         planning instruction           evidence teachers use to
samples in that they                                  make overall judgments about
are written within     Facilitate discussion among    student achievement
the context on on      teachers
going classroom in                                    Results can provide evidence of
struction and          Develop evidence for school    growth and achievement
represent important    plans                          where there is a sufficiently large
assignments that                                      number of students
focus on specific       Support ongoing instruction
audiences and pur      and assessment                 In most elementary schools,
poses. Several                                        statistical constraints make it
teachers at the                                       extremely difficult to use these
same grade may de                                     scores by themselves to demon
cide to use the                                       strate gains/changes
same assignment.


Writing collec         Provide comprehensive          Note: when a collection of writing
tions or portfolios    evidence of student writing    is used to establish the students’
                       achievement (may include       current achievement, only
Can be considered      an impromptu writing           relatively recent work should be
‘standard’ when        sample from a standard         considered.
specific                writing assessment)
requirements are                                      Results from one year may be
agreed on by sev       Offer evidence for reporting   considered in developing
eral teachers          to parents                     rationale for goals and
                                                      objectives for the next year
                       Facilitate self-assessment
                                                      Results from one year can provide
                       May provide evidence of        a focus for strategies or
                       growth over time               interventions in the next year

                                                      Can provide evidence of achieve
                                                      ment in writing over a variety of
                                                      situations and forms (that may
                                                      include a standard assessment);
                                                      this can be the basis of
                                                      evidence of change/improvement
                                                      for school, grade, or sub-groups.
Numeracy: Mathematics
 Type of measure               Purpose                        Use in School Plans

 BC Performance        Support ongoing instruction     May be considered in developing
 Standards             and assessment                  rationale for goals and objec
                                                       tives
 E.g.,                 Monitor, evaluate and report
 used to construct     on individuals                  Can help to focus strategies on
 and scores specific                                    key aspects of reading
 assessments OR to     Develop profiles of class or
 summarize results     group of students               Can form the basis for specific
 of a variety of evi                                   reading tasks and assessments
 dence                 Facilitate discussion with      that become part of evidence of
                       parents, students, other        growth
                       teachers
                                                       Can be used to summarize or
                       Set goals for individuals,      create a composite from
                       classes, or schools             several sources including teacher
                                                       judgment and standard
                       Develop evidence for school     measures; this can be the
                       plans                           basis of evidence of change/im
                                                       provement for school, grade, or
                                                       sub-groups


 Report Cards          Provide information related     Results may contribute to ratio
                       to achievement and              nale for goals and objectives
                       progress made by individual
                       students                        Results can help to provide di
                                                       rection for strategies that will be
                                                       implemented

                                                       When used to compare across
                                                       grades or used at the district
                                                       level standards should be
                                                       criterion referenced

 Mathematics as        Identify particular students    The quality of these is extremely
 sessment tasks        who need support or inter       varied; they need to be carefully
 included in           vention                         evaluated in terms of the criteria
 remedial or                                           above. The quality of the texts
 corrective reading    Determine the ‘level’ of task   and tasks students are given
 kits or packages      that is appropriate as a        is often a serious concern.
                       starting place for a student
 E.g., Schoolhouse     and/or whether they will be     Using these instruments to iden
 Math Lab              able to work at the             tify needs and track student
                       next ‘level’                    progress may be important
                                                       part of strategies
                    Provide diagnostic informa      Typically not useful as evidence of
                    tion about particular skills    achievement unless it can be
                    or strategies                   demonstrated that texts and
                                                    tasks are comparable to those
                                                    normally encountered in school


Mathematics as      Various; typically focuses      Results may be used as part of
sessments School    on assessment of student        rationale for goals and
or district-devel   achievement in terms of         objectives
oped                concepts, procedures, strat
                    egies and communication         Results can help to provide di
                                                    rection for strategies that will be
                    School or district should       implemented
                    develop a clear statement of
                    purpose and definition at the    Results can form part of the evi
                    outset; this should guide all   dence teachers use to make
                    development and                 overall judgments about student
                    interpretation activities       achievement

                    May be designed as perfor       Results can provide evidence of
                    mance tasks, or written         growth and achievement where
                    tests, or a combination of      there is a sufficiently large
                    both.                           number of students

                                                    In most elementary schools,
                                                    statistical constraints make it
                                                    extremely difficult to use these
                                                    scores by themselves to
                                                    demonstrate gains/changes

Mathematics         Various; primary purpose is     When used over time, these may
textbook            typically to monitor develop    play a significant role in teachers’
assessment tasks    ment of concepts,               ongoing assessment and the
or tests included   procedures, strategies, and     judgments teachers’ make
with mathematics    communication that the
textbooks           resource is designed to         As part of the evidence teachers
                    achieve; typically organized    use in making overall judgments
                    by unit/strand                  about students achievement and
                                                    progress, they can contribute to
                                                    the rationale for goals and
                                                    objectives, and provide some of
                                                    the evidence teachers consider
                                                    when summarizing and
                                                    creating a profile or composite
                        In some cases, these tasks       Often more useful as part of the
                        or assessments are very          strategies teachers use, as
                        narrowly focused on a            these may provide insights into
                        particular skill that has been   where students are improving
                        the focus of instruction; in     and what aspects they need help
                        others, they are intended to     with
                        generalize over a broad
                        range of outcomes or
                        competencies

Social Responsibility
 Type of measure                Purpose                         Use in School Plans

 BC Performance         Support ongoing instruction      May be considered in developing
 Standards              and assessment                   rationale for goals and objec
                                                         tives
 E.g.,                  Monitor, evaluate and report
 used to construct      on individuals                   Can help to focus strategies on
 and scores specific                                       key aspects of reading
 assessments OR to      Develop profiles of class or
 summarize results      group of students                Can form the basis for specific
 of a variety of                                         reading tasks and assessments
 evidence               Facilitate discussion with       that become part of evidence of
                        parents, students, other         growth
                        teachers
                                                         Can be used to summarize or
                        Set goals for individuals,       create a composite from
                        classes, or schools              several sources including teacher
                                                         judgment and standard
                        Develop evidence for school      measures; this can be the basis
                        plans                            of evidence of change/
                                                         improvement for school, grade,
                                                         or sub-groups



 Social Responsi        Raise awareness of social        Results can contribute to
 bility Locally de      responsibility within the        rationale for goals and objec
 veloped self-re        school                           tives
 port instruments
                      Identify issues and                Can provide evidence of achieve
 E.g.,                perceptions within the             ment and growth provided that a
Bullying SurveyStu    school community                   large enough number of
dent Survey of Social (set priorities)                   students are included–results are
Responsibility                                           more trustworthy for large
                                                         groups than for small groups
Social Responsi             Track changes in self-         Results can contribute to rationale
bility Locally de           reported behaviours            for goals and objectives
veloped self-re
port instruments            Provide direction for strate   Can provide evidence of achieve
                            gies and interventions         ment and growth provided that a
 E.g.,                                                     large enough number of
Bullying SurveyStu    Note: often focused at one           students are included–results are
dent Survey of Social or two grade levels.                 more trustworthy for large
Responsibility                                             groups than for small groups

                                                           May be used as baseline and
                                                           repeated at regular (e.g.. yearly)
                                                           intervals


Social Responsi             Focus observations and data Results may help to provide ra
bilityLocally               collection for specific aspects tionale for goals or objectives
developed behav             of the Social Responsibility   and set priorities
iour rating scales          standards
based on the BC                                            Results can provide direction for
performance stan            Monitor school improvement strategies and interventions
dards
                            Assess the progress of indi    Often useful as evidence in
e.g., may provide sev       vidual students                tracking changes in student
eral items for one or                                      social responsibility, depending on
more aspects (i.e.,
contributing to the class   Identify particular patterns   the number of students observed
room and school com         of needs in order to plan in   and the reliability of the
munity; solving             tervention                     observations
problems in peaceful
ways; valuing diversity
and defending human
rights; exercising demo
cratic rights and respons
ibilities.)



Social Responsi             Provide information about      Results of these instruments can
bility School/              defined aspects of group        help to provide a rationale for
classroom                   behavior (e.g., inclusion,     school plans
observation                 respectful language and
instruments                 behavior; peaceful problem-   Using these instruments to identi
(most often lo              solving)                      fy priorities and focus
cally developed)                                          interventions may be important
                            Identify patterns of behavior part of strategies in schools
                            in order to plan intervention
                                                          Quality and precision is highly
                            Track changes over time       variable; teachers need consider
                                                          able training and practice to
                                                          make judgments consistently
                                                            Where there is a large sample and
                                                            the instrument is highly reliable,
                                                            an instrument may measure
                                                            change effectively.



Standardized                 Various, as described in a     Results of these instruments can
behavior rating              Manual that accompanies        help to provide a rationale
scales                       most of these measures
                                                            Using these instruments to identi
E.g., Social Skills Rating   Provide information about      fy priorities and focus
SystemThe Child
Behavior Scale               defined aspects of              interventions may be important
                             individual or group behavior   part of strategies
                             (e.g., cooperation; aggres
                             sion)                          These instruments vary in sensi
                                                            tivity to change; in some
                             Identify particular students   cases, they will not reveal small
                             who need support or inter      changes in student behavior;
                             vention                        in other cases, particularly where
                                                            there is a large sample and the
                             Identify particular patterns   instrument is highly reliable, an
                             of behavior in order to plan   instrument may measure change
                             intervention.                  effectively

                                                            See relevant Manual for specific
                                                            information about how the results
                                                            can be appropriately used.



Standardized self-           Provide information about      Results of these instruments can
report and projec            defined aspects of individual   help to provide a rationale
tive scales                  or group behavior (e.g.,
                             empathy; perspective-tak       Using these instruments to identi
E.g., Bryant’s Empathy       ing)                           fy priorities and focus
IndexFeelings about My
Classroom                                                   interventions may be important
                             Identify particular students   part of strategies
                             who need support or inter
                             vention                       Where there is a large sample
                                                           and the instrument is highly reli
                             Identify patterns of behavior able, these instruments can
                             in order to plan intervention provide evidence of change

                             Track changes in individuals
                             or groups over time.
                                                   Consult the publisher’s or re
                                                   searcher’s manual to find out
                                                   whether or not the instrument
                                                   will detect relatively small
                                                   changes in student behavior, and
                                                   the minimum number of students
                                                   needed



Behavior reports/   Identify particular students   Results may be used as part of
incidence           who need support or inter      rationale for goals and
                    vention                        objectives

                    Identify particular patterns   Results can help to provide di
                    of behavior in order to        rection for strategies that will be
                    plan intervention (e.g.,       implemented
                    key times/places where
                    problems occur)                Results can form part of the evi
                                                   dence schools use to track
                    Track changes in group be      changes over time
                    havior over time
                                                   Caution: even small changes in
                                                    reporting practices (i.e., what is
                                                   recorded) can provide a distorted
                                                   picture of change

                                                   Note: the BC definition of social
                                                   responsibility focuses on a range
                                                   of positive behaviors; behavior
                                                   reports often focus exclusively
                                                   on the presence/absence of
                                                   negative behaviors and may not
                                                   provide valid measures.

								
To top