L2 acquisition December 5, 2008 Methods of Analyzing L2 acquisition 1. Corpora 2. Surveys/interviews 3. Experimental 3. Experimental Most experiments we have talked about in class have also been used to examine L2 learners/bilinguals Experiments we haven’t looked at yet: a. Grammaticality Judgment Tests b. Brain imaging c. Aphasia b. Brain imaging Two types of Brain Imaging A. Electromagnetic Techniques ERP: Event-related potentials MEG: Magneto-encephalography Measurements: ERP & MEG are direct measures of neural activity The activity of groups of neurons can be picked up directly B. Hemodynamic Techniques PET: Positron Emission Topography fMRI: functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements: PET & fMRI are indirect measures of neural activity Blood flow increases as activity increases C. Aphasia A. ERPs A. ERPs Examines Electrical Pulses while listening to/seeing language Can examine ways that listeners process language (even violations) See variation of normal and non-normal language processing A. ERPs Do musicians have an advantage for learning a language? Participants: Adults: 9 musicians et 9 non-musicians Children: 10 musicians et 10 non-musicians Age: 7-9 yr (average: 8) Task : is last note / word strange ? Remember : can measure if listeners can “pick up” incongruous language Weak = slight strangeness Strong=strong strangeness Event-Related brain Potentials Music Musicians Non-musicians -10 µV 500 ms Cz Cz Strong incongruity Congruous Weak incongruity +10 -10 Event-Related brain Potentials Language Musicians Non-musicians -10 µV 500 ms Cz Strong incongruity Cz Weak incongruity Congruous +10 -10 b. Brain Imaging what fMRI pictures look like. . . Pure word deafness 1. no speech comprehension, but normal reaction to sounds; e.g., car horn, doorbell 2. own speech is normal 3. read and write normally, so can follow written instructions 4. bilateral damage to primary auditory cortex b. Brain imaging Are your two languages going to be located in different areas of the brain depending on when you learned your L2? Kim, Reilkin, Lee, & Hirsch, 1997 Early bilinguals (childhood, before age 8) Late bilinguals (adulthood, mostly after age 20) Task, imagine describing a scenario in one language vs. another fMRI scans during imagined speaking task b. Brain imaging Kim, Relkin, Kim, & Hirsch (1997). Nature. b. Brain imaging Kim, Relkin, Kim, & Hirsch (1997). Nature. Late bilingual brain b. Brain imaging Kim, Relkin, Kim, & Hirsch (1997). Nature. Early bilingual brain b. Brain imaging What if you heard Korean your first 3 years of life, then were adopted, then are re-exposed to Korean—can you recognize it? Does your brain process it as language? Ventureyra , Pallier & Hi-Yon Yoo (2004): Native French and native “Korean” speakers listened to Polish, Japanese and Korean . . . Can you perceive a language you haven’t heard for a long time? No—French group never exposed to Korean perceives voiceless Korean consonants just like Korean group c. Aphasia Two most common types of aphasia? Broca’s Wernike’s What happens when there is damage to these two areas of the brain? c. Aphasia Global aphasia: http://video.yahoo.com/watch/3726533/10242302 http://s46.photobucket.com/albums/f123/chelsey37/?action=view¤t=aphasia.flv http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=aphasia&emb=0&aq=f &aq=f#q=aphasia%20&emb=0&start=210 http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=aphasia&emb=0&aq=f &aq=f#q=aphasia&emb=0&aq=f&aq=f&start=30 c. Aphasia Case 1: Dutch-English—learned English at 19 Case 2: English-Spanish—learned Spanish at age 6 c. Aphasia How does aphasia affect bilinguals? Ways that languages can be recovered in Bilingual Aphasia (Paradis, 1989) 1. Synergistic 49% 2. Antagonistic 4% 3. Successive 6% 4. Selective 27% 5. Mixed 12% Language Disorders December 5, 2008 Language Disorders 1. Observations—Experimental a. William’s syndrome (low cognitive abilities, high linguistic abilities) b. Developmental language disorder (normal cognitive abilities, low linguistic abilities) 2. Brain imaging a. Schizophrenia b. Dyslexia a. William’s Syndrome (Chatterbox Syndrome) (Bellugi, et al., 1990) Affects 1 in 20,000 births Characteristics: Cardiovascular problems Loss of genes that affect brain development and protein uptake Elfin facial features Disabilities in spatial abilities, math, cognitive reasoning Inability to capture wholistic understanding of events IQ ranging from 40 to 60 a. William’s Syndrome (Chatterbox Syndrome) But: Have incredible social and linguistic abilities a. Exaggerated prosody and tone b. Extensive vocabularies—when asked to name animals, name yak, ibsen, and other exotic animals before naming things like dog, cat, etc. c. Extensive abilities to write, speak, and describe stories d. Normal phonological memory b. Familial Aggregation of a developmental language disorder (Gopnik and Crago, 1991) Language impairment not caused by cognitive disorders like retardation, perceptual disorders like deafness, and social disorders like Autism Affects about half of family One grandmother Out of her 5 children, 4 are linguistically impaired Out of her 23 grandchildren, 11 are linguistically impaired Gopnik traces the impairment to a single dominant gene b. Familial Aggregation of a developmental language disorder (Gopnik and Crago, 1991) 1. Loss of grammatical ability: a. It’s a flying finches, they are b. She remembered when she hurts herself the other day. c. The boys eat four cookie d. Carol is cry in the church. . 2. Loss of comprehension Unable to carry out complex commands and understand complexities in language The lady pointing to tree and man is watch her. The ambulance come along because man fall off the tree 3. Language Disorders and the Brain Dyslexia Schizophrenia Autism ADHD a. Dyslexia The next two slides show brain imaging differences between dyslexics and controls during a lexical access task using functional MR imaging. The red boxes show areas of brain activation as measured by blood oxygenation. Notice that all of the 6 normal subjects have activation in the insula (upper oval) and in the temporal lobe (lower oval). None of the dyslexic subjects had activation in the insula and they had inconsistent activation in the temporal lobe. (Data from the University of Washington Learning Disability Center) Control - Lexical Access task Dyslexics - Lexical Access Task Dyslexic Example Control Example Left Left Anterior Anterior Functional MR spectroscopic images during a phonological task. The red boxes show areas of brain activation as measured by brain lactate changes. The image on the left is from a dyslexic subject. The image on the right is from a "normal" volunteer. The subject's left side is on the image right side (radiological convention). Notice the dyslexic subject has large activation in the left anterior region of the brain. This kind of difference is specific to the phonological task. (Data from the University of Washington Learning Disability Center) b. Schizophrenia Hyperfrontality First shown by Ingvar and Franzén 1973 Most pronounced in chronic patients with very long- lasting hospitalization and treatment with neuroleptics. Patients display predominantly negative symptoms. Unmedicated acutely ill schizophrenic patients show slightly decreased, normal or even elevated frontal (resting) blood flow levels dependent upon the symptoms displayed. b. Schizophrenia PET studies on the task of verbal generation in superior temporal gyrus (STG) (Frith et al., 1995) Normal participants STG was activated by listening to spoken language, but inhibited during self-generated speech. No such inhibition was recorded during PET scanning, suggesting that self-monitoring of speech signals is a key component of the disorder. b. Schizophrenia Seal et al. (2004): Schizophrenia patients cannot tell the difference between their own voice and other voices. Controls can. Schizophrenia patients’ “auditory hallucinations” is the inability to tell the difference between their own self-monitoring speech and the speech of others. Normal inter-hemispheric integration: Inhibition of any awareness by the verbally expressive hemispheric consciousness that it actually receives and sends thoughts, intentions, and feelings from and to another consciousness. In schizophrenia this integration is disturbed with the result that the LH consciousness becomes aware of an influence from an “external” force, which in fact is the RH. b. Schizophrenia Is there a cure? Romme et al. (1993) 700 people responded to TV program 400 had voices 350 difficult to cope 100 coped well Differences between groups: Positive voices Less commanding Set more limits/ listen selectively Communicate about voices with others rCBF differences between controls and 6 schizophrenic patients with abnormal performance on the auditory recognition task Reduced communication between frontal and temporal lobes during talking in schizophrenia Ford et al., Biol. Psychiatry, 51, 485-492, 2002 d. Autism Autism between 0.1-0.3% Asperger’s syndrome 0.20-0.48% Autism spectrum disturbance 0.1-0.6% Later studies show that the total prevalence for autism spectrum disturbances is between 0.5-0.8% Cognitive disturbances in Autism spectrum disorders Deficient mentalizing (theory of mind, empathy) Deficient central coherence Deficient executive functions Difficulties with automatization and generalization 10 functional brain imaging studies of mentalizing in autism Frith, U. & Frith C., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 358, 459-473, 2003 Brain pathology in autism Subnormal frontal activation during execution of theory of mind tasks. Cerebellar abnormality (smaller or larger vermis area). Less activation of ”face specific” brain areas. Deviant visual search in social situations; difficulties recognizing social meaning.